2

I?I?NOA?NOAI AIOO??OI?O NI?AA OE?A?IE

OI?AA?NEOAO AIOO??OI?O NI?AA

OAeE 334.50

IIEIAeEE AIEIAeEIE? A?EOI?IAE*

E?EI?IIEIA?*I? OA E?EI?IAEUeII — I?AAIA? ANIAEOE
A?AeIIA?AeAEUeIINO? CA OOEEAIIss A?Ae NIEAOE IIAeAOE?A,

CAI??A, ?IOEO IAIA’ssCEIAEO IEAOAAE?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 12.00. 08 — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai ? e?ei?iieia?y;

e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa oa e?ei?iieia??
Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e

e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ? e?ei?iieia??
Oi?aa?neoaoo

aioo??oi?o ni?aa Eooe A?oae?e
Ieeieaeiae/.

IO?Oe?EI? IIIIAIOE:

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo
iaoe Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa IAI
Oe?a?ie ?i.Ei?aoeueeiai

Eaiiaaiei ?ai? Iao?iae/.

Eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio, ia/aeueiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
?inoeoooo i?iaeai

ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai??
aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie

Aioeiia Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaee oaeoeueoao Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe

Oe?a?ie ?i. ?.?. Ia/i?eiaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 29 n?/iy 2000 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.700.03 i?e Oi?aa?neoao? aioo??oi?o
ni?aa (61080, i. Oa?e?a, i?-o 50-??//y N?N?, 27).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa

(61080, i.Oa?e?a, i?-o 50-??//y N?N?, 27).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 29 » a?oaeiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A. ?. Ee?e/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy. I?iaaaeaiiy aoaeoeaii? ?
?aoe?iiaeueii? ca ci?noii iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, noai?aiiy caaeainiaaii?
? oaei?, ui a?aeiia?aea? aeiiii?/iei ? i?aaiaei ?aae?yi nueiaiaeaiiy
nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? ? iaeiei ?c iniiaieo caaaeaiue
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Ae??oeoe oea caaaeaiiy ia iiaeia aac
iaeaaeiiai i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy ?nioth/i? iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie, a oiio
/ene? e e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeie caniaaie, aaeaea, ca aenia?oieie
ioe?ieaie, ia aeaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie io?eiaiiy
noa’?eoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy iaaei?eaooe?a iiaeeeaa eeoa oeyoii ooeeaiiy
a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a. Aiae?c i?e/ei oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
iiaeaoeiaeo i?aaiii?ooaiue aeaco? ia aee?eaeaiiy no/anii? iiaeaoeiai?
iie?oeee. Aenieee ??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, noia?a/eea?noue ?
iaiine?aeiai?noue iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, i?eeiyooy ?
iaaeaiiy /eiiino? aaeee?e e?eueeino? caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ui
?aaoeththoue i?aaia?aeiineie o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, /ano? ci?ie
caeii?a, a oaeiae iaiaeiicia/i?noue oeoia/aiiy ?o ii?i noai?ththoue
cia/i? ia?aoeiaee a i?aaicanoinia/?e ae?yeueiino? ye aeey i?aei?e?inoa
on?o oi?i aeaniino? ? i?eaaoieo i?aei?e?ioe?a, oae ? aeey i?aai?a
eiio?ieth. Aaea /a?ac ??e i?ney aaaaeaiiy aei EE Oe?a?ie caciaea cia/ieo
ci?i noaooy 148-2, yeith ia?aaeaa/ai? i?aenoaae e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca oienia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, a iei?
ae?? aaea 3-oy ?aaeaeoe?y oe??? noaoo? (1993,1994,1997??.) Iiae?aia
ianoaa?euei?noue e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? ii?ie na?ae/eoue i?i
a?aenooi?noue /?oei? aecia/aiino? oe?a?inueeiai caeiiiaeaaoey noiniaii
oiai, yea naia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a ? e?ei?iaeueii-ea?aiei
ae?yiiyi ? ye? ia’?eoeai? oa noa’?eoeai? iciaee eiio i?eoaiaii?.

Aeooaeuei?noue ? iiaecia oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
coiiaeth?oueny iaiao?aei?noth ?ic?iaee eiiieaeno i?aaiaeo,
i?aai?caoe?eieo, oi?aae?inueeeo, ?ioeo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
aeyaeaiiy ? iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/ei?a o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy; oei, ui
aeeiai?ea no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a cia/iith i??ith aieeaa? ia
ia’?eoeai? oa noa’?eoeai? i?e/eie e oiiae iiaeaoeiaeo i?aaiii?ooaiue, a
oea, a naith /a?ao, iio?aao? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oi?i i?ioeae??
iiaeaoeia?e cei/eiiino?. Iacaaaeath/e ia c?inoaiiy noni?eueii? iaaaciaee
iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a, e?ei?iieia?/i? ? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? aniaeoe
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a o th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aena?oeai? ua
iaaeinoaoiuei. Oeei i?iaeaiai i?enay/aii eeoa aeae?eueea aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ie?ai? ia?aa?aoe iiiia?ao?e, i?ae?o/iee?a ? iaoeiaeo
aeaeaiue, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiiaioa??a aei E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie. ?yae ieoaiue, cie?aia iia’ycaieo c e?ei?iieia?/iith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a, i?e/eiaie ? oiiaaie, ui ?i
ni?eythoue, ia aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, ? iaoeia? ioae?eaoe?? c oeeo i?iaeai a
Oe?a?i? i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?. Oe? ieoaiiy o?eueee ii/eiathoue
aeine?aeaeoaaoeny, oi/a a iaai?e i??? ? ii?oooaaeeny a ?iaioao oaeeo
o/aieo, ye I.I.Aiae?ooei, A.?. Aioeiia, E.A?e/, A.A.Aieaeaie?i,
A.A.Aa?ania, I.O.Aaaa, Ae.?.Aieini?/aiei, A.E.Aeaaeeoaa, A.A.Aeaoeia,
I.A.?ai?ia, A.O.Cae?inueeee, ss.I.Eo?ao,
A.I.Eooe,A.A.Eenaiei,A.O.Iaco?,N.A.Iaeneiia,I.A.Iaoeoaanueeee,
A.I.I?iueeianueeee, I.I.I?uaiei, I.?. Iaiia, N.A.Iaiaey?a,
I.?.Ia?aiaeeoey, A.A.Iao?ia, E.?.??ae?i, A.A.Naeueieeia, A.A.Noaoen,
?.A.No?aeueoeia, A.ss. Oaoeee, A.N.Onoeiia oa ?i.

A inoaii? ?iee i?iaeaie e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iiaeaoeia?
cei/eie ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
E.?. A?e/, A.A. Aa?aniaa, Ae.?. Aieini?/aiei, ss.I. Eo?ao, A.A. Eenaiei.
Aeacai? ?iaioe cia/iith i??ith i?enay/ai? aiae?co neeaaeo cei/eio,
ia?aaeaa/aiiai no.148-2 EE Oe?a?ie (ss.I.Eo?ao,E.I.A?e/), i?iaeaiai
i?ecia/aiiy iiea?aiiy ca nei?iiy iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a, aecia/aiiy i?noey
oeueiai aeaeo cei/ei?a o nenoai? ii?i Iniaeeai? /anoeie EE Oe?a?ie
(A.A.Aa?ania), e?ei?iieia?/iei i?iaeaiai ai?ioueae c ii?ooaiiyie
iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa (Ae.?.Aieini?/aiei), a oaeiae iaoiaeai
aeyaeaiiy oa ?icne?aeoaaiiy cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c oieniei ooeeaiiyi
a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a (A.A. Eenaiei). ?iaioe oeeo oa ?ioeo aaoi??a
iathoue, aacoiiaii, aaaeeeaa iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iaeiae
aeaeaei ia ae/a?iothoue on?o ieoaiue oaie. Aeaye? iieiaeaiiy, ui a ieo
noi?ioeueiaai? ? aeeneon?eieie, ?io? aeiaaathoue iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee ?
oai?aoe/iiai aea/aiiy, ui e iaoiiaeei aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie,
ui aeieeathoue i?ae noa’?eoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a oiio /ene? o?ce/ieie
iniaaie, ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a, c iaeiiai aieo oa oiiaiiaaaeaieie
i?aaiaie aea?aeaae c ?ioiai, ? neeaaeathoueny a i?ioean?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? ai?ioueae c iiaeaoeiaeie cei/eiaie;
i?aaicanoinia/a i?aeoeea a oe?e noa??, e?ei?iieia?/i? oa
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? aniaeoe canoinoaaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa o noa??
i?ioeae?? cei/eii?e ae?yeueiino?, yea iia’ycaia c i?eoiaoaaiiyi
i?eaooe?a a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy; caeiiiaeaanoai, ui ?aaoeth? iiaeaoeiai
aiaeiineie i aeiyeueiinoue i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aaiia c i?ioeaei?
iiaeaoeia?e cei/eiiino?.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — noai, oaiaeaioe??, no?oeoo?a, aeeiai?ea
cei/eiiino? o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy; aeaoa?i?iaioe oe??? cei/eiiino?;
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ? aaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa; /eiia
e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai, ui anoaiiaeth? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
a/eiaiiy noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ae?yiue o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, i?aeoeea
eiai canoinoaaiiy, oaiaeaioe?? oa caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo, cie?aia
i?iaeoe EE Oe?a?ie, e?ei?iaeueia noaoenoeea, nenoaia iaoeiaeo iiaeyae?a
oa ?ic?iaie uiaei oe??? i?iaeaie, /eiieee, ye? aieeaathoue ia
aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy i?aaiaeo ii?i, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny.

Iaoa aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aieiaia iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, uia oeyoii
oai?aoe/iiai aea/aiiy i?iaeai e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?noi?e/ieo ? aii??e/ieo iaoa??ae?a i?iaiae?coaaoe noai
i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy no?oeoo?iiai oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie, noai ae?th/iai e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae eiai ?icaeoeo, noi?ioethaaoe
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? i?iiiceoe?? c oaeineiiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i ? i?aeoeee ?o canoinoaaiiy. Aeinyaiaiiy oe???
iaoe icia/a?: aeyaeaiiy caaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e cei/eiiino? o noa??
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy; aecia/aiiy iiiyooy e?ei?iieia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iiaeaoeiai? cei/eiiino? ye ie?aiiai ?iaeo cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino? ye?e
aeanoeaa iaaia niaoeeo?ea, ?ic?iaeo oa?i?iieia?/iiai aia?aoa aeey
aeei?enoaiiy a oai??? ? caeiiiaeaa/?e i?aeoeoe?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? noaee iieiaeaiiy oai?i?
iiciaiiy, ye caaaeueiiiaoeiaiai, ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai caniao i?ciaiiy ?
nenoaiiee i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaee i?aeo?ae, ye ?? eiie?aoiee i?iya. C /enea
niaoe?aeueieo cania?a i?ciaiiy aeei?enoai? iaoiae nenoaiiiai aiae?co,
?noi?eei-i?aaiaee, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee, oi?iaeueii-aeiaiaoe/iee,
eia?/iee, noaoenoe/iee, nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee, eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/iee.

Ii?iaoeaii-oai?aoe/iith aacith aeena?oaoe?? ? Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie,
caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie (e?ei?iaeueia, aaei?i?no?aoeaia, iiaeaoeiaa,
oeea?eueia, o?iainiaa, ainiiaea?nueea ?.o.?i.), a?aeii/? ii?iaoeai?
aeoe, ye? ?aaoeththoue ieoaiiy iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a?iiaaeyi ? th?eaee/ieo
in?a. A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aea/aeinue ? aeei?enoiaoaaeinue
a?aeiia?aeia caeiiiaeaanoai caei?aeiiieo e?a?i, a oaeiae iaoeiaa
e?oa?aoo?a c oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa,
e?ei?iieia??, aeiiii?ee, iiaeaoeiaiai, o?iainiaiai i?aaa oa ?ioeo
aaeocae iaoee, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue
a/aieo-th?enoia, aeiiiiinoia, nioe?ieia?a, a oaeiae no/ani? iaoiaee
i?ciaiiy, ui a?oioothoueny ia o?einio?? caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae.
Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iaa iaaiee aeina?ae ?iaioe
aeena?oaioa ia ea??aieo iinaaeao o ne?ae/iio oi?aae?ii? OIAN Oe?a?ie a
Eoaainuee?e iaeano?, ne?ae/iio a?aeae?e? iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? AeIA
Oe?a?ie a Eoaainuee?e iaeano?, Ne?ae/iio oi?aae?ii? iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe??
AeIA Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aecia/a?oueny eiiieaeniei oa?aeoa?ii
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy
a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a o ?? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiio ? e?ei?iieia?/iiio
aniaeoao c aca?iiiia’ycaieo i?iaeai o?iainiai?, aaei?i?no?aoeaii? oa
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iiaeaoeia? cei/eie, oeiiaeo
i?iaeaiieo neooaoe?e, ui aeieeathoue o i?aaicanoinia/?e ae?yeueiino?.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeeeaaeaii ?yae ?ic?iaeaieo aeena?oaioii iiaeo
iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

?aei?noue th?eaee/ii? i?e?iaee iiaeaoeiaeo i?aaia?aeiinei coiiaeth?
?aeeiee i?aeo?ae aei ?o i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Caaacia/aiiy oaei?
?aeiino? iiaea aooe aeinyaiooi oeyoii i?eeiyooy Iiaeaoeiaiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie. I?eioeeiiaa eiioeaioe?y, yea ia? aooe iieeaaeaia a iniiao
Iiaeaoeiaiai eiaeaeno, — oea noai?aiiy nenoaie iiaeaoeiaeo caeii?a
i?yii? ae??. Naia caeiiiaeaa/a iniiaa iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, ui aeeeth/a? iiaeeea?noue iaiaeiicia/iiai
oeoia/aiiy i?aaiaeo ii?i, noai?th? iaiao?aei? i?aaia? oiiae aeey
?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee. Aei oeueiai /ano oey
eiioeaioe?y iiee ui ia ?aae?ciaaia, ? iiaeaoeia? a?aeiineie
?aaoeththoueny ia o?eueee caeiiaie, aea e ?ioeie ii?iaoeaieie aeoaie, a
oiio /ene? ? i?aecaeiiieie.

Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aeoea?caoe?? canoinoaaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo cania?a ai?ioueae c i?aaiii?ooaiiyie o noa??
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ye iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo ? ae??aeo caoiae?a a oiiaao, eiee
i?eoiaoaaiiy i?eaooe?a a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy noaei iniiaiei caniaii
io?eiaiiy iacaeiiieo iaaei?eaooe?a, o oie /an ye canoinoaaiiy
aeenoeeie?ia?ii?, aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aai iaoa??aeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia aeinyaa? nai?? iaoe.

Aia?oa aea?oueny aecia/aiiy iiiyooy e?ei?iieia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iiaeaoeiai? cei/eiiino?, ye iacaeiiiiai aeoo aai na??? iacaeiiieo aeo?a,
ui cae?eniththoueny ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a,cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a (ye o?ce/ieie iniaaie, oae ? neoaeaiaeie iniaaie th?eaee/ieo
in?a iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i aeaniino?, oiiaiiaaaeaieie aanoe
aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?e ? iaaeaaaoe ca?oi?noue aea?aeaaiei iiaeaoeiaei
i?aaiai), cac?oathoue ia athaeaeaoio nenoaio aea?aeaae, a/eiythoueny aac
canoinoaaiiy o?ce/ii? neee a ?aieao cae?eniaiiy caeiiii? ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?, c iaoith oieeiooe nieaoe anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii iiaeaoe?a,
cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, aeiaeoeny aeaiae aeey aeanii?
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? aai iniaenoeo iaoa??aeueieo aeaa.

Noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui oienia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a — oea
na?aeiia cei/eiia ae?yeuei?noue. O ca’yceo c oeei iniaa iiaeaoeiaiai
cei/eioey — oea iniaa ethaeeie, ui a/eieea ia ie?aia i?aaiii?ooaiiy, a
nenoaio cei/eiieo ae?e — cei/eiio ae?yeuei?noue, — oiaoi ?yae oienieo,
oe?eani?yiiaaieo, ia?aaeaa/aieo e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii ae?e ca?aaee
?aae?caoe?? caaaeueiiai aeey ieo iioeao.

Aecia?oueny, ui cei/ei, ia?aaeaa/aiee no.148-2 EE Oe?a?ie iaeaaeeoue
aei /enea oeo, ui a/eiythoueny oeyoii “/enoi?, aai ni?aaaeiuei?
aacae?yeueiino?”, ? noooth eiai ? aeeeth/ii ii?ooaiiy ciaia’ycaeueieo
ii?i iiaeaoeiaiai, o?iainiaiai oa ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa. I?e cae?eniaii?
cei/ei?a oeueiai ?iaeo a/eiaiiy caiaoo /e aiooaaiiy aei cei/eio acaaae?
iaiiaeeeaa : ciaia’ycaiiy c? nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, yeiai aeiaaa? caeii, iiaea aooe aeeiiaii a
inoaii?e iiiaio, a ye o?eueee oeae iiiaio nieeioa ? ciaia’ycaiiy ana ae
oaee caeeoeeinue iaaeeiiaiei, iayaiei ? cae?i/aiee aeae?eo. Ioaea,
cei/ei — oienia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a — ne?ae aaaaeaoe
cae?i/aiei ia c iiiaioo aaciina?aaeiueiai i?eoiaoaaiiy ia’?eo?a
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a aooaaeoa?nueeiio iae?eo i?aei?e?inoaa (i?eaooe?a
o?ce/ii? iniae), a c iiiaioo cae?i/aiiy anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii oa?i?i?a
aianaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeao?a ? aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo
oiiae?a ? iaaeaiiy ieaoieeii iiaeaoe?a aei iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a
aeaeea?aoe?e oa ?ic?aooie?a, ui i?noyoue iaaeinoia??i? a?aeiiino? i?i
ia’?eoe iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ? ?ici??e iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a, ye? i?aeeyaathoue nieao?, aai oaeeo, ui oaeoe/ii niea/ai?.

Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aeiiiaiaiiy EE Oe?a?ie ii?iith, yea a
ia?aaeaa/aea e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ae?yiiy, iia’ycai? c
iaiaa?aaeiith ianieaoith iiaeaoe?a. E?ei?iaeueiee caeii o nai?e
iei?oi?e ?aaeaeoe?? aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui ae?? iinaaeiaeo in?a
i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e, iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i aeaniino?,
iia’ycai? c iaiaeaaeiei aaaeaiiyi aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo oa ca?oiino?,
iiieeeaie i?e ia/eneaii? noi iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, ui i?aeeyaathoue
nieao? aei athaeaeao?a /e aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a, yeui oea
i?ecaaei aei ianieaoe /e iaiiaii? nieaoe th?eaee/iith iniaith iiaeaoe?a
ca iayaiino? ia?aaeaa/aieo caeiiii i?aenoaa eaae?o?eothoueny ca no.167
EE Oe?a?ie ye oaeaoi?noue. Ioaea, iaiaa?aaeia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, ca a?aenooiino? o noa’?eoa cei/eio iciae iinaaeiai? iniae, ia
aecia?oueny caeiiiaeaaoeai e?ei?iaeueii ea?aiei a/eieii, ? oea aaaea aei
oiai, ui ianieaoa o?ce/ieie iniaaie — i?eaaoieie i?aei?e?ioeyie, ye?
cae?eniththoue i?aei?e?iieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue aac noai?aiiy th?eaee/ii?
iniae, iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ea?a?oueny
e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii o?eueee oiae?, eiee oaea ianieaoa ? iane?aeeii
oienieo ae?e. A?aoiaoth/e iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aei
?eieiaeo canaae, eiee cia/ia /anoea aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo
oi?ioaaoeiaoueny ca ?aooiie aeioiae?a o?ce/ieo in?a, ia iiaea aooe
aeciaii a??iei iieiaeaiiy, eiee ca ianieaoo iiaeaoe?a c iaiaa?aaeiino?
iinaaeia? iniae i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e iiaeooue aooe
i?eoyaioo? aei e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, a o?ce/i? iniae — i?.
Oaeei /eiii ia caeiiiaeaa/iio ??ai? aeciathoueny ??ci? canaaee ?
anoaiiaeththoueny ia??ai? oiiae caaacia/aiiy iiaeaoeiai? aeenoeeie?ie oa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia?aae caeiiii ??aieo noa’?eo?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, ui ?
iai?eionoeiei. Oeth i?iaaeeio a caeiiiaeaanoa? ne?ae onoiooe oeyoii
aeiiiaiaiiy EE Oe?a?ie i?aaiaith ii?iith, yea a anoaiiaethaaea
e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iaiaa?aaeia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a ye o?ce/ieo in?a, oae ? iinaaeiaeo in?a
i?aei?e?inoa,onoaiia,i?aai?caoe?e iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i aeaniino?.

Iaaiaeyoueny aeiaeaoeia? a?aoiaioe uiaei iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino?
aeiiiaiaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiio ii?iith, yea a ia?aaeaa/aea
ca?eueiaiiy a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iniae, ui aia?oa
a/eieea oienia aai iaiaa?aaeia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa
?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, yeui oey iniaa ni?eyea ?ice?eooth cei/eio
? iiai?noth a?aeoeiaeoaaea aea?aeaa? caaaeai? nai?ie ae?yie caeoee.

Aeyaeaii ?yae i?iaaeei ? eie?c?e a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?aa?, ui
aeicaieythoue ii?ooieeai iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oieeaoe
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. O ca’yceo c oeei i?iiiio?oueny
aeiiiaieoe EE Oe?a?ie noaooath, yea a ia?aaeaa/aea e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iacaeiiia ia?aaaaeaiiy a aio?aeo aacaio?aeiaeo
eioo?a i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i
aeaniino? — oiaoi iaaeaiiy e?aaeeoii-o?iainia?e onoaiia? caa?aeiii
iai?aaaeeai? ?ioi?iaoe?? c iaoith ia?aaaaeaiiy aacaio?aeiaeo eioo?a (a
o./.aaethoieo) o aio?aeo, a/eiaia o?ce/iith iniaith, aai caniiaieeii /e
aeanieeii i?aei?e?inoaa, a oaeiae iinaaeiaith iniaith noa’?eoo
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ca a?aenooiino? iciae ?ice?aaeaiiy.
Neeaae cei/eio neiino?oeiaaiee ye oi?iaeueiee, ? a?aeoae cei/ei ia?
aaaaeaoeny cae?i/aiei c iiiaioo iaaeaiiy aeiiith iniaith
e?aaeeoii-o?iainia?e onoaiia? aeieoiaio?a, ui i?noyoue iaaeinoia??i?
a?aeiiino?, c iaoith iacaeiiiiai ia?aaaaeaiiy a aio?aeo aacaio?aeiaeo
eioo?a th?eaee/ieo ? o?ce/ieo in?a. Aeioe?euei?noue ?nioaaiiy oaei?
ii?ie a EE Oe?a?ie iaoiiaeaia cia/iei iioe?aiiyi a inoaii? ?iee
(1994-1999) cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino? oeueiai aeaeo, yea ia? nai? aeoiee a
i?aaiaii? noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy io?eiaoe iaaei?eaooee oeyoii
ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a c aeei?enoaiiyi iacaeiiiiai ia?aaaaeaiiy
a aio?aeo aacaio?aeiaeo eioo?a, io?eiaieo ye aeioiae a?ae
o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Ia iniia? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ? ?in??
i?iiiio?oueny aeiiiaieoe EE Oe?a?ie noaooath, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oienia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe ieoieo
ieaoaae?a. Aeioe?euei?noue ?nioaaiiy oaei? ii?ie ye naiino?eii?
aecia/a?oueny ia?aaeon?i ??ciith i?e?iaeith iiaeaoeo, cai?o ? ieoa. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae an?o iiaeaoeiaeo ieaoaae?a, ui iathoue
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiee oa?aeoa? ? iaia’yceia? aei nieaoe ieaoieeaie
iiaeaoe?a, ieoa iathoue ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee oa?aeoa?, ? ?i caaaeaee
i?eoaiaii? niaoe?aeueia iaoa ? niaoe?aeuei? ?ioa?ane. Anoaiiaeaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe ieoieo
ieaoaae?a iaiao?aeii, ai oea aeicaieeoue a?eueo aoaeoeaii, i?ae oeyoii
canoinoaaiiy no. 148-2 EE Oe?a?ie i?eoyaoaaoe in?a, ui ooeeythoueny a?ae
nieaoe ieoa, aei e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aianaiiy ci?i aei no. 80-1 EE Oe?a?ie ?
cai?ie cae??ieaiiai a iei? ae?th/?e ?aaeaeoe?? oe??? noaoo? o?iainiaiai
oa?i?io ”i?eoiaoaaiiy aaethoii? ae?o/ee” ia th?eaee/ia iiiyooy
”i?eoiaoaaiiy eioo?a a ?iicaii?e aaetho?”.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? oaeiae o eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii?
aca?iiiia’ycaieo i?iaeai o?iainiai?, aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ? e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iiaeaoeia? cei/eie, aeyaeaii? oeiiaeo i?iaeaiieo
neooaoe?e, ui aeieeathoue o i?aaicanoinia/?e ae?yeueiino?. Aein? ia
i?iaiaeeany aiae?c ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo anoaiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iiaeaoeia? cei/eie a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c a?aeiia?aeiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? i?aeoeee eiai
canoinoaaiiy a ?in?? ? a ?yae? ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, oaeeo ye NOA,
O?aioe?y, O?I, ssiii?y oa ?i.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/ia
cia/ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iniiaaieo ia eiai ?acoeueoaoao
aeniiaeao ? i?iiiceoe?yo, ui iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
iiaiai ? aaeineiiaeaii? ae?th/iai E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno; ?ic?iaoe?
oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai ai?ioueae c iiaeaoeiaeie cei/eiaie. Aeoeaio
c?iaeaiee ia aeei?enoaii? aeina?aeo, yeee ? a ?in??, e?a?iao NIAe,
caei?aeiiieo e?a?iao, i?e cae?eniaii? ai?ioueae c iiaeaoeiaeie
i?aaiii?ooaiiyie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aena?oethaaeeny a iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo. Ca
?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy Ne?ae/ei oi?aae?iiyi iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe??
AeIA Oe?a?ie ?ic?iaeai? i?iaeoe a?aeiia?aeieo caeii?a uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?i EE Oe?a?ie, ye? ?aaoeththoue i?aaia?aeiineie o noa??
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ai?ioueae c oieniei ooeeaiiyi
a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ye?
iai?aaeai? aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie oa Eaa?iaoo i?i?no??a Oe?a?ie
aeey ?icaeyaeo. Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aoee aeei?enoai?
aaoi?ii o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? c i?aai?caoe?? iiia?aaeiueiai
?icne?aeoaaiiy e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ne?ae/iai
oi?aae?iiy OIAN Oe?a?ie a Eoaainuee?e iaeano?, ne?ae/iai a?aeae?eo
iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? AeIA a Eoaainuee?e iaeano?, a a iiaeaeueoiio ? a
Ne?ae/iio oi?aae?ii? iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? AeIA Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?, ii/aaoe naith i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue ii i?aai?caoe??
?icne?aeoaaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a o 1995 ?ioe?, caeiyaoenue
iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi i?iaeai aoaeoeaiino? i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino?
o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, ?ic?iaea ? oni?oii aeei?enoaa o i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? ne?ae/eo i?ae?icae?e?a OIAN Oe?a?ie a Eoaainuee?e iaeano?,
ne?ae/eo i?ae?icae?eao iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ii aeyaeaiith, ?ice?eooth ? ?icne?aeoaaiith cei/ei?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo
no.no. 148-2, 80-1 EE Oe?a?ie. sse ?acoeueoao, c?inea e?euee?noue
iai?aaeaieo aei noaeo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa oe??? eaoaai???, i?aeaeueeanue
ye?noue ne?aenoaa.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. A?aeiia?aeii aei caaaeaiue, iaoe, i?aaeiaoo oa
eia?ee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, ui i?noyoue aeaa’youe i?ae?icae?e?a, oa aeniiaeo. Ianya
?oeiieno — 180 noi??iie. O aeiaeaoeao ai?uaii nienie aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e oa ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a (98 iaeiaioaaiue), a oaeiae oaaeeoe? e
a?ao?ee, neeaaeai? ca noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie i?i noai, no?oeoo?o e
aeeiai?eo iiaeaoeiai? cei/eiiino? a Oe?a?i? oa aeayeeo ca?oa?aeieo
e?a?iao.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii? oaie, aecia/a?oueny iaoa,
caaaeaiiy, iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, oai?aoe/ia oa
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe??, iaoeiaa iiaecia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ? no?oeoo?a.

