14

?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE AII OE?A?IE

Oiaeaiaoeue

Aaiia Aanee?aia

OAeE:371.93

EI?AEOe?ss A?AeOEEAIUe O IIAAAe?IOe? AAAEEIAEOIAOAAIEO O*I?A IIEIAeOIAI
OE?EUeIIAI A?EO CANIAAIE I?IOAN?EII-IAAeAAIA?*IIAI NI?EEOAAIIss

13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oaeai?iaenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Eicoaianueea ??eia Aanee?aia,

Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

a.i.i?ioani?a eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee

? ineoieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

I?aeaoianueea
Aaeaioeia Ieoaee?aia, Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee oeaio? i?aaaioeaiiai

aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iiaeaiee Iaeioy Aanee?aia,

Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo

?ioi?iaoeee,aeiiii?ee ? i?aaa,

aeioeaio

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: — Oa?iii?euenueeee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” ethoiai 1999 ?. i
_14_aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.452.01 a
?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie (252053, i.Ee?a, aoe.A?oaia, 52a).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII (252053, i.Ee?a, aoe.A?oaia, 52a).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 25 ” n?/iy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
i?io.I.I.Eaaeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i?
niinoa??aa?oueny /?oea oaiaeaioe?y aei c?inoaiiy cei/eiiino?, i?iya?a
aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee, a oiio /ene? ? na?aae iaiiaiie?oi?o.

Aeeiai?ci nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a, e?eciaa neooaoe?y, yea
aeieeea nueiaiaei? o aaaaoueio noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy ? i?iaeiaaeo?
iiaeeaethaaoenue, iaieio/a aaaeooue aei ca?eueoaiiy aeaa?aoe?e (a?ae
eaoeinueeiai “deviatio” — a?aeoeeaiiy).

Iniaeeai iaaacia/ieie ? a?aeoeeaiiy o iiaaae?ioe? na?aae iaiiaiie?oi?o,
ine?eueee aiie iiaeooue iaaaoeaii aieeiooe ia aanue iiaeaeueoee i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?, ni?eyoe a/eiaiith i?aaiii?ooaiue ? cei/ei?a.

Nenoaia iiea?aiue, yea ?nio? nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i?, aacia?a/ii, aeiaaa?
nooo?aiai aaeineiiaeaiiy. I?ioa, aaaaea?ii, ia iiea?aiiy ca a/eiaiee
i?inooiie, i?aaiii?ooaiiy, cei/ei, a ?o nai?/ania iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiaeiii
noaoe i??i?eoaoiei iai?yieii ?iaioe c iieiaeaeth, ui a?aeiia?aea?
i?eioeeiai aeaiie?aoecaoe??, aoiai?caoe??, aoiai?oa?ecaoe?? ina?oe ?
aeoiaaiiy.

Ieoaiiyi iiia?aaeaeaiiy a?aeoeeaiue o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino? oa ??
iiaaae?ioe? ca?ac iaaea?oueny aaeeea cia/aiiy. O?yaeii i?eeiyoi ?yae
iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaeo iinoaiia, oeac?a (oi/, ia aeaeue, ia an? aiie
iaooeeueii aeeiiothoueny). Oe? ieoaiiy ii?ooai? ? a Aea?aeaai?e
iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy”).

Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe i?iaeaie iiia?aaeaeaiiy ? ei?aeoe?? a?aeoeeaiue o
oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino? iaiiaiie?oi?o inoaii? aeanyoe??//y aeineoue
aeoeaii aeine?aeoaaeeny a?o/eciyieie oa ca?oa?aeieie a/aieie:
I.I.Aeaiane?iei, A.O.Aa?aei, I.?.Aoyiiaei, O.Aethe, A.?.Ae?ai?uaaith,
C.A.Caeoeaaith, E.I.Ctha?iei, ?.A.Eicoaianueeith, I.A.Einoeoeueeei, A.I.
Eoae?yaoeaaei, Ae.Eaaiai, I.TH.Iaeneiiaith, A.I.I?iueeianueeei,
?.I.Iaanueeei, A.I.I?aeaoianueeith, ?.?.I?oooiaei, A.?.Naeaoeueeei,
A.I.Neiueiaei, N.A.Oa?a?oo?iei, A.I.Oaoaiei, I.I.Oociaei, I.I.O?oeoeith,
A.Oo? oa ?i.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iaai? aeinyaiaiiy o aea/aii? aeaii? i?iaeaie, i?aeoeea
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui nueiaiaei? iaiao?aeii aeoea?coaaoe iiooe iiaeo
aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a ? cania?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe?
na?aae ae?oae ? iieiae?.

Aaaaea?ii, ui cia/i? ?aca?ae a oeueiio ieai? iiaeooue aooe aeyaeai? a
iniaeeainoyo i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeano i?ioan?eiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie ae?oueie iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.

Ie aeoiaeeii c oiai, ui iaeiei ?c i?ia?aeieo i?eioeei?a a?o/eciyii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ? i?eioeei aeii?ioth/i? ?ie? ae?yeueiino?
o ?icaeoeo ineo?ee: ineo?ea oi?io?oueny a ae?yeueiino?. Ni?eeoaaiiy ?
iniaeeaei aeaeii ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?. Ioaea, oi?ioaaiiy ineo?ee
aeeoeie, a oiio /ene? ? aeieeiaiiy a?aeoeeaiue o ineo?/iiio ?icaeoeia?,
a?aeaoaa?oueny a i?ioean? ni?eeoaaiiy (aiioe?eia ni?eeoaaiiy c aaoueeaie
— aeii?ioth/ee aeae ae?yeueiino? aeeoeie ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?? ?icaeoeo,
aea ni?eeoaaiiy ia ao?a/a? aaaeeeaino? ? a iiaeaeueoiio oi?ioaaii?
iniaenoino?).

Ine?eueee ni?eeoaaiiy ? aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?,
i/aaeaeii, ei?aeoe?y a?aeoeeaiue o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino? aeeoeie, ??
iiaaae?ioe? iiaeeeaa a i?ioean? a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii i?aai?ciaaiiai
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy. Aaaaea?ii, ui ei?aeoeiy
aiaeoeeaiue caniaaie i?ioanieiiai iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy iiaea aooe
oniioii caaacia/aia naia a iieiaeoiio oeieueiiio aioei, oiio ui,
ii-ia?oa a oeueiio aioei aiaeoeeaiiy o oi?ioaaiii iniaenoinoi ia ? ua
aeoaea aeeaieeie i noieeeie, ii-ae?oaa, aeey iieiaeoiai oeiey?a a/eoaeue
— iaeaieueoee aaoi?eoao, eiai neiai iiaea iaoe aaeeeee aieea ia
aeoiaaioey.

Neiae aiaecia/eoe, ui i?iaeaio iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy ?icaeyaeaee a
caaaeueieo ?enao oaei a/aii, ye I.I.Aiaeaeueia, A.I.Aieei, A.N.A?aoiueia
I.A.Cycthi, A.I.Eai-Eaeee, A.E.Eainueea, I.I.Eaiioue?a, A.I.Naaa/,
I.I.Oa?anaae/, I.A.*aiae?aa oa ii.

