3

I?I?NOA?NOAI AIOO??OI?O NI?AA OE?A?IE

OI?A?NEOAO AIOO??OI?O NI?AA

OAeE 343.50

AA?ANIA Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/

E?EI?IAEUeIA A?AeIIA?AeAEUeI?NOUe CA OOEEAIIss A?Ae NIEAOE IIAeAOE?A,
CAI??A, ?IOEO IAIA’ssCEIAEO IEAOAAE?A

(IA IAOA??AEAO AAOIIIIII? ?ANIOAE?EE E?EI)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.08 — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai ? e?ei?iieia?y;

e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaa??e-Oaoiaoia Eaii?ae

Aaneeueiae/, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith

e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa Iaeanueei?

aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani? Na?oeia Ieaenaiae? sseiae/, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo, e?ei?iieia?/ieo i?iaeai ? noaeiono?ith ?inoeoooo
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
O?ieiaa Ieaia A?eai??aia, ia/aeueiee eaoaae?e e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ?
e?ei?iieia?? Aeiiaoeueeiai ?inoeoooo

aioo??oi?o ni?aaI?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o
ni?aa Oe?a?ieCaoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 25 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 10-00
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 02.24.01.
Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa ca aae?anith: i. Oa?e?a, i?. 50-??//y
N?N?, 27.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa ca aae?anith: i. Oa?e?a, i?. 50-??//y N?N?, 27.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 24 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.A.Ee?e/aiei

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oiiaao ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ?eieiaiai oeio iaaaeueiith iio?aaith aea?aeaae ?
noni?euenoaa ? noai?aiiy noaa?eueii?, no?eei? ? aio/ei? iiaeae?
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

Iaeiae ?nioth/o a oaia??oi?e /an iiaeaoeiao nenoaio Oe?a?ie iaiiaeia
aeciaoe aoaeoeaiith. Ianieaoa iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a aea?aeaa? ia?aoai?eeany a oe?ieiianooaaia nioe?aeueia yaeua.
Oaea noaiiaeua iio?aao? c aieo aea?aeaae ?ic?iaee ? cae?eniaiiy
caoiae?a, a oiio /ene? ? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o, ni?yiiaaieo
ia i?ioeae?th iiaeaoeiaei i?aaiii?ooaiiyi.

?acii c oei e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie, yea ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, ? aeineoue noia?a/eeaei: ?nioth/?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? ii?ie ia ooai?ththoue ?aeeii? nenoaie, aeaye? c ieo
? caeaeie, ?io? — iaaeinoaoi?ie. Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano iaia? ?aeiino?
aeoiie uiaei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “ooeeaiiy” a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a,
cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, ?ici??o ianiea/aieo iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a, c yeiai iiaeiia ianooiaoe e?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue,
oa ii?yaeeo eiai ia/eneaiiy. Ia ae??oaia ieoaiiy i?i aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? noa’?eo?a oeeo cei/ei?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o
neoaeaiaiai aai iinaaeiaiai noaio. *eiia e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai
oaeoe/ii ia i?noeoue ii?i, ye? a caioi/oaaee a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iniaaie,
aeiieie a ianieao? iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a,
caiiae?yii? oeiaee aea?aeaa?. O aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao e?ei?iaeueia
iiea?aiiy ia a?aeiia?aea? oa?aeoa?o oa nooiaith noni?eueii? iaaaciaee
oeeo cei/ei?a. Oaea noaiiaeua nooo?ai cieaeo? iiaeeeaino? aea?aeaae
uiaei i?ioeae?? cei/eiai o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

O e?oa?aoo?? i?iaeaie e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae
nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ?icaeyaeaeenue ?
aea/aeenue a ?iaioao I.?.Iaiiaa, I.N.Iaoeoaanueeiai, I.ss.Na?oeiaa,
I.I.Aiae?ooei, E.I.A?e/, I.O.Aaaa, Ae.?.Aieini?/aiei, A.I.Iiiiae/a,
I.?.Oaa?iithea oa ?i. Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia aeineoue aaeeeo
e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue a oe?e aaeoc?, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue ia?aaaaeii a
inoaii? ?iee, oeth i?iaeaio iaiiaeia iacaaoe inoaoi/ii ae??oaiith. A
iioae?eiaaieo ?iaioao ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ?icaeyaeaeenue eeoa c oi/ee ci?o aiae?co neeaaeo
cei/eio. I?iaeaie ae i?ecia/aiiy iiea?aiiy ca oeae cei/ei oaeoe/ii
iaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaiith ia i?aeaeaaaeenue. O cacia/aieo ?iaioao oey
i?iaeaia aea/aeanue aac o?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie. Eiiieaeni? ae aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?, cie?aia ia iaoa??aeao
Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, a?aenooi?. Ana oea e iaoiiaeei aea?? oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?iaeaie
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a,
cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a. I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue
/eiia e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai, ui anoaiiaeth? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a,
a oaeiae ?io? cei/eie i?ioe o?iainiaeo ?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae, i?aeoeea
eiai canoinoaaiiy, oaiaeaioe?? oa caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oe? cei/eie,
cie?aia i?iaeoe EE Oe?a?ie, ?io? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy
e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, e?ei?iaeueia noaoenoeea, nenoaia
iaoeiaeo iiaeyae?a oa ?ic?iaie uiaei oe??? i?iaeaie.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiiieaenia
?ic?iaea i?iaeaie e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae
nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ia iaoa??aeao
Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei. C o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai aaoi?ii aoei
iinoaaeaii oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy: 1) i?iaiae?coaaoe noni?eueio
iaaacia/i?noue ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a; 2) aecia/eoe i?noea oeueiai cei/eio a nenoai?
ii?i Iniaeeai? /anoeie e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa; 3) i?iaiae?coaaoe neeaae
cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie; 4) ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio
caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaio ia caioi/aiiy aei aeia?ia?eueiiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
ni?e/eiaii? oeiaee aea?aeaa? iniae, yea a/eieea oeae cei/ei; 5)
i?iaiae?coaaoe noai i?aeoeee canoinoaaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai iiea?aiiy aei
in?a, aeiieo o a/eiaii? cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie,
aeyaeoe iayai? iaaeie?ee; 6) noi?ioethaaoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe i?iiiceoe?? ii
oaeineiiaeaiith e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, a oaeiae i?aeoeeo eiai canoinoaaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? noaee no/ani? iaoiaee i?ciaiiy,
ui a?oioothoueny ia o?einio?? caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae.
Niaoe?aeueieie iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeei?enoaieie o aeena?oaoe??, ?
iaoiae nenoaiiiai aiae?co, ?noi?eei-i?aaiaee, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee,
oi?iaeueii-aeiaiaoe/iee, eia?/iee ? noaoenoe/iee.

Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iith aacith aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?? noaee i?aoe? c
ieoaiue caaaeueii? oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Oe?a?ie oa ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, o?iainiaiai, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa. Eiie?aoi? i?iaeaie aiae?coaaeeny aaoi?ii c
o?aooaaiiyi iieiaeaiue, aeeeaaeaieo a ?iaioao a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo
e?ei?iae?no?a, i?enay/aieo ye caaaeueiei i?iaeaiai e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa,
oae ? ieoaiiyi a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ainiiaea?nuee? cei/eie, cei/eie
i?ioe aeaniino?, iinaaeia? cei/eie.

Aii??e/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue aeai?, iaea?aeai? aiane?aeie
aea/aiiy 576 e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa, ii?ooaieo ne?ae/eie Aea?aeaaii?
iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? (iie?oe??) Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei i?ioyaii
1996-1999 ?., c yeeo 284 e?ei?iaeuei? ni?aae aoei ?icaeyiooi noaeaie.
Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaa iniaenoee aeina?ae
?iaioe aeena?oaioa ia a?aeiia?aeaeueieo iinaaeao o Aea?aeaai?e
iiaeaoeia?e i?e?oe?? Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei.