?icae?e 1 ”Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia iaoiiaeai?noue e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a” i?noeoue /ioe?e
i?ae?icae?ee.

O ia?oiio – ”Oe?e? oa i?e?iaea iiiaeaoeoaaiiy” — aaoi? aeioiaeeoue
aeniiaeo, ui iayai?noue iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee, yeee
oi?iaeueii ia ea?iaaiee i?aaiaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, coiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue eiai aca?iiae?? c aea?aeaaith oeyoii anooio c inoaiiueith
a iiaeaoeia? i?aaia?aeiineie (oiaoi a?aeiineie, ui neeaaeathoueny c
i?eaiaeo nieaoe iiaeaoeiaeo ieaoaae?a) ?, ye iane?aeie, iiaeaoie c
eaoaai??? aeiiii?/ii? ia?aoiaeeoue o eaoaai??th nioe?aeueio ?
iie?oeei-i?aaiao, ye ianooaaiee ?ino?oiaio aieeao aea?aeaae ia noa’?eoe
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ye? aaciina?aaeiuei ia ciaoiaeyoueny a eiai oi?aae?ii?.
O oeueiio ca’yceo aecia/aiiy i?aaiaiai iieiaeaiiy ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a ?
aea?aeaaieo iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a, aeae?a iiaeaoe?a oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a, iiaoaeiaa /?oei? ? aeaaaeaii? iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie
noa? ia no/aniiio aoai? aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa. Iei? a Oe?a?i? cia/ia e?euee?noue i?aaiaeo aeieoiaio?a o
caaaeai?e aeua noa?? i?eeia?oueny aeeeth/ii aeeiiaa/eie i?aaiaie aeaaee.
?aae?? nueiaiaeaiiy oae?, ui ?niothoue i?aoeaaeaioe aai ? ?aaeueia
iiaeeea?noue ?o aeieeiaiiy, eiee ?ic’yniaiiy Aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? Oe?a?ie, ?ino?oeoe??, eenoe I?i?noa?noaa o?iain?a,
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie, /e ?ioeo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee
iiaeooue ?noioii iaiaaeoaaoe iieiaeaiiy caeiio aai iaa?oue noia?a/eoe
eiio, ? iiae?aia eie?c?y aeaeaei ia ?aeeia a iiaeaoeiaiio i?aa?.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui iniiaith noaa?eueiino?
iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? aeio?eiaiiy i?eioeeio eiinoeoooe?eiino?,
eiee ieaoieea iiaeaoe?a noaeiaa aeaaea caoeua? ia o?eueee a?ae naaa?eey
aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a aeaaee, aea a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao ? a?ae naaa?eey
caeiiiaeaaoey. I?eioeeiiaa eiioeaioe?y, yea ia? eaaeaoe a iniia?
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, – oea noai?aiiy nenoaie
iiaeaoeiaeo caeii?a i?yii? ae??, ye? a aeeeth/aee aeaeaiiy
eiie?aoecoth/eo i?aecaeiiieo aeo?a, ui ?o ?icaeaathoue. Aeae?, ia
i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co, c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui a oe?eiio
iiaeaoeiaa nenoaia Oe?a?ie a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei iio?aaai –
caaacia/aiith i?eaooeiai? /anoeie aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, iaeiae aiia
ia iicaaaeaia ?yaeo ?noioieo iaaeie?e?a, iniiaieie c yeeo ?
iaocaiaeaeai?noue ? iaa?aeiia?aei?noue aeayeeo iiaeaoeiaeo ii?i
onoaeaiei ii?iai oeea?eueiiai ? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2 – ”?noi??y e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a a Oe?a?i?” — aeena?oaioii i?iaiae?ciaaii
?noi?e/iee aeina?ae ?icaeoeo e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa uiaei
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a a Oe?a?i?. A?eueo
aeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy e?ei?iaeueieo, i?ae aaei?i?no?aoeaieo naieoe?e o
ia??iae IAIo aoei iia’ycaii c a?aeiinii iaioeie aeo?aoaie ia
e?ei?iaeueio ?ai?an?th a oie /an. O aeine?aeaeaii? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui a
1922 ?ioe? ?c caaaeueii? e?eueeino? 107704 canoaeaeaieo ca cei/eie i?ioe
ii?yaeeo oi?aae?iiy iaeaea 1/5 (20572) aoei canoaeaeaii ca ooeeaiiy a?ae
nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, o oie /an ye ca cei/eie i?ioe iniae aoei canoaeaeaii
19.476 in?a, ca iinaaeia? cei/eie — 16241 iniao. O 1924 ?ioe? ii Nithco
?N? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a aoei canoaeaeaii aaea 26152 in?a.
Aaeeea e?euee?noue iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a i?ecaaea aei iaiao?aeiino?
noai?aiiy iiaeaoeiaeo noae?a. Ii/aoie o?eaeoeyoeo ?ie?a oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
iinooiiaei nei?i/aiiyi canoinoaaiiy ii?i e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa a
ai?iouea? c ooeeaiiyi a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a. Ii/eiath/e c 1931 ?ieo
i?eaaoiee eai?oae o e?a?i? i?aeoe/ii ia?anoaa ?nioaaoe, a iniiaieie
ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a noaee aea?aeaai? i?aei?e?inoaa. sse iane?aeie, c
e?ei?iaeueieo eiaeaen?a ?anioae?e N?N? aoee aeeeth/ai? noaoo? uiaei
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca cei/eie o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.
Oae? iniiai? ?ao?iniaeoeai? iieiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
ca iiaeaoeia? cei/eie, ye? aaaaoi a /iio aecia/eee ianooiiee ?icaeoie
a?aeiia?aeieo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a a Oe?a?i?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3 – ”Iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea a Oe?a?i? ia no/aniiio aoai?” —
aaoi?ii c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee
?nio? i?ioe??//y i?ae ae?iaieeii ? aea?aeaaith. O noni?euenoa?
iioe?aieie ? aea? oi/ee ci?o ia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a:
i?aei?e?ioey, ea??aieea i?aei?e?inoaa, c iaeiiai aieo, ? o?yaeiaiai
/eiiaieea, yeee a?aea? cai?ii iiaeaoe?a, c ?ioiai. sseui c oi/ee ci?o
i?aaenoaaieea aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo iaieaoaaeaie aei athaeaeaoo
iae?aaea?oueny aea?aeaaa, oi i?aei?e?iaoeue ia??aeei ?icoe?ith? naaa
ia’?eoii ooene?a c aieo o??? ae oaee aea?aeaae. Oeyo ae??oaiiy aeaiiai
eiioe?eoo iiaeiai aooe o?eueee i?aaiaei. sse iane?aeie oeueiai, c?inoa?
?ieue noaeiai? aeaaee o a?aaoethaaii? eiioe?eoo i?ae ath?ie?aoe/iei
aia?aoii aea?aeaae ? i?aei?e?ioeai (ea??aieeii aea?aeaaiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa), ai a oeae ia??iae cae?enith?oueny ia?ao?ae a?ae
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo a?aeiinei aei noaeiaiai
ii?yaeeo ?o ?aaoethaaiiy. C o?aooaaiiyi oeeo ?aae?e aeena?oaio
i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui a iiaeaoeiaiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie
iinooiiai aoaea iineethaaoeny cia/aiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? caai?iie a
i?ioeae?? ooeeaiith a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, ?? iiia?aaeaeoaaeueia ?
i?io?eaeoe/ia ?ieue.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4 – ” I?aenoaae e?ei?iae?caoe?? ae?yiue, iia’ycaieo c
ooeeaiiyi a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a” — ia iniia? i?iaiae?ciaaiiai iaoa??aeo
? aeoiaey/e c caaaeueiiaeciaieo i?eioeei?a e?ei?iae?caoe?? noni?eueii
iaaacia/ieo ae?yiue ( aeinoaoiuei aenieee nooi?iue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
ae?yiiy, aeiionoei?noue, aeioe?euei?noue, ?aaeuei?noue, i?aeoe/ia
iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeaiiy i?aaiai? caai?iie oa ?i.), aaoi? aecia/ea
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ? i?aaia? i?aenoaae e?ei?iae?caoe?? ae?yiue,
iia’ycaieo c ooeeaiiyi a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, iaiaa?aaeiith ianieaoith
iiaeaoe?a, iacaeiiiei ia?aaaaeaiiyi o aio?aeo aacaio?aeiaeo eioo?a
i?aei?e?inoa , onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e oa iieacaa oeae i?ioean o
?icaeoeo. Aeine?aeaeoth/e i?iaeaie anoaiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, aaoi? anoaiiaea,
ui caeiiiaeaaaoeue ia eiaeiiio aoai? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee (ii/eiath/e
c 1986 ?.) ci?ithaaa aeoeaioe e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? caai?iie o noa??
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. Aia?oa i?ney ia?aoiaeo e?a?ie aei aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei
c aeaiaioaie “?eieo”, aeaia i?aaiii?ooaiiy aoei e?ei?iae?ciaaii
caeiiiaeaaoeai ye naiino?eiee neeaae cei/eio o 1986 ?ioe?. Oiae?
E?ei?iaeueiee eiaeaen Oe?a?ie aoa aeiiiaiaiee noaooath no. 148-1.
E?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca no. 148-1 EE Oe?a?ie ianoaaaea ca
oiiae, ui cacia/ai? a i?e ae?yiiy a/eiai? i?ioyaii ?ieo i?ney
iaeeaaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai noyaiaiiy ca i?aaiii?ooaiiy, ia?aaeaa/ai?
no. 164-1 Eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie i?i aaei?i?no?aoeai? i?aaiii?ooaiiy. Aaoi?ii
a?aecia/a?oueny, ui caeiiiaeaaaoeue aecia/ea oiae? ooeeaiiy a?ae iiaea/?
aeaeea?aoe?e i?i i?eaooee ye cei/ei, yeee ia noaiiaeoue aaeeei?
noni?eueii? iaaaciaee, i?i ui na?ae/eoue naieoe?y noaoo?, yea ia
ia?aaeaa/aea iiea?aiiy o aeaeyae? iicaaaeaiiy aie?. O oie aea /an
aeeniiceoe??th aeaii? noaoo? acaaae? ia ioiiethaaeinue oaea iiiyooy, ye
a/eiaiiy cei/eio iinaaeiaith iniaith noa’?eoa ainiiaea?thaaiiy aai
o?ce/iith iniaith. E?ei?iaeueii ea?aiei aeciaaaeiny aoaeue-yea ooeeaiiy
a?ae iiaeaiiy aeaeea?aoe?? i?i i?eaooee, ianai?/ania iiaeaiiy
aeaeea?aoe?e, a/eiaia i?ioyaii ?ieo i?ney iaeeaaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
noyaiaiiy, iacaeaaeii a?ae ianoaiiy noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a o
aeaeyae? iaiaea?aeaiiy athaeaeaoii iiaeaoeiaeo ieaoaae?a.