I?ioa iniaeeainoi i?aaiicaoei? iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy c
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie aeioueie c iaoith ei?aeoei? aiaeoeeaiue a ?o
iiaaaeiioei niaoeiaeueii ia aeineiaeaeoaaeenue.

A?aoiaoth/e aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaie oa ?? iaaeinoaoi? aea/aiiy, oaiith
aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ia?aii: «Ei?aeoeiy aiaeoeeaiue o
iiaaaeiioei aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo o/i?a iieiaeoiai oeieueiiai aieo caniaaie
i?ioanieii-iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy». Aiia ? neeaaeiaith
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? OaeAeO
“A?iiaaeyinueea aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? ? nooaeaionueei? iieiae?”.

Ia’?eo aeineiaeaeaiiy: aeaa?aioia iiaaae?iea aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo o/i?a
iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.

I?aaeiao aeineiaeaeaiiy: ciino, oi?ie, iaoiaee i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeano
iaaeaaia?/iiai niieeoaaiiy c iaoith ei?aeoei? aiaeoeeaiue o iiaaaeiioei
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.

Iaoa aeineiaeaeaiiy: aecia/eoe iniiaii oiiae i oaeoi?e iioeiicaoei?
i?ioeano i?ioanieii-iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy aeey caaacia/aiiy
aoaeoeaii? ei?aeoei? aiaeoeeaiue o iiaaaeiioei aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo
iieiaeoeo oeiey?ia.

Aiiioaca aeineiaeaeaiiy: Ei?aeoeiy aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoi iieiaeoeo
oeiey?ia iiaea aooe caaacia/aia a i?ioeani i?ioanieii-iaaeaaiai/iiai
niieeoaaiiy ca oiiae ?aaeicaoei? niaoeiaeueii? no?aoaai?, oaeoeee i
oaoiiee niieeoaaiiy, iioeiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
ei?aeoe?eii-?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae ni?eeoaaiiy.

Aiaeiiaiaeii aei i?aaeiaoa, iaoe, aiiioace aecia/aii iniiaii caaaeaiiy
aeineiaeaeaiiy:

1. I?iaiaeicoaaoe aeoiee i?iaeaie aiaeoeeaiue o iiaaaeiioei
iaiiaiieioiio oa noai ?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiinoi ia nueiaiaeiioiie
aeaiue.

2. ?ice?eoe ciino iiiyoue «ii?ia» i «aiaeoeeaiiy» o oi?ioaaii?
iniaenoino? oa ?? iiaaae?ioe?, iaa?oiooaaoe o aiaeiiaiaeiinoi c oeei
oai?aoe/ii iiaeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy nooi «aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoi» aeioae,
i?e/ei ?? aeieeiaiiy.

3.Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe nioeiaeueio i ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/io nooiinoue
niieeoaaiiy ye oaeoi?o oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi.

4.Aeineiaeeoe ei?aeoeieii-?aaaieioaoeiei? iiaeeeainoi i?ioanieiiai
iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy, iniaeeainoi iaaeaaiai/ii? no?aoaai?, oaeoeee
i oaoiiee niieeoaaiiy c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie ae?oueie, aeyaeoe iaea?eueo
aoaeoeai? caniae ni?eeoaaiiy.

5. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iaoaaoe
i?aaiicaoeieii-iaoiaee/ii oiiae iioeiicaoei? i?ioeano iaaeaaiai/iiai
niieeoaaiiy ye caniao ei?aeoei? o iiaaaeiioei aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo
iieiaeoeo oeiey?ia.

Iaoiaeieiai/iith iniiaith aeineiaeaeaiiy ? iieiaeaiiy oieinioi?,
iaaeaaia?ee, ineoieiai? i?i nooiinoue iniaenoinoi, aeaoa?iiiiaaiinoue ??
iiaaaeiiee ciaiioiiie i aioo?ioiiie oaeoi?aie, i?iaiaeio ?ieue
aeiyeueiinoi o oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi, i?i niieeoaaiiy ye iniaeeaee aeae
aeiyeueiinoi.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeineiaeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iieiaeaiiy:

— i?i oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi a i?ioeani aeiyeueiinoi (E.N.Aeaionueeee,
A.A.Aiaiue?a, I.I.Eaiioue?a oa ii.);

— i?i niieeoaaiiy ye iniaeeaee aeae aeiyeueiinoi (I.I.Aiaeaeueia,
A.I.I’yneuaa oa ii.);

— i?i i?e?iaeo aiaeoeeaiue o oi?ioaaiii iniaenoinoi (I.I.Aeiinueeee,
A.I.Oi?ooiaoia oa ii.);

— i?i caaaeueii caeiiiii?iinoi i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy i ia?aaeoiaaiiy
(Aeaiie?io, Ieaoii, ss.Eiiainueeee, A.N.Iaea?aiei, A.I.Nooiieeinueeee,
I.A.Ee?e/oe, I.A.Ie/eaei, I.A.Cycthi oa ii.).

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue, ia?aai?ee aiiioace
aeei?enoiaoaaany eiiieaen iaoiaeia aeineiaeaeaiiy: oai?aoe/ieo (aiaeic,
neioac, aano?aaoaaiiy, nenoaiaoecaoeiy, ii?iaiyiiy, eeaneoieaoeiy,
ocaaaeueiaiiy); aiii?e/ieo (niinoa?aaeaiiy, aaniaea, iioa?a’th,
nioeiiiao?iy, aiaeic i?iaeoeoia aeiyeueiinoi, aiia?aoi/iee, aea/aiiy
aeieoiaioaoei?). Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaeaaeeoue iaaeaaia?/iiio aenia?eiaioo.

Iniiaii aoaie aeineiaeaeaiiy. Nenoaiia aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
i?iaiaeeeinue ia i?ioyci /ioe?ueio ?ieia, i?ioa a i?ioeani
aeineiaeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oaeiae ie?aii aeaii iiia?aaeiueiai
aeinaiaeo i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe aaoi?a a/eoaeai a oeiei i iaoiaeenoii a
iaae.o/eeeui.

Ia ia?oiio aoaii aeineiaeaeaiiy (1994-1995 ??.) aea/aany noai ?ic?iaee
aeaii? i?iaeaie a ?? oai?aoe/iiio i i?eeeaaeiiio aniaeoao; aecia/aeeny
aeoiaeii iiceoei? aeineiaeaeaiiy: iaoa, caaaeaiiy, aiiioace; i?iaiaeeany
eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio.

Ia ae?oaiio aoaii aeineiaeaeaiiy (1995-1997 ??.) — i?iaiaeeany
oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio a i?ioeani yeiai aoee aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aai?aii i?aaiicaoeieii-iaoiaee/ii oiiae i oaeoi?e iioeiicaoei?
i?ioeano iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy c iaoith ei?aeoei? aiaeoeeaiue o
iiaaaeiioei aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo aeioae iieiaeoiai oeieueiiai aieo.

