IAOe?IIAEUeIA TH?EAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

?IAI? ss?INEAAA IOAe?IAI

EENIAe?Ae IEAENAIAe? AIEIAeEIE?IAE*

OAeE 343.9

E?EI?IIEIA?*I? I?IAEAIE

OAO?AENOAA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 12.00.08 — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai oa e?ei?iieia?y;

e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? e?ei?iieia?? oa aei?aaii-o?oaeiaiai i?aaa
Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee —

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie, Caneoaeaiee
i?aoe?aiee ia?iaeii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Aeaiueoei ?aai Ieeieaeiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie
?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, i?ioani? eaoaae?e e?ei?iieia?? oa
aei?aaii-o?oaeiaiai i?aaa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Einoaiei
Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/, ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?iai? A.I.
Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo
i?iaeai e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa, e?ei?iieia?? oa noaei/einoaa;

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio ?iaeueyiia A’y/aneaa Iaaeiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — eaoaae?a e?ei?iieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie,
i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 25 /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 15.00 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.086.01 o Iaoe?iiaeuei?e th?eaee/i?e
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai (310024, i. Oa?e?a, aoe.
Iooe?inueea, 77).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai (310024, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea, 77).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 14 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee TH.I. Aeoye

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. O aeaiee /an a Oe?a?i?
a?aeaoaathoueny ei??ii? aeiiii?/i?, nioe?aeuei? oa iie?oe/i?
ia?aoai?aiiy, ni?yiiaai? ia iiaoaeiao aeaiie?aoe/ii? ? i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae. Oe? i?ioeane i?io?eathoue iaiine?aeiaii, noia?a/eeai, ui
?acii c iaaaoeaiith niaaeueiith ieioeiai ?noioii aieeaa? ia an? noi?iie
nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino?, o oiio /ene? ? ia cei/eii?noue. O ii??aiyii? c
80-ie ?ieaie ?? ??aaiue cia/ii i?aeaeueany, ci?ieeany ? ?? no?oeoo?a,
iaea?eueoa ieoiia aaaa a ye?e naia ei?eneeaeo cei/ei?a. Na?aae inoaii?o
aea niinoa??aa?oueny no?eea aaniethoia ? a?aeiinia c?inoaiiy cei/ei?a
i?ioe aeaniino?, a na?aae ieo — cei/ei?a i?ioe i?eaaoii? aeaniino?
a?iiaaeyi. ? oi/a /enei oaeeo iinyaaiue aeaui cieceeiny, ?o aeeiai?ea a
aeaiee /an aeeeeea? o?eaiao. I?ae oei i?aai i?eaaoii? aeaniino?
Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie 1996 ?. i?iaieioo?oueny iaii?ooiei (no.41). I?ooi
ia iiaea aooe i?ioei?aaii iicaaaeaiee i?aaa aeaniino?. Ia aea?aeaao
iieeaaeaii iaia’ycie anaa?/ii (a oiio /ene? ? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeie
caniaaie) caoeuaoe i?aaa an?o noa’?eo?a aeaniino?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aeii?ioth/a noaiiaeua na?aae cei/ei?a i?ioe
i?eaaoii? aeaniino? a?iiaaeyi caeiathoue e?aae?aeee, a inoaii? ?iee c??n
? ??aaiue a?aaaae?a, ?icai?a, oao?aenoa. Ca aeaieie io?oe?eii?
noaoenoeee, aeeiai?ea oao?aenoaa caeeoa?oueny iani?eyoeeaith. I?e
oeueiio iaiao?aeii iaoe ia oaac?, ui oao?aenoai ? aenieieaoaioiei
cei/eiii.

Ieoaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? ai?ioueae c oao?aenoaii aeieeaaeii
aena?oeee o nai?o i?aoeyo oae? e?ei?iae?noe, ye A.I. Ai?caieia, A.I.
Aeaaeeie?ia, ?.A. Ai?ioee?i, I.E. Ei?aeainueeee, I.N. Iaoeoaanueeee,
A.I. Iaiaeaeuenii, A.N. Ieeeoi?ia, A.I. Ieia?a oa ?i.; i?i niiniae
a/eiaiiy oao?aenoaa ienaee I.?. Iaiia, ?.A. Naa?oia oa ?io? i?aaieee.
E?ei?iieia?/iei i?iaeaiai oao?aenueeeo iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue a?iiaaeyi
i?enay/ai? aeena?oaoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy I.I. Eeaeiaiiaa, N.A. Eineo,
I.A. ?oaec?o?na, a oaeiae ie?ai? ?iaioe I.A. Aa?oeaiciia, ?.I.
Aeaiueoeia, A.O. Cae?inueeiai, I.?. Ao?iaa. Aea ae aeine?aeaeaiiy
cacia/aieo aaoi??a aoee i?iaaaeai? a 60-80-o? ?iee, oei /anii
nioe?aeueiee ci?no oao?aenoaa ye iaeiiai c aeae?a cei/ei?a a inoaii?
aeanyoee?ooy ?noioii ci?ieany. Ia a?aoiaoaaeiny iaoeiaoeyie oaeiae ? oa,
ui oao?aenoai a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a o/eiy?oueny i?ioan?eieie
cei/eioeyie.

Iac??ea iaiao?aei?noue a?eueo i?aaeiaoiiai e?ei?iieia?/iiai aea/aiiy
oao?aenoaa i?ioe i?eaaoii? aeaniino? a?iiaaeyi, oiio ui
a/ai?-e?ei?iieiae caa?oaee oaaao a iniiaiiio ia ?io?, a?eueo iioe?ai?
ei?eneea? cei/eie. Oao?aenoai ae /a?ac iacia/io ieoiio aaao a no?oeoo??
ca?a?no?iaaii? cei/eiiino? ia aoei i?aaeiaoii naiino?eieo
e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i?. I?ae oei ca oiia ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei aiii iaaoaa? iiaeo ?en, c’yaeythoueny iia? eiai aeaee, ye? ia
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny ?ai?oa. Oao?aenoai oaeiae aeyaey? oaiaeaioe?th aei
iino?eiiai c?inoaiiy.

Aeeeaaeaia aeua e iaoiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??.

Ca’ycie aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aia ieaiii iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai?
ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai ? ni?yiiaaia ia aeeiiaiiy Eiiieaenii? oe?eueiai?
i?ia?aie ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth ia 1996-2000 ?iee, caoaa?aeaeaii?
Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 17.09.1996 ?. ?837/96.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia?
niaoeeo?/ia noa?a nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino? — oao?aenuee? iinyaaiiy ia
i?eaaoio aeani?noue a?iiaaeyi (no.143 EE Oe?a?ie).

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ia?ai?: e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa ?
e?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeee oao?aenoaa; oaeoi?e, i?e/eie e oiiae, ui
aeaoa?i?iothoue oao?aenoai; iaoai?ci cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?e
oao?aenoa?, caoiaee i?aaiaiai ? nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth ii
iiia?aaeaeaiith aeaieo cei/ei?a.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — ia iniia? iaoeiaiai aiae?co ? i?aeoeee ai?ioueae c
oao?aenoaii i?ioe aeaniino? a?iiaaeyi i?iaanoe eiai ?icai?iooa
eiiieaenia e?ei?iieia?/ia aea/aiiy.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eea eiei caaaeaiue,
ae??oaiiy yeeo neeaei ci?no aeine?aeaeaiiy, a naia:

— i?ine?aeeoaaoe ?noi??th ai?ioueae c oao?aenoaii;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe neeaae cei/eio oao?aenoaa ? aeaoe eiai e?ei?iieia?/io
oa?aeoa?enoeeo;

— aea/eoe iniaeno?noue no/aniiai oao?ay;

— aeyaeoe i?e/eie e oiiae oao?aenoaa:

— cai?iiiioaaoe caoiaee iiia?aaeaeaiiy oeueiai aeaeo cei/ei?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia oa oai?aoe/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?eioeeie ? caeiie ae?aeaeoeee, o?einionuee?
eaoaai??? i?ciaiiy nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaeo yaeu; ?noi?e/iee,
ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee, nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee, noaoenoe/i? ? nioe?ieia?/i?
iaoiaee cai?o ?ioi?iaoe?? (iieooaaiiiy, ?ioa?a’thaaiiy, niinoa?aaeaiiy,
aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a).