Iiyaa noaoo? 148-1 a EE Oe?a?ie iaea ia iao? a?aaoethaaiiy, ia?aaeon?i,
aca?iia?aeiinei aea?aeaae ? noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?,
ye? ii/aee c i?iaieioaiiyi i?ioean?a “ia?aaoaeiae” o 1985 ?ioe? aeoeaii
caeiaoeny eonoa?ii-?ai?nie/eie i?iieneaie, ?ioith ?iaeea?aeoaeueiith
o?oaeiaith ae?yeuei?noth, i?eaooee yeeo o?iainiaeie i?aaiaie i?aeoe/ii
i?ye ia eiio?iethaaeeny. A oiiaao iiaii? a?aenooiino? aooaaeoa?nueeiai
iae?eo o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?
eonoa?ii-?ai?nie/eo i?iiene?a (eiiia?aoea?a) ?aeeiith iiaeeea?noth
aieeao eiio?iethth/eo i?aai?a aea?aeaae ia iiaee i?ioa?ie ieaoiee?a
iiaeaoe?a — o?ce/ieo in?a, ui ia iathoue iino?eiiai i?noey ?iaioe a
onoaiiaao, i?aei?e?inoaao ? i?aai?caoe?yo (aea anoaiiaethaaeenue
o?eniaai? noaaee iieaoe i?aoe? ? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe
i?eaooeiaei iiaeaoeii), aoa eiio?ieue ca naiei iae?eii o?ce/ieo in?a, ui
caeiathoueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie ? eonoa?ii-?ai?nie/eie i?iieneaie, ?
nai?/aniei iiaeaiiyi ieie aea?aeaaiei i?aaiai iiaeaoeiaeo aeaeea?aoe?e o
anoaiiaeaiiio caeiiii ii?yaeeo. Inue /iio ia?aaeon?i naia iaiiaeaiiy
iiaeaoeiaeo aeaeea?aoe?e o aeiaaeeao, ia?aaeaa/aieo no. 148-1 EE
Oe?a?ie, ea?aeiny e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii.

Aeena?oaio a?aecia/a? oaeiae, ui no. 148-1 EE Oe?a?ie c oi/ee ci?o
aiae?co i?ioeano e?ei?iae?caoe?? cei/ei?a o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?yeiai
?ioiai cia/aiiy, ie??i e?ei?iieia?/iiai, ia iaea, ine?eueee oe?ieiai
i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy a ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a aeaiee
neeaae cei/eio ia ciaeoia. I?i oea na?ae/eoue i?aeoe/ii iiaia
a?aenooi?noue aoaeue-yeeo noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo i?i canoinoaaiiy aeaii?
noaoo? i?aaiioi?iiieie i?aaiaie Oe?a?ie a ia??iae 1986-1993 ??.

Ci?ie a caeiiiaeaanoa?, ye? aoee cae?eniai? o 1993 ?ioe?, — aaaaeaiiy
aei E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno niaoe?aeueii? ii?ie “Ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a c i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e” a ?aaeaeoe?? Caeiio Oe?a?ie
a?ae 26.01.93 Caeiiiaeaaaoeue anoaiiaea e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a c i?aei?e?inoa ?
i?aai?caoe?e neoaeaiaeo in?a noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy (aea?aoe ca
iaae? ae?? no. 148-2 EE Oe?a?ie o?ce/ieo in?a) ? oa?a aei naieoe??
noaoo? iiea?aiiy o aeaeyae? iicaaaeaiiy aie? aei 2-o ?ie?a I?ney oeueiai
o 1994 ?ioe?, eiee noaooy 148-2 EE Oe?a?ie aoea aeeeaaeaia a
oaeineiiaeai?e ?aaeaeoe??, caeiiiaeaaaoeue aeeoa?aioe?thaaa canoinoaaiiy
e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiio ?c caiiae?yiiyi caeoe?a aea?aeaa? o cia/ieo,
aaeeeeo ? iniaeeai aaeeeeo ?ici??ao oa iineeea i??o iiea?aiiy aei 10
?ie?a iicaaaeaiiy aie? ca a/eiaiiy eaae?o?eiaaiiai cei/eio (o
?aaeaeoe?? Caeiio Oe?a?ie a?ae 28.01.94)

Iaaaaeaia na?ae/eoue, ui canoinoaaiiy caoiae?a e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
aieeao ia iiaeaoeia? a?aeiineie a ia??iae 1986-1997 ??. i?iaiaeeeinue o
aeae?eueea aoai?a: a?ae i?ioeae?? i?eoiaoaaiith i?eaooe?a a?iiaaeyiaie,
ye? cae?eniththoue ?iaeea?aeoaeueio o?oaeiao ae?yeuei?noue, o oiio /ene?
i?aoethth/eie a eiiia?aoeaao (no. 148-1 EE Oe?a?ie a ?aaeaeoe?? 1986
?.), aei aeaaaeaiiy o?ce/ieo in?a ca iaae? e?ei?iaeueiiai iiea?aiiy
(?aaeaeoe?y no. 148-2EE Oe?a?ie 1994 ?.), a caiaeii — aaaaeaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ye iinaaeiaeo in?a i?aei?e?inoa,
onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e, oae ? a?iiaaeyi — o?ce/ieo in?a (no.148-2 EE
Oe?a?ie a ?aaeaeoe?? 1997 ?.). Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa,
ui, c iaeiiai aieo, iayaiith ? no?eea oaiaeaioe?y aei c?inoaiiy a
Oe?a?i? e?eueeino? iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a, a c ?ioiai, i/aaeaeiei ? oa, ui
e?ei?iieia?/ia i?iaiicoaaiiy a oiae? ?iaioe iaae noai?aiiyi nenoaie
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? i?aeoe/ii ia i?iaiaeeeinue. O ?acoeueoao?
iiaeaoeiaa caeiiiaeaanoai, ye ni?aiaa a?oaeea, ca?eueooaaeiny a ianyaao.
Iaeii/anii c?inoaea e?euee?noue i?i?aooie?a ? i?iaaeei, aeey caiiaiaiiy
yeeo ciiao ? ciiao aeiaiaeeeiny aiineoe ci?ie o aaea i?eeiyo? caeiie (o
oiio /ene? e?ei?iaeueiee) aai aaiaeeoe a ae?th iia?. ?aaeoe?y
noni?euenoaa ia oaeee noai ?a/ae i/aaeaeia: cai?noue caeiio, ui
a?aenoa? a?ae no/anieo ?aae?e, a oi/i?oa, ia?aeaeueii c iei o
noni?euenoa? oi?io?oueny “o?iueiaee caeii”, oe?ea “o?iueiaa
caeiiiaeaanoai”. A oaeeo oiiaao iiaeaoeiaa cei/eii?noue iaaoaaa
caeaa?eueoiai eaoaioiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Iai?ee?ioe? aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui iioe?thaaia iei? a
ia??iaee/i?e i?an? aeoiea i?i oa, ui nueiaiaei? ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a – oea iaa?ae’?iiee aeaiaio i?aai?caoe?? a?ciano, ia’?eoeaia
oiiaa eiai aeaeeaaiiy, a canoinoaaiiy no. 148-2 EE Oe?a?ie noia?a/eoue
?ioa?anai noni?euenoaa ?.o.?i., ? iiaa?oiaith ? a?aeia?aaea? ?ioa?ane
eeoa /anoeie noni?euenoaa. ?nioaaiiy a EE Oe?a?ie i?aaiai? ii?ie, yea
ia?aaeaa/a? e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a ? ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, nioe?aeueii iaoiiaeaia
? iaiao?aeia.

?icae?e 2 – ”E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea cei/ei?a o noa??
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy” — i?noeoue aeaa i?ae?icae?ee. O ia?oiio – ” Noai,
no?oeoo?a, aeeiai?ea cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ooeeaiiyi a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a ? ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a. E?ei?iieia?/ia
aecia/aiiy iiaeaoeiai? cei/eiiino? ? ?? i?noea a no?oeoo??
aeiiii?/ii? cei/eiiino? a Oe?a?i?” — aaoi? iaa?oioiao? iaiao?aei?noue
iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee iiiyooy e?ei?iieia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeaoeiai?
cei/eiiino?, ye aeaeo aeiiii?/ieo cei/ei?a, ui iathoue iaaio niaoeeo?eo.
sse iieacaa i?iaaaeaiee aeena?oaioii aiae?c noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo
iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? AeIA Oe?a?ie, iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue iiaeaoeiaeo
cei/ei?a a/eiy?oueny o aaeeeeo i?iieneiaeo oeaio?ao, i?noao iaeaniiai ?
?aeiiiiai cia/aiiy, aea ?nio? iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? i?eaaoii? oi?ie aeaniino?. Anoaiiaeaia
iayai?noue o?nii? ei?aeyoe?eii? caeaaeiino? i?ae ??aiai iiaeaoeiai?
cei/eiiino? a oiio aai ?ioiio ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie ? /anoeith ianaeaiiy, yea
i?aoeth? a noa?ao i?eaaoiiai a?ciano. Iaoa??aee ia?aa??ie, i?iaaaeaieo
iiaeaoeiaith i?e?oe??th ni?eueii c iiaeaoeiaeie ?iniaeoe?yie,
aeacothoue, ui ii?ooaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa e?ei?iaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o iathoue i?noea ia i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i. Na?aae aeyaeaieo ii?ooiee?a iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa aea?aeaai? i?aei?e?inoaa neeaaeathoue 6,2%, aeoe?iia?i?
oiaa?enoaa – 32,8, oiaa?enoaa c iaiaaeaiith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth – 46,9,
ie?ai? i?ae?icae?ee (i?aaenoaaieoeoaa) ?iio??i – 2,6, i?eaaoi?
i?aei?e?ioe? oa ?io? o?ce/i? iniae – 11,5%. Oa?aeoa?ieie ? ? aeai?
noiniaii ?iciiae?eo aeyaeaieo ii?ooaiue iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa o
aaeeeeo ? iniaeeai aaeeeeo ?ici??ao, o oiio /ene? ca oi?iaie aeaniino?:
i?eaaoia aeani?noue- 68%, aeani?noue eieaeoeaieo i?aai?caoe?e – 15,7,
ni?eueia aeani?noue c o/anoth ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo — 7, aea?aeaaia
aeani?noue 5,2, aeani?noue a?iiaaeyi – 1,8%

No?oeoo?a iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oei, ui a?eueoa o?aoeie
c ieo a/eiy?oueny a?oiith in?a. I?e/iio /anoea a?oiiaeo cei/ei?a ia
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici??o ianiea/aiiai iiaeaoeo, cai?o, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a, a caeaa?eueoiai coiiaeaia iayai?noth iniaeeainoae
i?aai?caoe?? aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo ia eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio
i?aei?e?inoa?, a onoaiia?, i?aai?caoe?? (aaaeaiiy iae?eo iaeiiiniaiai
aee?aeoi?ii /e aieiaiei aooaaeoa?ii, iayai?noth ooaoo aooaaeoa??a c
?iciiae?eii iaia’yce?a ia?aooaaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a iiaeaoe?a, ?ie? ?
cania?a i?aai?caoe?? eiio?ieth c aieo ea??aieea oiui). A/eiaiiy
iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a a?oiith in?a /anoi coiiaeth?oueny, ie??i ?ioeo
noa’?eoeaieo ianoaaei, oaeeie i?e/eiaie, ye i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue
aieiaiiai aooaaeoa?a ea??aieeo i?aei?e?inoaa, iiaithaaiiy ao?aoeoe
?iaioo ? o.?i.