Ia o?aoueiio aoaii aeineiaeaeaiiy (1997-1998 ??.) — ocaaaeueithaaeeny
?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy, ie?aii iieiaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiai ia?aai?yeeny.

Anueiai aeine?aeaeaiiyi (ia ??cieo eiai aoaiao) aoei ioiieaii iiiaae 500
o/i?a (oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio – 30 o/i?a) a oeieao i.Oaeai?iaea,
i.Ioea/aaa, Ioea/?anueeiai, ??oaanueeiai, A.Aa?aciyinueeiai ?-i?a
Caea?iaonueei? iaeano?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? o aeyaeaiii ?aaaieioaoeieii-ei?aeoeieieo
iiaeeeainoae i?ioanieii-iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy, ?ic?iaoei no?aoaai?,
oaeoeee i oaoiiee iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie
aeioueie c iaoith ei?aeoei? aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoi iieiaeoeo oeiey?ia.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeiai
oai?i? i?ioanieii-iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy, cie?aia, a oai?aoe/iiio
iaa?oiooaaiii nioeiaeueii? i ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii? nooiinoi
niieeoaaiiy ye oaeoi?o oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi i caniao ei?aeoei?
aiaeoeeaiue, iaa?oiooaaiii iniaeeainoae no?aoaai?, oaeoeee i oaoiiee
i?ioanieii-iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie aeioueie
iieiaeoiai oeieueiiai aieo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui ia iniiai
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia cai?iiiiiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? uiaei
i?aaiicaoeieii-iaoiaee/ieo oiia iioeiicaoei? i?ioeano iaaeaaiai/iiai
niieeoaaiiy c iaoith ei?aeoei? iiaaaeiiee aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo aeioae
iieiaeoiai oeieueiiai aieo.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o: oai?aoe/iiio
iaa?oiooaaii? iniiaieo ?aeae ? iieiaeaiue aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie;
aaciina?aaeiueiio ea??aieoeoa? aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueiith ?iaioith a
oeieao; aeyaeaii? iniiaieo oiia ? oaeoi??a iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaii?
ei?aeoe?? a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe? aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo o/i?a iieiaeoiai
oe?eueiiai a?eo; aecia/aii? ci?noo, oi?i, iaoiae?a i?aai?caoe??
iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy ye caniao ei?aeoe??; ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c ieoaiue i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy c
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie ae?oueie.

A??ia?aei?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny
iaoiaeieia?/iith ? oai?aoe/iith iaa?oioiaai?noth eiai aeo?aeieo
iiceoe?e, aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoieo iao?,
i?aaeiaoo, caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe, a?aeiia?aei?noth oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue
iniiaiei aeaiei aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoeiy i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy aeiiiaiaeaeeny ia iiaeia?iaeieo,
anaoe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioeiyo, naiiia?ao (Ee?a, Oa?nii, ?iaia, Oaeai?iae
oa ii.), iioaeieiaaii a 14 i?aoeyo.

Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy c ieoaiue iioeiicaoei?
i?ioanieii-iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii a oeieao i.Ioea/aaa,
Ioea/ianueeiai oa I?oaanueeiai ?aeiiia.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui aeeth/a? 141 iaeiaioaaiiy.
?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 180 noi??ieao (171 no. iniiaia /anoeia) ? i?noeoue
4 oaaeeoe?, 5 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaothoueny aeooaeuei?noue ? nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino?
i?iaeaie, aecia/athoueny ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa, caaaeaiiy, iaoiaeieia?y
? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeth?oueny a?iioaca, ?ice?eaathoueny eiai
iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue.
Aecia/aii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a?aeia?aaeaii
a?aeiiino? uiaei ai?iaaoe?? ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
iniaenoiai aianeo caeiaoaa/a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? -“I?iaeaia a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe? iaiiaiie?oi?o a
?noi??? ?icaeoeo na?oiai? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee”- aeine?aeaeoaaia
i?iaeaia ?icaeyaea?oueny a ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo?.

I?iaiae?ciaai? o?einionuee? aeoiee i?iaeaie a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe? oa
?o ei?aeoe??. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeaeaoi? o?einioe aioe/iino?
aeneiaethaaee /eiaei oe?iieo iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae. Oe?eaaeie, cie?aia, ?
?o ?icaeoie i?i oa, ui iiaeia “ia?aoi?ioaaoe ethaeeio, aeaoe ?e ae?oao
i?e?iaeo” (Aeaiie??o), ui a?aeoeeaiiy o iiaaae?ioe? aeeoeie ne?ae
aei?aaeyoe yeiiiaa ?ai?oa, ye “iieiaea aea?aaoea, ui ii/eia?
aee?eaeyoeny” (Ieaoii) oa ?i.

A aiioo oaiaeae?cio neooi? aeoiee noiniaii aeoiaaiiy ae?oae aoee
aeneiaeai? O.?aaea, O.Ii?ii, I.Iiioaiai oa ?i., ye? ia ao?aoeee nai??
aeooaeueiino? ? iei?.

Iaeiei c iaeaeaeaoiioeo iaaeaaiaia aiioe ?iciaaeo oaiaeaeicio i
ca?iaeaeaiiy aeiiiiiiieinoe/iiai eaiioaeicio aoa ss.A.Eiiainueeee, yeee
cia/io oaaao i?eaeieya ? i?iaeaii aiaeoeeaiue o iiaaaeiioei, aeoiaaiith
aeioae c aaaeaie iiaaaeiiee. A?i c?iaea ni?iao aeaoe eeaneoieaoeith
aeioae, iaa/aiiy i aeoiaaiiy yeeo iia’ycaia c iaaieie o?oaeiiuaie.
Eiiainueeee aeiioneaa, ui ? aeioe aaciaaeieii o aeoiaiiio aiaeiioaiii ?
ii?iaithaaa ?o c nooei, aee?eaeaiei aea?aaii, yea o?aaa aeeeiooe. Aea
oaeeo aeioae-ae?iaeeia — iaeeieoei, aaaaeaa Eiiainueeee.

Aeoaea aaaeeeaith ? aeoiea Eiiainueeiai i?i oa, ui iiaaieie /e aeia?eie
aeioe ia ia?iaeaeothoueny, aiie noathoue oaeeie a ?acoeueoaoi aeoiaaiiy,
yea iiaea aooe i?aaeeueiei aai iai?aaeeueiei.

O i?ioeani aeoiaaiiy iaiaoiaeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iae?iciiiaiioiioi
iaoiaee, na?aae yeeo Eiiainueeee aeaeieya «eaneaaa neiai», ai?aaeyiiy o
oi?ioeo a/eieao, iioaaeo, iiea?aiiy. Aii aenooiaa i?ioe oieanieo
iiea?aiue, aea a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao aeiioneaa ?o canoinoaaiiy.

Iaa/aiiy i aeoiaaiiy iiaeiii, ia aeoieo Eiiainueeiai, iaia’yceiai
i?iaiaeeoenue ia ?iaeiie iiai, ui ni?eyoeia aieueoie aoaeoeaiinoi
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano.