Ii?iaoeaio aaco aeena?oaoe?? neeaee Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, /eiia
e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai, ii?iaoeai? aeoe ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa, a oiio
/ene? ? o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui aiia ? ia?oei a Oe?a?i?
niaoe?aeueiei eiiieaeniei aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaeaie e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?. Eiie?aoiee aianie
aeena?oaioa o ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui iei
aecia/aii ieceo iieiaeaiue, ye? iathoue cia/aiiy aeey iaoee e i?aeoeee ?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iai?eionoei?noue ia’?aeiaiiy a iaei?e noaoo? EE
Oe?a?ie ae?yiue, ye? aeueoa?iaoeaii iinyaathoue ia aeae?eueea iniiaieo
aaciina?aaei?o ia’?eo?a cei/eio, eio?? nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny iaeei
a?ae iaeiiai. Oiio i?iiiio?oueny a?aeie?aieoe a?ae neeaae?a cei/ei?a,
ia?aaeaa/aieo no. no. 70, 1484, 1485 ? 1563 EE Oe?a?ie o?, ye?
iinyaathoue naia ia o?iainia? ?ioa?ane aea?aeaae c iiaeaeueoei
aeeth/aiiyi ?o aei ie?aii? aeaae “Cei/eie i?ioe o?iainiaeo ?ioa?an?a
aea?aeaae”.

2. Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue aeiiiaiaiiy EE Oe?a?ie no. 1489
“Noai?aiiy (i?eaeaaiiy) o?eoeaieo noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?”, anoaiiaeaoe e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
a/eiaiiy oaeeo ae?e c iaoith ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a
aei athaeaeaoo oa aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a, a oaeiae
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca i?ae?iaeo aeieoiaio?a i?i aea?aeaaio
?a?no?aoe?th noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aai aeei?enoaiiy
i?ae?iaeaiiai aeieoiaioo c iaoith noai?aiiy (i?eaeaaiiy) noa’?eoo
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

3. A?aoiaioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue i?eaaaeaiiy aeeniiceoe?? no. 1482 EE
Oe?a?ie o a?aeiia?aei?noue c iiaeaoeiaei caeiiiaeaanoaii, o ca’yceo c
/ei i?iiiio?oueny cai?ieoe neiaa “ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a
oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a” neiaaie “ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a aei athaeaeaoo oa aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a”.

4. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo
iane?aee?a ye caaaeaiiy iaoa??aeueii? oeiaee aea?aeaa?, eio?a iiaea aooe
cae?eniaii oeyoii aai ianieaoe iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a aei athaeaeaoo /e
aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a, aai i?ioei?aaiiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy c
athaeaeaoo ?ai?oa aianaieo noi iiaeaoeo.

5. Iaaaaeai? aeiaeaoeia? a?aoiaioe ia ei?enoue oiai, ui aeey aecia/aiiy
?ici??o noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a cei/eio, yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny,
ne?ae ii?aeioaaoe aaniethoiee oa a?aeiiniee e?eoa???. Aaniethoiee
e?eoa??e aecia/a?oueny noiith, e?aoiith iaiiiaeaoeiaaiiio i?i?ioio
aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi, a?aeiiniee aeaco?, ui oey noia ia iiaeiia aooe
iaioith, i?ae iaaia /anoeia a?ae ianiea/aieo aiane?a aei athaeaeao?a oa
aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a.

6. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeneiaeaieo a iaooe? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa oi/ie ci?o
a?aoiaioiaaii, ui iaiai ? oi/a ? iaea?eueo iioe?aiei, aea ia ?aeeiei
niiniaii a/eiaiiy ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a. sse ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe oaeiae ? ce?nia iaaaaeaiiy niea/oaaoe iaia’yceia? aianee
aea?aeaa? aac iayaiino? iaiaio.

7. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue anoaiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ie?aii aeey oaeeo a?oi noa’?eo?a: 1) caniiaiee?a
(aeaniee?a) noa’?eoa i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?; 2) ea??aiee?a,
aieiaieo aooaaeoa??a i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e oa ?o
canooiiee?a, a oaeiae a?iiaaeyi-i?aei?e?ioe?a; 3) ?ioeo iinaaeiaeo in?a,
a oaeiae iaiinaaeiaeo in?a, ye? iaae?eai? iiaiiaaaeaiiyie ii aaaeaiith
iae?eo oa ca?oiino?; 4) a?iiaaeyi, ye? ia ? i?aei?e?ioeyie,
ia?aaeaa/eaoe a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo aaei?i?no?aoeaio i?athaeeoe?th.

8. Aianai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy naieoe?e ca ooeeaiiy a?ae
nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii
iineeaiiy naieoe?e ca a/eiaiiy oeueiai cei/eio caniiaieeaie (aeanieeaie)
noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ea??aieeaie, aieiaieie
aooaaeoa?aie i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia oa i?aai?caoe?e, ?o canooiieeaie, a
oaeiae a?iiaaeyiaie-i?aei?e?ioeyie c iaeii/aniei iii’yeoaiiyi naieoe?e
aeey ?ioeo iinaaeiaeo in?a, a oaeiae iaiinaaeiaeo in?a, ye? iaae?eai?
iiaiiaaaeaiiyie ii aaaeaiith iae?eo e ca?oiino?, oa a?iiaaeyi, ye? ia ?
i?aei?e?ioeyie. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaaeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy o
ia?oiio aeiaaeeo iiea?aiiy o aeaeyae? aei?aaieo ?ia?o.

9. Aecia?oueny, ui iayai?noue ei?eneeaiai iioeao ia ? iaia’yceiaith
iciaeith ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a. sse cei/ei ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe a/eiaiiy oaeeo ae?e ? a oae
caaieo ei?ii?aoeaieo ?ioa?anao (?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa, iie?ioaiiy oiia
i?aoe? ? o.?i.).

10. A?aoiaoth/e, ui ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ? iaeiei c iaea?eueo iioe?aieo i?iya?a
aeiiii?/ii? i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino?, i?iiiio?oueny aeiiiaieoe /. 3
no.1482 EE Oe?a?ie iniaeeai eaae?o?eoth/ith iciaeith “a/eiaiiy cei/eio
i?aai?ciaaiith a?oiith in?a”.

11. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aeiiiaiaiiy no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie
caioi/oaaeueiith ii?iith, a?aeiia?aeii aei yei? iniaa, eio?a a/eieea
cei/ei, ia?aaeaa/aiee /.1 no. 1482 EE, aea aei ii?ooaiiy e?ei?iaeueii?
ni?aae nieaoeea an? iiaeaoee, a oaeiae noie o?iainiaeo naieoe?e,
ca?eueiy?oueny a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? c i?eoyaiaiiyi aei
?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii?.