Aiae?coth/e ??aaiue ?aoeeaeeaii? cei/eiiino? o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,
ne?ae aeciaoe, ui aeiiiaiaiiy no.148-2 EE Oe?a?ie o 1997 ?ioe? oaeith
eaae?o?eoth/ith iciaeith, ye niaoe?aeueiee ?aoeeaeea (a/eiaiiy cei/eio
iniaith, ?ai?oa canoaeaeaiith ca oienia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a)
i?eionea? iayai?noue a?aeiia?aeii? e?ei?iaeueii? noaoenoeee, iaeiae
a?aoiaoth/e, ui aeoeaia canoinoaaiiy noaoo? 148-2 EE Oe?a?ie
i?aaiioi?iiieie i?aaiaie a?aeiineoueny aei ia??iaeo 1997-1998 ??., aeaoe
ia’?eoeaio ioe?ieo /anooe? ?aoeeaeeaii? cei/eiiino? a no?oeoo??
iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a, ca oaeee iacia/iee i?ii?aeie /ano iaiiaeeeai ca
iaaeinoaoiueith e?euee?noth aeaieo, ui i?aeeyaathoue aiae?co.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii noi?ioeueiaaii
e?ei?iieia?/ia aecia/aiiy iiiyooy iiaeaoeiaiai cei/eio ye iacaeiiiiai
aeoo aai na??? iacaeiiieo aeo?a, ui cae?eniththoueny ieaoieeaie
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a (ye o?ce/ieie iniaaie,
oae ? neoaeaiaeie iniaaie th?eaee/ieo in?a iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i
aeaniino?, oiiaiiaaaeaieie aanoe aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?e ? iaaeaaaoe
ca?oi?noue aea?aeaaiei iiaeaoeiaei i?aaiai), eio?? cac?oathoue ia
athaeaeaoio nenoaio aea?aeaae, a/eiythoueny aac canoinoaaiiy o?ce/ii?
neee a ?aieao cae?eniaiiy caeiiii? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? c iaoith
oieeiooe nieaoe anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, aeiaeoeny aeaiae aeey aeanii? eiia?oe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? aai iniaenoeo iaoa??aeueieo aeaa.

Aeae? a ?iaio? ae??oo?oueny i?iaeaia “iiiaeaoeoaaiiy” e?ei?iaeueieo
i?eaooe?a. Aeinoaoiuei i/aaeaeiei, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ? oie oaeo, ui
a/eiaiiy aeiiii?/iiai /e ?ioiai cei/eio, yeee i?ecaiaeeoue aei
caaieiae?iiy /oaeei iaeiii, ia ooai?th? ia’?eoa iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. I?e
aecia/aii? oaeiai ia’?eoa iaiao?aeii aeoiaeeoe c oaeoo i?eaeaaiiy i?aaa
aeaniino? ia i?eaooie (iaeii).O aeiaaeeo a?aaaaeo aai e?aae?aeee
cei/eiaoeue ia iaaoaa? i?aaa aeaniino? ia io?eiaia. E??i oiai, oaeee
cei/eiaoeue ? ia aeoia? i?eoiaoaaoe i?eaooee a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, a?i
ia?aoiao? iacaeiiii caeiaooa a?ae aeeo/aiiy, ooeey?oueny a?ae
canoinoaaiiy iiea?aiiy ca cei/ei, ui cae?eniea. Oaeei /eiii, ae??oaiiy
i?iaeai ai?ioueae c ”o?iueiaeie” i?eaooeaie aa/eoueny ia a canoinoaaii?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i, ui anoaiiaeththoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
oienia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, a, ia?aaeon?i, o noai?aii? oiia
aeey aeoiaeo c ”o?i?” i?aei?e?inoa on?o oi?i aeaniino?. Aeae?, aeoiaey/e
c iayaiiai i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo ai?ioueae ?c cei/eiaie o noa??
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui a?aenooi?noue o EE
Oe?a?ie naiino?eii? ii?ie, ui ia?aaeaa/a? e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iacaeiiia ia?aaaaeaiiy a aio?aeo aacaio?aeiaeo
eioo?a i?aei?e?inoa oeyoii iaaeaiiy e?aaeeoii-o?iainiaei onoaiiaai
caa?aeiii iai?aaaeeaeo aeieoiaio?a, iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia
i?aaicanoinia/?e ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a o oe?eiio, ia aea?
iiaeeeaino? aaeeooy ae??aeo caoiae?a aeey i?ioeae?? iiae?aiei cei/eiiei
i?iieneai.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2 -”E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea iniae cei/eioey” —
aaoi?ii, aeoiaey/e c iiiyooy ”iniae cei/eioey”, ae?iaeaiiai
e?ei?iieia?/iith iaoeith, c?iaeaii ni?iao aecia/eoe i?noea oaeiai
neeaaeiiai oaiiiaio, yeei ? ”iiaeaoeiaee cei/eiaoeue”, o nenoai?
iaoeiaeo oyaeaiue i?i noni?euenoai ? eiai aieeaia? ia iniao, nioe?aeuei?
? aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane, iioeaaoe?th cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino? iniae i?e
cae?eniaii? aeanii? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e
iniaeno?noue cei/eioey, ui a/eiy? iiaeaoeiaee cei/ei, aaoi? a?aecia/a?
iayai?noue o oaei? iniae a?aeiia?aeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue ? iieeaaeaiiy ia
ia? iaia’yce?a c aaaeaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo oa ca?oiino?
o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa (aeanieo aeioiae?a
o?ce/iith iniaith) c iaoith iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, iaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaei i?aaiai
aeaeea?aoe?e ? ?ic?aooie?a. Iiaaae?iea cei/eioe?a aei ooeeaiiy a?ae
nieaoe iiaeaoe?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeeiiaiiyi ?yaeo ae?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia
aeinyaiaiiy cei/eiii? iaoe. O ca’yceo c oeei iniaa iiaeaoeiaiai
cei/eioey (ye ? aoaeue-yeiai ?ioiai) — oea iniaa ethaeeie, ui a/eieea ia
ie?aia i?aaiii?ooaiiy, a nenoaio cei/eiieo ae?e — cei/eiio
ae?yeuei?noue, oiaoi yea a/eieea ?yae oienieo, oe?eani?yiiaaieo,
ia?aaeaa/aieo e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii ae?e ca?aaee ?aae?caoe?? caaaeueiiai
aeey ieo iioeao.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeaco?oueny, ui iciae, ye? iaeiicia/ii aoanoothoue
iniaeno?noue cei/eioey, ia ?nio?. Iiaeia aiai?eoe eeoa i?i i?aeaeuaio
/anoioo oeo aai ?ioeo iaaaoeaieo iniaenoeo aeanoeainoae na?aae in?a,
canoaeaeaieo ca cei/eiio ae?yeuei?noue iaaii? eaoaai??? o ii??aiyii? c
iniaaie i?eaeecii oiai ae a?eo ? nioe?aeueiiai noaio, aea ia noaeeieie
ca ?io? cei/eie. Iniaeno?noue cei/eioey ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia ?c
a/eiaiei cei/eiii ? c oi/ee ci?o naiai ci?noo ia? e?ei?iieia?/ia
cia/aiiy ye i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy ia /an a/eiaiiy cei/eio (oi/ naia a
oeae iiiaio aiia ia aeinooiia iaoeiaiio niinoa?aaeaiith ? aea/aiith).
Niaoeeo?ea e?ei?iieia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee iniaenoino? cei/eioey ye
eaoaai???, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, aeyaey?oueny o oiio, ui c naiiai
ii/aoeo ? iaiaaeaia eiei in?a, i?e/aoieo aei eiai a/eiaiiy. Aei ieo
a?aeiinyoueny: ea??aiee i?aei?e?inoaa, onoaiiae,i?aai?caoe??, canooiiee
ea??aieea, aieiaiee aooaaeoa?, neoaeaia? iniae aooaaeoa???, i?eaaoi?
i?aei?e?ioe? aac ooai?aiiy ? c ooai?aiiyi th?eaee/ii? iniae, o?ce/i?
iniae- ieaoieee i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo c a?iiaaeyi.

Ca aeaieie I?i?noa?noaa thnoeoe?? Oe?a?ie, e?euee?noue in?a,
canoaeaeaieo ca a/eiaiiy cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 148-2 EE Oe?a?ie,
ui??/ii c?inoa?. Eiie?aoi? noaoenoe/i? aeai? oae?:

Noaooy

EE

Iacaa noaoo?*anoeia noaoo?19931994199519961997Noaooy Oienia/.
?3232036521417148-2 ooeeaiiy a?ae/. 21262367340nieaoe iiaeaoe?a/.
324Anueiai42526510191781

Ocaaaeueiaiiy noaeiai? ? ne?ae/i? i?aeoeee o ni?aaao i?i ooeeaiiy a?ae
nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, i?iaaaeaia o oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaeaei oae?
a?aeiiino? i?i in?a, ui a/eieee iiaeaoeia? cei/eie:

1. Eaoaai??y neoaeaiaeo in?a: ea??aiee- 82%; canooiiee ea??aieea – 2%;
ea??aiee ? aieiaiee aooaaeoa? – 16%. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i aenieee ??aaiue
e?ei?iiaaiiino? i?aei?e?inoa i?eaaoii? oi?ie aeaniino?, aea ea??aiee, ye
i?aaeei, cae?enith? ooieoe?? ? aee?aeoi?a i?aei?e?inoaa, ? aieiaiiai
aooaaeoa?a.

2. Eaoaai??y o?ce/ieo in?a: i?eaaoiee i?aei?e?iaoeue aac ooai?aiiy
th?eaee/ii? iniae — 94%; i?eaaoiee i?aei?e?iaoeue c ooai?aiiyi
th?eaee/ii? iniae – 4,6%; o?ce/i? iniae — a?iiaaeyie, ye? io?eiothoue
i?eaooie ia ca iniiaiei i?noeai ?iaioe, – 1,4%. Iaaaaeai? aeai?
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aenieo e?ei?iiaaii?noue in?a, ui caeiathoueny
i?eaaoiith i?aei?e?iieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth, “o?iueiaee” oa?aeoa?
inoaiiuei?.

3. A?e iniae, ui a/eieea iiaeaoeiaee cei/ei: a) 18-24
?.-11%; a) 25-35 ?.-36%; a) 35-40?.-28%; 40-50 ?.-16%; ae) iiiaae
50?.-9%.

4. Ina?oa in?a, ui ooeeythoueny a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a:

a) aeua — 41%; a) iacae?i/aia aeua – 7%; a) na?aaeiy — 18%; a) na?aaeiy
niaoe?aeueia – 24%; ae) na?aaeiy oaoi?/ia – 10%.

Aenieee a?aenioie in?a, ye? ia iathoue aeui? ina?oe, na?ae/eoue i?i oa,
ui iei?, c iaeiiai aieo,-ina?oi?e ??aaiue in?a, eio?? caeiathoueny
i?aei?e?iieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth ? aeineoue iecueeei, c ?ioiai, — ui
aeey ”o?iueiai?” ae?yeueiino?, ye i?aaeei, ia iio??aiee oie ianya ciaiue
o aaeoc? aeiiii?ee, yeee aeiaaaa ae io?eiaiiy aeui? aeiiii?/ii? aai
aoaeue-yei? ?ioi? aeui? ina?oe.

5. I?noea i?iaeeaaiiy: a) aeeoae? i?noa – 98%; a) aeeoae?
n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? – 2%.

6. A?aeiiino? i?i i?eoyaiaiiy aei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ??ciiai ?iaeo
i?aaiii?ooaiiy: a) noaeei? ca aiaeia?/i? cei/eie – 0,1%; noaeei? ca ?io?
cei/eie – 6%; a) ?ai?oa ia noaeei? – 94%; a) i?eoyaoaaeenue aei
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy –
64%.Aenieee a?aenioie cei/eioe?a, ye? ?ai?oa aoee i?eoyaioo? aei
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ii?ooaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeniiaie aeena?oaioa i?i iecueeo
aoaeoeai?noue caoiae?a aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aieeao aei ii?ooiee?a
iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? iaiao?aei?noue aeoea?caoe?? canoinoaaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? ii?ie o oe?e noa??.

7. ?acoeueoaoe noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i ooeeaiiy
a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a: a) oo?ao – 41%; a) iicaaaeaiiy aie? c
a?aeno?i/eith aeeiiaiiy ae?ieo – 36%; a) aei?aai? ?iaioe aac iicaaaeaiiy
aie? – 2%; a) oiiaia canoaeaeaiiy – 21%; ae) iicaaaeaiiy i?aaa ia?eiaoe
iaai? iinaaee aai caeiaoeny iaaiith ae?yeuei?noth – 27%; a) eiio?neaoe?y
iaeia – 14%.

Iaaaaeai? noaoenoe/i? aeai? aeacothoue ia iai?eeiyooy noaeiaith
i?aeoeeith cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 148-2 EE Oe?a?ie ye oyaeeiai,
iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui oeae cei/ei a?aeianaii no. 7-1 EE Oe?a?ie aei
eaoaai??? oyaeeeo.

8. A/eiaiiy ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a o a?oi? – 16%.

9. I??a caiia?aeiiai caoiaeo, ui canoiniaoaaeanue aei
iaaeioaa/aieo a ooeeaii? a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a:

a) i?aeienea i?i iaae?cae – 99%; a) oo?eiaiiy i?ae aa?oith
– 1%.

