NOINUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia?/aiei Ea?ena ?aai?aia

OAeE 661.634.2:66.065.51

E?ENOAE?CAOe?ss A AENO?AEOI?? I?E OACIAIIO IA?AOIAe? IAI?AA?Ae?AOO
NOEUeOAOO EAEUeOe?TH A AeEA?Ae?AO O AAAAOIEIIIIIAIOIEO NENOAIAO

05.05.13-iaoeie oa aia?aoe o?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Noie-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?eeeaaeii? aeieia?? oa aaciaee
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IEssOeOE EAII?Ae AeIEO?IAE*,

Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? aeieia??

oa aaciaee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe

OOAIA??AA IAAe?ss ?AAI?AIA,

i?ioani?, Ee?anueeee Oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe

AAEAE NA?A?E AANEEUeIAE*,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaoeiai? ?iaioe “I?iAe?I”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

«EUeA?ANUeEA IIE?OAOI?EA»

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” ethoiai 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 55.051.03 i?e Noinueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 244007, Noie, aoe. ?.-Ei?naeiaa,
2,

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: Noie,
aoe.?.-Ei?naeiaa, 2.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii ” 24 ” n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.A.Iaiy

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iioei?caoe?y ?nioth/eo noai ae?iaieoeoaa
aeno?aeoe?eii? oinoi?ii? eeneioe (AOE), iniiaia /anoeia yei?
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey iaea?aeaiiy aeia?ea, iaaoea iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy c
aeae?eueeio i?e/ei. Ii-ia?oa, ui??/ia iio?aaa n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
Oe?a?ie o oinoi?ieo aeia?eaao ia?aaeuo? 2 iei.o (o ia?a?aooieo ia ?2I5
),oi/ ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a ae?iaeyeiny eeoa 1,3 iei.o, ? oeae iieaciee
i?iaeiaaeo? cieaeoaaoeny. Ii-ae?oaa, oinoi?, yeee ?aaoey?ii aeeo/a?oueny
c ??oio?a i?e cae?aii? a?iaeath, ia iiaea aooe a?aeiiaeaiei i?e?iaeieie
i?ioeanaie iiae?aii aei acioo. E??i oiai, ne?ae caoaaaeeoe i?i
aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie, ui iia’ycai? ?c caa??aaiiyi oinoia?ino –
aaaaoioiiiaaeiiai a?aeoiaeo oinoi?iieeneioieo ae?iaieoeoa,- yeiai
iaeiie/eeiny ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ca i?eaeecieie ioe?ieaie a?eueo i?ae
200 iei. oiii.

Ia?ae?/ai? i?e/eie caaino?ththoue caaea/o iioei?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa AOE,
?ica’ycaoe yeo iiaeia i?e iinooiiaiio ai?iaaaeaeaii? i?ia?aneaieo
oaoiieia?e, iai?eeeaae, iai?aa?ae?aoii-aeea?ae?aoiiai iaoiaeo
ae?iaieoeoaa AOE, ui aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe eeneioo aeniei?
eiioeaio?aoe?? oa oinoia?in c i?i?iaeueiei ai?noii aeii?oie, i?eaeaoiee
aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy.

A inoaii?e /an i?e aeine?aeaeaii? cania?a iioei?caoe?? ??cieo i?ioean?a,
a oiio /ene? ? e?enoae?caoe??, cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
ia/enethaaeueiiio aenia?eiaioo, oe?ii?noue yeiai aacoiiaia, yeui a?i
aaaeaoueny ia aac? iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, ui ??oioothoueny ia i?eioeeiao
o?ce/ieo ? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae, iieeaaeaieo a iniiao
i?ioeano. Aea aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo i?i ia?ae?enoae?caoe?th
iai?aa?ae?aoo a oinoia?in i?eaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui aei oeueiai /ano
ia noai?aii aeinoia??ii? oe?e?nii? ea?oeie, yea a iienoaaea e?iaoeeo oa
iaoai?ci oeueiai i?ioeano a ?icaaaeaieo oinoi?iieeneioieo ?ic/eiao i?e
iaaenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao, oiaoi a oiiaao, iaea?eueo aeecueei iiaeaethth/eo
noaae?th a?ae?aoaoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo i?e ae?iaieoeoa? AOE. Iayai? aeai?
a?aecia/athoueny i?ioe??//yie, iaa?oue aca?iiaeeeth/ieie
noaa?aeaeaiiyie, oiio e iio?aaothoue ooi/iaiiy ?ia?aa??ee, ui e
iaoiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue oa iai?aaeai?noue aeaii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e
i?eeeaaeii? aeieia?? oa aaciaee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? Noinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ui iia’ycai? c oaiaoeeith “Aeieia?/ii /enoa
aia?aaoeea oa ?ano?nicaa??aath/? oaoiieia??” a?aeiia?aeii aei
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (iiia?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0194U029586), a oaeiae aei aea?aeaaii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie 5.53.10 “Iao?aaeeoe?ei? aeaee i?ia?aeueii?
ne?iaeie. Iiooe, ioe?iea, aeaeiaoaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy” (iiia?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0193U040347), ui o?iaino?oueny Aea?aeaaiei
eii?oaoii Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue iaoee ? oaoiieia?e oa a?aeiia?aea? iaoeiaiio
iai?yieo “Aeieia?/ii /eno? ae?iaieoeoaa”, yeee ?ic?iaey?oueny ia
eaoaae??.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Anoaiiaeaiiy e?iaoe/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ia?ae?enoae?caoe??
iai?aa?ae?aoo noeueoaoo eaeueoe?th a aeea?ae?ao caeaaeii a?ae
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano oa a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? ianoaiiaee a
aeno?aeoi??, a oaeiae iioei?caoe?y ia aac? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
iai?aa?ae?aoii- aeea?ae?aoiiai iaoiaeo ae?iaieoeoaa AOE.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iio??aii
?ica’ycaoe oae? caaea/?:

anoaiiaeoe caeaaei?noue oaeaeeino? ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo a
oinoia?in oa a?aioeiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee io?eiaiiai e?enoae?/iiai
i?iaeoeoo a?ae oiia, i?e yeeo cae?enith?oueny ?iceeaae oinoaoii?
ne?iaeie;

aea/eoe aieea aeii?oie, a oaeiae a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a ia i?ioean a?ae?aoaoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo noeueoaoo eaeueoe?th a
oinoi?iieeneioieo ?ic/eiao;

i?iaanoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo e?iaoe/ieo iieaciee?a i?ioeano
ia?ae?enoae?caoe??, ui a?aoiao? iayai?noue aeii?oie oa ?o
eiioeaio?aoe?th a a?ae?aooth/?e noniaic??;

iiaoaeoaaoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, yea iieno? a?ae?iaeeiai?/io ianoaiiaeo
a aeno?aeoi??;

aeeiiaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy c iioei?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoii- aeea?ae?aoiiai
niiniao ae?iaieoeoaa aeno?aeoe?eii? oinoi?ii? eeneioe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue
oaeaeeino? ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo noeueoaoo eaeueoe?th a
aeea?ae?ao oa a?aioeiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?enoae?a a?ae oiia, i?e
yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny e?enoae?caoe?y aeo?aeiiai iai?aa?ae?aoo. Aea/aii
aieea aeii?oie, a oaeiae oaoiieia?/ieo ? a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a
ia i?ioean a?ae?aoaoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo
?ic?aooie?a, ui aeicaiey? ia/eneeoe o?eaae?noue ?iaeoeoe?eiiai ia??iaeo
a i?ioean? ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo caeaaeii a?ae ye?niiai oa
e?euee?niiai ai?noo aeii?oie. Iiaoaeiaaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? ianoaiiaee a aeno?aeoi??. Ciaeaeaii oiiae ?iceeaaeaiiy
aiaoeoo, i?e yeeo ooai?th?oueny ianoaa?eueiee iai?aa?ae?ao, ui eaaei
ia?ae?enoae?co?oueny a oinoia?in.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. Anoaiiaeaii ? aea/aii oaeoi?e, ui
aieeaathoue ia e?iaoeeo ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo a aeea?ae?ao.
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooie?a ?iaeoeoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, yea aeicaiey?
ioe?ieoe ae?th aeii?oie. Ia aac? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a
cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeiiao noaio iai?aa?ae?aoii- aeea?ae?aoiiai iaoiaeo
ae?iaieoeoaa AOE, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aaoi?nueeei na?aeioeoaii “Niinia
iieo/aiey oinoi?iie eeneiou”. Aeaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia aeine?aeiiio caaiae? AAO “A??O?II?II” (i.Euea?a).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaio?a,
ia?iaoe? oa aiae?c? ?o ?acoeueoao?a; ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooie?a
aeey e?euee?nii? ioe?iee e?iaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae oa ia?aa??oe? ?o ia
aaeaeaaoi?noue; iiaoaeia? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?, ui iieno?
a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? oiiae a aeno?aeoi??; ?ic?iaoe? i?eioeeiiai? noaie oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei iioei?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoii-aeea?ae?aoiiai iaoiaeo
iaea?aeaiiy AOE c i?i?iaeueieie eiino?oeoeaieie ? oaoiieia?/ieie ci?iaie
a ae?th/eo ae?iaieoeoaao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue oa
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
”I?iaeaie aeiiii?? aia?a??” (i. Euea?a, 1998), ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Yeieiaey e caei?iauea /aeiaaea. Io?aia aicaeooiiai e
aiaeiiai aannaeiia» (Caii??cueea iae., n.Ee?ee?aea, 1998), ia OOOVI
I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? c i?iaeai iiaeaethaaiiy oa iioei?caoe??
eiiiiceo?a «Eiiiuthoa?iia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea e iaania/aiea ea/anoaa» ( i.
Iaeana, 1997 ), ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? « I?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae
ae?yeueiino? a??ie/io?i?/ieo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie» ( i. Euea?a, 1997 ),
ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a, ni?a?ia?oiee?a,
ani??aio?a ? nooaeaio?a Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1997, 1998
).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii a?n?i noaoae, oace aeaio
aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo oa iaea?aeaii aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa
aeiaeaoe?a. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? ia 133 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ?ethno?aoe?? aeeth/athoue 65 ?enoie?a. O
a?ae?ia?ao?? iiaeaii 153 aeaea?aea. Aeiaeaoee neeaaeathoue 34 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue oa aeooaeuei?noue aea/aiiy
i?iaeaie e?enoae?caoe?? i?e oaciaiio ia?aoai?aii? iai?aa?ae?aoo
noeueoaoo eaeueoe?th a aeea?ae?ao o aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo nenoaiao, iaoa
?iaioe, iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. Iaaaaeaii iniiaio
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe, ioae?eaoe?? oa no?oeoo?o
aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c iniia
iai?aa?ae?aoii-aeea?ae?aoiiai iaoiaeo iaea?aeaiiy AOE, yeee aeeth/a?
nooue o?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue aeey neeaaeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a aeo?aeii?
ne?iaeie, oa?aeoa?enoeeo e?enoaeia?ae?ao?a noeueoaoo eaeueoe?th oa
iaoai?ci ?o oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue, ui aecia/a? oaoiieia?/ia ? aia?aoo?ia
ioi?ieaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa oinoi?ii? eeneioe o
iai?aa?ae?aoii-aeea?ae?aoiiio ?aaeei?.

Niin?a inaaeaeaiiy oinoia?ino aieeaa? ia ye?ni? iieacieee oinoi?ii?
eeneioe ? e?enoae?a, ui ooai?ththoueny, oiio iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a
e?enoae?caoe?? oa ?iaioe aeno?aeoi??a iaaoaa? ia?oi/a?aiaiai cia/aiiy. O
ca’yceo c oeei i?iaiae?ciaaii no/aniee noai iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
i?ioean?a ianiai? e?enoae?caoe??, a oiio /ene? ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a ?
aeai?eoi?a aeey ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ iioei?caoe??.

Ia iniia? aeeiiaiiai aiae?co aecia/ai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi o?ceei-o?i?/i? iniiae i?ioeano
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo a aeea?ae?ao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny a cae?eoiio oa?iinoaoiaaiiio aeno?aeoi??,
iaeaaeiaiiio aeicoth/eie ?iiinoyie aeey iiaeaaaiiy ??aeeeo oa neieeo
?aaaaio?a, a oaeiae i?iiaea?iith i?oaeeith c aeaeo?iaeaeaoiii ? aeieii
i?eeaae?a aeey i?aeo?eioaaiiy o?eniaaii? e?eueeino? iaa?o?a. Oaiia?aoo?a
?aaoethaaeanue ca aeiiiiiaith eiioaeoiiai oa?iiiao?a, c`?aeiaiiai c ?aea
oa?iinoaoa.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui caeaoi?noue iai?aa?ae?aoo aei ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? a
aeea?ae?ao caeaaeeoue a?ae niiniao eiai ooai?aiiy. A?eueo eaaei
iaiaeith?oueny iai?aa?ae?ao, iaea?aeaiee aeaa?ae?aoaoe??th a?ino a
eiioeaio?iaaieo ?ic/eiao acioii? aai oinoi?ii? eeneioe ( ?en. 1 ). Aea
aea/aiiy oaciaiai ia?aoai?aiiy aeey oaeiai iai?aa?ae?aoo ?
iaaeioe?eueiei, ine?eueee a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo iaa?oue i?e aia?a?ei?e
i?iieaoe? ia aaea?oueny iicaaaeoe oaa?aeo oaco a?ae aeii?oie
i?o?ao-ai?iio, a a ae?oaiio — ia? i?noea inaaeaeaiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino?
oinoaoo eaeueoe?th. Oiio iaea?eueo ia??oioiaaiei niiniaii iaea?aeaiiy
iai?aa?ae?aoo ? aca?iiae?y H2SO4 c oinoi?iieeneioiei ?ic/eiii
iiiieaeueoe?eoinoaoo iiae?aii aei oeo ?aaeoe?e, ui i?io?eathoue i?e
?iceeaaeaii? n??/aiith eeneioith aiaoeoo, caaaeaiiai a oinoi?i?e
eeneio?.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui oaeaee?noue ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? CaSO4 . 0,5H2O ( CaSO4 .
2H2O caeaaeeoue ia eeoa a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae?aooth/eo ?ic/ei?a, aea
e a?ae oaiia?aoo?e (?en. 2).

?en. 1 — E?iaoe/i? e?ea? iaiaeiaiiy iai?aa?ae?aoo, iaea?aeaiiai: 1 — i?e
aca?iiae?? Na(H2PO4)2 . 2H2O c H2SO4; 2 — i?e acioiieeneioi?e, 3 —
oinoi?iieeneioi?e aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? a?ino ?en. 2 — Caeaaei?noue o?eaaeino?
iiaiiai oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo CaSO4 0,5H2O(CaSO4 . 2H2O o oinoi?i?e
eeneio? (15% ?2I5) a?ae oaiia?aoo?e.