12. Ii?ooo?oueny ieoaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue cai?ie iicaaaeaiiy aie?,
i?ecia/aiiai ca oeae cei/ei, oo?aoii c ?ic?aooieo 1000
iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaieo i?i?ioi?a aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi ca iaeei ??e
iicaaaeaiiy aie?.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, ui
aeeeaaeai? o aeena?oaoe?? aeniiaee e i?iiiceoe?? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoaieie i?e i?iaaaeaii? iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oe???
e noi?aeieo i?iaeai, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iiaiai E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie, iinoaiia Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie uiaei ieoaiue
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a,
cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, a oaeiae o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aena?oethaaeenue a iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo, o aeiiia?aeyo ia i?aeia?iaeieo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, aenooiao ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? oa
eaoaae?e ainiiaea?nueeiai i?aaa th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oaa?e/anueeiai
?inoeoooo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? i?aaa E?einueeiai o?e?aeo
Ee?ai-Iia?eyinueei? aeaaeai??, aeiiia?aeyo ia eieaa?yo oa ia?aaeao a
Aea?aeaai?e iiaeaoeia?e aaei?i?no?aoe?? Oe?a?ie ? Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee
E?ei, eieaa?yo I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee
E?ei. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?aaeaii aeiiia?aeio caieneo a
?aaeo I?i?no??a Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei c eiie?aoieie i?iiiceoe?yie
uiaei i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ai?ioueae c ooeeaiiyi a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, /anoeia c yeeo
?aae?ciaaia.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. A?aeiia?aeii aei caaaeaiue, iaoe, i?aaeiaoa oa
eia?ee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a,
ui i?noyoue aeanyoue i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a., nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a Ianya ?oeiieno neeaaea? 177 noi??iie. O aeiaeaoeao
ai?uaii oaaeeoe? e a?ao?ee, neeaaeai? ca noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie i?i
no/aniee noai, no?oeoo?o e aeeiai?eo a/eiaiiy ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, a oaeiae noai
aeei?enoaiiy “Ei?i-?aooie?a” aeey ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a ?
ia?aeaco io?eiaieo oaeei /eiii eioo?a ia ?aooiee a caei?aeiiieo aaieao,
oaaeeoey aiae?co caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea ia?aaeaa/a? o?iainiao oa
aaei?i?no?aoeaio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ca iiaeaoeia? i?aaiii?ooaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/a?oueny iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa, iaoeiaa iiaecia,
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ai?iaaoe?y ? no?oeoo?a.

?icae?e 1 “Noni?eueia iaaacia/i?noue ooeeaiiy a?ae nieao? iiaeaoe?a,
cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a oa eiai i?noea a nenoai? ii?i
Iniaeeai? /anoeie e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa” i?noeoue aeaa i?ae?icae?ee. O
i?ae?icae?e? 1.1. – “Noni?eueia iaaacia/i?noue ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a» – aaoi?ii
cacia/a?oueny, ui ia nueiaiaei? /anoea o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i?, ca
ioe?ieaie ??cieo oao?aoe?a, noaiiaeoue a?ae 40 aei 60%. Oae? ianyae
oeueiai iaaaoeaiiai nioe?aeueiiai yaeua, ii?yae c caaaeueiith
e?ei?iae?caoe??th noni?euenoaa, caa?iaeothoue aeiiii?/i?e ?
iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaciaoe? aea?aeaae. Ia a?aei?io a?ae e?a?i c ?icaeiooith
?eieiaith aeiiii?eith, aea o?iueiao aeiiii?eo ooai?ththoue ia?aaaaeii
oae caai? e?ei?iaeuei? i?iienee (ia?eia?cian, ii?iia?cian, oi?a?aey
ca?i?th ? o. ?i.), iniiaia /anoea iai?ioo o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie
i?eiaaea? ia ianieaoo iiaeaoe?a a?ae iacaai?iiaii? ainiiaea?/i?
ae?yeueiino?. Ca oaeeo oiia i?ioeae?y ooeeaiith a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a,
cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ia?a?inoa? a caaaeueiiaea?aeaaio
i?iaeaio.

Iaeiae a aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aaeeooy eeoa caai?iiieo
caoiae?a c iaoith i?ioeae?? i?aaiii?ooaiiyi o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
iani?iiiaeia i?eaanoe aei aaaeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo. Iaaaeueiei caaaeaiiyi
aea?aeaae ?, ianaiia?aae, noai?aiiy noaa?eueii?, oi?o?eiaaii? ?
aio/ei?, aac caeaiai ? iaiineeueiiai aeey noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ? a?iiaaeyi iiaeaoeiaiai oeneo, iiaeae? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, yea
aoea a aaeaeaaoiith aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?. A ii?aeiaii? c
oaeineiiaeaiiyi caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, a
oaeiae i?aeoeee eiai canoinoaaiiy, iiaeia, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aeinyaoe
?aaeueieo iiceoeaieo ci?i a oe?e noa??. Ca oaeeo oiia aaoi? aaaaea?
aeioe?eueiei anoaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaith iaaiiai oa?i?io aeey eaaae?caoe??
aeioiae?a iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o iioiaeaeaiiy.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo Aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe?? Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei ? aeaniiai aeina?aeo aaoi? aiae?co? i?e/eie oa oiiae,
ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei iiaeeaeaiiy o?i?caoe?? aeiiii?ee ? ?inoo a ?aa?ii?
cei/eiiino? o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. I?iiiio?oueny eiiieaen caoiae?a
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?ioeae?th oeueiio
iaaaoeaiiio yaeuo.

A i?ae?icae?e? 1.2.- “I?noea ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa
?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a a nenoai? ii?i Iniaeeai? /anoeie
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa” – aaoi? i?e?aeio?oueny aei ?nioth/i? a iaooe?
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa oi/ee ci?o i?i iaiao?aei?noue aeae?eaiiy a nenoai?
Iniaeeai? /anoeie e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ie?aii? aeaae “Cei/eie i?ioe
o?iainiaeo ?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae”. A aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny aei oe???
aeaae a?aeianoe cei/eie, ye? iinyaathoue ia oae? aeaeia? (a?oiia?)
ia’?eoe: 1)iiaeaoeia? a?aeiineie; 2)a?aeiineie a noa?? aaethoiiai
?aaoethaaiiy ? aaethoiiai eiio?ieth; 3)a?aeiineie a noa?? aeei?enoaiiy
ca i?ecia/aiiyi athaeaeaoieo eioo?a ? eioo?a aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo
oiiae?a.

Aei cei/ei?a, ye? iinyaathoue ia iiaeaoeia? a?aeiineie, ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, a?aeiineoueny ia eeoa ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a,
?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a (no. 1482 EE), a oaeiae eiio?aaaiaea (no.
70 EE) – a /anoei? ia?ai?uaiiy /a?ac ieoiee ei?aeii Oe?a?ie iica ieoiei
eiio?ieai aai c i?eoiaoaaiiyi a?ae ieoiiai eiio?ieth oiaa??a oa ?ioeo
i?aaeiao?a, ye? ia aeeo/ai? c a?eueiiai oeea?eueiiai ia?ao ? ia
yaeythoue niaith ?noi?e/i? oa eoeueoo?i? oe?iiino?; o?eoeaia
i?aei?e?iieoeoai (no. 1484 EE) – a /anoei? caiiae?yiiy iaoa??aeueii?
oeiaee aea?aeaa?; oao?aenoai c o?iainiaeie ?ano?naie (no. 1485 EE)- a
/anoei? io?eiaiiy i?euea uiaei iiaeaoe?a; iacaeiiia aeaioiaeaiiy,
i?ae?iaea, aeei?enoaiiy aai caoo iacaeiiii aeaioiaeaieo, iaea?aeaieo /e
i?ae?iaeaieo ia?ie aeoeeciiai cai?o (no. 1531 EE); o?eoeaia aaie?oonoai
(no. 1563 EE) – a /anoei? iani?iiiaeiino? aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue ia?aae
athaeaeaoii; ii?ooaiiy ii?yaeeo caiyooy i?aei?e?iieoeueeith
ae?yeuei?noth (no. 1483 EE); iacaeiiia oi?aiaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue (no.
1556 EE). A a?oio cei/ei?a, ye? iinyaathoue ia a?aeiineie o noa??
aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? aaethoiiai eiio?ieth, aoiaeyoue aeaioiaeaiiy
aai caoo i?ae?iaeaieo a?ioae /e oe?iieo iaia??a (no. 79 EE), ii?ooaiiy
i?aaee i?i aaethoi? iia?aoe?? (no. 80 EE) oa i?eoiaoaaiiy aaethoii?
ae?o/ee (no. 801 EE). Aei cei/ei?a, ye? iinyaathoue ia a?aeiineie a
noa?? aeei?enoaiiy ca i?ecia/aiiyi athaeaeaoieo eioo?a ? eioo?a
aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a, a?aeiinyoueny ii?ooaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa
i?i athaeaeaoio nenoaio Oe?a?ie (no. 803 EE) oa aeaeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo
aeo?a, ui ci?iththoue aeioiaee ? aeaeaoee athaeaeaoo anoia?a/
anoaiiaeaiiio caeiiii ii?yaeeo (no. 804 EE).