I?aaiao iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, caeiie
Oe?a?ie, /eiia e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie, ?in?enueei?
Oaaea?aoe?? oa ?ioeo aea?aeaa o ii??aiyeueiiio aniaeo?, ii?iaoeai? aeoe
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, i?i?noa?noa ?
a?aeiinoa, iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie. Aiae?c
caeiiiaeaanoaa cae?eniaii ca noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1999 ?.

Oai?aoe/iei i?aea?oioyi aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee oaeiae
i?aoe? a?aeiieo o/aieo o aaeoc? e?ei?iieia?? oa e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa:
TH.I. Aioiiyia, I.?. Aaaeaiiaa, A.A. Aie?ie, A.?. Aeieaiai?, A.I.
Caeaethea, I.I. Einoaiea, A.I. Eoae?yaoeaaa, I.O. Eociaoeiai?, A.A.
Eoi??aa, A.A. Noaoena, ?. E. No?aeueoeiaa, A.ss. Oaoe?y, ?. I. Oo?eaae/,
N.N. ssoeaiea oa ?i.

Aeei?enoaii oaeiae iaiao?aeio aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaeueiioai?aoe/io oa
niaoe?aeueio o?einionueeo, nioe?ieia?/io ? ineoieia?/io e?oa?aoo?o.

Aii??e/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iaa?oiooaaiiy ie?aieo iieiaeaiue,
aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ui i?noeoue aeena?oaoe?y, aoee iieeaaeai?:

— iaoa??aee ocaaaeueiaiiy 222-o a?o?aieo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa,
?icaeyiooeo noaeaie A?iieoeueei?, Eoaainueei? ? Oa?e?anueei? iaeanoae o
1993-1997 ??., ca yeeie aoei canoaeaeaii 254 cei/eioe?, ye? a/eieee 670
cei/ei?a (c ieo ca no.143 EE Oe?a?ie — 549, ca noeoii?noth cei/ei?a —
121);

— ?acoeueoaoe ?ioa?a’thaaiiy 65-oe canoaeaeaieo ca oao?aenoai, ye?
a?aeaoaathoue iiea?aiiy o aei?aaii-o?oaeiaeo onoaiiaao Oa?e?anueei?
iaeano?, a oaeiae iaoa??aee ?o iniaiaeo ni?aa;

— ?acoeueoaoe ?ioa?a’thaaiiy 90 ni?a?ia?oiee?a aei?aaii-o?oaeiaeo
onoaiia Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? c? noaaeai ?iaioe ia iaioa 5-oe ?ie?a;

— eiioaio-aiae?c io?oe?eii? ? eiia?oe?eii? i?ane.

O aeine?aeaeaii? oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaeeny noaoenoe/i? ca?oe IAN Oe?a?ie,
I?i?noa?noaa thnoeoe?? Oe?a?ie ? Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo noaoenoeee
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiiieaenia
e?ei?iieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oao?aenueeeo iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue
a?iiaaeyi a Oe?a?i? ia aeena?oaoe?eiiio ??ai? i?iaaaeaii aia?oa. Aiia
ciaoiaeeoue na?e a?aeaeoie o iecoe? iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno. Cie?aia, o ?iaio?

— aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co e?ei?iieia?/ii? neooaoe?? o noa??
ai?ioueae c oao?aenoaii, aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?? e?ei?iaeueiiai oao?aenoaa;

— iaaea?oueny ?icai?iooa e?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea oeueiai iinyaaiiy
(e?euee?nii-ye?ni? iieacieee, no?oeoo?a iniaenoino? oao?ay);

— cai?iiiiiaaii iiao oeiieia?th iniaenoino? oao?a?a, c iaeyaeo ia
nooi?iue no?eeino? e aaoiiiiiino? cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee (aeiaaeeia?,
cae/i? (iiaooia?), i?ioan?ei? oao?a?);

— ?icaeyiooi 12 iaea?eueo iioe?aieo aeae?a no/aniiai oao?aenoaa;

— nie?ath/enue ia oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae i?i aeaoa?i?iaoe?th
cei/eiiino?, aaoi? aeyaea ? iienaa nioe?aeuei? yaeua e iniaeeaino?
iniaenoino?, ui aenooiathoue o ?ie? i?e/ei ? oiia oao?aenoaa ia
no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa;

— ?ice?eoi iaoai?ci ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?e a/eiaii?
oao?aenoaa;

— ?icaeyaea?oueny iiaeeea?noue aeciaiiy oao?aenoaa iaei??th c oi?i
cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino?;

— aiae?cothoueny caaaeueiinioe?aeuei? caoiaee iiia?aaeaeaiiy oao?aenoaa,
?ice?eaathoueny o?e iniiaieo aeiee caoiae?a
niaoe?aeueii-e?ei?iieia?/iiai iiia?aaeaeaiiy oao?aenoaa (i?io?eaeoeea
cei/ei?a na?aae iaiiaiie?oi?o, a?eoeiieia?/ia i?io?eaeoeea,
iiia?aaeaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioan?iiae?cio);

— aeneiaeth?oueny iecea i?iiiceoe?e ii oaeineiiaeaiith ae?yeueiino?
noa’?eo?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy oao?aenoaa ? ?ic?iaethaaeueieo ieie caoiae?a
iiia?aaeaeoaaeueiiai aieeao.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
aeeeaaeai? a iueiio iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ?icoe?ththoue
? iiaeeaeththoue e?ei?iieia?/i? ciaiiy i?i oao?aenoai, eiai
aeaoa?i?iaoe?th, iiaeeea? oeyoe eiai iiia?aaeaeaiiy, a oaeiae
iniaeno?noue oao?a?a. Aiie ? aeo?aeiith iaoeiaith aacith aeey
iiaeaeueoiai iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy oao?aenoaa, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? ii eiai iiia?aaeaeaiith, ciaeoe nai?
canoinoaaiiy a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e aeeeaaeaii? Iniaeeai? /anoeie
e?ei?iieia??, i?e iaienaii? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? naiino?eiith iaoeiaith
i?aoeath, ?acoeueoaoe yei? io?eiaii ia i?aenoaa? iniaenoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a. I?e oeueiio aeaye? ieoaiiy aena?oeaii aia?oa,
?io? ?icaeyiooi ii-iiaiio c o?aooaaiiyi no/aniiai ?icaeoeo
e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee, oai??? ? i?aeoeee iiia?aaeaeaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a
(a?oi) cei/ei?a. O noaoo? «Aei ieoaiiy i?i iiiyooy cei/eiii?
ae?yeueiino?», iaienaii? a ni?aaaoi?noa?, aeine?aeiee iaa?oioiao?
i?aaii??i?noue ? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy a e?ei?iieia?? iiiyooy
«cei/eiia ae?yeuei?noue» ? aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy eiai a
e?ei?iaeueiiio caeii?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth o noa?? aeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?» (Oa?e?a, a?oaeaiue 1998 ?.), iai?aaeai? aei Oa?e?anueeiai
i?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy OIAN Oe?a?ie a Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?,
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e c a?eoeiieia?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee
oao?aenoaa aeey o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a na?aaei?o oe?e Ee?anueeiai ?aeiio
i. Oa?eiaa ? a?aoiaothoueny i?e i?iaaaeaii? aaoi?ii i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c
e?ei?iieia??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii o 5-oe iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aia ?? iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie. Aiia
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 4-o ?icae?e?a, ui i?noyoue 14 i?ae?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a (178 noi?.), nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (406 aeaea?ae) ?
8-ie aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/a?oueny eiai ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia,
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o ai?iaaoe?y.