Ni?acao/ieie oai? iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ie?ai? aeoiee, aeneiaeai?
oaeeie a/aieie, ye Aeae.Eiee, AE.?onni, E.Aaeueaaoe?e, ?.Ianoaeioeoe?,
?.Aa?aa?o, O.Ae?noa?aaa, iacaaaeath/e ia aeaye? iaa?oioiaai? ieie
iieiaeaiiy, c yeeie ia iiaeia iiaiaeeoeny (iai?eeeaae, ?ic?iaeaia
Aa?aa?oii nenoaia iiea?aiue).

XIX — XX no. oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/iei ?inoii cei/eiiinoi a caoiaeieo
e?a?iao, oiio i?iaeaia aiaeoeeaiue o iiaaaeiioei, iniaeeai oeo, yei
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaii c i?ioei?aaieie a/eieaie, i?eaa?oa? oaaao
aaaaoueio a/aieo: iaaeaaiaia, ineoieiaia, iaaeeeia, th?enoia.

Aaeeea cia/aiiy iaaea?oueny aeineiaeaeaiith ieoaiiy niiaaiaeiioaiiy
aiieiai/iiai i nioeiaeueiiai a naiiio iiaeeaiaei oa eiai iiaaaeiioei
(A.Ii?aeue, A.E?a/ia?, *.Eiia?ici, A.O’thoii, *.Oaeaeii, C.O?aeae,
Ae.Eaaiai, A.Oo?, I.Aano oa ?i.).

Aeineoue iiioey?iith ? oai?iy «iaoieiai? ?aiiueiai aeeoeinoaa»,
iaa?oioiaaia Aeae.Aioeai. Iniiaii ?? iieiaeaiiy caiaeyoueny aei oiai, ui
aeeoeia, yea ia io?eiaea a ?aiiueiio aioei aeinoaoiuei aaoueeianueeiai
oaiea, eanee, iiaeiinoi, oo?aioe — a iaeaooiueiio iaia’yceiai aoaea
aiaecia/aoeny oeie /e iioeie aiaeoeeaiiyie, ia aeeeth/aia iiaeeeainoue
nei?iiy i?aaiii?ooaiue, cei/eiia.

Iiaeiaii iaea? aeneiaeth? i ineoiao? ?.Eiiaoe, yeee aeyaea o aaaaoueio
aeioae, iieeiooeo aaoueeaie, /anoi iaa?ice, aii?aenith, ?iceaaee nio,
ii/ii, a iiiaei e aeaiii no?aoe. Na?aae oeeo aeioae aaaaoi oaeeo, yeeo
aii iaceaa? «iioi?ii ?icaaeueiiaaieie», ianeooiyieie, iaaeo?eiaieie,
iioi — iaaiaee, caiaaeoi caaaeueiiaaii, aiaoe/ii, aiyaoceeai,
iaaiaaiaii. O ieo — cia/ii ieae/ee ?iaaiue iioaeaeooaeueiiai ?icaeoeo,
iiae o aeioae oeueiai ae aieo, yei aeoiaothoueny aaeiia aaoueeaie.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy inoaiiio aeanyoe?i/ ia Caoiaei noinothoueny
iae-?iciiiaiioiioeo aniaeoia i?iaeaie aiaeoeeaiue o iiaaaeiioei
iaiiaiieioiio. Oea — ieoaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii? ?aaaieioaoei?
aeioae c aiaeoeeaiiyie o iiaaaeiioei, ia?eiiaii?, aiaeoeeaiiy a
iioaeaeooaeueiiio, oice/iiio, naenoaeueiiio ?icaeoeo, aea/aiiy oiia
aeoiaaiiy aeioae a nii’? oa iaaeaiiy ineoioa?aiaaoe/ii? aeiiiiiae nii’?;
?iei oeieueii? ineoieiai/ii? neoaeae o iiia?aaeaeaiii aiaeoeeaiue o
iiaaaeiioei iaiiaiieioiio, a oaeiae nioeiaeueii? neoaeae, yea ieii
ia?aaoaa? ia aeineoue aenieiio ?iaii ?icaeoeo o aieueoinoi caoiaeieo
e?a?i. Iioaineaii aeineiaeaeothoueny oaeiae ieoaiiy iiia?aaeaeaiiy
cei/eiiinoi na?aae iaiiaiieioiio c aiaeoeeaiiyie o iiaaaeiioei.

I?iaeaia a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe? iaiiaiie?oi?o aeine?aeaeoaaeanue ?
a/aieie ?in?? oa Oe?a?ie ? /eiaei oe?eaaeo noaeaeaiue c oeueiai i?eaiaeo
iiaeia ciaeoe aaea a noa?iaeiieo aoiia?ao?/ieo aeieoiaioao /an?a
Ee?anueei? ?on?.

C XVIII no. i?iaeaia aiaeoeeaiue o iiaaaeiioei aeioae ii/eia? aeeaiei
aeineiaeaeoaaoenue aaaaoueia a/aieie. Oea, cie?aia, I.I.Aaoeueeie,
I.I.Iiaieia, I.I.?aaeiuaa, A.O.Iaei?anueeee. Ia iaoo aeoieo, na?aae anio
aiaeiieo a/aieo aei?aaiethoeieiiai ia?iiaeo naia A.O.Iaei?anueeee
caa?ioa iaeaieueoo oaaao ia i?aaiicaoeith i?aaeeueiiai iaaeaaiai/iiai
niieeoaaiiy c aeioueie c iaoith caiiaiaaiiy aiaeoeeaiiyi o oi?ioaaiii
iniaenoinoi.

Ia iiaeia ia caaaeaoe aeaeaoiiai ieneeoaey XVIII no. A.Neiai?iaeo, yeee
aeiaiaeea, ui ethaeeia ca nai?th i?e?iaeith iaciiniaaia, aeia?a. Ia
aeoieo a/aiiai, i?e/eiaie, ui ii?iaeaeothoue ii?aeueii aaaee, iioi
aiaeoeeaiiy o iiaaaeiioei, ? noniieueii oiiae, iai?aaeeueii iinoaaeaia
aeoiaaiiy, oai?yaa, iainai/aiinoue. Iniaeeai aaaeeeaei o oi?ioaaiii
iniaenoinoi ? i?aaeeueia aeoiaaiiy, aiii iiaea aeaoe, ye aiaecia/aa
A.Neiai?iaea, «oa, /iai ia aeaaeooue ii /ei, ii aaaaonoai, ii
iioiaeaeaiiy, ii ieeinoue aaeueiiae».

Cia/iee aeeaae o aea/aiiy i?iaeaie a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe?,
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiino? ae?oae aianee oaeiae aei?aaiethoe?ei? a/ai?
I.O.Eanaaoo, Ae.I.Ae??eue, I.?.Cae, I.?.Ie?iaia, E.Ae.Ooeinueeee,
I.Aeooiiae/ oa ?i.