I?ae?icae?e 1.3. – “I?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?aaiaeo ii?i, a
yeeo ia?aaeaa/ai? cei/eie i?ioe o?iainiaeo ?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae” –
i?enay/aii ?icaeyaeo aeayeeo, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo
ieoaiue c oeueiai i?eaiaeo.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui ?nioaaiiy a EE Oe?a?ie neeaae?a
cei/ei?a, ye? iinyaathoue aeueoa?iaoeaii ia aeae?eueea iniiaieo
aaciina?aaei?o ia’?eo?a, ui iathoue nooo?a? a?aei?iiino? iaeei a?ae
iaeiiai (iai?eeeaae i?e eiio?aaaiae? – iiaeaoeia? a?aeiineie ?
noni?eueio aaciaeo) ? iai?eionoeiei, ine?eueee oea ia eeoa i?ioe??/eoue
i?eioeeiai iiaoaeiae Iniaeeai? /anoeie EE, aea e cia/ii oneeaaeith?
canoinoaaiiy oeeo ii?i. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aaoi? ae?eoia
aeniiaeo i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?aeie?aieaiiy a?ae neeaae?a cei/ei?a,
ia?aaeaa/aieo no.no. 70, 1484, 1485 ? 1563 EE oeo, ye? iinyaathoue naia
ia o?iainia? ?ioa?ane aea?aeaae c iiaeaeueoei aeeth/aiiyi ?o aei ie?aii?
aeaae “Cei/eie i?ioe o?iainiaeo ?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae”.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui iaea?eueo iioe?aiei niiniaii ooeeaiiy a?ae nieao?e
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ? noai?aiiy o?eoeaieo
noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, a e?ei?iaeueia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oae? ae?? ia?aaeaa/aia eeoa no. 194 EE, ui ia
a?aeiia?aea? oa?aeoa?o ? nooiaith ?o noni?eueii? iaaaciaee, aaoi?
aiineoue i?iiiceoe?th i?i aeiiiaiaiiy EE Oe?a?ie a?aeiia?aeiith ii?iith.
Aecia/aii i?aenoaae e?ei?iae?caoe?? noai?aiiy o?eoeaieo noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, i?ney i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co c?iaeaii
aeniiaie i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue aaaaeaiiy oaeiai neeaaeo cei/eio
i?eioeeiai e?ei?iae?caoe?? noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ae?yiue.

?icae?e 2 – “Ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a – oa?aeoa?enoeea neeaaeo cei/eio” –
?icii/eia?oueny i?ae?icae?eii 1 – “Ia’?eoeai? iciaee cei/eio,
ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 1482 EE”, a yeiio aiae?co?oueny ia’?eo, i?aaeiao oa
ia’?eoeaia noi?iia oeueiai cei/eio.

Aaciina?aaei?i ia’?eoii ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a aaoi? aaaaea? iiaeaoeia? a?aeiineie, oiaoi
a?aeiineie, ye? aeieeathoue i?ae aea?aeaaith oa noa’?eoaie
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ia i?aenoaa? iiaeaoeiaeo ii?i, ?aaoethth/eo anoaiiaeaiiy,
ci?io oa a?aei?io aiane?a aei athaeaeao?a oa aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo
oiiae?a, o/anieee yeeo iaae?eai? noa’?eoeaieie i?aaaie ? ianooue
th?eaee/i? iaia’ycee, iia’ycai? c? nieaoith iiaeaoe?a oa iaiiaeaoeiaeo
ieaoaae?a.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e i?aaeiao cei/eio, aaoi? aaaaea?, ui iei iiaeii?
aeciaaaoeny eiooe, ye? i?aeeyaathoue nieao? a athaeaeaoe aai a
aea?aeaai? oe?eueia? oiiaee o aeaeyae? iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a, ye?
cae?eniththoueny ieaoieeaie a ii?yaeeo ? ia oiiaao, aecia/aieo caeiiaie
Oe?a?ie i?i iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. Aei oaeeo aiane?a a?aeiia?aeii aei Caeiio
Oe?a?ie “I?i nenoaio iiiaeaoeoaaiiy” a?aeianaii iiaeaoee, cai?e
(iaia’yceia? ieaoaae?), ia?aaeaa/ai? a no.no. 14 oa 15 oeueiai Caeiio, a
oaeiae iaia’yceia? aianee, ia?aaeaa/ai? Caeiiii Oe?a?ie “I?i aeaea?aea
o?iainoaaiiy aei?iaeiueiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie”. Ine?eueee
a?aeiia?aeii aei /.4 no. 1 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i nenoaio iiiaeaoeoaaiiy”
oeae ia?ae?e ? ae/a?iiei, a aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui
aoaeue-ye? ?io? ieaoaae? ia iiaeooue aooe i?aaeiaoii cei/eio,
ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 1482 EE.

Ia?aoiaey/e aei oa?aeoa?enoeee ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, aaoi? cacia/a?, ui
aeeniiceoe?y no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie ca niiniaii oi?ioaaiiy ?
iieniai-aeaieaoiith, ine?eueee, c iaeiiai aieo, aecia/a? ye naia
noni?eueii iaaacia/ia ae?yiiy, oae ? eiai iane?aeee, a c ?ioiai –
canoinoaaiiy oe??? noaoo? iaiiaeeeai aac caa?iaiiy aei iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Iaeiae aecia/aiiy i?aaeiaoo cei/eio a no. 1482 EE
Oe?a?ie – “iiaeaoee, cai?e, ?io? iaia’yceia? ieaoaae?” nooo?ai
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aecia/aiiy a iiaeaoeiaiio caeiiiaeaanoa?, aea
aeei?enoiao?oueny oa?i?i “iaia’yceia? aianee aei athaeaeaoo aai
aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a – iiaeaoee, cai?e (iaia’yceia?
ieaoaae?)”. A aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui oae? ?ica?aeiino? a
aeei?enoaii? oa?i?i?a iai?eionoei?, ine?eueee oea cia/ii oneeaaeith?
canoinoaaiiy caeiio, a ca’yceo c /ei i?iiiio?oueny aianoe a?aeiia?aei?
ci?ie aei aeeniiceoe?? no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie.