?icae?e 1 (E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa oa e?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea
oao?aenoaa( neeaaea?oueny c 3-o i?ae?icae?e?a.

Ia?oee i?ae?icae?e (?noi??y ai?ioueae c oao?aenoaii( i?enay/aii
?noi?e/iiio iaeyaeo ?icaeoeo iiiyooy (oao?aenoai( oa ai?ioueae c iei ca
a?aeiieie iai’yoieeaie i?aaa oa i?aoeyie aeaeaoieo a/aieo ieioeiai
(I.Ae. Na?a??anueeiai, I.N. Oaaaioeaaa, ?.ss. Oieieoeueeiai, Ae.A.
*a?aiiaoeueeiai oa ?i.).

Iiea?aiiy ca oao?aenuee? iinyaaiiy aia?oa a caeiiiaeaanoa? ?on? aoei
anoaiiaeaii a Noaeaaieeo 1550 ?. Iaeiae, ye? ae?yiiy aa?oi a?aeiineoe
aei oao?aenoaa i? Noaeaaiee, i? ianooii? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe ia
?ice?eaaee. ?o aiae?c iieaco?, ui oao?aenoai ?icaeyaeaeiny ye aeae
oaoueae (ceiae?enoaa), iiae?aia c a?aaaaeai oa e?aae?aeeith, ? ia?ae?e
oaeeo ae?yiue aoa aeinoaoiuei aaeeeei.

Iaoeiaa aeoiea oiai /ano aoea ni?yiiaaia aei ae?iaeaiiy ?aeeiiai
iiiyooy oao?aenoaa oeyoii ia’?aeiaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iaiaiieo ae?e,
ni?yiiaaieo ia caaieiae?iiy iaeiii, a iaeei neeaae cei/eio. Oea /anoeiai
aoei aeinyaiooi a Oeiaeaii? i?i iiea?aiiy e?ei?iaeuei? ? aei?aai? 1845
?., aea aia?oa aoee anoaiiaeai? ia’?eoeai? ? noa’?eoeai? iciaee neeaaeo
oao?aenoaa a ie?ai?e noaoo?. Oei /anii /anoeia iaeiiaeo iinyaaiue, ui
a/eiythoueny ca aeiiiiiaith iaiaio, a Oeiaeaii? caeeoeeeny naiino?eieie
neeaaeaie cei/ei?a. Oeth i?iaeaio ni?iaoaaee ae??oeoe oii?yaeieee
E?ei?iaeueiiai Oeiaeaiiy 1903 ?., aea, caaaeath/e ia oa, ui ia an?i eiai
ii?iai aoei iaaeaii /eiiino?, oao?aenuee? iinyaaiiy eaae?o?eoaaeeny ii
Oeiaeaiith i?i iiea?aiiy ( o ?aaeaeoe?? 1885 ?.) aei 1917 ?.

No/ania ?icoi?iiy oao?aenoaa ye cei/eio, ni?yiiaaiiai ia caaieiae?iiy
iaeiii aai i?eaeaaiiy i?aa ia iaeii oeyoii iaiaio aai ceiaaeeaaiiy
aeia??(yi, aoei aia?oa noi?ioeueiaaii a EE Oe?a?ie 1922 ?. ? c
iacia/ieie ci?iaie ia?aianaii a EE Oe?a?ie 1927 ? 1960 ??. ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aeaia a ieo aecia/aiiy iiiyooy oao?aenoaa
ooaa?aeeeinue ? a iaooe?, ? a i?aeoeoe?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? (TH?eaee/iee aiae?c neeaaeo cei/eio oao?aenoaa(
?icaeyaea?oueny neeaae oao?aenoaa ca /eiiei EE, oiio ui aoaeue-yea
e?ei?iieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a cei/ei?a iaieio/a aeeeeea?
ciaiiy ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo iciae neeaaeo cei/eio. Oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny i?iaeaiai, ye? ia io?eiaee iaeiicia/iiai oeoia/aiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iciae neeaaeo oao?aenoaa ii/eia?oueny c aea/aiiy ia’?eoa
iinyaaiiy, i?ae yeei aaoi? ?icoi?? a?aeiineie i?eaaoii? aeaniino? (a ia
o?eueee iniaenoi?), ui neeaaeathoueny o i?ioean? ye aaciina?aaeiueiai
i?enai?iiy iaoa??aeueieo aeaa, oae ? a ?acoeueoao? iiina?aaeeiaaiiai
i?enai?iiy (iaeiaii? i?aoe?, i?aei?e?iieoeueei? oa ?ioi? ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?). I?aai ia iaeii iaeaaeeoue aei i?aaeiaoa oao?aenueeiai
iinyaaiiy oiio ui, aeiiee, yeee caaieiae?a oeei i?aaii, ia? ?aaeueio
iiaeeea?noue ?icii?yaeeoeny iaeiii, ui eiio ia iaeaaeeoue, /ei
caiiae?th?oueny oeiaea eiai caeiiiiio aeanieeo.

Aeena?oaio iiae?ey? oi/eo ci?o oeo aaoi??a, ye? aaaaeathoue, ui iaiai ?
ceiaaeeaaiiy aeia??’yi yaeythoue niaith aeaa naiino?eieo niiniae
a/eiaiiy oao?aenoaa, ye? a?aeaeaathoue ??ciee nooi?iue noni?eueii?
iaaaciaee iniaenoino? aeiiiai. I?ae iaiaiii aa?oi ?icoi?oe ye
iia?aeiieaiiy iai?aaaeeaeo a?aeiiinoae, oae ? na?aeiia i?eoiaoaaiiy
ianoaaei, iia?aeiieaiiy i?i ye? aoei iaia’yceiaei. Ceiaaeeaaiiy
aeia??ith iieyaa? o i?ioei?aaiiio, iaaieniiio aeei?enoaii? aeiiei
a?aeiinei aeia??e, ui neeaeeny i?ae aeiiei oa iioa?i?eei aeey
caiiae?yiiy oeiaee iaeio inoaiiueiai.