A ia?o? iiney?aaiethoeiei? ?iee i?iaeaia aiaeoeeaiue o iiaaaeiioei
aeioae i?iaeiaaeo? ?ioaineaii aeineiaeaeoaaoeny. Ana /anoioa a i?aoeyo
a/aieo cono?i/athoueny oa?iiie «aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoue», «aaaeeiaeoiaoaaii
aeioe».

Ieoaiiy aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoi aeioae aeeaiei aeineiaeaeaii a i?aoeyo
I.I.Ao?onni, Ae.N.Oooa?a, ss.I.Aoaaenueeiai, I.N.A?eai?aeiaa,
I.I.A?eoaeiaa, I.A.*aoiaa, A.I.Eooa?aa, E.N.Aeaionueeiai, I.I.
Aeiinueeiai, A.I.Oi?ooiaoiaa, N.N.Caeoaeiiai oa iioeo.

Aeaeaoiee iaaeaaia A.N.Iaea?aiei iiniaea? iniaeeaa iinoea na?aae
aeineiaeieeia i?iaeaie aiaeoeeaiue o iiaaaeiioei iaiiaiieioiio. Aii
oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaa iiaeeeainoue ia?aaeoiaaiiy, a a aaaaoi?i/iie
i?aeoe/iie aeiyeueiinoi iiaeoaa?aeea, ui oea aeienii oae.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aeayei aeiiouaii iei iiieeee, iaaeaaiai/ia niaaeueia
A.N.Iaea?aiea iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueia i ieii.

Ia eiai aeoieo, «iiyeeo i?e?iaeaeaieo cei/eioeia, iiyeeo i?e?iaeaeaieo
aaaeeeo oa?aeoa?ia iaia». Aeioe oaeeie noathoue, yeui aeoiaothoueny o
iani?eyoeeaeo nioeiaeueieo oiiaao. sseui ae ciiieoe oiiae i canoinoaaoe
i?aaeeueii aeoiaii caniae — iniaenoinoue ciiieoueny.

Aeooaeueiei i nueiaiaeii caeeoa?oueny iniiaiee iaaeaaiai/iee i?eioeei
A.N.Iaea?aiea: «sse iiaeia aieueoa aeiiaeeainoi aei ethaeeie i ye iiaeia
aieueoa iiaaae aei ia?».

Ia Caea?iaooi a 20-30 ?iee ieiaeii i?aoethaaa a?aeiiee iaaeaaia,
a?iiaaenueeee aeiy/ Aaaonoei Aieioei, iaaeaaiai/ia niaaeueia yeiai
o?eaaeee /an caiia/oaaeany aai ae aenaioethaaeany ia cianii i?aaeeueii.

Aiaeoeeaiiy o iiaaaeiioei aeioae a?i iiynithaaa i?e?iaeaeaieie
aeanoeainoyie aeeoeie, aieeaii iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, iaaeieieaie,
aeiiouaieie o aeoiaiiio i?ioeani. Iaeiei c oaeeo iaaeieieia aii aaaaeaa
canoinoaaiiy oieanieo iiea?aiue.

Aaee/aciee aeeaae o ?icaeoie iaaeaaiai/ii? iaoee, a oiio /ene? i a
aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeaie aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoi aeioae, aiin
A.I.Nooiieeinueeee.

Aaaeeeaeie aeey iaoiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ? iieiaeaiiy A.I.Nooiieeinueeiai
i?i aeoiaiee aieea neiaa. Aaeeeee iaaeaaia aeoaea neooii aiaecia/aa, ui
caaaeueii neiaa /anoi ia aeioiaeyoue aei na?oey o/iy. Neiai iiaeiii aooe
aeeaiei ciinoiaiei, iaoe aiioeieia caaa?aeaiiy, aiii iiaeiii eeoaoe
neiae a aeoieao i aeooi aeoiaaioey.

Ie oeieeii nieiaea?ii c aeoieith A.I.Nooiieeinueeiai i?i oa, ui
ienoaoeoai aeoiaaiiy aeeth/a? ianaiia?aae ienoaoeoai ?iciiaeyoe, ui
aaaaoi oeieueieo eiioeieoia, yei ia?iaeei caeii/othoueny aaeeeith
aiaeith, iathoue ia?oiaeaea?aeii iaaiiiiy a/eoaey aiai?eoe ic nai?ie
o/iyie.

Ia i?ioyc? 60-90 ??. c’yaey?oueny ?yae oe?eaaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
noinothoueny iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie a?aeoeeaiue o
iiaaae?ioe? iaiiaiie?oi?o: ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo, iaaee/ieo, i?aaiaeo.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaeaia aiaeoeeaiue o iiaaaeiioei iaiiaiieioiio i,
cie?aia, i?iaeaia aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoi aeioae iioaineaii
aeineiaeaeoaaeanue a/aieie i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai ia?iiaeo /ano. A/aii
ieioeeo ?ieia, a oaeiae aio/eciyii aeineiaeieee aecia/eee iniiaii
i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy i ?icaeoeo aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoi aeioae, aeieeaaeii
iienaee ?? i?iyae, c?iaeee ni?iae caeienieoe eeaneoieaoeith
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo aeioae, anoaiiaeee ca’ycie iiae aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoth
aeioae i i?aaiii?ooaiiyie iaiiaiieioiio, cai?iiiioaaee iaaii caniae
aieeao ia aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo aeioae, oeyoe iiaeieaiiy
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoi, caiiaiaaiiy aiaeoeeaiiyi o iiaaaeiioei
iaiiaiieioiio.

Iacaaaeath/e ia cia/ii caeiaooee o aea/aiii ie?aieo aniaeoia, a oeieiio
?iaioo iaae i?iaeaiith aae iiye ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe caaa?oaiith.

Iaaioue nai oa?iii «aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoue», yeee aaieoia o iaaeaaiai/iee
aaeeoie aieueo, iiae 100 ?ieia oiio, ia nueiaiaeiioiie aeaiue ana ua
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaeinoaoiueith aecia/aiinoth.

Ia inio? /ioei? aeeoa?aioeiaoei? oeueiai aaaaoia?aiiiai i iieiii?oiiai
iiiyooy. Iaia eeaneoieaoei?, nenoaiaoeee o aeaeieaiii ie?aieo a?oi
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo aeioae a caeaaeiinoi aiae oi? /e iioi? aeaoa?iiiaoei?,
ia?aaiao i ?acoeueoaoia aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoi.