Iacia/ia canoinoaaiiy ne?ae/eie ? noaeiaeie i?aaiaie oaeiai caiia?aeiiai
caoiaeo, ye oo?eiaiiy i?ae aa?oith coiiaeth?oueny, ia?aaeon?i,
iaaaaeaieie aeua iciaeaie iniaenoino? iiaeaoeiaiai cei/eioey. Oea, c
iaeiiai aieo, oae? ianoaaeie, ye iayai?noue i?noey iino?eiiai
i?iaeeaaiiy, iayai?noue ?iaeeie oa ae?oae, a c ae?oaiai — ?ici??e
caaaeaieo aea?aeaa? caeoe?a (noie ianiea/aieo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a)
?.o.?i. Aaoi?ii a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ?icoi?iiy ?noioii? ??cieoe? i?ae
“iaieaoieeii iiaeaoe?a” ? ceiae??i aai ianeeueieeii iiaeiii aieeaaoe ia
aea?? caiia?aeieo caoiae?a, ui canoiniaothoueny aei iaaeioaa/aieo a
ooeeaii? a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a o oiae? e?ei?iaeueiiai ia?ane?aeoaaiiy.
Oiio a?aoo ea??aieea aea?aeaaiiai /e i?eaaoiiai i?aei?e?inoaa, yeee
i?ecaiaeeoue ia??aeei aei coieiee ae?iaieoeoaa aai cai?oaiiy a?ciano, a
?acii c oeei ? aei iiaiiai i?eieiaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iiaeaoe?a, ia
iiaeyae aaoi?a, iiaeiai noaoe aeiyoeiaith i??ith.

Iayai?noue iniaeeaeo (a?aecia/aieo aeua) ?en iniaenoino? iiaeaoeiaiai
cei/eioey ia ne?ae ?icoi?oe oae, ui aiie i?eoaiaii? an?i aac aeiyoeo
iniaai, ye? a/eieee oaeiai ?iaeo cei/eie. A?aenooi?noue ?o o aeayei?
/anoeie cei/eioe?a ia ci?ia? ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy
iniaenoino? ?o ye iin??a i?e/ei cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee. Iaeiae iniiaia
iana cei/eioe?a a?ae??ciy?oueny icia/aieie iniaeeainoyie. Naia aeaiee
oaeo aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i iniaeno?noue cei/eioey -”iaieaoieea
iiaeaoe?a”, ye i?i ie?aiee, naiino?eiee nioe?aeueiee ? ineoieia?/iee
oei. Iioea, ui eaaeeoue a iniia? ae?e iniae, yea oienii ooeey?oueny a?ae
nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, ia aieeaa? ia eaae?o?eaoe?th cei/eio, aea ia? aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy aeey e?ei?iieia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a.
Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue in?a, ye? oienii ooeeythoueny a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, ea?othoueny ei?eneeaei iioeaii ? ia?ane?aeothoue ei?eneeao
iaoo.Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ei?eneeaa iaoa ? ei?eneeaee iioea ooeeaiiy a?ae
nieaoe iiaeaoe?a iaoiiaeai? oa?aeoa?ii eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoa caeaaeii a?ae ?o oi?ie aeaniino? ? i?iyaey?oueny a
i?aaiaii? iniae — ieaoieea iiaeaoe?a — caaeiaieueieoe naith
?iaeea?aeoaeueio iio?aao oeyoii i?ioei?aaiiai ca?eueiaiiy a?ae iaeiiaeo
iaia’yce?a, nei?i/aiiy iaiao?aeieo o aeai?e eiie?aoi?e neooaoe?? aai
cae/aeieo aeey aeaii? iniae aeo?ao c iaoith iie?ioaiiy aeanii?
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? /e caeiaoooy iniaenoeo aeaa. O oie aea /an ia
iiaeia ia aeciaoe, ui iaeia ni?aaa, eiee aeiiei ?ooaea iniaenoa
ei?eneeaa caoe?eaaeai?noue (iai?eeeaae aeeo/aiiy c iai?ioo
”caeiiiieaieo” ia iiaeaoeao eioo?a c iaoith caa?iaiiy ?o ia naith
ei?enoue /e aeei?enoaiiy ia ?io? oe?e? a iniaenoeo ?ioa?anao), ? cian?i
?ioa — yeui ea??aiee i?aei?e?inoaa iaiaaaany a?yooaaoe eiai a?ae
?ici?aiiy c i?e/eie iaiii??iiai iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y ?, ia niea/oth/e
iiaeaoee, ca?eueooaaa oiiaee, ui caeeoathoueny o ?icii?yaeaeaii?
i?aai?caoe??, ?yooaaa ae?iaieoeoai a?ae coieiee, a i?aoe?aiee?a — a?ae
iaieio/iai ca?eueiaiiy (oea caeaa?eueoiai oa?aeoa?ii aeey i?aei?e?inoa
aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee). Aeoia?oueny, ui ?icoi?iiy ?noioii?
??cieoe? i?ae oaeei iaieaoieeii iiaeaoe?a ? ei?eneeaei iaieaoieeii, a
oei a?eueoa ceiae??i, iiaeiii aieeaaoe oaeiae ? ia aea?? caoiae?a, ui
canoiniaothoueny c iaoith noyaiaiiy ianiea/aieo o aecia/aiee
caeiiiaeaanoaii no?ie iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a,
ia i??o e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

?icae?e 3 — ”E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? aniaeoe a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
iiaeaoeia? cei/eie’”- ?icii/eia?oueny i?ae?icae?eii
”E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? aniaeoe a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca cei/eie o noa??
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, iia’ycai? ?c cae?eniaiiyi ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?”, o yeiio aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui icia/aia yaeua
iaei aena?oeth?oueny a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue c
oeueiai ieoaiiy i?aeoe/ii iaia?. I?e/ei aeey a/eiaiiy i?aaiii?ooaiue o
noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe?
aaaaoi. Noaooy 80-1 EE Oe?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
noni?eueii iaaacia/i? ae?yiiy, ui iia’ycothoueny a cao?aeiiio i?aa? c
aaie?anueeei oao?aenoaii, a naia: ca i?eoiaoaaiiy io?eiaieo a
?acoeueoao? cae?eniaiiy ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?eaooe?a o
aaetho? aai caieaeaiiy ?o ?ici???a. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaiao?aeii aianoe
ci?ie aei noaoo? 80-1 EE Oe?a?ie, cai?ieaoe o?iainiaee oa?i?i ”aaethoia
ae?o/ea” th?eaee/iei oa?i?iii ”i?eoiaoaaiiy eioo?a a ?iicaii?e aaetho?”,
ine?eueee oa?i?i “ae?o/ea” icia/a? “…aeoi?aoaai? a?ae i?iaeaaeo
/iai-iaaoaeue a?io?…”, a ca ci?noii aeeniiceoe?? no.80-1 EE Oe?a?ie
ia?aaeaa/aii aaaaeaiiy caai?iie ia iacaeiiia aeaacaiiy aaethoieo eioo?a
ca ei?aeii iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, /e ? oe? aaethoi? eiooe “ae?o/eith”
a?ae ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??, /e aiie ? a?eueieie a?ioiaeie eiooaie
i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i aeaniino?, ye?
iacaeiiii ia?aaaaeai? ia a?aee?eo? aac aeicaieo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo
Oe?a?ie ?aooiee ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie aeey aeei?enoaiiy, caa??aaiiy aai
iaeiie/aiiy ? o.?i.

E??i oiai, a Caeii? aeioe?eueii i?yii aeacaoe ia oaeee niin?a
i?eoiaoaaiiy eioo?a a ?iicaii?e aaetho?, ye ia?aaaaeaiiy io?eiaieo a?ae
?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? ia oa?eoi??? ?ioi? aea?aeaae a?ioae a ?iicaiiee
aaie o ca’yceo ?c ci?iith aa?oa?iiai aeiaiai?o c iaoith iaiiaa?iaiiy
aaethoe ? ooeeaiiy a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2 – ”E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? aniaeoe a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ooeeaiiyi a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a” — aeena?oaio
?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui cei/ei, ia?aaeaa/aiee no.148-2 EE Oe?a?ie,
iaeaaeeoue aei /enea oeo, ui neiththoueny oeyoii “/enoi?, aai
ni?aaaeiuei? aacae?yeueiino?”, ? noooth eiai ? aeeeth/ii ii?ooaiiy
ciaia’ycaeueieo ii?i iiaeaoeiaiai, o?iainiaiai oa ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa.
I?e cae?eniaii? cei/ei?a oeueiai ?iaeo a/eiaiiy caiaoo /e aiooaaiiy aei
cei/eio acaaae? iaiiaeeea? : ciaia’ycaiiy c? nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a,
?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, yeiai aeiaaa? caeii, iiaea aooe aeeiiaii a
inoaii?e iiiaio, a ye o?eueee oeae iiiaio nieeioa ? ciaia’ycaiiy ana ae
oaee caeeoeeinue iaaeeiiaiei, iayaiei ? cae?i/aiee aeae?eo. Ioaea,
cei/ei — oienia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a — ne?ae aaaaeaoe
cae?i/aiei ia c iiiaioo aaciina?aaeiueiai i?eoiaoaaiiy ia’?eo?a
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a aooaaeoa?nueeiio iae?eo i?aei?e?inoaa (i?eaooe?a
o?ce/ii? iniae), a c iiiaioo cae?i/aiiy anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii oa?i?i?a
aianaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeao?a oa aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo
oiiae?a ? iaaeaiiy ieaoieeii iiaeaoe?a aei iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a
aeaeea?aoe?e oa ?ic?aooie?a, ui i?noyoue iaaeinoia??i? a?aeiiino? i?i
ia’?eoe iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ? ?ici??e iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a, ye? i?aeeyaathoue nieao?, aai oaeeo, ui oaeoe/ii niea/ai?.

I?e aianaii? aei iiaeaoeiai? aeaeea?aoe?? na?aeiii aee?eaeaieo aeaieo
cei/ei ia? aaaaeaoeny cae?i/aiei ia c iiiaioo caiiaiaiiy aeaeea?aoe?? c
iineeaiiyi ia caa?aeiii iaaeinoia??i? a?aeiiino?, a c iiiaioo iiaeaiiy
oaei? a iiaeaoeiaee i?aai. Ioaea, aiai?eoe i?i i?eoiaoaaiiy aai
caieaeaiiy i?eaooeo a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iiaeia eeoa oiae?, eiee oaea
i?eoiaoaaiiy aai caieaeaiiy a?aeaoeiny a iiaeaoeiaiio aeieoiaio? —
?ic?aooieo iiaeaoeo, aeaeea?aoe?? i?i i?eaooee, a ia a aooaaeoa?nueeeo
aeieoiaioao — aaeain? oiui, ai aooaaeoa?nuee? aeieoiaioe ? eeoa iin?yie
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa aai
o?ce/ii? iniae ? ia a?aeia?aaeathoue ia’?eo?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e i?iaeaie noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie neeaaeo cei/eio,
ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 148-2 EE Oe?a?ie, aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui ? an?
i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui e?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a iiaeiia ianoaaaoe ca iayaiino? ye
ei?eneeaeo, oae ? ?ioeo iioea?a, o oiio /ene? oaeeo, ye iaa??ii
ni?eeiyo? ?ioa?ane i?aei?e?inoaa ?.o.?i. Aeae? aea?oueny aecia/aiiy
oaeeo iiiyoue, ye ”i?eaooie”, ”ooeeaiiy” a ?o e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo
aniaeoao, aena?oeththoueny i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy oieneo i?e nei?ii?
cei/ei?a o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a eiioaeno? aiaeia?/ieo i?iaeai, ye?
ciaeoee nai? ae??oaiiy a aeayeeo caei?aeiiieo e?a?iao. A?aecia/a?oueny,
ui i? a e?ei?iaeueiiio, i? a iiaeaoeiaiio i?aa? aeao?i?oe?y
”i?eoiaoaaiiy” ii?iaoeaii ia aecia/aia. Nai oa?i?i ”i?eoiaoaaiiy”
ia?aaeaa/a?, ii-ia?oa, aeoeaio (oienio) iiaaae?ieo (oiaaoe,
i?eoiaoaaoe), ii-ae?oaa, iai?? aeinyaiooe ?acoeueoaoa (ia aeaeaaaoe, ia
iieacoaaoe ? o.?i.). Caieaeaiiy ae ia’?eo?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iiaea aooe
iane?aeeii ye oienieo, oae ? iaiaa?aaeieo ae?e. Aeaoaeueii aiae?coth/e
ia’?eoeaio noi?iio neeaaeo cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no.148-2 EE Oe?a?ie,
aaoi? noaaeoue ieoaiiy i?i oa, /e iiaeia acaaae? ioioiaeithaaoe
ia’?eoeaio noi?iio ”i?eoiaoaaiiy” o e?ei?iaeueiiio ? iiaeaoeiaiio i?aa?.
I?e oeueiio noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui iiaeaoeiaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ? naiai
?iaeo ia?aeiiith eaieith i?e eaae?o?eaoe?? ae?e iniae c
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? oi/ee ci?o. O anyeiio ?ac?, iaiiaeeeai oyaeoe
neooaoe?th, eiee a cei/ei aoa, a iiaeaoeiaa i?aaiii?ooaiiy aoei a
a?aenooi?. Naia oiio neeaaee iiaeaoeiaeo i?aaiii?ooaiue iaiao?aeii
aaciina?aaeiuei a?aoiaoaaoe i?e eaae?o?eaoe?? oeueiai ae?yiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3 -”Aeaye? i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai aieeao o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy” —
aeine?aeaeo?oueny aoaeoeai?noue ? caaaeueiiiiia?aaeaeoaaeueiee aieea
ii?i e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ia noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie i?aaia?aeiinei o
noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca a/eiaiiy
iiaeaoeiaeo i?aaiii?ooaiue. Cia/io oaaao aaoi? i?eae?ey? ieoaiiyi
i?io?eaeoe/iiai aieeao ii?ie e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa, yea ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oienia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a. I?e
oeueiio a?aecia/a?oueny, ui a oie /an, eiee aaeeea e?euee?noue ethaeae,
ye? ia niea/othoue iiaeaoee, ia a?ae/oaathoue neeueii? ii?aeueii?
caai?iie ii a?aeiioaiith aei aeanieo ii?ooaiue iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, i?euaieoe ianaeaiith iiaeaoeiao ii?yaei?noue aeineoue
aaaeei,.