Ia oa?aeoa? oaciaiai ia?aoai?aiiy CaSO4 . 0,5H2O ( CaSO4 . 2H2O aieeaa?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy CaO/SO3 ye i?e e?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo, oae ? i?e
eiai a?ae?aoaoe??. Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui oaeaeoa
iaiaeith?oueny iai?aa?ae?ao, io?eiaiee ca oiia iaaeeeoeo ?ii?a Na2+
i?ioe ?o noao?iiao?e/ii? e?eueeino?, i?e/iio oaeaee?noue a?ae?aoaoe??
oei a?eueoa, /ei a?eueoa ?icaaaeai? ?ic/eie oinoi?ii? eeneioe
aeei?enoiaothoueny. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui ii?yae c inaaeaeaiiyi
iai?aa?ae?aoo e?enoae?co?oueny NaI?I4 . 2I2I, e?enoaee yeiai ?ciii?oi?
e?enoaeai a?ino, aiane?aeie /iai aiie iiaeooue neoaeeoe oeaio?aie
e?enoae?caoe?? aeey NaSO4 . 2H2O, i?enei?thth/e oei naiei i?ioean
a?ae?aoaoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo. A a?eueo eiioeaio?iaaieo ?ic/eiao oinoi?ii?
eeneioe ?ic/eii?noue a?ae?ioinoaoo c?inoa?, oiio ciaioo?oueny
e?euee?noue NaI?I4 a oaa?ae?e oac? ? oiio eiai i?enooi?noue iaeaea ia
aieeaa? ia oaeaee?noue iaiaeiaiiy iai?aa?ae?aoo.

Oaaaeaiiy a a?ae?aooth/? ?ic/eie a?eueii? n??/aii? eeneioe (aeecueei 2%
aei iane aeo?aeiiai iai?aa?ae?aoo ) ??cei nei?i/o? /an iiaiiai oaciaiai
ia?aoiaeo ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy o?eaaeino? ?iaeoeoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, ui
iiynith?oueny aieeaii H2SO4 ia ?ic/eii?noue e?enoaeia?ae?ao?a noeueoaoo
eaeueoe?th oa ci?iith ni?aa?aeiioaiiy cia/aiue a?aeiinieo ia?ane/aiue
?ic/eio ii iai?aa?ae?aoo oa aeea?ae?aoo.

Iaaeeeoie NaI a noniaic??, iaaiaee, aaeueio? i?ioean oaciaiai
ia?aoai?aiiy, ine?eueee ciaioo? ?ic/eii?noue iai?aa?ae?aoo ?
niia?eueith? eiai ?ic/eiaiiy. Aeiaeaaaiiy 80% n??/aii? eeneioe a?ae o???
noao?iiao?e/i?e e?eueeino?, ui iaiao?aeia aeey iaeo?ae?caoe??
iaaeeeoeiaeo ?ii?a eaeueoe?th, ia o?eueee iiai?noth ci?ia?
niia?eueithth/ee aoaeo NaI, aea e /anoeiai i?enei?th?
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?th iai?aa?ae?aoo a aeea?ae?ao.

Iaea?aeai? aeai? aeicaieythoue i?iaiicoaaoe oaeaee?noue ia?aoiaeo CaSO4
. 0,5H2O ( CaSO4 . 2H2O ca a?aeiiinoyie i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy NaI/SO3 i?e
inaaeaeaii? oa a?ae?aoaoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo, a oaeiae aieeaaoe ia e?iaoeeo
ia?ae?enoae?caoe??, caaeath/e iaiao?aeio eiioeaio?aoe?th ?ii?a Na2+ aai
a?eueii? H2SO4 a a?ae?aooth/eo noniaic?yo.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao ?aaeeiieo ia?aiao??a
ia e?iaoeeo i?ioean?a, ui i?io?eathoue a aeno?aeoi??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeii?oee a noniaic??, yea i?noeoue 10 – 20% ?2I5,
ci?iththoue ?? o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino?. Oae, iayai?noue niieoe
iaai?th ca?eueoo? a’yce?noue ??aeei? oace ? ia?aoeiaeaea? aeeooc??
?ic/eiaieo ?a/iaei, aiane?aeie /iai niia?eueith?oueny iaiaeiaiiy
iai?aa?ae?aoo ? ooai?th?oueny ae??aiiaeenia?niee inaae, caa?oaeiaiee
ia?ic/eiieie oinoaoaie. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo ao?ao ?2I5, ui
onoaoaeththoueny iaoai?/ieie i?e/eiaie, caiiae?yieie iiaaieie
o?eueo?oth/eie yeinoyie oinoia?ino.

Niieoee aethi?i?th, iaaiaee, i?enei?ththoue i?ioean ia?ae?enoae?caoe??
iai?aa?ae?aoo, iacaaaeath/e ia iia??oaiiy ?aieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae
??aeei? oace ca iayaiino? Al3+ . Aea i?e oeueiio i?enooi?noue AlPO4 a
noniaic?? ni?e/eiy? aei ni?ae?enoae?caoe?? NaI?I4. 2I2I ii?yae c NaSO4 .
2H2O, iniaeeai a ?icaaaeaieo ?ic/eiao. Oaeei /eiii, ?iie Mg2+ ? Al3+ a
a?ae?aooth/eo ?ic/eiao ni?eythoue ooai?aiith e?enoae?/ieo inaae?a
neeaaeiiai ai?noo, a yeeo ieoiia aaaa oinoao?a aeineoue aeniea (?en. 3 ?
4).

Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaee, ui iaeo?ae?coaaoe oe?aeeeao ae?th niieoe
iaai?th ? aethi?i?th oa ciaioeoe ao?aoe ?2I5 iiaeia i?aeaeuaiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? oinoi?ii? eeneioe aai aeiaeaaaiiyi a?eueii? H2SO4,
ine?eueee a oeueiio ?ac? ca?eueoo?oueny ?ic/eii?noue oinoao?a iaai?th ?
aethi?i?th.

?en. 3 — ?iciiae?eaiiy ?2I5 i?ae ??aeeith (1) ? oaa?aeith (2) oacaie
i?ney caaa?oaiiy a?ae?aoaoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo caeaaeii a?ae ai?noo MgO a
noniaic?? ?en. 4 — Inaaeaeaiiy ?2I5 a oaa?aeo oaco caeaaeii a?ae ai?noo
Al2O3 a noniaic?? i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? ?2I5 , %: 1 – 10; 2 – 15; 3 – 20

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioean ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo caeaaeeoue a?ae
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? ianoaiiaee a aia?ao?, yea aieeaa? ia oaeaee?noue ?inoo
oa a?aioeiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?enoae?a, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeeny ia
neaioth/iio oioinaaeeiaioia?ao? “FRITSH ANALIZETTE – 20” c
eiii’thoa?iith i?ia?aiith, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? ia iniia? caeiio Noiena
ia/enethaaeeny ?ici??e e?enoae?a :

(1)

Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui aea/aeanue a?ae?iaeeiai?/ia iaeanoue ca cia/aiue
e?eoa??th Iaeea ?a > 0,6, i?e yeiio caaacia/o?oueny ?aaeei iiaiiai
caaenaiiy an?o /anoeiie o iioioe?, ui noai?th? ?aeaioe/i? ye?ni? oiiae
aeey an??? aeine?aeaeoaaii? a?ae?iaeei?/ii? iaeano?.