Aiae?coth/e noni?eueii iaaacia/i? iane?aeee ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, aaoi? aaaaea?, ui ?o
aecia/aiiy a oaia??oi?e ?aaeaeoe?? no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie ye
iaiaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei athaeaeao?a /e aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a
eioo?a o cia/ieo (/.1), aaeeeeo (/.2) aai iniaeeai aaeeeeo (/.3)
?ici??ao iaa?yae /e iiaeia aeciaoe aaeaeei. Ii-ia?oa, a aeena?oaoe??
cacia/a?oueny, ui aecia/aiiy noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a a
neeaaeao cei/ei?a, ye? iinyaathoue ia o?iainia? ?ioa?ane aea?aeaae,
iiaeiii aooe oi?o?eiaaiei. A?eueo?noue aea oaeeo ii?i (no. 1484, 1562,
/.2 no. 1563 EE) aecia/athoue noni?eueii iaaacia/i? iane?aeee oeeo
cei/ei?a ca aeiiiiiaith oa?i?ia “caaaeaiiy iaoa??aeueii? oeiaee
aea?aeaa?”. Ine?eueee ae an? oe? cei/eie ni?yiiaai? ia caaaeaiiy oeiaee
?aeeiiio ?iaeiaiio ia’?eoo ? iiaeii? ooai?thaaoe ?aeeio nenoaio, oi ?
aeey aecia/aiiy noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ne?ae aaeeaaoe ?aeeiee
oa?i?i. Ii-ae?oaa, aecia/aiiy noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a cei/eio,
ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie ye eeoa iaiaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a aei
athaeaeao?a /e aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a ia ioiieth? oaeee niin?a
ooeeaiiy a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ye i?ioei?aaia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy c athaeaeaoo
?ai?oa aianaieo noi iiaeaoeo (iai?eeeaae, ii?ooaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa i?e
canoinoaaii? ioeueiai? noaaee iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue c
iiaeaeueoei a?aeoeiaeoaaiiyi noi iiaeaoeo c Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo).
Ii-o?ao?, aaoi? i?e?aeio?oueny aei ?nioth/i? oi/ee ci?o, a oaeiae
iaaiaeeoue aeiaeaoeia? a?aoiaioe ia ei?enoue oiai, ui aecia/aiiy noi
iiaeaoeo, cai?o /e ?ioiai iaia’yceiaiai ieaoaaeo eeoa a aaniethoieo
aaee/eiao i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia??aieo oiia a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? e?oiieo oa
ae??aieo i?aei?e?inoa. C iaoith iiaeieaiiy oaeiai noaiiaeua
i?iiiio?oueny anoaiiaeoe, ii?yae c aaniethoiei e?eoa???i, oaeiae ?
a?aeiiniee, yeee aecia/a?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae /anoeie ianiea/aieo
aiane?a aei athaeaeao?a oa aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?aaenoaaeaiiai aiae?co aaoi? i?iiiio? aecia/eoe noni?eueii
iaaacia/i? iane?aeee cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 1482 EE, ye caaaeaiiy
iaoa??aeueii? oeiaee aea?aeaa? a cia/ieo (/.1), aaeeeeo (/.2) oa
iniaeeai aaeeeeo (/.3) ?ici??ao. I?e oeueiio i?ae caaaeaiiyi
iaoa??aeueii? oeiaee aea?aeaa? a cia/iiio ?ici??? ne?ae ?icoi?oe
iaiaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei athaeaeaoo /e aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a aai
iiaa?iaiiy c ieo eioo?a a noi?, yea a noi ? a?eueoa ?ac?a ia?aaeuo?
iaiiiaeaoeiaaiee i?i?ioi aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi, iaeiae noaiiaeoue ia
iaioa, i?ae 10% iaeaaeieo aei nieaoe aiane?a (/.1); a aaeeeiio ?ici??? –
a noi?, yea a 250 ? a?eueoa ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? iaiiiaeaoeiaaiee i?i?ioi
aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi, aea noaiiaeoue ia iaioa, i?ae 15% iaeaaeieo aei
nieaoe aiane?a (/.2); a iniaeeai aaeeeiio ?ici??? – a noi?, yea a 1000 ?
a?eueoa ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? iaiiiaeaoeiaaiee i?i?ioi aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi,
aea noaiiaeoue ia iaioa, i?ae 30 % iaeaaeieo aei nieaoe aiane?a (/.3).

?icaeyaeath/e niin?a a/eiaiiy cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 1482 EE
Oe?a?ie, aaoi? cacia/a?, ui a?aeiiaa caeiiiaeaaoey a?ae ia?ae?eo a
aeeniiceoe?? cacia/aii? noaoo? niinia?a a/eiaiiy ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ? oe?eeii
iaa?oioiaaiith, ine?eueee ia nueiaiaei? aaea iiaeaoe?aoeyi a?aeiii
a?eueoa i?ae 80 niinia?a a/eiaiiy oeueiai cei/eio. A aeena?oaoe??
?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui iaiai ? oi/a ? iaea?eueo iioe?aiei, iaeiae ia
?aeeiei niiniaii a/eiaiiy oeueiai cei/eio.

I?ae?icae?e 2.2. – “Noa’?eoeai? iciaee cei/eio, ia?aaa/aiiai no. 1482
EE” – i?enay/aii oa?aeoa?enoeoe? noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie ? noa’?eoo oeueiai
cei/eio. ?icaeyaeath/e noa’?eoeaio noi?iio ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, aaoi? i?e?aeio?oueny
aei ?nioth/i? oi/ee ci?o, ca?aeii c yei? oeae cei/ei iiaea aooe a/eiaiee
eeoa oienii, i?e iayaiino? ye i?yiiai, oae ? iai?yiiai oieneo. I?e
oeueiio aaoi? aaaaea?, ui iayai?noue ei?eniiai iioeao aai ?ioi?
iniaenoi? caoe?eaaeaiino? ia ? iaia’yceiaith iciaeith noa’?eoeaii?
noi?iie cei/eio, yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny.

Uiaei noa’?eoo cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie, aaoi?
aaaaea? oea ieoaiiy iaeiei c iaea?eueo neeaaeieo ? iaaeinoaoiuei
ae??oaieo ye a e?ei?iaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?, oae ? a noaeia?e
i?aeoeoe?. Ia i?aenoaa? a?oioiaiiai aiae?co noa’?eoo cei/eio a
aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii oae? aeniiaee:

1)e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a,
cai??a oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a caniiaiee?a (aeaniee?a) noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, iinaaeiaeo in?a i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia
oa i?aai?caoe?e, a oaeiae a?iiaaeyi-i?aei?e?ioe?a ne?ae a?aeie?aieoe
a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca oae? ae?yiiy a?iiaaeyi, ye? ia
? i?aei?e?ioeyie, ia?aaeaa/eaoe a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo aaei?i?no?aoeaio
i?athaeeoe?th;

2)a?aoiaoth/e ??cio nooi?iue noni?eueii? iaaaciaee, ne?ae a?aeie?aieoe
e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oea ae?yiiy ea??aieea, aieiaiiai
aooaaeoa?a i?aei?e?inoaa, onoaiiae oa i?aai?caoe??, a oaeiae ?o
canooiiee?a a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ?ioeo iinaaeiaeo
in?a, ia yeeo iaeeaaeaii ooieoe?? ii aaaeaiith iae?eo oa ca?oiino?;

3)i?iiiio?oueny ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a c th?eaee/ieo in?a anoaiiaeoe e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia eeoa iinaaeiaeo in?a, aea e i?aoe?aiee?a
i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e, ye? ia ? iinaaeiaeie iniaaie,
iaeiae iaae?eai? iiaiiaaaeaiiyie ii aaaeaiith iae?eo oa ca?oiino?. Oaeee
aeniiaie a?oioo?oueny ia iniia? aiae?co i?aaicanoinia/i? i?aeoeee, yea
ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue i?i ?iciianthaeaeai?noue oaeeo ae?e naia c aieo
iaiinaaeiaeo in?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ianoie?iiiai noaaeaiiy aei aeeiiaiiy
neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a ea??aieea aai aieiaiiai aooaaeoa?a i?aei?e?inoaa.