?icae?e 4 –”Aeina?ae caei?aeiiieo e?a?i a i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeae??
iiaeaoeia?e cei/eiiino? oa oiiae eiai aeei?enoaiiy a Oe?a?i?” —
i?enay/aiee ieoaiiyi uiaei i?aaiaiai aeina?aeo cao?aeieo e?a?i o aaeoc?
?aaoethaaiiy ? ioi?iie iiaeaoeiaeo a?aeiinei.

O cao?aeiiio i?aa? iiaeaoie ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ? oi?iith i?eioniaiai
a?ae/oaeaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia ei?enoue aea?aeaae, aiane?aeie /iai
iio?aao? /?oei? i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe??. Iiaeaoeiaa aeenoeeie?ia ?
caeiiineooiyi?noue a?iiaaeyi ? iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith aeiaea?aeaiiy
o?iainiai? aeenoeeie?ie, iaeaaaeeea?oei aeaiaioii ?nioaaiiy aea?aeaae ?
aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a. Oeei aecia/a?oueny aaaeeeaa i?noea, yea
iiaeaoee caeiathoue o no?oeoo?? iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

Niaoeeo?ea cao?aeiiai iiaeaoeiaiai i?aaa iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiii iiaea?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? noo? iiaeaoeiaiai iaoai?cio ?
i?aaa ye oi?iaeueiiai iiiaioo eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Iiaeaoeiaa i?aai
aecia/a?oueny ye noeoii?noue th?eaee/ieo ii?i, ui ?aaoeththoue
iiaeaoeia? i?aaia?aeiineie, no?oeoo?iaai? a iiaeaoeiao nenoaio, ?
anoaiiaeththoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ii?ooaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo i?aaee,
ye? iathoue neeo caeiio. Caii?oeith aoaeoeaiino? ?o canoinoaaiiy ?
iayai?noue naieoe?e ye o ?aieao o?iainiaiai, oae ? a ?aieao
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa. Ii?ie e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa aeei?enoiaothoueny c
iaoith ?aae?caoe?? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee aea?aeaae ? ?o iaiao?aeii
?icaeyaeaoe a noeoiiino? c ii?iaie o?iainiaiai i?aaa.

sse iieaco? aeine?aeaeaiiy, o caeiiiaeaanoa? NOA ?nio? aeecueei ni?iea
ii?i, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iiaeaoeia? cei/eie.
*ano?oa ca ana aeey i?ecia/aiiy e?ei?iaeueieo iiea?aiue
aeei?enoiaothoueny oae? noaoo?: ni?iaa oieeiooe aai ii?ooeoe nieaoo
iiaeaoe?a, iaaienia ciaaaaa aei iaia’yce?a ii cai?o iiaeaoeo, aaaeaiith
i?aaeeueiiai iae?eo nieaoe iiaeaoeo, iaaienia ciaaaaa aei iaia’yce?a ii
?a?no?aoe?? i?eaooe?a aai iia?aeiieaiith ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i nieaoo
iiaeaoe?a, ni?ao/anoue ? i?aeao?thaaiiy a i?aeaioiaoe? aai iaaeaii?
iai?aaaeeaeo ? iaiaiieo a?aeiiinoae i?i i?eaooee. Ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, yea eaae?o?eo?oueny a i?aa? NOA ye cei/ei, a?ae??ciy?oueny
a?ae ianieaoe iiaeaoe?a (tax avoidance), yeo i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe ?icoiiei
iiaeaoeiaei ieaioaaiiyi, ui oe?eeii i?eionoeii ca?aeii c caeiiiaeaanoaii
NOA. Caeiiiaeaanoai O?I e?ei?iaeueii ea?aiei aecia? ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, a/eiaia “c eaaeiaaaeiino?”. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai
aiae?co aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui iiaeeeaa ? iaa?oue iaaeoi aaaeaia
aaeaioaoe?y aei oiia a?o/eciyii? ae?eniino? oaeeo ?inoeooo?a ? ii?i
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, ye iiaeaoeia? noaee,
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? caeaaeii a?ae iiaaoaiiy iaeiiai?
oeiaee aea?aeaa? oa ?ioeo ieoaiue, ui ?aaoeththoue noni?euei? a?aeiineie
o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

A caeeth/i?e /anoei? aeena?oaoe?? aeoioeththoueny iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i?
aeniiaee eiaeiiai c ?icae?e?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeneiaeaii oaeiae aeoieo
i?i oa, ui iiaeaoeia? cei/eie o?nii iia’ycai? c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie
i?iaeaiaie ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. Iiaeaoeiaa nenoaia ca nai?th ?ieeth a
aea?aeaa? iieeeeaia ?aaeueii aieeaaoe ia ci?oeiaiiy ?eieiaeo aaaeae?a a
aeiiii?oe?, ni?eyoe ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? aiaeii/an neoaeeoe
aa?’??ii ia oeyoo nioe?aeueiiai ciaaeieaiiy iecueeiiiea/oaaieo a?oi
ianaeaiiy. Iai?ee?ioe? ?icae?eo aaoi?ii i?aenoiiaaii aeeiiaio ?iaioo ?
cai?iiiiiaaii:

1.Aeiiiaieoe noaooth 148-2 EE Oe?a?ie /anoeiith /aoaa?oith, aeeeaaoe ??
o oae?e ?aaeaeoe??:

Ca?eueiy?oueny a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iniaa, ui aia?oa
a/eieea cei/ei, ia?aaeaa/aiee oe??th noaooath, yeui aiia ni?eyea
?ice?eooth cei/eio ? iiai?noth a?aeoeiaeoaaea caaaeai? nai?ie ae?yie
caeoee.

2. Aeiiiaieoe EE Oe?a?ie no. 148-9 ”Iaiaa?aaeia ianieaoa iiaeaoe?a”,
aeeeaaoe ?? o oae?e ?aaeaeoe??:

Iaiaa?aaeia ianieaoa aai iaiiaia nieaoa iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, ui aoiaeyoue aei nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, oiaoi
iaaeeiiaiiy aai iaiaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy iinaaeiaith iniaith ieaoieea
iiaeaoe?a — th?eaee/ii? iniae aai iniaith, yea caeia?oueny
i?aei?e?iieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth aac noai?aiiy th?eaee/ii? iniae, /e
aoaeue-yeith ?ioith iniaith, yea ciaia’ycaia ?o niea/oaaoe, nai?o
iaia’yce?a ii nieao? iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a
/a?ac iaaeaaea /e ianoie?iia noaaeaiiy aei ieo, yeui oe? ae?? i?ecaaee
aei iaiaaeoiaeaeaiiy a onoaiiaeai? caeiiii oa?i?ie aei athaeaeaoo ?
aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a eioo?a o cia/ieo ?ici??ao, —

ea?a?oueny oo?aoii aei 100 iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaieo i?i?ioi?a aeioiae?a
a?iiaaeyi.

Ae??, ia?aaeaa/ai? /.1 oe??? noaoo?, yeui aiie i?ecaaee aei
iaiaaeoiaeaeaiiy a onoaiiaeai? caeiiii no?iee aei athaeaeaoo ?
aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a eioo?a o aaeeeeo ?ici??ao , —

ea?athoueny aei?aaieie ?iaioaie ia no?ie aei aeaio ?ie?a aai oo?aoii aei
300 iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaieo i?i?ioi?a aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi c iicaaaeaiiyi
i?aaa caeiaoe iaai? iinaaee /e caeiaoeny iaaiith ae?yeuei?noth ia no?ie
aei o?ueio ?ie?a.

Oa naia ae?yiiy, a/eiaia iniaith, ?ai?oa noaeeiith ca iaiaa?aaeio
ianieaoo iiaeaoe?a, aai yeui oe? ae?? i?ecaaee aei iaiaaeoiaeaeaiiy a
onoaiiaeai? caeiiii no?iee aei athaeaeaoo ? aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo
oiiae?a eioo?a a iniaeeai aaeeeeo ?ici??ao, —

ea?a?oueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie aei i’yoe ?ie?a c iicaaaeaiiyi
i?aaa caeiaoe iaai? iinaaee /e caeiaoeny iaaiith ae?yeuei?noth ia no?ie
aei i’yoe ?ie?a ? oo?aoii aei iaei??? oeny/? iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaieo
i?i?ioi?a aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi, aai aac oaeiai.

Ca?eueiy?oueny a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iniaa, ui aia?oa
a/eieea cei/ei, ia?aaeaa/aiee oe??th noaooath, yeui aiia ni?eyea
?ice?eooth cei/eio ? iiai?noth a?aeoeiaeoaaea caaaeai? nai?ie ae?yie
caeoee.

3. Aeiiiaieoe EE Oe?a?ie noaooath 148-10 ”Oienia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
ieoieo ieaoaae?a”, aeeeaaoe ?? o oae?e ?aaeaeoe??:

Oienia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe ieoieo ieaoaae?a, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei nieaoe,
iinaaeiaith iniaith i?aei?e?inoaa, onoaiiae, i?aai?caoe?? iacaeaaeii
a?ae oi?ie aeaniino?, a oaeiae o?ce/iith iniaith, a/eiaia o aaeeeeo
?ici??ao, —

ea?a?oueny oo?aoii aei aeaionio i’yoaeanyoe iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaieo i?i?ioi?a
aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi aai iicaaaeaiiyi i?aaa caeiaoe iaai? iinaaee /e
caeiaoeny iaaiith ae?yeuei?noth ia no?ie aei aeaio ?ie?a.

O? ae ae?yiiy, a/eiai? ca iiia?aaeiueith ciiaith a?oiith in?a, iiaoi?ii,
iniaith, ?ai?oa noaeeiith ca a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo oe??th
noaooath, a oaeiae noaooath 148-2 oeueiai eiaeaeno, aai a iniaeeai
aaeeeeo ?ici??ao, —

ea?a?oueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie aei i’yoe ?ie?a c iicaaaeaiiyi
i?aaa caeiaoe iaai? iinaaee /e caeiaoeny iaaiith ae?yeuei?noth ia no?ie
aei o?ueio ?ie?a aai aac oaeiai, aai oo?aoii aei iaei??? oeny/?
iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaieo i?i?ioi?a aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi.

I?ei?oea: Ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe ieoieo ieaoaae?a aecia?oueny a/eiaiei o
aaeeeeo ?ici??ao, yeui noia ianiea/aieo ieoieo ieaoaae?a o aea?no?
i’yoaeanyo ? a?eueoa ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? onoaiiaeaiee caeiiiaeaanoaii
iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaiee i?i?ioi aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi, a a iniaeeai aaeeeeo
?ici??ao – iaeio oeny/o iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaieo i?i?ioi?a aeioiae?a
a?iiaaeyi.

4. Aeiiiaieoe EE Oe?a?ie noaooath 194-1 ”Iacaeiiia ia?aaaaeaiiy a
aio?aeo aacaio?aeiaeo eioo?a”, aeeeaaoe ?? o oae?e ?aaeaeoe??:

Iacaeiiia ia?aaaaeaiiy o aio?aeo aacaio?aeiaeo eioo?a, oiaoi iaaeaiiy
e?aaeeoii-o?iainia?e onoaiia? caa?aeiii iai?aaaeeai? ?ioi?iaoe?? c
iaoith ia?aaaaeaiiy aacaio?aeiaeo eioo?a (o o./.aaethoieo) o aio?aeo,
a/eiaia o?ce/iith iniaith aai caniiaieeii /e aeanieeii i?aei?e?inoaa, a
oaeiae iinaaeiaith iniaith noa’?eoo i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ca
a?aenooiino? iciae ?ice?aaeaiiy, — ea?a?oueny….