O aeena?oaoe?? ia i?aeo?eio?oueny oi/ea ci?o aeayeeo aaoi??a i?i ci?io
?nioth/i? eiino?oeoe?? neeaaeo cei/eio oao?aenoaa, ine?eueee ia’?eoeaii?
iaiao?aeiino? aeey oeueiai iaia?. Oei /anii aiae?c anoaiiaethth/eo
e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oao?aenoai ii?i, ui i?noyoueny a
/eiiiio EE (no. 83, 143, 1485), a oaeiae o i?iaeo? iiaiai EE Oe?a?ie
(no. 174, 201, 333 oa ?i.)), iieaco?, ui inoaii?i /anii aeyaey?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y aei ?icoe?thaaeueiiai oeoia/aiiy oao?aenoaa, ui oa?aeoa?ii
aeey caeiiiaeaanoaa ?yaeo ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i ? NOA, a yeiio i?aeoe/ii
aoaeue-ye? iaiaii? ae??, ni?yiiaai? ia caaieiae?iiy aeani?noth,
i?eciathoueny oao?aenoaii. C iaeyaeo ia ?noi??th ?icaeoeo oeueiai
iiiyooy, oai??th ? i?aeoeeo canoinoaaiiy ii?i i?i oao?aenoai, no?oeoo?o
/eiiiai EE ? i?iaeoo iiaiai EE Oe?a?ie, aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui
aeioe?eueii aoei a o iiaiio EE caeeoeoe iaeio ii?io, ui anoaiiaeth?
e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oao?aenoai (aiaeia?/ii no.174
i?iaeoo). A ?ioeo noaooyo aeac?aeo ia oao?aenoai onoiooe oeyoii ci?ie
th?eaee/ii? eiino?oeoe?? neeaae?a cei/ei?a.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea oao?aenoaa» ia
i?aenoaa? aiae?co iayaieo o e?oa?aoo?? oi/ie ci?o c ieoaiue uiaei
oa?i?ia «e?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea» a?aeaea?oueny ia?aaaaa a?eueo
aocueeiio cia/aiith oeueiai iiiyooy. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea
iiaeiia aeeth/aoe noeoii?noue noaoenoe/ii cia/eieo iieaciee?a i?i
cei/eie e iniaeno?noue cei/eioe?a, ui a?aeaeaathoue ?o
e?euee?nii-ye?niee ? no?oeoo?iee noai. Aiia ia? neoaeeoe o ia?oo /a?ao
iiia?aaeaeaiith cei/ei?a, aea ia i?noeoe a nia? iiia?aaeaeoaaeueio
ae?yeuei?noue. I?e/eie e oiiae, caoiaee iiia?aaeaeaiiy aeoiaeyoue ca
?aiee iiiyooy «e?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea», o aeena?oaoe?? aiie
?icaeyaeathoueny ie?aii ye naiino?ei? e?ei?iieia?/i? i?iaeaie.

Aeoiaey/e c oaei? iiceoe??. aaoi? ?ice?eaa? an? aeaiaioe e?ei?iieia?/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oao?aenoaa. Ii??aithth/e aeeiai?eo inoaiiueiai c ?ioeie
cei/eiaie i?ioe aeaniino? aeena?oaio a?aecia/a?, ui aiia caeeoa?oueny
iani?eyoeeaith. Ca 25 ?ie?a caaaeueia e?euee?noue oao?aenueeeo iinyaaiue
(no. 83, 143 EE) c?inea c 1662 o 1973 ?. aei 19417 o 1997 ?. ? yeui a
70-80-o? ?iee ieoiia aaaa oao?aenoaa a no?oeoo?? ca?a?no?iaaii?
cei/eiiino? aoea iacia/iith (1-1,2%), oi c 1989 ?. a?aecia/a?oueny
?noioiee «?icea?o» oao?aenueeeo iinyaaiue: 1990 — 1,7%, 1994 — 2%, 1997
— 3,3%. Oaiie i?e?inoo uiaei iiia?aaeiueiai ?ieo a 1990 ?. neeaee 42,6%,
o 1994 — 56,2%, o 1997 — 60,6%. Cieaeaiiy ae e?eueeino? oao?aenoa
a?aecia/aeiny o 1992 ?. (-10,4%), 1995 ?. (-8,8%) ? 1998 ?. (-12,0%).

Na?aae aea caaaeueiiai /enea ca?a?no?iaaieo oao?aenueeeo iinyaaiue
iiiaae 90% cei/ei?a a/eiththoueny i?ioe i?eaaoii? aeaniino? a?iiaaeyi
(1990 — 1,5%, 1996 — 1,8%, 1997 — 3,1%).

Aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui ae?eni? ?ici??e oao?aenoaa ua iaaaaaoi a?eueoa,
oiio ui aiii ? aenieieaoaioiei cei/eiii. Na?aae ianoaaei, ui ni?eythoue
c?inoaiith eaoaioiino? oao?aenoaa, aeae?eythoueny o?e iniiaieo: a)
iaaaaeaiiy a?iiaaeyi caa?oaoeny aei i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a c cayaith i?i
a/eiaiiy o a?aeiioaii? ieo oao?aenoaa; a) iaaeiioe?iea i?aaiioi?iiieie
i?aaiaie noni?eueii? iaaaciaee oeueiai iinyaaiiy, o oiio /ene? oeo eiai
aeae?a, ui a/eiythoueny i?ioan?eieie oao?ayie; a) iaaeie?ee
noaoenoe/iiai iae?eo oao?aenoaa.

I?eaiaeyoueny oaeiae aeai? nioe?aeueieo iane?aee?a oao?aenoaa, eiai
aaia?ao?y, a?aecia/a?oueny oaiaeaioe?y eiai ?icaeoeo.

?icae?e 2 «Iniaeno?noue oao?ay» neeaaea?oueny c 4-o i?ae?icae?e?a.

Ia?oee i?ae?icae?e «I?iaeaie iniaenoino? cei/eioey a e?ei?iieia??»
i?enay/aii ni??iei caaaeueiioai?aoe/iei i?iaeaiai iiiyooy «iniaeno?noue
cei/eioey». Iacaaaeath/e ia e?eoe/i? caoaaaeaiiy uiaei eiai aaeeoeo, ye?
aeneiaeththoueny inoaii?i /anii o e?ei?iieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, aaoi?
aaaaea?, ui oeae oa?i?i oe?eeii aei?a/iee ? iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a
e?ei?iieia??. Iniaeno?noue cei/eioey iiaeiia ?ice?eaaoeny /a?ac
no?oeoo?o iniaenoino?, o ye?e iiaeii? ae??ciyoeny iniiai? nioe?aeuei?
ia?aiao?e ? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Aei oaeeo aeena?oaio a?aeiineoue
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i?, e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia?, nioe?aeueii-?ieueia?,
ii?aeuei?, ineoieia?/i?, ineoi-o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? e iciaee, ui
aeaoaeueii iienothoueny a ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? — «E?ei?iieia?/ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea iniaenoino? oao?ay».

Cie?aia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei cia/ia «iiieiaeaeaiiy» no/anieo oao?a?a.
A?eiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea na?ae/eoue i?i iaea?eueoo e?ei?iiaaii?noue in?a
a?eii 18-24 ?iee, a oaeiae o oe?eiio oao?a?a iieiae?aeiiai a?eo (18-29
?ie?a). ?oiy /anoea na?aae ?ioeo a?eiaeo eaoaai??e canoaeaeaieo ca
oao?aenoai ia?aaeuo? 65%. Oea ia?aaaaeii iniae c? no?eeith
aioea?iiaaenueeith ni?yiiaai?noth, ia iia’ycai? oethaieie oa ?ioeie
nioe?aeueii-ei?enieie ca’yceaie ? ?ieyie. ?o a?ae??ciy? aeeaiea iaiiaaaa
aei noni?euenoaa, ia?ae?o/aia ?icoi?iiy ii?aeueieo i?aeaaeei,
ciaaaaeeeaa noaaeaiiy aei ?nioth/eo ii?o/ c ieie /eai?a noni?euenoaa.
I?ioa nai? iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei ioi/oth/iai ?o na?aaeiaeua oao?a?
iaiaaathoueny i?eoiaoaaoe, oieeaoe eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e, ui
aeyaey?oueny o ?o aeoii/ai?e oeo?ino?, oaeaaaiino? ? caeaoiino? aei
ia?aao?eaiiy. Ciai?oiuei — oea eiioi?eaaaeuei?, aia??e? ethaee,
ni?iiiaei? oaeaeei caeo/eoe aei naaa oaaao ?ioeo ethaeae, caoe?eaaeoe
?o, oa?eoe a aeia??(y, c?iaeoe i?e?iia a?aaeaiiy iaae?eii? aai iio??aii?
ethaeeie.