A i?ae?icae?e? 2.3. ?icaeyiooi eaae?o?eoth/e iciaee ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a. Aaoi? cacia/a?, ui
ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a ? iaeiei c iaea?eueo iioe?aieo i?iya?a
aeiiii?/ii? i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino?. Cie?aia, a Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe?
E?ei iaeaaiaeaeaia oe?ea “?iaeono??y” noai?aiiy o?eoeaieo o??i c iaoith
ia?aeaco aacaio?aeiaeo eioo?a o aio?aeo c ooeeaiiyi a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a aai, c aeei?enoaiiyi EI?I-?aooie?a, ia?aeac oeeo eioo?a ia
aaethoi? ?aooiee a ?iicaiieo aaieao. Oiio a aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny
aeiiiaieoe /.3 no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie iniaeeai-eaae?o?eoth/ith iciaeith
“a/eiaiiy cei/eio i?aai?ciaaiith a?oiith”.

A i?ae?icae?e? 2.4. – “A?aeiaaeoaaiiy neeaaeo cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai
no. 1482 EE a?ae noi?aeieo neeaae?a” – aaoi? aaaaea?, ui o aeiaaeeao,
eiee i?e aiooaaii? aei ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a a/eiaii ua iaeei cei/ei i?ioe o?iainiaeo
?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae (no.no. 801, 1484, 1485, 1531, 1563 EE), oi oae?
ae?? ne?ae eaae?o?eoaaoe ca noeoii?noth cei/ei?a. sseui ae ae??,
ni?yiiaai? ia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a ia i?noyoue a nia? neeaaeo cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 1482 EE
a ca’yceo c iacia/iei ?ici??ii eioo?a, oi eaae?o?eaoe?y oeeo ae?e ca no.
165 EE (yeui aiie a/eiai? iinaaeiaith iniaith) aai ca no. 87 EE (yeui
aiie a/eiai? iaiinaaeiaith iniaith) iai?eionoeia. Oeae aeniiaie
a?oioo?oueny ia oiio, ui no. 1482 EE yaey? niaith niaoe?aeueiee neeaae
cei/eio a?aeiinii no. no. 87 oa 165 EE, a a oaeeo aeiaaeeao iiaeiia
canoiniaoaaoeny eeoa niaoe?aeueia ii?ia.

Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui iniaa, yea io?eio? i?eaooie a ?acoeueoao? i?ioei?aaii?
ae?yeueiino?, ia iiaea ianoe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca no. 1482 EE
Oe?a?ie. A oaeeo aeiaaeeao ca caiyooy iacaai?iiaieie aeaeaie
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? aai oi?aiai? ae?yeueiino? aac ?a?no?aoe?? a
onoaiiaeaiiio ii?yaeeo a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue iiaeiia ianooiaoe
a?aeiia?aeii c? no. 1483 /e 1556 EE Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae i?e oeueiio aaoi?
iaaieioo? ia iaiao?aeiino? aaca?aeeeaaeiiai oaeineiiaeaiiy oeeo ii?i.
Ae?? ae iniae, yea io?eio? i?eaooie a?ae caai?iiaii? ei?eneeai?
ae?yeueiino? (iai?eeeaae, e?aae?aeie, oaaa?ieoeoaa, oi?a?ae?
ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie) iiaeii? eaae?o?eoaaoeny ca noaooyie EE, ye?
ia?aaeaa/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oae? cei/eie, ?, ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, aeiaeaoeiai? eaae?o?eaoe?? ca no. 1482 EE ia iio?aaothoue.

?icae?e 3 – “A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a,
cai??a oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a” — ?icii/eia?oueny i?ae?icae?eii
3.1. – “E?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ye aeae th?eaee/ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a”, aea cacia/a?oueny, ui ca oea ii?ooaiiy
iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa anoaiiaeaii oae? aeaee a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?:
o?iainiao, aeenoeeie?ia?io, aaei?i?no?aoeaio oa e?ei?iaeueio.
?icaeyioaoe eiaeiee c cacia/aieo aeae?a a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? i?aeoeeo
?o canoinoaaiiy a Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei, aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo,
ui e?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue iiaeiia canoiniaoaaoeny eeoa o
aeiyoeiaeo aeiaaeeao, eiee ?io? aeaee a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia iiaeooue
aeinyaoe iaiao?aeiiai ?acoeueoaoo.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.2. – “Ca?eueiaiiy a?ae e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca a/eiaiiy cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 1482 EE
Oe?a?ie” i?iiiio?oueny, caaaeath/e ia ne?ooia aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua
aea?aeaae ? caoe?eaaeai?noue noni?euenoaa, a ia?oo /a?ao, a iiaa?iaii?
ianiea/aieo eioo?a aei athaeaeao?a oa aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a,
anoaiiaeoe ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a caioi/oaaeueio ii?io. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iniaa, yea a/eieea
cei/ei, ia?aaeaa/aiee /.1 no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie, aea aei iiiaioo ii?ooaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii? ni?aae, nieaoeea an? iiaeaoee, a oaeiae noie o?iainiaeo
naieoe?e, iiaeiia ca?eueiyoeny a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? c
i?eoyaiaiiyi aei aaei?i?no?aoeaii?.

I?ae?icae?e 3.3. – “Iiea?aiiy ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a
oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a” – ?icii/eia?oueny i?enay/aii aiae?co
i?ecia/aiiy iiea?aiiy ca oeae cei/ei noaeaie Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio ? noaeaie
Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei cie?aia. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeineoue noai??
naieoe??, ia?aaeaa/ai? /.2 oa /.3 no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie, noaeaie oaeoe/ii
ia aeeiiothoueny. Oae, iiea?aiiy ca oeae cei/ei o aeaeyae? iicaaaeaiiy
aie? canoiniao?oueny iaioa i?ae a 10% aeiaaee?a. O ia?aaaaei?e
a?eueoino? ae?ie?a, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, noaee aaci?aenoaaii canoiniaoaaee
no. 44 EE Oe?a?ie, i?eciath/e iiea?aiiy ieae/a ieae/i? iaaee i?e
a?aenooiino? aeiyoeiaeo ianoaaei ni?aae. A aaaaoueio ae?ieao noaee i?e
i?ecia/aii? iiea?aiiy ca /.3 no. 1482 EE, ii?oooth/e aeiiae no. 39 EE,
aac aoaeue-yeiai iaa?oiooaaiiy, ia i?ecia/aee oae? iaia’yceia?
aeiaeaoeia? iiea?aiiy, ye eiio?neaoe?y iaeia oa iicaaaeaiiy i?aaa
caeiaoe iaai? iinaaee /e caeiaoeny iaaiith ae?yeuei?noth.

C iaoith caiia?aaiiy ii?ooaiiyi caeiio i?e i?ecia/aii? iiea?aiiy ca
ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a oa
oaeineiiaeaiiy naieoe?e ca a/eiaiiy oeueiai cei/eio, aaoi? aaaaea? ca
iaiao?aeia iineeeoe eiio?ieue Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie oa Aaia?aeueii?
I?ieo?aoo?e Oe?a?ie ca aeiaea?aeaiiyi noaeaie caeiiiaeaanoaa i?e
i?ecia/aii? iiea?aiiy ca oeae cei/ei.

Ia ??ai? iinoaiiaee i?iaeaie aaoi? aiineoue i?iiiceoe?th i?i
iiaeeea?noue cai?ie iicaaaeaiiy aie?, i?ecia/aiiai ca oeae cei/ei,
oo?aoii c ?ic?aooieo 1000 iaiiiaeaoeiaaieo i?i?ioi?a aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi
ca iaeei ??e iicaaaeaiiy aie?.