Oa naia ae?yiiy, a/eiaia iiaoi?ii, ca iiia?aaeiueith
ciiaith a?oiith in?a, aai o aaeeeeo ?ici??ao, — ea?a?oueny…

Ae?yiiy, ia?aaeaa/ai? /anoeiaie 1 /e 2 oe??? noaoo?,
a/eiai? iniaith, ?ai?oa noaeeiith ca iacaeiiia ia?aaaaeaiiy
aacaio?aeiaeo eioo?a o aio?aeia?, aai yeui aiie a/eiai? a iniaeeai
aaeeeeo ?ici??ao , — ea?athoueny…

I?ei?oea: I?ae aaeeeei ?ici??ii ia?aaaaeaiiy a aio?aeo aacaio?aeiaeo
eioo?a ne?ae ?icoi?oe noio aio?aee, yea a aea?no? ? a?eueoa ?ac?a
ia?aaeuo? anoaiiaeaiee caeiiiaeaanoaii iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaiee i?i?ioi
aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi; i?ae iniaeeai aaeeeei ?ici??ii ia?aaaaeaiiy a
aio?aeo aacaio?aeiaeo eioo?a ne?ae ?icoi?oe noio aio?aee, yea a oeny/o ?
a?eueoa ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? anoaiiaeaiee caeiiiaeaanoaii iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaiee
i?i?ioi aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi.

5. Aianoe ci?ie aei aeeniiceoe?? no. 80-1 EE Oe?a?ie, aea a?ae
o?iainiaiai oa?i?io ”’aaethoia ae?o/ea” ia?aeoe aei th?eaee/iiai oa?i?io
”i?eoiaoaaiiy eioo?a a ?iicaii?e aaetho?”.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iieiaeee A.A. ”Aeaye? i?iaeaie iiaeaoeiaeo aeae?eo?a ? i?aeoiaee aei
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai aieeao ia
i?aaia?aeiineie a noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy”//A?niee Eoaainueeiai ?inoeoooo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa.-1999.- ?1-N.63-70.

2. Iieiaeee A.A. ”E?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca cei/eie a noa??
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, iia’ycai? ?c cae?eniaiiyi ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?”//A?niee Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa.1998.-?3-4.-N.58-65.

3. Iieiaeee A.A.”E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? aniaeoe a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ooeeaiiyi a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a ? ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a”//A?niee Eoaainueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o
ni?aa. 1998.- ?3.- N.169-178.

AIIOAOe??

Iieiaeee A.A. E?ei?iieia?/i? oa e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? aniaeoe
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.08 — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai oa e?ei?iieia?y;
e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai. — Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa, Oa?e?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii oai?aoe/iei ? i?eeeaaeiei i?iaeaiai i?ioeae??
iiaeaoeia?e cei/eiiino?. Aecia/aii i?noea iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a o
no?oeoo?? aeiiii?/ii? cei/eiiino? c aeanoeaeie ?i iniaeeaeie iciaeaie,
iiaeaii ?o e?ei?iieia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea /eiiee?a
nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia aeeiai?eo ? no?oeoo?o iiaeaoeiaeo cei/ei?a.
Aeaii e?ei?iieia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo iniae iiaeaoeiaiai cei/eioey.
Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aeoea?caoe?? canoinoaaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo cania?a ai?ioueae c i?aaiii?ooaiiyie a noa??
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ine?eueee oea aeicaiey? cia/ii ca?eueoeoe aoaeoeai?noue ?
ae??a?noue caoiae?a, ui aaeeaathoueny a oiiaao, eiee i?eoiaoaaiiy
i?eaooe?a a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy noa? iniiaiei caniaii cae?eniaiiy ye
”o?iueiai?”, oae ? aeayeith i??ith eaaaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?,
a oie /an ye canoinoaaiiy aeenoeeie?ia?iiai, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aai
iaoa??aeueiiai aeae?a th?eaee/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia aeinyaa? nai??
iaoe. Cae?eniaii aiae?c e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai iiiyooy ”oienia
ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a” oa aeiaaaeaii, ui cei/ei, ia?aaeaa/aiee
no.148-2 EE Oe?a?ie iaeaaeeoue aei /enea oeo, ui neiththoueny oeyoii
“/enoi?, aai ni?aaaeiuei? aacae?yeueiino?”, ? noooth eiai ? aeeeth/ii
ii?ooaiiy ciaia’ycaeueieo ii?i iiaeaoeiaiai, o?iainiaiai oa ?ioeo
aaeocae i?aaa. I?e cae?eniaii? cei/ei?a oeueiai ?iaeo a/eiaiiy caiaoo
/e aiooaaiiy aei cei/eio acaaae? iaiiaeeeaa : ciaia’ycaiiy c? nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, yeiai aeiaaa? caeii,
iiaea aooe aeeiiaii a inoaii?e iiiaio, a ye o?eueee oeae iiiaio nieeioa
? ciaia’ycaiiy ana ae oaee caeeoeeinue iaaeeiiaiei, iayaiei ?
cae?i/aiee aeae?eo. I?aeo?eiaia i?iiiceoe?y uiaei iaiao?aeiino?
aeiiiaiaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiio ii?iith, yea a ia?aaeaa/aea
ca?eueiaiiy a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iniae, ui aia?oa
a/eieea oienia aai iaiaa?aaeia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa
?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, yeui oey iniaa ni?eyea ?ice?eooth cei/eio
? iiai?noth a?aeoeiaeoaaea aea?aeaa? caaaeai? nai?ie ae?yie caeoee.

I?iiiio?oueny anoaiiaeoe e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ianieaoo
iiaeaoe?a aai iaiiaio ?o nieaoo, yeui oae? ae?? iia’ycai? c iaaeaaeei /e
ianoie?iiei noaaeaiiyi iinaaeiai? iniae ieaoieea iiaeaoe?a- th?eaee/ii?
iniae aai a?iiaaeyieia, ui caeia?oueny i?aei?e?iieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth
aac noai?aiiy th?eaee/ii? iniae, aei aeeiiaiiy iieeaaeaieo ia ieo
ooieoe?e, oiaoi a/eiai? c iaiaa?aaeiino? o aeaeyae? cei/eiii?
iaaeaaeino?, a oaeiae a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iacaeiiia ia?aaaaeaiiy a
aio?aeo aacaio?aeiaeo eioo?a i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e
iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i aeaniino? — oiaoi iaaeaiiy e?aaeeoii-o?iainia?e
onoaiia? caa?aeiii iai?aaaeeai? ?ioi?iaoe?? c iaoith ia?aaaaeaiiy
aacaio?aeiaeo eioo?a (o o./.aaethoieo) o aio?aeo, a/eiaia o?ce/iith
iniaith aai caniiaieeii /e aeanieeii i?aei?e?inoaa, a oaeiae
iinaaeiaith iniaith noa’?eoo i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ca
a?aenooiino? iciae ?ice?aaeaiiy.

?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy no.148-2 EE Oe?a?ie.
Cai?iiiiiaaii aeiiiaieoe ?? /anoeiith /aoaa?oith, yea a ia?aaeaa/aea
ca?eueiaiiy a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iniae, ui aia?oa
a/eieea oienia aai iaiaa?aaeia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa
?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, yeui oey iniaa ni?eyea ?ice?eooth cei/eio
? iiai?noth a?aeoeiaeoaaea aea?aeaa? caaaeai? nai?ie ae?yie caeoee.

Noi?ioeueiaaii e iaa?oioiaaii i?iiiceoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith o oe?e
/anoei? e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa e i?aeoeee eiai canoinoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaia’yceia? aianee a athaeaeao oa aea?aeaai? oe?eueia?
oiiaee, iiaeaoee, cai?e, iaia’yceia? ieaoaae?, ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe,
ianieaoa, iiaeaoeia? cei/eie.

Iieiaeue A. A. E?eieiieiae/aneea e oaieiaii-i?aaiaua aniaeou
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oeeiiaiea io oieaou iaeiaia, nai?ia, ae?oaeo
iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.08 — oaieiaiia i?aai e e?eieiieiaey;
oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiia i?aai. — Oieaa?neoao aioo?aiieo aeae, Oe?aeia,
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oai?aoe/aneei e i?eeeaaeiui i?iaeaiai
i?ioeaiaeaenoaey iaeiaiaie i?anooiiinoe. Ii?aaeaeaii ianoi iaeiaiauo
i?anooieaiee a no?oeoo?a yeiiiie/aneie i?anooiiinoe, aeaia eo
e?eieiieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea. Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea oaeoi?ia
nioeeaeueiie n?aaeu ia aeeiaieeo e no?oeoo?o iaeiaiauo i?anooieaiee.
Aeaia e?eieiieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea ee/iinoe iaeiaiaiai i?anooiieea.
Iainiiauaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeoeaecaoeee i?eiaiaiey oaieiaii-i?aaiauo
n?aaenoa ai?ueau n i?aaiia?ooaieyie a noa?a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, iineieueeo
yoi iicaieyao cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eoue yooaeoeaiinoue e aeaenoaaiiinoue
ia? ii iaania/aieth iaeiaiaie aeenoeeieeiu.

I?iaaaeai aiaeec oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai iiiyoey ”oiuoeaiiia oeeiiaiea io
oieaou iaeiaia”. Iainiiauaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeiiieiaiey oaieiaiiai
caeiia ii?iie, eioi?ay au i?aaeoniao?eaaea inaiaiaeaeaiea io oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe eeoea, aia?aua niaa?oeaoaai oiuoeaiiia eee iainoi?iaeiia
oeeiiaiea io oieaou iaeiaia, nai?ia e ae?oaeo iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae,
anee yoi eeoei niinianoaiaaei ?ane?uoeth i?anooieaiey e iieiinoueth
aicianoeei ainoaea?noao iaianaiiue naieie aeaenoaeyie oua?a.
I?aaeeaaaaony onoaiiaeoue oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iaoieaoo
iaeiaia eee iaiieioth eo oieaoo, anee oaeea aeaenoaey naycaiu n
iaa?aaeiui eee iaaeia?iniaanoiui ioiioaieai aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea
ieaoaeueueea iaeiaia-th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, eee a?aaeaeaieia
caieiathuaainy i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth aac ia?aciaaiey
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea e auiieiaieth aiceiaeaiiuo ia ieo ooieoeee ii
oieaoa iaeiaia, oi anoue niaa?oaiiuo ii iainoi?iaeiinoe, a oaeaea
i?aaeoniio?aoue oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iacaeiiiue ia?aaiae a
iaee/iua aaciaee/iuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee,
i?aaiecaoeee iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaiio o/?aaeaeaieth caaaaeiii eiaeiuo aeieoiaioia.
Noi?ioee?iaaiu e iainiiaaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth a yoie
/anoe oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e i?aeoeee aai i?eiaiaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaycaoaeueiua aciinu a athaeaeao e ainoaea?noaaiiua
oeaeaaua oiiaeu, iaeiae, nai?u, iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee, oeeiiaiea io
oieaoe, iaoieaoa, iaeiaiaua i?anooieaiey.

Vladimir V. Molodyk Criminological and criminal-legal aspects of the
responsibility for the evading of the taxes, duties and other obligatory
payments.- Manuscript.

Dissertation for the academic degree of Candidate of Legal Studies with
specialization in 12.00.08 – Criminal Law and Criminology; Penal Law.
University of the internal Affairs, Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the theoretical and applied problems of
opposing of tax criminality. It also defines the place of the problems
in the structure of economic criminality in Ukraine as well as
characteristizes them criminologically.The author examines the influence
of the social enviroment factors to dynamics and structure of tax
crimes. The characteristic personality of a tax criminal is given as
well as criminologically. The necessity of activation of application of
criminal-legal ways of struggle with offences in an orb of the taxation
is justified as it allows considerably to increase efficiency and
effectiveness of measures on maintenance of tax discipline. Had done
the analyze of the criminal-legal define of ” deliberate tax evasion ”.
The necessity of addition of the criminal law by the norm is justified
which provided clearing of the criminal liability of the personal for
the first time which has made deliberate or careless tax evasion, if
this personal promoted a deployment of a crime and completely has
reimbursed to the state by marked operations damage. It is offered to
place the criminal liability for non-payment of the taxes or their
partial payment, if such operations are connected to the negligent or
unfair attitude of the official of the taxpayer — legal person, or the
citizen engaging enterprise activity without creation of the legal
person to fulfilment of the functions, assigned to them, on tax payment,
that is perfect on imprudence, and also to enter the criminal liability
for illegal transfer in cash non-cash means of the enterprises,
establishments, organizations irrespective of patterns of ownership. Are
formulated and the proposals on improvement in this part of the criminal
legislation and practice of its application are justified.

Key words: obligatory payments to state budget and state founds, taxes,
duties, evading of the taxes, duties and other obligatory payments
evasion from pay, non-payment, tax crimes.

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe ?iiaiia N.A.

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