Noi?uaiiy a?noia?ai e?enoae?a oinoia?ino, io?eiaieo ca oiia ??cii?
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? ianoaiiaee (?en. 5), na?ae/eoue i?i iaeiioeii?noue
a?noia?ai, iaea?aeaieo i?e oaeaeeino? iai?io?a i?oaeee 150 ? 300 ia/oa,
? a?aei?ii?noue a?noia?aie i?e oaeaeeino? 450 ia/oa, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaiia iaeneioiaie. Inoaii? iiynith?oueny eaiaiiyi
e?enoae?a caaaeyee aaeee?e ?ioaineaiino? ia?ai?ooaaiiy oa aieeaii
iaeiianooaaii? oo?aoeaioiino? ia no?oeoo?o iia?aie/iiai oa?o iiaeeco
iiaa?oi? /anoeiee a?aeiia?aeii aei a?iioace Eaiaeao i?i oa?aeoa?
caoooaiiy oo?aoeaioiino? o a’yceiio i?aeoa??. Iaea?eueoa aieea
ioeuenaoe?eieo oaeaeeinoae niinoa??aa?oueny o i?eno?ii?e cii?, aea ?o
cia/aiiy ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/iee iieaciee a ?ioeo /anoeiao aia?aoa a 2,5 –
3 ?ace. Oea a?aeiia?aea? ca?eueoaiith eieaeueii? aeeneiaoe?? aia?a??, ui
e aeeeeea? iiyao aeaio iaeneioi?a ia a?noia?ai?.

?en. 5 — Noi?uaiiy a?noia?ai e?enoae?a oinoia?ino, io?eiaieo ca ??cieo
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oiia

Aeey iieno caeaaeiino? ianiia?aaea/? a?ae ?ioaineaiino? ia?ai?ooaaiiy
aeei?enoiaoaaeinue ??aiyiiy, ui a?aoiao? aieea iaeiianooaaii?
oo?aoeaioiino? ia no?oeoo?o iia?aie/iiai oa?o iiaeeco iiaa?oi? /anoeiee
:

b = 0,267 (eon)1/4Sc-3/4, aea eo=N/ rn?.V. (2)

?en. 6 — Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/? ( a ) ? eiao?oe??ioa
ei?aeyoe?? I??niia ( a ) a?ae a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? ianoaiiaee

A?aenooi?noue caeaaeiino? eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/? a?ae ?ici???a
e?enoae?a o ??aiyii? (2) iiynith?oueny oei, ui oaeaee?noue ianiiai?io
eiio?ieth?oueny oo?aoeaioieie ioeuenaoe?yie, ?ici?? yeeo ii ii?yaeeo
aaee/ei aeecueeee aei oiaueie a’yceiai i?aeoa?o ? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
?ici??o o?ea, ui iao?ea?oueny ??aeeiith. ??aiyiiy (2), iaea?aeaia ia
iniia? oaeiai aeo?aeiiai iineeaiiy, iiaeiii aooe canoiniaaia o?eueee
aeey /anoeiie, ?ici?? yeeo aeey aia?ao?a c i?oaeeith a?aeiia?aea? oiia?
dr( ,06–0,1ii, ui a iaoeo aeine?aeao caaeiaieueiyeany. Aeai? ?ic?aooie?a
o aeaeyae? caeaaeiino? ( ( f(Re) iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 6(a).

Aeey ia?aa??ee ii?iaeueiino? ?iciiae?eo aeei?enoiaoaaeanue ?o ioe?iea ca
(2– e?eoa???i (eaaae?aoii eiao?oe??ioa ei?aeyoe?? I??niia), cia/aiiy
yeiai ciaioothoueny ?c c?inoaiiyi e?eoa??th ?aeiieueaena(?en. 6 a). Aea
iaa?oue aeey iaea?eueoiai cia/aiiy (2 – e?eoa??th ( Re = 2220, (2 =
0,302538 ) 99% ??aaiue a??ia?aeiino? noaiaea?oiiai ii?iaeueiiai
?iciiae?eo neeaaea? 14,256, a ine?eueee 14,256 >>> 0,302538, oi aeey
anueiai aeine?aeaeoaaiiai a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai ?ioa?aaeo iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i ii?iaeuei?noue ?iciiae?eo iaea?aeaieo e?enoae?a
oinoia?ino.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ia iniia? io?eiaieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca
a?ae?iaeeiai?/iith ianoiiiaeith a aeno?aeoi?? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoaiaoe/io
iiaeaeue oee?eoeyoe?eieo iioie?a ??aeei? oace ? a?ae?iaeeiai?ee iiii- ?
iie?aeenia?nii? oaa?aei? oace, a oaeiae aeeeaaeaii e?euee?niee iien
e?iaoeee ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo a aeea?ae?ao.

I?e ni?iuaiiio ?icaeyae? eiioaeooaaiiy ??aeeiai na?aaeiaeua c
e?enoae?/iei iaoa??aeii a aeno?aeoi?? oa noeoiiino? neeaaeieo
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae nenoaie iiaeia aeae?eeoe no?oeoo?io noaio
iioie?a, yea ? neiao?e/iith ? neeaaea?oueny c N eii??ie ?aeaaeueiiai
ia?ai?ooaaiiy a cii? oee?eoeyoe?? ia’?iii Vi, eii??ie i?oaeee ia’?iii Vi
? oiiaieo eii??ie naia?aoe??. I?iaeoeoeai?noue i?oaeee q iia’ycaia c
eooiaith oaeaee?noth ( ? ae?aiao?ii i?oaeee d ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi

q=B(d. ( 3 )

Ia??aiii??i?noue iai?io i?ae ie?aieie /anoeiaie ciie oee?eoeyoe?? ?
ciiith i?oaeee ia?aaea?oueny ?icae?eaiiyi iioieo a eii??eao naia?aoe??
ia ?aae?aeuei? qir oa inueia? qiz ceeaaeia?, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae yeeie
ia? aeaeyae

, i=1,2,…,k-1. ( 4 )

Oa?aeoa? ci?ithaaiiy ?aae?aeueieo iioie?a aecia/a?oueny ia iniia?
ooieoe?e ?iciiae?eo /ano ia?aaoaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi e?i?eii?
ai?ieneiaoe??; i?e oeueiio aeaeyae caeaaeiino? qir = f( r )
aecia/a?oueny ye ??aiyiiy i?yii?, ui i?ioiaeeoue e??cue oi/eo c
eii?aeeiaoaie ( k + 1 ) / 2; q / k :

( 5 )

Ine?eueee i ci?ith?oueny a iaaeao a?ae 1 aei k, oi ia aaee/eio (
iaeeaaea?oueny iaiaaeaiiy :

| ( | ( 2 / ( k (k-1) ). ( 6 )

Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue a?ae?iaeeiai?ee ??aeei? oace noaiiaeoue nenoaio N+1
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue, ye? iathoue ??ciee aeaeyae aeey ie?aieo
/anoei no?oeoo?ii? noaie :

— iaeanoue aeno?aeiiai iioieo

i=1,2,…,k (7)

i?e i=1 Ci-1=CN+1 ;

— eii??ea ciai?oiueiai iioieo

; (8)

— iaeanoue ieco?aeiiai iioieo

, (9)

i=1,2,…,(k-1);

— ciia i?oaeee

. (10)

?iciiae?e oaa?aei? oace ca ?aae?aeueieie ? inueiaeie neeaaeiaeie iioie?a
o?aoiao?oueny cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi eiao?oe??io?a naia?aoe?? Kir i Kiz,
a eiioeaio?aoe?y oaa?aei? oace ia inueiaiio ? ?aae?aeueiiio aeoiaeao ?–?
eii??ee naia?aoe?? aecia/a?oueny a?aeiia?aeii ye mi Kiz oa mi Kir.

Ca’ycie i?ae eiao?oe??ioaie naia?aoe?? aeaiaeeoueny c iaoa??aeueiiai
aaeaino eii??ee naia?aoe?? :

. (11)

Aeey inueiaiai eiao?oe??ioa naia?aoe?? i?aaeeueii :

. (12)

I?e ia/enethaaii? (oz oa (iz a (12) i?eeia?oueny, ui ieiua iiia?a/iiai
ia?aoeio aeno?aeiiai iioieo ia ci?ith?oueny ii aenio? aia?aoa ?
aei??aith?