O aeniiaeao aaoi? i?aenoiiao? aeeiiaio ?iaioo ? i?iiiio?:

1. Noaooth 1482 EE Oe?a?ie aeeeanoe a oae?e ?aaeaeoe??:

“Noaooy 1482. Ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a a athaeaeao oa
aea?aeaai? oe?eueia? oiiaee

Oienia ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a a athaeaeao aai
aea?aeaai? oe?eueia? oiiaee, a/eiaia caniiaieeii (aeanieeii), ea??aieeii
aai aieiaiei aooaaeoa?ii i?aei?e?inoaa, onoaiiae, /e i?aai?caoe??, a
oaeiae ?o canooiieeaie, /e a?iiaaeyieiii-i?aei?e?ioeai, yeui oea
caaaeaei iaoa??aeueii? oeiaee aea?aeaa? a cia/ieo ?ici??ao, —

ea?a?oueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie aei o?ueio ?ie?a, aai oo?aoii o
?ici??? aei oeny/? iaiiiaeaoeiaaieo i?i?ioi?a aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi c
iicaaaeaiiyi i?aaa caeiaoe iaai? iinaaee aai caeiaoeny iaaiith
ae?yeuei?noth no?ieii aei o?ueio ?ie?a, c eiio?neaoe??th iaeia /e aac
eiio?neaoe??.

O? ae ae??, a/eiai? ca iiia?aaei?i caiai?ii a?oiith in?a, aai yeui aiie
caaaeaee iaoa??aeueii? oeiaee aea?aeaa? a aaeeeeo ?ici??ao,-

ea?athoueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie aei i’yoe ?ie?a c iicaaaeaiiyi
i?aaa caeiaoe iaai? iinaaee aai caeiaoeny iaaiith ae?yeuei?noth no?ieii
aei i’yoe ?ie?a, c eiio?neaoe??th iaeia.

Ae?yiiy, ia?aaeaa/ai? /anoeiaie 1 oa 2 oe??? noaoo?, a/eiai? iniaith,
?ai?oa noaeeiith ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, aai i?aai?ciaaiith a?oiith, aai yeui aiie
caaaeaee iaoa??aeueii? oeiaee aea?aeaa? a iniaeeai aaeeeeo ?ici??ao,-

ea?athoueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie a?ae i’yoe aei aeanyoe ?ie?a c
iicaaaeaiiyi i?aaa caeiaoe iaai? iinaaee aai caeiaoeny iaaiith
ae?yeuei?noth no?ieii aei i’yoe ?ie?a, c eiio?neaoe??th iaeia.

Ae?yiiy, ia?aaeaa/ai? /anoeiaie 1, 2 aai 3 oe??? noaoo?, a/eiai? ?ioeie
iinaaeiaeie iniaaie, aai iaiinaaeiaeie iniaaie, ye? iaae?eai?
iiaiiaaaeaiiyie ii aaaeaiith iae?eo oa ca?oiino?,-

ea?athoueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie aei o?ueio ?ie?a, aai aei?aaieie
?iaioaie ia no?ie aei aeaio ?ie?a, aai oo?aoii o ?ici??? aei
/ioe?ueionio iaiiiaeaoeiaaieo i?i?ioi?a aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi c
iicaaaeaiiyi i?aaa caeiaoe iaai? iinaaee aai caeiaoeny iaaiith
ae?yeuei?noth no?ieii aei o?ueio ?ie?a, c eiio?neaoe??th iaeia /e aac
eiio?neaoe??.

Ca?eueiy?oueny a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? c i?eoyaiaiiyi aei
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? iniaa, yea a/eieea cei/ei, ia?aaeaa/aiee /.1 /e 4 no.
1482 EE, aea aei iiiaioo ii?ooaiiy e?ei?iaeueii? ni?aae, nieaoeea an?
iiaeaoee, a oaeiae noie o?iainiaeo naieoe?e.

I?ei?oea. I?ae caaaeaiiyi iaoa??aeueii? oeiaee aea?aeaa? a cia/iiio
?ici??? ne?ae ?icoi?oe iaiaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei athaeaeaoo /e aea?aeaaieo
oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a aai iiaa?iaiiy c ieo eioo?a a noi?, yea a noi ?
a?eueoa ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? iaiiiaeaoeiaaiee i?i?ioi aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi,
aea noaiiaeoue ia iaioa, i?ae 10% iaeaaeieo aei nieaoe aiane?a, o
aaeeeiio ?ici??? – a noi?, yea a 250 ? a?eueoa ?ac?a ia?aaeuo?
iaiiiaeaoeiaaiee i?i?ioi aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi, aea noaiiaeoue ia iaioa,
i?ae 15% iaeaaeieo aei nieaoe aiane?a, a iniaeeai aaeeeiio ?ici??? – a
noi?, yea a 1000 ? a?eueoa ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? iaiiiaeaoeiaaiee i?i?ioi
aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi, aea noaiiaeoue ia iaioa, i?ae 30% iaeaaeieo aei
nieaoe aiane?a.”

2. Aeiiiaieoe EE Oe?a?ie noaooath 1489 oaeiai ci?noo:

“Noaooy 1489. Noai?aiiy (i?eaeaaiiy) o?eoeaiiai noa’?eoo
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?

Noai?aiiy (i?eaeaaiiy) o?eoeaiiai noa’?eoa i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? c iaoith ooeeaiiy a?ae nieao iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a aei
athaeaeaoo aai aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a, —

ea?a?oueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie a?ae 5 aei 8 ?ie?a.

I?ae?iaea aeieoiaio?a i?i aea?aeaaio ?a?no?aoe?th noa’?eoa
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, aai aeei?enoaiiy i?ae?iaeaiiai
aeieoiaioo c iaoith noai?aiiy (i?eaeaaiiy) noa’?eoa i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, —

ea?a?oueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie a?ae 3 aei 5 ?ie?a.”

3. Aeiiiaieoe EE Oe?a?ie noaooath 14810 oaeiai ci?noo:

“Noaooy 148-10. Ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a a athaeaeao
aai aea?aeaai? oe?eueia? oiiaee a?iiaaeyi, ye? ia ? i?aei?e?ioeyie

Ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a a athaeaeao aai aea?aeaai?
oe?eueia? oiiaee c o?ce/ieo in?a a?iiaaeyieiii, yeee ia ? i?aei?e?ioeai,
yeui oea caaaeaei iaoa??aeueii? oeiaee aea?aeaa? ia noio, yea ia?aaeuo?
1000 iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaieo i?i?ioi?a aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi, a/eiaia i?ioyaii
?ieo i?ney i?eoyaiaiiy aei aaei?i?no?aoeaii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a a athaeaeao aai aea?aeaai?
oe?eueia? oiiaee,-

ea?a?oueny aei?aaieie ?iaioaie ia no?ie aei aeaio ?ie?a, aai oo?aoii o
?ici??? aei /ioe?ueionio iaiiiaeaoeiaaieo i?i?ioi?a aeioiae?a
a?iiaaeyi.”

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aa?ania A.I. Ioooi?iue aecian eae eaaaeueiue iooue e ieieiecaoeee
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey // Aanu oaieaeu. — 1998. — ? 3.

2. Aa?ania A.I. ?iaeiaie e iaiin?aaenoaaiiue iauaeou oeeiiaiey io oieaou
iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae ainoaea?noao // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia IAeTHA Ieiia?aciaaiey
Oe?aeiu. Aui. 5. — Iaeanna. — 1998.

3. Aaa?ee-Oaoiaoia E.A., Aa?ania A.I. Oaiaaay yeiiiieea a Oe?aeia a
Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeea E?ui, iooe e iaoiaeu oeeiiaiey io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
e ia?u ii aa i?aiaeieaieth // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa.
Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia IAeTHA Ieiia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu. Aui. 5. —
Iaeanna. — 1998.