?acii c oeei, oea aeoaea aaaeeeai, oiio ui aea? ciiao aecia/eoe
i?aaeeueii caoiaee iiia?aaeaeaiiy i ei?aeoei? aiaeoeeaiue o iiaaaeiioei:
ineoieiai/ii, iaaeaaiai/ii, iaaee/ii, nioeiaeueii, a o aaaaoueio
aeiaaeeao — eiiaiiiaaii, iai?eeeaae, nioeiaeueii-iaaeaaiai/ii,
iaaeeei-iaaeaaiai/ii i o.i. Ia aeine?aeaeai? aeeaiei ei?aeoeieii
iiaeeeainoi i?ioanieiiai iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Aea/aiiy iniaenoino? aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo oeiey??a
ye aaaeeeaa ia?aaeoiiaa aoaeoeaiino? i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy” – ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? i?eioeeie ? iaoiaee aea/aiiy
iniaenoino? aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.
I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aea/aiiy i?iaiaeeeiny ye aaciina?aaeiuei, oae i
?ao?iniaeoeaiei oeyoii, ui aeaaaei ciiao i?ineiaeeoaaoe iniaeeainoi
aeieeiaiiy i ?icaeoeo aiaeoeeaiue o oi?ioaaiii iniaenoinoi.

Cae?enithth/e ?ao?iniaeoeaia aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiiai o/iy, ie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui iaeiei ?c
i?ia?aeieo i?eioeei?a a?o/eciyii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ?
i?eioeei aeii?ioth/i? ?ie? ae?yeueiino? o ?icaeoeo ineo?ee.

Ni?eeoaaiiy – oea iniaeeaee aeae ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?, a aiioe?eia
ni?eeoaaiiy c aaoueeaie ? aeii?ioth/ei aeaeii ae?yeueiino? aeeoeie ia
?aii?o aoaiao ?? ?icaeoeo. Ioaea, oi?ioaaiiy ineo?ee aeeoeie, ??
?icaeoie, noaiiaeaiiy niiniao iiaaae?iee i?ioiaeeoue, ianaiia?aae, o
i?ioean? ni?eeoaaiiy a n?i’?.

I?iaaaeaiee iaie eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio aeicaieea aeyaeoe nooo?a?
iaaeie?ee a i?aai?caoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy aaouee?a c ae?oueie, ii/eiath/e c
ia?oeo aei?a ?o aeeooy.

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy n?iae aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo ae?oae ? n?iae,
o yeeo ae?oe ia a?aecia/aeeny a?aeoeeaiiyie o iiaaae?ioe?, aea?
i?aenoaao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui naia iiieeee a i?aai?caoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy c
ae?oueie a n?i’? iiaee iaaaoeaii aieeiooe ia oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?
aeeoeie, ni?eyoe aeieeiaiith aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiino?.

A oeueiio ae ?icae?e? aeaoaeueii ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy ii?ie ?
a?aeoeeaiue o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino?. I?aee?aneth?oueny , ui oa?iii
«ii?ia» o ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/iie iaooei aaeeaa?oueny ia nueiaiaeiioiie
aeaiue aeineoue aeiaieueii, eiio i?eoaiaiia iaaia iaaecia/aiinoue.

O nai?io aeine?aeaeaii? ie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui a ineoieiai? iiiyooy
ii?ie a iaeaieueo caaaeueieo ?enao ia?aaeaa/a? aeiaeaeoe/iee ca nai?th
i?e?iaeith i?ioean i?ia?aneaiiai ?icaeoeo, iiae /an yeiai i?ioiaeeoue
iineiaeiaia canai?iiy noniieueii-inoi?e/iiai aeinaiaeo o oi?iao
aeoeaiinoi noa’?eoa. I?e oeueiio noniieueii niiniae aeiyeueiinoi
ia?aoai?ththoueny o aioo?ioii, ineoi/ii caniae, a ii?ie niiaaeeooy — a
iiaeeaiaeoaeueio ii?aeue.

Aeiaeaeoe/iee oa?aeoa? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi ia?aaeaa/a?, c
iaeiiai aieo, aiaeiiniinoue /aniaeo iaae eiaeiiai yeinii nai??iaeiiai
ia?iiaeo a inoi?e/iiio oa iiaeeaiaeoaeueii-ineoieiai/iiio ieaii, a c
ae?oaiai aieo, iaiaoiaeiinoue iineiaeiaiiai i?ioiaeaeaiiy anio aoaiia
oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi.

Iaiaoiaeii ?ic?iciyoe aiaeoeeaiiy o oi?ioaaiii iniaenoinoi ye
aiaeoeeaiiy aiae ii?iaeueiiai oiaeo i?ioeano i iaoieiaith oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoinoi ye aiaeoeeaiiy aiae ii?ie, yea i?iyaey?oueny o ineoi/ieo
caoai?thaaiiyo. Iai?eeeaae, iioaioeeueiinoue ye caa?aaeaiiy ia aeaiiio
a?eiaiio aoaii iniiaieo aeanoeainoae, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey iiia?aaeiio
aoaiia, oiaoi cao?eieo a i?ioeani oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi, iiaeia
aaaaeaoe aiaeoeeaiiyi, aea ia oai?iaith. A oie aea /an oea ?iciaaeoaaiiy
aeineoue oiiaia, ai oei aiaeoeeaiiy i?e iani?eyoeeaeo nioeiaeueieo
oiiaao iiaeooue ia?aeoe a iaoieiaith.

Oaeei /eiii, i/aaeaeii, iiyaa o iiaaaeiioei iniaeeainoae, ia oa?aeoa?ieo
aeey aeaiiai aieiaiai ia?iiaeo aai, iaaiaee, aiaenooiinoue iaiaoiaeieo
aeanoeainoae ia i?ioyci o?eaaeiai /ano iiaea naiae/eoe i?i aiaeoeeaiiy o
oi?ioaaiii iniaenoinoi.

Ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy aiaeoeeaiue o oi?ioaaiii iniaenoinoi o aaaaoueio
aeiaaeeao aeineoue neeaaeii, i?ioa a oe?eiio iiaeia aaaaeaoe
a?aeoeeaiiyie aeey aeioe?eueiee?a: iaaaeaeaaoi?noue aiioe?eieo i?iya?a,
cai?ciaiiy a ?icaeoeo neioii??, a?aenooi?noue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
aiioe?eiiai caaa?aeaiiy o ni?eeoaaii? c ??cieie ethaeueie, iayai?noue
aeai?aneaieo noai?a, a?aeoeeaiiy o aeeiai?oe? ia?aa?ao ii/ooo?a
(“aiioe?eia cao?eiea” a i?ioiaeaeaii? ie?aieo noaae?e), a?aenooi?noue
aiioe?eii? aeaoeaio?aoe??, ooeeaiiy a?ae o/ano? a nthaeaoii-?ieueiaeo
?a?ao aai iaaeaiiy ia?aaaae a?? “ia ca i?aaeeaie”, a?aenooi?noue
ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? ae?oae aei iaa/aiiy a oeie?, iaai?iiy (?iiae?
iaaaaeaiiy) eiioaeooaaoe c ioi/oth/eie. E??i oiai, o aeayeeo ae?oae —
cao?eiee o ineo?/iiio ?icaeoeo, a?aeoeeaiiy a ia?aa?ao ineo?/ieo
i?ioean?a, iaaeinoaoi?e ?icaeoie aeia?eueiino?, aeoeaiooaoe?? oa?aeoa?o
? o.i.

Iiae?ai? a?aeoeeaiiy o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino? aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo ae?oae a
aeioe?eueiiio a?oe? aoee aeyaeai? iaie o 90 % ae?oae.