Iath/e aeinoaoiuei ae?aaeai? ?ioaeaeooaeuei? ? aieueia? ?ene oa?aeoa?o,
aaaaoi c ieo noathoue ia oeyo i?ioan?eii? cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino?,
ia?aoai?thth/e ?? a noeeue aeeooy ? niin?a iaea?aeaiiy iniiaiiai
aeaea?aea ?nioaaiiy. ?icaeyaeath/e noiniaii oeueiai aeciaia a
e?ei?iieia?? iiiyooy e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioan?iiae?cio, aaoi? iaa?oioiao? ?
i?iiiio? aeeth/aiiy a iueiai iiiyooy «cei/eiia ae?yeuei?noue» ye
oa?aeoa?enoeeo niaoe?ae?caoe?? cei/ei?a.

Ieoiia aaaa in?a, ye? ?ai?oa a/eiyee ?icaeyaeoaai? cei/eie
(e?ei?iieia?/iee ?aoeeaeea), ? oa?aeoa?iith aeey 36,6% oao?a?a. I?e
oeueiio a?aecia/a?oueny ni?yiiaai?noue iai??o ia a/eiaiiy oioiaeieo /e
iaeii??aeieo cei/ei?a. Ca noeoii?noth a/eiythoueny a iniiaiiio e ?io?
cei/eie i?ioe aeaniino? a?iiaaeyi, ia?aaaaeii e?aae?aeee ? a?aaaae?
(51,6%). Noiooi?ie oao?aenoao ? oae? cei/eie, ye i?ae?iaea aeieoiaio?a
(no.194 EE), naiia?eueia i?enai?iiy aeaaee aai caaiiy iinaaeiai? iniae
(no.191 EE), ii?ooaiiy i?aaee i?i aaethoi? iia?aoe?? (no.80 EE) — a?ey
30%. I?aaeiaoii o 80% cei/ei?a aenooiaee a?ioia? eiooe.

Oao?aenoao cia/iith i??ith aeanoea? iciaee a?oiiaiai a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a.
Eaae?o?eoth/a iciaea oeueiai iinyaaiiy ca iiia?aaeiueith ciiaith
a?oiith in?a aoea canoiniaaia o 24,8% aeine?aeaeoaaieo e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aa.

Iaiai ye niin?a o/eiaiiy oao?aenoaa aenooia? o 53,2% aeine?aeaeaieo
ni?aa, ceiaaeeaaiiy aeia??(yi — o 15,8%, o 27,9% — eiinoaooaaeiny
a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a oeyoii iaiaio ? ceiaaeeaaiiy aeia??(yi.

I?aeoeea i?ecia/aiiy noaeaie iiea?aiiy iniaai, ye? i?eoyaathoueny aei
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca oao?aenoai, a iniiaiiio
a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai no. 39 EE: 50,4% in?a aoei i?ecia/aii ?aaeueia
iicaaaeaiiy aie? ia ??ci? no?iee. Aea i?aeoe/ii ia a?aoiao?oueny
i?ioan?iiae?caoe?y oao?a?a; ? ye ??aee?niee aeiyoie — canoinoaaiiy i. 1
no. 41 EE.

No/ania oao?aenoai ioiieth? ieceo /?oei ae?aaeaieo aeae?a cei/eio,
a/eiaiiy yeeo o ia?oo /a?ao iaoiiaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iniaenoino?
aeiieo. ?icai?iooa aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie aeena?oaio iiaea? a
o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? — «Aeaee no/aniiai oao?aenoaa».

Oi/a a caeii? aecia/aii o?eueee aeaa niiniae caaieiae?iiy iaeiii i?e
oao?aenoa?, niaeo? ?o canoinoaaiiy aeoaea oe?ieee ? ??ciiiai?oiee. I?e
oeueiio aeey oao?a?a 90-o ?ie?a oa?aeoa?ii aeei?enoaiiy ye noa?eo
(«o?aaeeoe?eieo») i?eeii?a, i?enoiniaaieo aei iiaeo nioe?aeueieo oiia,
oae ? iiaeo, ?ai?oa iaa?aeiieo.

Aaoi? aeaoaeueii iieno? 12 aeae?a no/aniiai oao?aenoaa: a) ii iaaeaiith
??ciiai ?iaeo iineoa ( o i?aoeaaeaoooaaii?, ii i?eaeaaiith i?iaeoeo?a
oa?/oaaiiy, oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy, i?iieneiaeo oiaa??a,
aaoiiia?e?a ca a?eueo iecueeeie oe?iaie, ?aae?caoe?? ?a/ae oa ?i.); a)
i?e iai?i? aaetho; a) o aeaeyae? iaea?aeaiiy a?ioae, ?a/ae, cieioeo
ae?ia?a, ?ioiai iaeia a oei/aniaa ei?enooaaiiy, o ai?a, aaain,
ia?aaeiieaoa oiui; a) o aeaeyae? ni?eyiiy a aea/? oaaa?a; ae) c
aeei?enoaiiyi (eoeee(; a) iia’ycaia c ia?ooii?noth a?iiaaeyi (a
iniiaiiio iacaeiiiee i?iaeaae i?eaaoeciaaiiai aeeoea, caeaaaiiy a iaeii
aeeoea aac a?aeiia aeanieea oiui); ae) o aeaeyae? i?enai?iiy aeaaee aai
caaiiy iinaaeiai? iniae; e) o aeaeyae? oaeueneo?eaoe?? (o ia?oo /a?ao
cieioeo ae?ia?a, i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy, aeeiaieueieo iaii?a, a?ioiaeo
ciae?a); ?) o aeaeyae? iaiaio iieoioe?a oeyoii iaaaaeaiiy aai
ia?aooaaiiy; e) c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaoaeo?a ieaioaaiiy ? caaoaeiae aeeoea
(ia?aaeon?i i?io?aeiiai i?ae’?caeo aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo); e) caniiaaia ia
o?eoeai?e i?aei?e?iieoeuee?e ae?yeueiino? ? iia’ycaia ?c caeo/aiiyi
eioo?a a?iiaaeyi (noai?aiiy o?eoeaieo o??i, no?aoiaa, o?anoiaa
oao?aenoai); i) a?aeueia oao?aenoai (ooea?noai, a?a a iaia?noee,
eioio?ii, eioa?ay oa ?i.).

Oeae ia?ae?e, caoaaaeo? aeena?oaio, ia ? ae/a?iiei, oiio ui a/eiaiiy
?ioeo aeae?a oao?aenueeeo iinyaaiue /anoi ia aeioiaeeoue aei a?aeiia
noaeo a ca’yceo c iaanoaiiaeaiiyi aeiiiai, iacaeaoi?noth aai
iaiiaeeea?noth i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a aeiaanoe oaeo oao?aenoaa oa c
?ioeo ia iaio neeaaeieo ianoaaei.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Oeiieia?y iniaenoino? oao?a?a» o caeaaeiino?
a?ae i??e no?eeino? e aaoiiiiiino? cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee o aca?iiae?? ?c
nioe?aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai i?iiiio?oueny iiae?eyoe oao?a?a ia
aeiaaeeiaeo, cae/ieo (iiaooiaeo) ? i?ioan?eieo. ?icaeyaeathoueny oaeiae
iniiai? cei/eii? eaae?o?eaoe?? i?ioan?eieo oao?a?a.