(oz=q/F; (iz=qiz/F. (13)

Oiae? nenoaia ??aiyiue (7)–(10) aeey iiiiaeenia?nieo noniaic?e
ia?aoai?th?oueny aei aeaeyaeo

i=1,2,..,k i?e i=1, mi-1=mN+1, Kzi-1=1; (14)

; (15)

, i=1,2,…,(k-1); (16)

. (17)

Iien a?ae?iaeeiai?ee iie?aeenia?nieo noniaic?e iiaea aooe iiaeaiee ye
noia o?aeoe?e, aeey eiaeii? c yeeo aeeiiothoueny ?ic?aooiee a?aeiia?aeii
aei ??aiyiue (14) – (17). Oae, yeui ? n o?aeoe?e, oiae?

. (18)

?ica’ycaiy iiaeae?, neeaaeaii? aeey iie?aeenia?nieo noi?oae aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe cao?eioaaeueio caeaoi?noue ??cieo cii aeno?aeoi?a ca an?ia
o?aeoe?yie oaa?aei? oace, ui ii?yae ?c ciaiiyi e?iaoeee
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo a aeea?ae?ao aea? iiaeeea?noue
ia?aaeaa/eoe o?ae i?ioeano oa eiai ?acoeueoao.

Aeey e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaoeee a?ae?aoaoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo
ciaeaeaii aiae?oe/io caeaaei?noue

. (19)

Anoaiiaeaii, ui nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy ( iia’ycaiee c a?ao/ei iiiaioii
/ano ( ??aiyiiyi

. (20)

Ca aeiiiiiaith (19) ? (20) eaaei ia?aeoe a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo e?iaoe/ieo
e?eaeo (?en. 7) aei e?i?eii? caeaaeiino? (?en. 8), ui aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe eiinoaioe P i r, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny ?c canoinoaaiiyi
aaiia-ooieoe?? aeey ia/eneaiiy ?iaeoeoe?eiiai ia??iaeo ( oa eiao?oe??ioa
aa??aoe?? :

, (21)

. (22)

Ca?a ia/eneaieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeineoue aenieee, ui
aeicaiey? canoinoaaoe ciaeaeaio iaoiaeeeo aeey ?ic?aooie?a a?eueo
neeaaeieo neooaoe?e, eiee a nenoai? iaeii/anii i?enooi? aeae?eueea
??cieo aeii?oie o aeia?eueieo ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo. Aeey a?oai? ioe?iee ?o
aieeao ia o?eaae?noue ?iaeoeoe?eiiai ia??iaeo i?eionoeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
e?i?eio ?ioa?iieyoe?th oeio

. (23)

Aeey oi/i?oeo ?ic?aooie?a, ui a?aoiaothoue iae?i?eiee oa?aeoa? aieeao
eiioeaio?aoe?? ie?aiiai eiiiiiaioa oa iaaaeeoeaio ae?th ?yaeo aeii?oie
i?e ?o noi?ni?e i?enooiino?, caeaaei?noue (23) ia?aoai?th?oueny aei
aeaeyaeo

. (24)

. (25)

Eia?ea iiaeae? iio?aao? aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa aa??aoe?? O ye ooieoe??
a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oie : Xci=Xo+(ici,
(i=(Xci-Xo)/ci . (26)

Iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? ia?aaeaa/eoe o?ae ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? CaSO4 . 0,5H2O
( CaSO4 . 2H2O a aaaaoieiiiiiaioi?e ?aaeoe?ei?e nenoai?. Ii??aiyiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? ?ic?aooieiaeo ?acoeueoao?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
i?aaeeuei?noue ciaeaeaii? iaoiaeeee (?en. 9).

?en. 9 — Ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo (1) c aenia?eiaioaeueiith (2)
e?iaoe/iith e?eaith i?e ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? IIA(A o oinoi?i?e eeneio?, ui
i?noeoue aeii?oee: 0.05% H2SO4, 1.3% Al2O3, 0.4% MgI

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy cania?a iioei?caoe??
iai?aa?ae?aoii – aeea?ae?aoiiai ae?iaieoeoaa AOE, nooue yeiai
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio iniiaieo iia?aoe?e. Ia ia?o?e noaae??
i?iaiaeeoueny aeno?aeoe?y ?2I5 c aiaoeoo c ooai?aiiyi i?iaeoeoe?eii?
oinoi?ii? eeneioe ? iai?aa?ae?aoo noeueoaoo eaeueoe?th, yeee iio?i ia
ae?oa?e noaae?? ia?ae?enoae?co?oueny a aeea?ae?ao. O i?ioean?
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? i?ioiaeeoue aeiaeaoeiaa aeaeiaoaaiiy ?2I5 c oaa?aei?
oace oa inaaeaeo?oueny oinoia?in, i?aeoe/ii a?eueiee a?ae oinoi?o.

Iaoiae a?aei?aoeueiaoaaany ia onoaiiaoe?, noaia yei? cia?aaeaia ia
?en.10. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? io?eiaieo niinoa?aaeaiue
cai?iiiiiaai? ianooii? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??. Inaaeaeaiiy CaSO4. 0,5H2O
aaaeaoueny i?e n??/aiieeneioiiio ?iceeaae? aiaoeoo. Aeey oeueiai a
oa?iinoaoiaaiee aeno?aeoi? nii/aoeo aaiaeeoueny ?ic/ei ?icaaaeaiiy –
oinoi?ia eeneioa eiioeaio?aoe?? 32–35% ?2I5, a iio?i — aiaoeo o
e?eueeino? 17–21% a?ae caaaeueii? iane. Oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei ia?aaaaeii
i?aeo?eioaaoe 80iN, ine?eueee oey oaiia?aoo?a ni?ey? iaea?aeoaaiith
aeinoaoiuei aenieieiioeaio?iaaii? i?iaeoeoe?eii? eeneioe ? i?eaiaeeoue
aei ooai?aiiy ianoaa?eueiiai iai?aa?ae?aoo.

I?ney i?aaiaeeiii? aeo?eiee aei nenoaie /a?ac aeicaoi? neieeo ?aaaaio?a
iinooiiai i?ioyaii 0,5-1aiae. iiaea?oueny caeeoie aiaoeoo, a e??cue
i??io ?ii?noue – n??/aia eeneioa. Iiaeaaaiiy ?aaaaio?a iio??aii
i?aai?coaaoe oaeei /eiii, uia o ??aee?e oac? iino?eii iaa i?noea
iaaaeeeee iaaeeeoie NaI, yeee aeinyaa?oueny i?e aeayeiio aeia?aaeaeaii?
iiaea/? a ?aaeoe?eio noi?o aiaoeoo ii??aiyii c n??/aiith eeneioith.
Aeicoaaiiy ?aaaaio?a caaacia/o? a?aeiia?aeia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??aeei? ?:O
= 3:1, a o?eniaaia oaeaee?noue ia?ai?ooaaiiy 250–300 ia(oa. –
aeiaea?aeoaaiiy iaaii? a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? ianoaiiaee a aeno?aeoi??. Ii
cae?i/aii? iiaea/? ?aaaaio?a ioeueia aeiaeaoeiai ia?ai?oo?oueny
1,5–2aiae. aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai aeaeiaoaaiiy ?2I5 c aiaoeoo,
oiio aiane?aeie i?ioeano aeno?aeoe??, yeee a caaaeueiiio
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ia a?eueoa 3 aiae., eiioeaio?aoe?y ?2I5 o ??aee?e oac?
c?inoa? ia 4 – 8%.