4. Aa?ania A.I. Iaoiaeii i?ia e ioeaie (iaeiaiaay nenoaia e iiaue OE
Oe?aeiu) // Aanu oaieaeu. — 1998. — ? 4.

5. Aa?ania A.I. Naaa?i-e?uineay naiaiaeiay yenia?eiaioaeueiay ciia
“Neaao”, aa ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee iiaie iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa//
Aanoiee oieaa?neoaoa aioo?aiieo aeae. – O. — ? 7.

AIIOAOe??

Aa?ania A.I. E?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a (ia iaoa??aeao
Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.08 — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai oa e?ei?iieia?y;
e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai. — Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa, Oe?a?ia,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii oai?aoe/iei ? i?eeeaaeiei i?iaeaiai i?ioeae??
ooeeaiith a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a.
I?iaiae?ciaaii noni?eueio iaaacia/i?noue oeueiai cei/eio, aecia/aii eiai
i?noea a nenoai? Iniaeeai? /anoeie EE Oe?a?ie. C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui
ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a a
Oe?a?ie ? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee, iiaeaeueoa ?icoe?aiiy
yei? caa?iaeo? acaaae? ?nioaaiith aea?aeaae. Aeiaaaeaii, ui i?ioeae?y
oeueiio oe?ieiianooaaiiio iaaaoeaiiio nioe?aeueiiio yaeuo iiaea aooe
oni?oiith eeoa i?e iaeii/aniiio oaeineiiaeaiith iiaeaoeiaiai ?
e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, cai?iiiiiaaii eiiieaen caoiae?a
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?ioeae?th
iiaeaoeiaei i?aaiii?ooaiiyi. Eiinoaoiaaii, ui a EE ii?ie, ye?
ia?aaeaa/athoue iinyaaiiy ia o?iainia? ?ioa?ane aea?aeaae, ia
neeaaeathoue ?aeeii? nenoaie. I?aeo?eiaia i?iiiceoe?y uiaei aeae?eaiiy a
Iniaeea?e /anoei? EE naiino?eii? aeaa? “Cei/eie i?ioe o?iainiaeo
?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae”. I?iiiio?oueny anoaiiaeoe e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca noai?aiiy (i?eaeaaiiy) o?eoeaiiai noa’?eoo
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? c iaoith ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a aei athaeaeaoo oa aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a, a
oaeiae a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca i?ae?iaeo aeieoiaio?a i?i aea?aeaaio
?a?no?aoe?th noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aai aeei?enoaiiy
i?ae?iaeaiiai aeieoiaioo c iaoith noai?aiiy (i?eaeaaiiy) noa’?eoo
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Cae?eniaii aiae?c neeaaeo cei/eio, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a.
?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy no. 1482 EE Oe?a?ie.
Cai?iiiiiaaii anoaiiaeoe ie?aii e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aeey:
1) caniiaiee?a (aeaniee?a) noa’?eoa i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?;
2) ea??aiee?a, aieiaieo aooaaeoa??a i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e
oa ?o canooiiee?a, a oaeiae a?iiaaeyi-i?aei?e?ioe?a; 3) ?ioeo iinaaeiaeo
in?a, a oaeiae iaiinaaeiaeo in?a, ye? iaae?eai? iiaiiaaaeaiiyie ii
aaaeaiith iae?eo oa ca?oiino?; 4) a?iiaaeyi, ye? ia ? i?aei?e?ioeyie,
ia?aaeaa/eaoe a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo aaei?i?no?aoeaio i?athaeeoe?th.
A?aoiaioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue i?eaaaeaiiy aeeniiceoe?? no. 1482 EE o
a?aeiia?aei?noue c iiaeaoeiaei caeiiiaeaanoaii, a ca’yceo c /ei
i?iiiio?oueny cai?ieoe neiaa “ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa
?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a” neiaaie “ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iaia’yceiaeo
aiane?a aei athaeaeaoo oa aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a”.
Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy noni?eueii-iaaacia/ieo
iane?aee?a ye caaaeaiiy iaoa??aeueii? oeiaee aea?aeaa?, eio?a iiaea aooe
cae?eniaii oeyoii aai ianieaoe iaia’yceiaeo aiane?a aei athaeaeaoo /e
aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a, aai i?ioei?aaiiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy c
athaeaeaoo ?ai?oa aianaieo noi iiaeaoeo.

?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen caoiae?a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
canoinoaaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai iiea?aiiy aei in?a, aeiieo o a/eiaii?
oeueiai cei/eio, a oaeiae caioi/oaaeueii? ii?ie ii a?aeiioaiith aei
in?a, ye? aeia?ia?eueii i?ney a/eiaiiy cei/eio nieaoeee an? iiaeaoee oa
noie o?iainiaeo naieoe?e ca ieie. Noi?ioeueiaaii e iaa?oioiaaii
i?iiiceoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith o oe?e /anoei? e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa e i?aeoeee eiai canoinoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaia’yceia? aianee a athaeaeao oa aea?aeaai? oe?eueia?
oiiaee, iiaeaoee, cai?e, iaia’yceia? ieaoaae?, ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe.

Aa?ania A.I. Oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oeeiiaiea io oieaou iaeiaia,
nai?ia, ae?oaeo iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae (ia iaoa?eaeao Aaoiiiiiie
?anioaeeee E?ui). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.08 – oaieiaiia i?aai e e?eieiieiaey;
oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiia i?aai. – Oieaa?neoao aioo?aiieo aeae, Oa?ueeia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oai?aoe/aneei e i?eeeaaeiui i?iaeaiai
i?ioeaiaeaenoaey oeeiiaieth io oieaou iaeiaia, nai?ia, ae?oaeo
iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae. I?iaiaeece?iaaia iauanoaaiiay iianiinoue yoiai
i?anooieaiey, ii?aaeaeaii aai ianoi a nenoaia Iniaaiiie /anoe OE
Oe?aeiu. I?iecaaaeai aiaeec ninoaaa i?anooieaiey, i?aaeoniao?eaathuaai
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oeeiiaiea io oieaou iaeiaia, nai?ia, ae?oaeo
iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae. ?ac?aaioai eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo
ia iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiaiey oaieiaiiai iaeacaiey e eeoeai,
aeiiaiui a niaa?oaiee yoiai i?anooieaiey, a oaeaea iiiu?eoaeueiie ii?iu
ii ioiioaieth e eeoeai, eioi?ua aeia?iaieueii iinea niaa?oaiey
i?anooieaiey oieaoeee ana iaeiae ia/eneaiey ii iei. Noi?ioee?iaaiu e
iainiiaaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth a yoie /anoe oaieiaiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e i?aeoeee aai i?eiaiaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaycaoaeueiua aciinu a athaeaeao e ainoaea?noaaiiua
oeaeaaua oiiaeu, iaeiae, nai?u, iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee, oeeiiaiea io
oieaou.

Veresov V.M. Criminal responsibility for the evading of the taxes,
duties and other obligatory payments (by materials of the Crimea
autonomic republic).- Manuscript.

Dissertation for the academic degree of Candidate of Legal Studies with
specialization in 12.00.08 – Criminal Law and Criminology; Penal Law.
University of the internal Affairs, Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the theoretical and applied problems of
opposing evading of the taxes, duties and other obligatory payments.
This crime’s social dangerous had analyzed and was defines the one’s
place in the Criminal Code structure. Had done the analyze of the
legally define of crime which provide criminal responsibility for the
evading of the taxes, duties and other obligatory payments. A complex of
measures of criminal and legal character and encourage norms to persons
that voluntary had paid taxes after they had committed the crime has
been elaborated in order to raise the effectiveness of using punishment
to persons that are guilty in this crime. Proposals towards amending
this part the existing legislation and the legal practice.

Key words: obligatory payments to state budget and state founds, taxes,
duties, evading of the taxes, duties and other obligatory payments.

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