?icae?e 3 «Oaeoi?e oao?aenoaa, i?e/eie e oiiae eiie?aoieo oao?aenueeeo
iinyaaiue» neeaaea?oueny c 4-o i?ae?icae?e?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Oaeoi?e, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue oao?aenoai»
aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy aeaoa?i?iaoe?? cei/eiiino? a oe?eiio, a
oaeiae ie?aieo aeae?a (a?oi) cei/ei?a. Aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui
cei/eii?noue, aoaeo/e ?acoeueoaoii ??cieo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/,
aeanoeaeo noni?euenoao ia iaaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo, ii?iaeaeo?oueny,
ci?ith?oueny ? a?aeoai?th?oueny ??ciiiai?oieie ca’yceaie, ui ??
iaoiiaeththoue, ? i?aeo?eio? iiceoe?th oeo e?ei?iieia?a, ye? noeoii?noue
oeeo ca’yce?a iiiyooyi «e?ei?iiaaii? oaeoi?e». Noiniaii oao?aenoaa ye
aeaeo cei/ei?a ae??ciythoueny ? ?ice?eaathoueny aeiiii?/i?,
i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inuee?, nioe?aeuei?, i?aaia? ?
noni?eueii-ineoieia?/i? oaeoi?e.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «I?e/eie eiie?aoieo oao?aenueeeo iinyaaiue»,
aiae?coth/e noi?iiaai? a e?ei?iieia?? eiioeaioe?? i?e/eiiino?,
aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui i?e/eiaie eiie?aoieo cei/ei?a
aenooiathoue nioe?aeuei? yaeua ? i?ioeane, i?ae aieeaii yeeo o
na?aeiiino? iniae aeieeathoue no?ee? aioea?iiaaenuee? iiaeyaee,
oyaeaiiy, iaae/ee ? cae/a?, ye? coiiaeththoue ?? aioo??oith aioiai?noue
o/eieoe oao?aenoai. Oea iaaeie?ee n?iaeiiai ? oe?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy, ui
aeiioneathoueny ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ??ai?, aieea aeecueeiai
aioenioe?aeueiiai ioi/aiiy ia eiie?aoio iniao, iayai?noue a
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e na?aeiiino? oyaeaiue i?i aeei?enoaiiy o
i?aeiniaeno?noieo noinoieao iaiaio ? ceiaaeeaaiiy aeia??(yi oa ?io?
iaaaoeai? ianoaaeie nioe?aeueiiai aieeao. O ca’yceo c oeei
?icaeyaea?oueny ?ieue iniiaieo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a, ui aieeaathoue
ia oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? oao?ay, — n?i’?, oeiee, ?aoa?aioii? a?oie
oiui.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «Oiiae eiie?aoieo oao?aenueeeo iinyaaiue»
aeine?aeaeothoueny ? eiie?aoecothoueny iniiai? oiiae, ui ni?eythoue
oao?aenoao: iaoii?yaeeiaaii?noue aeayeeo iiaeo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei,
iniaeeai o noa?? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa; iaaoaeoeai?noue /eiiiai
e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa o ieoaiiyo ai?ioueae c i?ioan?eiith
cei/eii?noth; cieaeaiiy ?ie? a?iiaaenueeino? o ai?iouea? c?
cei/eii?noth; a?aenoaaaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?iaioe i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a
a?ae ye?nieo ci?i cei/eiiino?, a oiio /ene? ? i?ioan?eii?; iaaeiioe?iea
i?aaiioi?iiieie i?aaiaie noni?eueii? iaaaciaee no/aniiai oao?aenoaa;
a?aenooi?noue aaieo aeaieo ia i?ioan?eieo cei/eioe?a, o oiio /ene? ? ia
i?ioan?eieo oao?a?a; a?eoeiia iiaaae?iea iioa?i?eeo; a?aenooi?noue
iaoiaeee ?icne?aeoaaiiy iiaeo aeae?a oao?aenoaa; iaaeie?ee ? i?i?aooiee
a ?iaio? aei?aaii-o?oaeiaeo onoaiia; iayai?noue e?ei?iaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e
? cae/a?a (oae caaii? «e?ei?iaeueii? noaeoeueoo?e»); iaaeie?ee
a?o?oaeoo?ii? caaoaeiae no/anieo i?no oa aeaye? ?io?.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Iaoai?ci cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?e
oao?aenoa?», aacoth/enue ia aeinyaiaiiyo no/anii? ineoieia??,
aeine?aeiee aiae?co? an? aoaie cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee i?e oao?aenoa? —
a?ae aeieeiaiiy iio?aa ? oi?ioaaiiy iioeaaoe?? aei iinoe?ei?iaeueii?
iiaaae?iee. I?e oeueiio a?aecia/athoueny iniaeeaino? oaei? iiaaae?iee:
no?ee?noue cei/eiiiai iioeao; ia?aaaaa ei?eneeai-ia?aceoe/ii?
iioeaaoe??; iayai?noue iino?eii? onoaiiaee ia a/eiaiiy oeueiai cei/eio;
noai?aiiy naiei cei/eioeai neooaoe??, ui ni?ey? eiai a/eiaiith. C
o?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iiaaae?iea oao?a?a yaey?
niaith noeoii?noue ia’?aeiaieo ni?euei?noth iioea?a ? oe?eae ae?e,
caai?iiaieo e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii, iaa?oioiao?oueny aeniiaie, ui
cei/eiio iiaaae?ieo i?e oao?aenoa? iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe ye i?ioan?eio
cei/eiio ae?yeuei?noue.

?icae?e 4 «Iiia?aaeaeaiiy oao?aenoaa » neeaaea?oueny c 3-o
i?ae?icae?e?a.

O ia?oiio — «Oai??y ? i?aeoeea iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino?»
?icaeyaea?oueny no/aniee noai oai??? iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino?, ??
iaoa, i?noea ? ?ieue o nenoai? caoiae?a ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth.
Aeena?oaio i?aeo?eio? oi/eo ci?o oeo e?ei?iieia?a, ye? onth noeoii?noue
iiia?aaeaeoaaeueieo caoiae?a iiae?eythoue ia caoiaee
caaaeueiiniaoe?aeueiiai ? niaoe?aeueii-e?ei?iieia?/iiai aieeao, a
inoaii? — ia i?io?eaeoeeo, caiia?aaiiy ? i?eieiaiiy.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia e?ecia? yaeua a noni?euenoa?,
iiaeeeaino? aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy oao?aenoaa ?. I?ae iiia?aaeaeaiiyi
iaiao?aeii ?icoi?oe ia?aaeon?i ia e?ea?aeaoe?th oao?aenoaa ye noni?eueii
iaaacia/iiai ae?yiiy, a cieaeaiiy eiai ??aiy aei oiai i?i?ioio, yeee
aeinooiiee noni?euenoao c o?aooaaiiyi aeanoeaeo eiio nioe?aeueieo,
aeiiii?/ieo, noni?eueii-ineoieia?/ieo oiia o iaaiee ia??iae eiai
?icaeoeo. I?e oeueiio a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ?noioia cieaeaiiy ??aiy
oao?aenoaa iiaea aooe aeinyaiooi o ia?oo /a?ao a i?ioean? ?aae?caoe??
caoiae?a caaaeueiinioe?aeueiiai iiia?aaeaeaiiy, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?icaeoie
? aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie a?aeiinei o noni?euenoa?. Noiniaii oeueiai
aiae?cothoueny a?n?i iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo. c oi/ee ci?o aeine?aeieea,
iaoe?iiaeueieo nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai ? eiiieaenieo caoiae?a,
aeneiaeththoueny i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?o aaeineiiaeaiiy ? aeeiiaiiy.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «Niaoe?aeueii-e?ei?iieia?/ia iiia?aaeaeaiiy
oao?aenoaa» aaoi? onth noeoii?noue iiia?aaeaeoaaeueieo caoiae?a iiae?ey?
ia o?e iniiaieo aeiee: a) i?io?eaeoeea cei/ei?a na?aae iaiiaiie?oi?o; a)
a?eoeiieia?/ia i?io?eaeoeea; a) iiia?aaeaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai
i?ioan?iiae?cio. I?e oeueiio i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ia’?eoii
niaoe?aeueii-e?ei?iieia?/iiai iiia?aaeaeaiiy oao?aenoaa noa?
iniaeno?noue ? o? nioe?aeuei? yaeua ? i?ioeane, i?ae aieeaii yeeo aiia
oi?io?oueny ? i?iyaey?oueny.