?en. 10 — Noaia i?eioii? onoaiiaee aeey iaea?aeaiiy AOE
iai?aa?ae?aoii–aeea?ae?aoiei niiniaii. 1 – aeno?aeoi?; 2 –
?aaeoi?–a?ae?aoi?; 3 – i?oaeea c aeaeo?iaeaeaoiii; 4 – aeicaoi? aiaoeoo;
5 – i??ia ?ii?noue aeey iiaea/? n??/aii? eeneioe; 6 – aani?aa?
a?aeo?aeieo aac?a; 7,8 – o?eueo?e; 9 – ?iiino? aeey cai?o o?eueo?ao?a

Iaea?aeaiee oaeei /eiii inaae iai?aa?ae?aoo a?aeae?ey?oueny a?ae ??aeei?
oace o?eueo?aoe??th aac i?iaaaeaiiy i?iieaee ? i?aeaea?oueny iaiaeiaiith
a e?enoae?caoi?? – a?ae?aoi??.

Iioeiaeueieie oiiaaie aeey ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo ? :
oaiia?aoo?a 50iN, ?:O = 2:1, oaeaee?noue iaa?oaiiy i?oaeee 300 ia/oa.,
eiioeaio?aoe?y a?ae?aooth/eo ?ic/ei?a 10–14%?2I5 ? 1–2% a?eueii?
n??/aii? eeneioe o ia?a?aooieo ia SO3, o?eaae?noue i?ioeano – ia a?eueoa
3-o aiaeei. Ii caaa?oaii? i?ioeano ia?aoiaeo CaSO4 . 0,5H2O ( CaSO4 .
2H2O oinoia?iniaa ioeueia iiaea?oueny ia o?eueo?aoe?th oa aeaie?aoio
i?iieaeo.

Aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio i?ioeano ia?ae?enoae?caoe??
IIA(AeA aoea anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue, ui i?noeoue ye iacaeaaei?
ia?aiao?e oaiia?aoo?o oa eiioeaio?aoe?th na?aaeiaeua, a aeey ?ic?aooieo
?ioaa?aeueiiai e?eoa??th iioei?caoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ii?iae?ciaai?
cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a, ui eiio?ieththoueny a eiaeiiio aeine?ae?: nooi?iue
ia?aoai?aiiy, /an oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo, i?iaeoeoeai?noue o?eueo?aoe??,
e?euee?noue Al2O3 ? F- o ??aee?e oac?, oaeaee?noue ia?ai?ooaaiiy oa
ai?no P2O5 ? H2Oe?eno o oinoia?iniaiio inaae?:

. (26)

Aeaeyae caeaaeiino? ?ioaa?aeueiiai e?eoa??th (?en. 11) i?aeoaa?aeaeo?,
ui eiai i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy a?aeiia?aea? iioeiaeueiei oiiaai aaaeaiiy
i?ioeano.

Aei iiceoeaieo yeinoae cai?iiiiiaaiiai niiniao a?aeiineoueny
iiaeeea?noue a?eueo iiaiiai aeaeiaoaaiiy ?2I5 c aiaoeoo ? iaea?aeaiiy
eiioeaio?iaaii? oinoi?ii? eeneioe i?e i?i?iaeueieo eiino?oeoeaieo oa
oaoiieia?/ieo ci?iao ae?th/i? noaie ae?iaieoeoaa AOE, a oaeiae
e?enoae?caoe?y oinoia?ino ye iniiaiiai oaa?aeiai a?aeoiaeo, yeee
i?noeoue aeoaea iacia/io e?euee?noue oinoao?a eaeueoe?th – ia aeua
0,09-0,30% o ia?a?aooieo ia oinoi?.

?en. 11 – Caeaaei?noue ?ioaa?aeueiiai e?eoa??th a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ?
eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae?aooth/eo ?ic/ei?a i?e ioe?ioe? iioeiaeueieo oiia
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo a aeea?ae?ao

AENIIAEE

Anoaiiaeaii, ui e?iaoeea ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo oa ye?noue
iaea?aeaieo e?enoae?a oinoia?ino caeaaeeoue a?ae niiniao inaaeaeaiiy
iai?aa?ae?aoo, a oaeiae a?ae oaoiieia?/ieo ? a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oiia i?e
i?iaaaeaii? i?ioean?a.

Iieacaii, ui ia oaeaee?noue a?ae?aoaoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo ? a?aioeiiao?e/i?
iieacieee e?enoae?a aieeaathoue ia eeoa oaiia?aoo?iee oa
eiioeaio?aoe?eiee ae?aiaciie, a e ianiaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??aeei? oa
oaa?aei? oac, iaaeeeoie NaO aai a?eueii? H2SO4, a oaeiae iayai?noue a
noniaic?? aeii?oie iaai?th ? aethi?i?th.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue oee?eoeyoe?eieo iioie?a ??aeei? oace
oa a?ae?iaeeiai?ee iiii- ? iie?aeenia?nii? oaa?aei? oace a aeno?aeoi??.

Iaea?aeai? aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? (19) ? (20), ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
ia/eneeoe ai?no e?enoae?caoe?eii? aiaee a oaa?ae?e oac? i?ioyaii
i?ioeano a?ae?aoaoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo oa nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy a a?ao/ee
iiiaio /ano.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooie?a aeey ye?nii? oa e?euee?nii? ioe?iie
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo a aeea?ae?ao c o?aooaaiiyi iaaaeeoeaii?
ae?? ie?aieo aeii?oie ca ?o noi?nii? i?enooiino? oa iae?i?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o caeaaeiino?, ui iieaco? aieea ai?noo eiaeii? aeii?oee ia
e?iaoeeo i?ioeano. Aeeiiaii ia?aa??eo iiaeae? ia aaeaeaaoi?noue, yea
iieacaea caaeia?eueiee ca?a ia/eneaieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aee ? aeeiiai? ?ic?aooiee c iioei?caoe??
iai?aa?ae?aoii-aeea?ae?aoiiai niiniao ae?iaieoeoaa AOE, ?ic?iaeaia ?
ai?iaiaaia i?eioeeiiaa noaia i?ioeano, ui aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe
aenieieiioeaio?iaaio eeneioo oa oinoia?in c i?i?iaeueiei ai?noii
aeii?oie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia?aaeai? o AAO
“A??O?II?II” (i. Euea?a) ? ai?iaaaeaeai? ia aeine?aeiiio caaiae?
(i.Iiaee ?icaeie).

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaiee o ianooiieo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

Oaineee A.A., Ia?/aiei E.E. Aeeyiea i?eianae ia i?aa?auaiea iieoaeae?aoa
noeueoaoa eaeueoeey a aeeaeae?ao // Oe?aeineee oeie/aneee aeo?iae. -E.,
1983.-Oii 43, ?3.- N.236-239.

Oaineee A.A., Aiaaou?aiei A.N., Eaaaaeaa N.TH., Ia?/aiei E.E.. Aeeyiea
?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia ia i?aa?auaiea iieoaeae?aoa noeueoaoa eaeueoeey a
aeeaeae?ao a oinoi?iieeneuo ?anoai?ao // AEo?iae i?eeeaaeiie oeiee.- I.,
1983.- Oii LVI, ?12. – N.2649-2653.

Ia?/aiei E.E., Oaineee A.A. I aeeyiee iaaiey ia i?aa?auaiea iieoaeae?aoa
noeueoaoa eaeueoeey a aeeaeae?ao a oinoi?iieeneuo ?anoai?ao // AEo?iae
i?eeeaaeiie oeiee.- I., 1988.- ?3. – N.613-615.

Ia?/aiei E.E., Oaineee A.A. I?aa?auaiey iieoaeae?aoa noeueoaoa eaeueoeey
a aeeaeae?ao. // Oe?aeineee oeie/aneee aeo?iae. – E., 1988.- Oii 52,
11.- N.1131-1133.

Ia?/aiei E.?. E?enoae?caoe?y a i?ioean? oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue
iai?aa?ae?aoo noeueoaoa eaeueoe?th a aeea?ae?ao o oinoi?iieeneeo
?ic/eiao. // O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie.- E., 1997.- ?4.- N.21-25.