Oe? a?aeoeeaiiy ia?aoeiaeaeaee oni?oi?e aaeaioaoe?? aeeoeie aei oeiee,
aeinyaiaiith oni?o?a o iaa/aeuei?e ae?yeueiino?, aca?ii?icoi?iith c
ioi/oth/eie, ni?eyee aeaoi?iaoe?? nenoaie noa’?eoeaieo noaaeaiue
iniaenoino?, ui i?iyaeyeiny o ii?ooaiiyo ii?i ? i?aaee iiaaae?iee,
coiiaethaaei ia?ao?ae ae?oae a eaoaai??th aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo.

I?aee?aneeii, ui aeienii aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie aeioueie, i/aaeaeii, neiae
aaaaeaoe ia anio aeioae c aiaeoeeaiiyie o ineoi/iiio ?icaeoeo i
iiaaaeiioei (oi/, aacia?a/ii, a/eoaeth aaae/a i?aoethaaoe c ieie, iiae c
iioeie), a a ia?oo /a?ao oeo, yei aaaeei iiaeaeathoueny aeoiaiiio
aieeao, ineieueee a nenoaii ?o noa’?eoeaieo noaaeaiue iayaii oi /e iioi
aiaeoeeaiiy: iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei iaa/aiiy, oeiee, a/eoaey,
iaaaeaeaaoia naiiioeiiea; iaiiaaaa aei ioi/oth/eo, iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy
aei i?aoei i o.ae.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Ei?aeoe?y a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe?
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo a i?ioean?
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy” – ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie
ae?oueie c iaoith ei?aeoe?? a?aeoeeaiue o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino? oa ??
iiaaae?ioe?. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui oa?i?i “ei?aeoe?y ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo”
ye iaaia oi?ia ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aia?oa aeiee a
aeaoaeoieia?? noiniaii aa??aio?a aiiiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. A iao /an
iiiyooy “ei?aeoe?y” iioe?th?oueny ? ia noa?o ii?iaeueiiai ineo?/iiai
?icaeoeo. Iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie ei?aeoe?? ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo aeeoeie ?
ei?aeoe?y a?aeoeeaiue ia iniia? noai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ?
oiia aeey oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?, i?io?eaeoeea iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e
ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

A eiioaeno? aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ie ?icaeyaea?ii
i?ioan?eia iaaeaaia?/ia ni?eeoaaiiy ye iniaeeaee aeae ae?yeueiino?, yeee
iieyaa? a i?aai?caoe?? aeoeaiiai oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aieeao ia
iniaeno?noue aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiiai o/iy c iaoith ei?aeoe?? iayaieo
a?aeoeeaiue o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino? ? caaacia/aii? ?? anaa?/iiai
aa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo.

O ca’yceo c oeei aaaaea?ii ca iiaeeeaa, e?ii oaeeo ooieoeie
iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy, ye iiciaiiy iniaenoinoi, iaiii
iioi?iaoei?th, i?aaiicaoeiy aeiyeueiinoi, naiiooaa?aeaeaiiy oa ii.,
aeaeieeoe ye naiinoieio — ei?aeoeieii-?aaa?e?oaoe?eio ooieoeith.

A?aeiii, ui oa?i?i “?aaa?e?oaoe?y” icia/a? a?aeiiaeaiiy. sse i?aaeei,
aaeeaa?oueny a iaaeeoeei?, th?eni?oaeaioe??. Aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai
oa?i?io a aeaiiio eiioaeno? ?, ia iaoo aeoieo, oe?eeii i?aaii??iei,
aaeaea iaeia c iniiaieo caaaeaiue ei?aeoe?eii? ?iaioe c
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie ae?oueie — oea ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y,
oiaoi ?iaioa, ni?yiiaaia ia a?aeiiaeaiiy ii?iaeueiiai ?icaeoeo aeeoeie,
a?aeiia?aeiiai ?? a?eo ? niiniao iiaaae?iee, aaeaeaaoiiai aeiiaai
na?aaeiaeua.

?ioei aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi ei?aeoe?eii? ?iaioe, yea eia?/ii aeieeaa? c
ia?oiai, ? i?io?eaeoeea iiaeaeueoi? nioe?aeueii? aeaoi?iaoe??
iniaenoino?, caiia?aaiiy a/eiaiith iath i?ioei?aaieo ae?e.

Aoaeoeai?noue iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie o/iyie, ye
aoei anoaiiaeaii a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue
a?ae i?ioan?eii-iniaeno?nieo aeanoeainoae o/eoaey (ni?yiiaai?noue ia
?ioo ethaeeio, oaeoiai?noue, aoiai?ci, oiea?aioi?noue,
niinoa?aaeeea?noue, aenieee ??aaiue caaaeueii? ? ineoieia?/ii?
eoeueoo?e, i?eaaaeeaee ciai?oi?e aeaeyae ? o.ae.), aeai?o iei
i?aaeeueii? no?aoaa??, oaeoeee ? oaoi?ee ni?eeoaaiiy noiniaii eiaeiiai
ie?aiiai o/iy c a?aooaaiiyi eiai iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo aeanoeainoae, oeo
aiaeoeeaiue, yei iathoue iinoea a eiai iiaaaeiioei i coiiaeththoue
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiinoue o/iy.

No?aoaa?y, oaeoeea ? oaoi?ea ni?eeoaaiiy oinii ca’ycaii iiae niaith.
Iaiiaeeeai ioeiieoe aoaeoeaiinoue oaeoe/ieo aeie iica aiaeicii
no?aoaai/ii? neeaaeiai? niieeoaaiiy. Oaeoeea aoaea aoaeoeaiith, yeui
aiia aeiiiiaaa? oniioii ?aaeiciaoaaoe iniiaio no?aoaai/io eiiith. A
naith /a?ao oaoii/ii eiiiiiaioe niieeoaaiiy aeiiiiaaathoue ?aaeicoaaoe
oaeoe/ii caaaeaiii a eiaeiie ie?aiie eiioiieaoeaiie neooaoei?.

O ?aae?caoe?? ei?aeoe?eieo caaaeaiue i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iaaeaaaeiny iaie, ianaiia?aae,
ineoieia?/iiio oaeoi?o aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae o/anieeaie iaaeaaia?/ii?
aca?iiae??.

Ii/aoeii niaoeiaeueii i?aaiiciaaiiai i?ioeano iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy
a/eoaey i aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiiai o/iy, iaoith yeiai ? ei?aeoeiy iiaaaeiiee
o/iy, o iaoiio aenia?eiaio? noaee aei? a/eoaey, ni?yiiaaii ia oi?ioaaiiy
aeia?ice/eeaeo noaaeaiue iiae a/eoaeai i aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiei o/iai,
aeinyaiaiiy aca?ii?icoiiiiy.