C iaeyaeo ia oa, ui iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue in?a, canoaeaeaieo ca
oao?aenoai, i?eiaaea? ia a?eiao eaoaai??th 14-29 ?ie?a — iiiaae 70%, c
ieo 45% — ia a?eiao eaoaai??th 18-24 ?ie?a, i?iiiio?oueny i?io?eaeoeoe?
cei/ei?a na?aae iaiiaiie?oi?o i?eae?eyoe iaea?eueoa oaaae. Oea iia’ycaii
c oei, ui o i?ioean? nioe?ae?caoe?? a iaiiaiie?oi?o ci?iththoueny
nioe?aeuei? iiceoe??, eiei ? ci?no nioe?aeueieo ooieoe?e ? a?ae
noni?euenoaa caeaaeeoue o yea ?onei ?o ni?yioaaoe ? yeo iiaaae?ieo aa?oi
i/?eoaaoe a?ae ieo o iaeaooiueiio. Oe?eani?yiiaaia i?io?eaeoeea cei/ei?a
na?aae iaiiaiie?oi?o ia? ni?eyoe a?aeiia? ia?aiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai iaiaio
ye niiniao aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo oe?eae, aeiiiiaaaoe oi?ioaaiith
no?eei? i?aaii??ii? iiaaae?iee.

Aiae?coth/e caoiaee a?eoeiieia?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee, aeena?oaio ae?eoia
aeniiaeo, ui iaea?eueoa ae?eia? c ieo — oea caoiaee ii e?ei?iieia?/i?e
ia?ciaiino? ianaeaiiy. Ieoaiiy iiia?aaeaeaiiy oao?aenoaa iiaeii?,
ii-ia?oa, aena?oethaaoeny a caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? (i?ana, ?aae?i,
oaeaaa/aiiy), ii-ae?oaa — oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy aeoeaii? i?ina?oieoeueei?
?iaioe c ??cieie aa?noaaie ianaeaiiy (eaeoe??, aan?aee, cai?e oa ?i.) c
iaoith iine?aeiaiiai ? nenoaiaoe/iiai aieeao ia ?oith na?aeii?noue aeey
onoiaiiy aai iaeo?ae?caoe?? /eiiee?a, ianoaaei aai neooaoe?e, ui
oi?iothoue a?eoeiio iiaaae?ieo aea?oa oao?aenoaa. Ii?ooothoueny i?iaeaie
i?aaiai? ina?oe ianaeaiiy, onoiaiiy a?eoeiiaaiieo iniaeeainoae caaoaeiae
no/anieo i?no, a oaeiae a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee aea?oaai cei/eio,

Iiia?aaeaeaiith e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioan?iiae?cio no/anieo oao?a?a iiaeiii
iineoaeeoe ? e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy ?inoeoooo
iiiaeeiiino? cei/ei?a; ei??iia ia?aaoaeiaa ?iaioe i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a
? onoaiia e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/i? nenoaie; noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo
i?ae?icae?e?a ii ai?iouea? ?c oao?aenoaii; i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? ne?ae/i?
i?io?eaeoeee.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «Noa’?eoe iiia?aaeaeaiiy oao?aenoaa» noiniaii
aeuaaeeeaaeaieo caoiae?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy oao?aenoaa ?icaeyaea?oueny
iniiaiee ci?no ae?yeueiino? oaeeo noa’?eo?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino?,
ye i?aaie aeaaee e oi?aae?iiy, i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, i?aaiioi?iii?
i?aaie, aeia?ia?euei? oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyi, n?i’y oa ?io? nioe?aeuei?
?inoeoooe noni?euenoaa. Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ieceo i?iiiceoe?e ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aeoea?caoe?? e oaeineiiaeaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino? ii
iiia?aaeaeaiith oao?aenoaa.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny iniiai? i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaaiaeyoueny iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii iaea?eueo aaaeeea? iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i?
caeiaooee, aecia/athoueny i?iaeaie, ye? iio?aaothoue a?eueo iiaeeaeaiiai
aea/aiiy ii?ooaii? i?iaeaie, eiie?aoecothoueny i?iiiceoe?? ii
aaeineiiaeaiith /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o oaeeo ?iaioao aaoi?a:

1. Aeaiueoei ?., Eeniae?ae I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i iiiyooy cei/eiii?
ae?yeueiino? // A?ni. Aeaae. i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ?3. —
N.94-99.

2. Euniaeaae A.A. E o?aeoiaea iiiyoey «i?ioanneiiaeueiay i?anooiiinoue»
// Aeooae. i?iae. ?icaeoeo noni?eueii? aeoiee ? i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy: Ca.
iaoe. i?aoeue / Caii??cuee. ?i-o aea?ae. ? ioi?oeei. oi?aae?iiy. —
Caii??aeaey: Aeaeaaaoeue, 1997. — Aei.3. — N.119-122.

3. Euniaeaae A.A. I?eiaiaiea iauae noaiu ninoaaa i?anooieaiey i?e
e?eieiieiae/aneii eco/aiee iioaiie/anoaa // I?iae. niaa?oainoaiaaiey
oe?. caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiie i?aaii?eiaieo.
aeayoaeueiinoe: Oaiao. na. iao/. o?. — Oa?ueeia: Iaoe. th?eae. aeaae.
Oe?aeiu, 1997. — N.151-157.

4. Euniaeaae A.A. Nia?aiaiiia eai?iia iioaiie/anoai // I?iae.
caeiiiino?: ?ani. i?aea?aeii. iaoe. ca. / A?aei. ?aae. A.ss. Oaoe?e. —
Oa?e?a: Iaoe. th?eae. aeaae. Oe?a?ie, 1998. — Aei.34. — N.185-189.

5. Eeniae?ae I.A. Aeaye? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?ic?iaee iiaiai
E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno // Aeooae. aii?. niaa?oainoaiaaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e i?aaii?eiaieo. aeayoaeueiinoe: E?ao. oac. aeiee. e
iao/. niiau. iaae?aaeii. iao/. eiio. iieiae. o/aiuo e nieneaoaeae. —
Oa?ueeia: Iaoe. th?eae. aeaae. Oe?aeiu, 1996. — N.49,50.

Eeniae?ae I.A. E?ei?iieia?/i? i?iaeaie oao?aenoaa. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.08 — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai oa e?ei?iieia?y;
e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai. — Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y
Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii e?ei?iieia?/iei i?iaeaiai no/aniiai oao?aenoaa
i?ioe i?eaaoii? aeaniino? a?iiaaeyi a Oe?a?i?. Aeine?aeaeothoueny eiai
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa oa e?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeee, iniaeno?noue
oao?ay, oaeoi?e, i?e/eie oa oiiae a/eiaiiy oeueiai aeaeo cei/ei?a,
iniaeeaino? iaoai?cio cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee. Cai?iiiiiaaii caoiaee
iiia?aaeaeaiiy oao?aenoaa, ?icaeyaea?oueny nenoaia noa’?eo?a eiai
iiia?aaeaeaiiy, aeneiaeththoueny i?iiiceoe?? ? aeathoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei aeoea?caoe?? oa aaeineiiaeaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oao?aenoai, iaiai, ceiaaeeaaiiy aeia??(yi, cei/eiia
ae?yeuei?noue, e?ei?iaeueiee i?ioan?iiae?ci, i?ioan?eia cei/eii?noue.

Lysoded O.V. Criminological Aspects of Swindling. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for Candidate of Legal Sciences Degree, specialty 12.00.08
— Criminal Law and Criminology; Criminal-Executive Law. — National
Yaroslav the Wise Law Academy of Ukraine, Kharciw, 1999.