Ia?/aiei E.?., Ieyoeoe E.Ae., Iaeueiaaiee I.N. Aieea a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii?
ianoaiiaee ia a?aioeiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oinoia?ino a i?ioean?
ae?iaieoeoaa aeno?aeoe?eii? oinoi?ii? eeneioe i?aa?ae?aoii-aeea?ae?aoiei
iaoiaeii. // O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie.- E., 1998.- ?1.- N.65-67.

Ieyoeoe E.Ae., Ia?/aiei E.?. Iaea?aeaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy aeieia?/ii
/enoiai oinoia?ina // O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie. – E., 1998.- ?1. –
N.17-18.

Ieyoeoe E.Ae., Ia?/aiei E.?., Iaeueiaaiee I.N. Caaacia/aiiy aeieia?/ii?
/enoioe oinoia?ino a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa oinoi?ii? eeneioe // A?niee
Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. Niaoe. aeione.-
1998.- N.229-232.

Ieyoeoe E.Ae., Ia?/aiei E.E. Yeieiae/anee /enoue oinoiaein // Oacenu
aeieeaaeia XXXVI Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai naieia?a ii i?iaeaiai iiaeaee?iaaiey
e iioeiecaoeee eiiiiceoia «Eiiiuethoa?iia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea e
iaania/aiea ea/anoaa». — Iaeanna.- 1997.- N.128.

Ieyoeoe E.Ae., Iaeueiaaiee I.N., Ia?/aiei E.?. // Ia?niaeoeai? iaoiaee
ooee?caoe?? oinoia?ino – aaaaoioiiiaaeiiai a?aeoiaeo ae?iaieoeoaa
oinoi?ii? eeneioe // Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/ii – oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee
«Yeieiaey e caei?iauea /aeiaaea. Io?aia aicaeooiiai e aiaeiiai
aannaeiia». – Caii?iaeneay iae., i.Ee?eeeiaea. – 1998.- N.127.

A.N. ? 799282. A.A.Oaineee, E.E.Ia?/aiei, E.I.Eyiiaa, A.I.Ai?enia.
Niinia iieo/aiey oinoi?iie eeneiou// Cayaeaii 22.09.80

Ia?ae?e oiiaieo iicia/aiue

— ia?aiao?e, ui eiio?ieththoueny ca aeiiiiiaith o?i?/ieo aiae?c?a o
i?ioean? ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? IIA(AeA.

Ia?/aiei E.?. E?enoae?caoe?y a aeno?aeoi?? i?e oaciaiio ia?aoiae?
iai?aa?ae?aoo noeueoaoo eaeueoe?th a aeea?ae?ao o aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo
nenoaiao.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe c?
niaoe?aeueiino? 05.05.13 – iaoeie oa aia?aoe o?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa.-
Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Noie, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith e?iaoeee ia?ae?enoae?caoe??
iai?aa?ae?aoo noeueoaoo eaeueoe?th a aeea?ae?ao a oinoi?iieeneioieo
?ic/eiao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaeaee?noue a?ae?aoaoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo oa
a?aioeiiao?e/iee neeaae e?enoae?a, ui ooai?ththoueny, caeaaeaoue a?ae
niiniao inaaeaeaiiy iai?aa?ae?aoo, a oaeiae a?ae oaoiieia?/ieo ?
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oiia i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoaiaoe/io
iiaeaeue oee?eoeyoe?eieo iioie?a ??aeei? oace oa a?ae?iaeeiai?ee iiii- ?
iie?aeenia?nii? oaa?aei? oace a e?enoae?caoi??. Iaea?aeaii aiae?oe/i?
caeaaeiino? oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooie?a aeey e?iaoe/ii? ioe?iee
i?ioeano ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iai?aa?ae?aoo a oinoia?in, yea aeicaieyy?
i?iaiicoaaoe ae?th aeii?oie. ?ic?iaeaia i?eoeeiiaa noaia iai?aa?ae?aoii-
aeea?ae?aoiiai niiniao ae?iaieoeoaa aeno?aeoe?eii? oinoi?ii? eeneioe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeno?aeoe?eia oinoi?ia eeneioa, iai?aa?ae?ao, oinoia?in,
e?enoae?caoe?y, a?ae?iaeeiai?/ia ianoaiiaea, e?iaoeea a?ae?aoaoe??,
aieea aeii?oie.

Marchenko L.I. The crystallization during phase transform hemihydrate
calcium sulphate into dehydrate in multycomponent system.

The Thesis for Cand. Tech. Sci. Degree by specialisation 05.05.13 –
Machines and apparatus of chemical productions.-Sumy State University,
Sumy,1999.

This dissertation is devoted to design kinetic of recrystallization
hemihydrate calcium sulphate to dehydrate in phosphoric acid solutions.
It is determined, the velocity of the hydration process and
granulometry crystal composition depends on produce method, technologic
and hydrodynamic conditions. There is the mathematical model for
circulate steams of liquid phase and hydrodynamic mono- and polydisperse
solid phase in the crystallizator. The analytic dependensy and methodic
of calculation for kinetic marks are determined.

The principal scheme of hemihydrate-dehydrate process of extractional
phosphoric acid is worked out.

Key words: extractional phosphoric acid, hemihydrate, phosphogypsum,
crystallization, hydrodynamic situation, kinetic of hydration,
influence of admixtures.

Ia?/aiei E.E. E?enoaeeecaoeey a yeno?aeoi?a i?e oaciaii ia?aoiaea
iieoaeae?aoa noeueoaoa eaeueoeey a aeeaeae?ao a iiiaieiiiiiaioiuo
nenoaiao.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.05.13 – iaoeiu e aiia?aou oeie/aneeo
i?iecaiaenoa.- Noineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Noiu, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca eeoa?aoo?iuo naaaeaiee i
enneaaeiaaiee i?ioeannia e?enoaeeecaoeee naeaeaii caeeth/aiea, /oi a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony au/eneeoaeueiiio
yenia?eiaioo, oeaiiinoue eioi?iai ia aucuaaao niiiaiee, anee ii aaaeaony
ia aaca iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae, iie?athueony ia oece/aneea e
oeceei-oeie/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe. Iaeiaei iioaeeeiaaiiua ?aaiou ia
nicaeatho aeinoiaa?iie oeaeinoiie ea?oeiu i eeiaoeea e iaoaiecia
oaciaiai ia?aoiaea iieoaeae?aoa noeueoaoa eaeueoeey (IA) a aeeaeae?ao
(AeA) a oneiaeyo, iiaeaee?othueo noaaeeth aeae?aoaoeee IA i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa yeno?aeoeeiiiie oinoi?iie eeneiou (YOE). Eiathueany
aeaiiua ioee/athony i?ioeai?a/eauie, a ii?ie e acaeiieneeth/athueie
ooaa?aeaeaieyie, iiyoiio ioaeaeathony a ooi/iaiee e i?iaa?ea.