The dissertation deals with criminological problems of modern swindling
against private property of citizens of Ukraine. The author researches
its criminal-legal and criminological characteristics, person of a
swindler, factors, reasons and conditions of such kind of crimes,
peculiarities of a criminal behavior mechanism. The author suggests
measures for its prevention, researches system of swindling prevention
subjects, and makes proposals and recommendations concerning activation
and improvement of their activity.

Key words: swindling, fraud, abuse of confidence, criminal act, criminal
professionalism, professional crime.

Euniaeaae A.A. E?eieiieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu iioaiie/anoaa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.08 — oaieiaiia i?aai e e?eieiieiaey;
oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiia i?aai. — Iaoeeiiaeueiay th?eaee/aneay aeaaeaiey
Oe?aeiu eiaie ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia e?eieiieiae/aneei i?iaeaiai nia?aiaiiiai
iioaiie/anoaa i?ioea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe a?aaeaeai a Oe?aeia.

A aeenna?oaoeee aeaaony e?aoeee enoi?e/aneee aiaeec ?acaeoey iiiyoey
«iioaiie/anoai» e ai?ueau n yoei iauanoaaiii iianiui aeayieai,
?anniao?eaathony ninoaa i?anooieaiey e iaeioi?ua nii?iua aii?inu
eaaeeoeeaoeee, i?eaiaeeony e?eieiieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea yoiai aeaea
i?anooieaiee (o?iaaiue, aeeiaieea, aaia?aoey, nioeeaeueiua
iineaaenoaey). Ioia/aaony, /oi nia/aea 90-o aiaeia o?iaaiue
iioaiie/anoaa a Oe?aeia cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeny. ?yae auyaeaiiuo
enneaaeiaaieai eciaiaiee a aai no?oeoo?a naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo aeey iauanoaa oaiaeaioeeyo aai ?acaeoey. Ianiio?y ia oi,
/oi n 1996 a. o?iaaiue ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiie i?anooiiinoe a Oe?aeia
nieaeaaony, o?iaaiue iioaiie/anoaa i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe. Enoiaey ec oiai,
/oi ai?ueaa n yoei aeaeii i?anooieaiee ia ioee/aeanue iniauie oniaoaie,
aic?anoaiea o?iaiy iioaiie/anoaa aoaeao ioia/aoueny e aeaeueoa, i?e yoii
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue iinyaaoaeuenoa aoaeao inoaaaoueny a /enea
eaoaioiuo.

Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey, ioia/aao enneaaeiaaoaeue, i?iecioee e n?aaee
eeoe, niaa?oathueo iioaiie/anoai. Eco/aiea aic?anoiie oa?aeoa?enoeee
iicaieeei aaoi?o naeaeaoue auaiae i iaeaieueoae e?eieiiaaiiinoe eeoe a
aic?anoa 18-24 aiaea. Iaeaaeay aeinoaoi/ii au?aaeaiiuie
eioaeeaeooaeueiuie e aieaauie ea/anoaaie, iiiaea ec ieo noaiiayony ia
iooue i?ioanneiiaeueiie i?anooiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aa?auay aa a noeeue
aeecie e oeaeue iniiaiiai enoi/ieea nouanoaiaaiey. ?anniao?eaay aii?inu
oeiieiaee ee/iinoe iioaiieeia, aaoi? ?acaeaeyao eo ia neo/aeiuo,
i?eau/iuo (auoiauo) e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo. O/eouaay, /oi aieueoeinoai
eeoe, niaa?oathueo iioaiie/anoai, iiiaaeatho iiae i?eciaee oeia
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai i?anooiieea, yoiio aii?ino ii oaeaeee iaeaieueoaa
aieiaiea. Aeaoaeueii aiaeece?othony 12 aeaeia nia?aiaiiiai
iioaiie/anoaa, a oaeaea iniiaiua i?anooiiua eaaeeoeeaoeee
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iioaiieeia.

Iioaiie/anoai, eae aeae i?anooieaiee, a oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneie
ianoaaeeueiinoe a Oe?aeia aeaoa?ieie?oaony, a iniiaiii, eae e ae?oaea
aeaeu ei?unoiuo i?anooieaiee, noiaeiuie a?oiiaie e?eieiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia:
yeiiiie/aneeie, nioeeaeueiuie, iauanoaaiii-ineoieiae/aneeie, i?aaiauie e
i?i/eie, n?aaee eioi?uo iaeie aunooiatho i?e/eiaie i?ioeaii?aaiiai
iiaaaeaiey, eiua — a ea/anoaa oneiaee oaeiai iiaaaeaiey. Oaeoi?u,
i?e/eiu e oneiaey iioaiie/anoaa ?anniao?eaathony a eiioaenoa iaoaiecia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai i?anooiiiai iiaaaeaiey.

I?iaeaiai i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey iioaiie/anoaa aeenna?oaio oaeaeyao iniaia
aieiaiea. Ii n/eoaao, /oi, ianiio?y ia e?eceniua yaeaiey a iauanoaa,
aiciiaeiinoe aeey yoiai eiathony. Iiae i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieai iaiaoiaeeii
iiieiaoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia eeeaeaeaoeeth iioaiie/anoaa eae
iauanoaaiii iianiiai aeayiey, a nieaeaiea aai o?iaiy aei oiai
ieieiaeueiiai o?iaiy, eioi?ue aeinooiai iauanoao n o/aoii iiceoeaiuo
nioeeaeueiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo, iauanoaaiii-ineoieiae/aneeo e eiuo oneiaee
a ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae aai ?acaeoey. Nouanoaaiiia nieaeaiea o?iaiy
iioaiie/anoaa, eae e eiuo aeaeia i?anooieaiee, iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi
a i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee ia? iauanioeeaeueiiai i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey
i?anooiiinoe. Iie aeieaeiu auoue i?aaie/anee naycaiu e n ia?aie
niaoeeaeueii-e?eieiieiae/aneiai i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey. A aeenna?oaoeee
auaeaeythony o?e iniiaiuo aeiea oaeeo ia?: a) i?ioeeaeoeea i?anooieaiee
n?aaee ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo; a) aeeoeiieiae/aneay i?ioeeaeoeea; a)
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea e?eieiaeueiiai i?ioanneiiaeecia. I?eiaieoaeueii e
auoaeceiaeaiiui aeieai ia? i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey ?anniao?eaathony iniiaiua
iiiaiou aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoia i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey i?anooiiinoe —
i?aaiia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey, ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey,
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia, aeia?iaieueiuo oi?ie?iaaiee a?aaeaeai,
naiuee e ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia iauanoaa, auneacuaaaony ?yae
i?aaeeiaeaiee e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aeoeaecaoeee e oniaa?oainoaiaaieth eo
aeayoaeueiinoe ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth iioaiie/anoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iioaiie/anoai, iaiai, ceioiio?aaeaiea aeiaa?eai,
i?anooiiay aeayoaeueiinoue, e?eieiaeueiue i?ioanneiiaeeci,
i?ioanneiiaeueiay i?anooiiinoue.

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione — eaiae. th?eae. iaoe, aeioe. Eaeueiai I.A.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 1999?. Oi?iao 60o90/16.

Iai?? ionaoiee. A?aeae?oeiaaii ia ?ecia?ao?.

Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 0,6. Iae?e.- aeae. a?e. 1,0.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ?

______________

Ae?oea?iy Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie

?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai

310024, Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea, 77

) Ia?oueny ia oaac? ainueia ?aaeaeoe?y i?iaeoo EE Oe?a?ie, yeee
i?aeaioiaeaii ?iai/ith a?oiith i?e Eaa?iao? I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie
(Oe?a?inueea i?aai. — 1997. — ?2).

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