N yoie oeaeueth auee i?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey oeceei-oeie/aneeo iniia
i?ioeanna e eco/aeinue aeeyiea ia eeiaoeeo ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee IA(AeA
?aaeeiiuo ia?aiao?ia, a oii /enea aeae?iaeeiaie/aneie ianoaiiaee a
yeno?aeoi?a, e aeaenoaea i?eianae. Iaiauaiea iieo/aiiiai
yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?eaea eniieueciaaeinue aeey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iaania/aiey iioeiecaoeeiiiuo ?an/aoia e ?ac?aaioee
iieoaeae?aoii-aeeaeae?aoiiai niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa YOE.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oa?aeoa? ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee IA(AeA ii?aaeaeyaony
oaiia?aoo?ii-eiioeaio?aoeeiiiui aeeaiaciiii, niioiioaieai AE:O e CaO/SO3
eae a i?ioeanna inaaeaeaiey IA i?e yeno?aeoeee P2O5 ec aiaoeoa, oae e a
i?ioeanna aai aeae?aoaoeee. Aaaaeaiea naiaiaeiie H2SO4 ?acei nie?auaao
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iieiiai oaciaiai ia?aoiaea ca n/ao eciaiaiey
ioiineoaeueiuo ia?anuuaiee ii IA e AeA. Ecauoie NaI, iai?ioea, oi?iiceo
oaciaia i?aa?auaiea, iineieueeo caiaaeeyao ?anoai?aiea IA a nayce n
oiaiueoaieai aai ?anoai?eiinoe e ia?aciaaieai ye?aie?othueo oinoaoiuo
ieaiie ia iiaa?oiinoe e?enoaeeia.

I?eiane a noniaicee oiaea eciaiytho nei?inoue ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee
IA(AeA. Oae, iaee/ea niaaeeiaiee iaaiey, oaaee/eaay ayceinoue aeeaeeie
oacu e cao?oaeiyy aeeoooceth ?anoai?aiiuo aauanoa, caiaaeeyao
aeae?aoaoeeth IA e i?eaiaeeo e ia?aciaaieth iaeeiaeenia?niiai inaaeea. A
niaaeeiaiey aethieiey onei?ytho i?ioeann ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee,
niinianoaoy nie?enoaeeecaoeee ia?yaeo n CaSO4(2H2O eciii?oiuo aio
e?enoaeeia CaHPO4(2H2O, eioi?ua auiieiytho ?ieue cao?aaee e neoaeao
oeaio?aie e?enoaeeecaoeee aeey aeina.

I?e eco/aiee aeae?iaeeiaie/aneie ianoaiiaee a yeno?aeoi?a
?anniao?eaaeanue iaeanoue, ioaa/athuay cia/aieyi e?eoa?ey Iaeea ?a>0,6,
i?e eioi?ii iaania/eaaaony ?aaeei iieiiai caaenaiey anao /anoeoe a
aiia?aoa, /oi nicaeaao eaeaioe/iua oneiaey aeey anaai i?ioeanna a
oeaeii. Iienaiea caaeneiinoe ianniia?aiina io eioaineaiinoe
ia?aiaoeaaiey i?iecaiaeeeinue n o/aoii aeeyiey iaeiianooaaiie
oo?aoeaioeee ia no?oeoo?o iia?aie/iiai neiy aaeece iiaa?oiinoe /anoeoeu.
I?e yoii ?ann/eouaaeny eiyooeoeeaio ianniia?aaea/e e aiaeece?iaaeinue
eciaiaiea aai cia/aiee a caaeneiinoe io nei?inoe a?auaiey iaoaeee.

Aeey noaoenoe/aneie ioeaiee ea/anoaa e?enoaeeia auiieiyeny
iee?ia?aioeiiao?e/aneee eiio?ieue, nieiaeenue aenoia?aiiu i?e
oeene?iaaiiuo aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo ?aaeeiao e i?iaa?yeanue ii?iaeueiinoue
?ani?aaeaeaiee ii eaaae?aoo eiyooeoeeaioa ei??aeyoeee Ie?niia, aaee/eia
eioi?iai iiiioiiii oauaaao n oaaee/aieai e?eoa?ey ?aeiieueaena, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iiauoaiee ii?iaeueiinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiee. Eeiaeiay
caaeneiinoue ?ann/eoaiiuo n iiiiuueth «Exel 5.0» cia/aiee aeenia?nee
?ani?aaeaeaiee io Re iiaeoaa?aeeea aeiioaco i aic?anoaiee oo?aoeaioiuo
ioeuenaoeee ia ?acia?u ia?acothueony e?enoaeeia.

Ia iniiaaiee oece/aneie iiaeaee, aeeth/athuae niaieoiiinoue neiaeiuo
oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa nenoaiu, i?aaeeiaeaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue
oee?eoeyoeeiiiuo iioieia a yeno?aeoi?a, eioi?ay ninoieo ec N+1
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaiee, iienuaathueo no?oeoo?ioth noaio iioieia e
o/eouaathueo ia?aaiiia?iinoue iaiaia iaaeaeo ciiie oee?eoeyoeee e ciiie
iaoaeee, a oaeaea ?ani?aaeaeaiea oaa?aeie oacu ii ?aaeeaeueiui e inaaui
ninoaaeythuei. ?aoaiea iiaeaee, ninoaaeaiiie aeey iieeaeenia?niie niane,
iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue oaea?aeeaathuoth niiniaiinoue aieinoiiai
yeno?aeoi?a ii anai o?aeoeeyi oaa?aeie oacu. Aeey eiee/anoaaiiie
oa?aeoa?enoeee eeiaoeee IA(AeA auea iaeaeaia aiaeeoe/aneay caaeneiinoue,
ii?aaeaeythuay noaiaiue i?aa?auaiey e niaea?aeaiea e?enoaeeecaoeeiiiie
aiaeu a oaa?aeie oaca a oaeouee iiiaio a?aiaie, a oaeaea ?ac?aaioaia
iaoiaeeea aeey ?an/aoia ioeaiee i?ioeanna n o/aoii iaaaeaeeoeaiiai
aeaenoaey ioaeaeueiuo i?eianae i?e eo niaianoiii i?enoonoaee e
iaeeiaeiiai oa?aeoa?a caaeneiinoe, io?aaeathuae aeeyiea eciaiaiey
eiioeaio?aoeee eiie?aoiie i?eiane. I?iaa?ea iaoiaeeee ia aaeaeaaoiinoue
iieacaea oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueioth noiaeeiinoue ?an/aoiuo e
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo.

Iaiauaiea enneaaeiaaiee ii niaianoiiio aeaenoaeth ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia ia
eeiaoeeo i?ioeanna aeaei aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?aaioaoue i?eioeeieaeueioth
noaio iieoaeae?aoii-aeeaeae?aoiiai iaoiaea i?iecaiaenoaa YOE e iieo/eoue
iaeaieaa iieiia aiaeeoe/aneia au?aaeaiea, iicaieythuaa iioeiece?iaaoue
?aaeei ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee. A ea/anoaa ?aaoee?oaiuo ia?aiao?ia auee
aua?aiu oaiia?aoo?a e eiioeaio?aoeey ?anoai?ia, a ii?iaeeciaaiiua
eiio?iee?oaiua ia?aiao?u eniieueciaaeenue aeey ?an/aoa eioaa?aeueiiai
e?eoa?ey iioeiecaoeee, ieieiaeueiua cia/aiey eioi?iai ioaa/atho
iioeiaeueiui oneiaeyi. Ai?iaaoeey ?ac?aaioaiiiai niiniaa iieacaea, /oi n
aai iiiiuueth iiaeii iieo/aoue aunieieiioeaio?e?iaaiioth oinoi?ioth
eeneioo e oinoiaein n iacia/eoaeueiui niaea?aeaieai i?eianae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeno?aeoeeiiiay oinoi?iay eeneioa, iieoaeae?ao,
oinoiaein, e?enoaeeecaoeey, aeae?iaeeiaie/aneay ianoaiiaea, eeiaoeea
aeae?aoaoeee, aeeyiea i?eianae.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 7.12.98 Oi?iao 60o90/16 Iai?? ae?oe.

Oiia. ae?oe. a?e. 1,16 Iae?e aeae. a?e. 1,1

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ? ______

_________________________________________________________

“??cioeaio?” NoiAeO, 244007, i.Noie, aoe. ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa, 2

PAGE 18

Похожие записи