Cia/ia oaaaa i?e oeueiio caa?oaeany ia niin?a anooio a eiioaeo.
A?aei?oeii, ui aoaeue-yea eiioiieaoeiy ii/eia?oueny ic anoaiiaeaiiy
eiioaeoo. Cia/eiinoue oei?? oace niieeoaaiiy iaaecae/aeii aaeeea. I oi/
niinia anooio a eiioaeo ia aecia/a? iiaiinoth eiioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo,
aiae iueiai aaaaoi ui caeaaeeoue.

O ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei niiniaii
aoiaeaeaiiy a eiioaeo aeyaeany niin?a “i?eaoaeiaa ii?yae”.

Oniioia aoiaeaeaiiy a eiioaeo a/eoaeth ne?ae cae?iieoe oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy o niieeoaaiii c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiei o/iai iae?iciiiaiioiioeo
ineoieiai/ieo i?eeiiia, yei a ni?eyee oi?ioaaiith a o/iy iiceoeaiiai
noaaeaiiy aei a/eoaey, aeiai?’y aei eiai neia i aeie. ?o ?iiae?
iaceaathoue i?eeiiaie oi?ioaaiiy aoo?aeoe??.

Caaacia/eaoe aiioeieii iiceoeaia noaaeaiiy aei naaa c aieo
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiiai o/iy, a/eoaeue io?eio? ciiao i?aaiicoaaoe
oeieani?yiiaaia iaaeaaiai/ia niieeoaaiiy c o/iai c iaoith ei?aeoei?
aiaeoeeaiue o oi?ioaaiii iniaenoinoi i iiaaaeiioei.

I?e oeueiio iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? oaoi?ea ni?eeoaaiiy, oiaoi
aeei?enoaiiy noeoiiino? aa?aaeueieo ? iaaa?aaeueieo cania?a ni?eeoaaiiy.

Ei?aeoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? cania?a ni?eeoaaiiy iiaeooue aooe oni?oii
?aae?ciaai? o?eueee ca oiiae a?aeiia?aeii? i?aai?caoe?? iiaeaiiy a/eoaey
? ianeiaanieo eiiiiiaio?a oaoi?ee eiioi?eaoe?? (aeanoe, i?i?ea, iica,
eiioaeo i/ae, oii, oaii, ?ioiiaoe?y).

Oaoiiea i?aaeeueiiai iaaeaaiai/iiai niieeoaaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? i
aiaeiiaiaeio i?inoi?iai-/aniao i?aaiicaoeith niieeoaaiiy c
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie o/iyie. Oea icia/a?, ui eiaeiee aeo niieeoaaiiy aea?
aieueoee aoaeo a caeaaeiinoi aiae oiai, aea i eiee aii iaa iinoea.
Iai?eeeaae, a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao niieeoaaiiy a/eoaey c o/iai aoaeoeaiioa
i?ioiaeeoue a oeiei, a iioeo — aaeiia a o/iy, a iiiaei aa?oi a/eoaeth
iiniieeoaaoeny c o/iai o naaa aaeiia /e aeanue ia «iaeo?aeueiie»
oa?eoi?i?. *aniai eii?aeeiaoe niieeoaaiiy aeiiiaiththoue i?inoi?iai i
?acii c oeei — iathoue naiinoieia cia/aiiy.

A i?aai?caoe??? ni?eeoaaiiy c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie o/iyie ne?ae
a?aoiaoaaoe ?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/i? aeanoeaino? (oaiia?aiaio,
oa?aeoa?, cae?aiino?), a oaeiae a?i?eoie.

sse na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaaeeeaith oiiaith
aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue ei?aeoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aca?iiae?y
a/eoaey ? oe?eueiiai ineoieiaa. Naia c aeiiiiiaith ineoieiaa a/eoaeue
iiaea caaacia/eoe i?aaeeueio ? nai?/anio ae?aaiinoeeo a?aeoeeaiue o
oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino? ? iiaaae?ioe? aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo oeiey??a ?
?ic?iaeoe a?aeiia?aeio ei?aeoe?eio i?ia?aio ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ?iaioe c
eiaeiei o/iai.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, yea iieyaaea a
i?aai?caoe?? oe?eani?yiiaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy a/eoae?a c
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie o/iyie iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo, aaeaeiny
caaacia/eoe iiceoeai? ci?ie o iiaaae?ioe? ae?oae o 85% aeiaaee?a (c ieo
iiiaae 60% — nooo?a?, ?io? — iacia/i? iiceoeai? ci?ie), 15% — iiaaae?iea
caeeoeeany aac ci?i. A eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo ae?oae, c
yeeie ia i?iaiaeeeany niaoe?aeueia ?iaioa ii i?aai?caoe??
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy, a 52% aeiaaee?a iiaaae?iea
ae?oae caeeoeeany aac ci?i, 13% — iie?aueeany, 35% — iia??oeeany.

Ia aaeaeiny aeinyaoe oni?o?a a ei?aeoe?eii-?aaa?e?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
caniaaie i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy a oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee
ae?oe ia?aaoaaee a iaaecae/aeii iani?eyoeeaeo n?iaeieo oiiaao.

Aeey iiaii? ? no?eei? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iaiao?aeiee o?eaaeee i?ioean
niaoe?aeueieo i?aai?ciaaieo aieea?a. Ieoaiiy ineoieia?/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo ae?oae ae??oothoueny ia oeyoii ie?aieo caoiae?a, a
oeyoii oe?e?nii? i?aai?caoe?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ae?oae, ui ni?ey?
ineoieia?/i?e eiiiainaoe?? ? i?enoinoaaiith ae?oae aei oeo /e ?ioeo
iaaeaaia?/ieo aeiia. Aeinyaoe iaaieo oni?o?a o cae?eniaii? eiiiainaoe??
i?e iani?eyoeeaeo oiiaao na?aaeiaeua aeoaea aaaeei. O oaeeo aeiaaeeao
iino?eiith ? caa?ica aeaeiiiainaoe??.

A oe?eiio iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui ei?aeoe?y aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiino? ae?oae
iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo iiaea aooe caaacia/aia a i?ioean?
niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy, ciaeoei nai?
aeinoaoi? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a ?iaio?.

AENIIAEE

1. I?iaaaeaia iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? i?aenoaao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
cia/ia /anoeia a?aeoeeaiue o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino? ae?oae, ye i?aaeei,
aeieea? a ?acoeueoao? iai?aaeeueii i?aai?ciaaiiai ni?eeoaaiiy c
aeeoeiith a n?i’? ua a aeioe?eueiiio a?oe?.

2. Oe? a?aeoeeaiiy a o?e /e ?io?e i??? iaaaoeaii iicia/athoueny ia
i?ioean? aaeaioaoe?? aeeoeie aei oeiee, aei iiaeo oiia ? aeiia,
ia?aoeiaeaeathoue aeinyaiaiith oni?o?a o iaa/aii?, o aca?iia?aeiineiao c
ioi/oth/eie, coiiaeththoue aeieeiaiiy eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e, c?ea?a o
iiaaae?ioe?, ni?eythoue oi?ioaaiith iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy aei iaa/aiiy,
a/eoaey, oeiee, aiane?aeie /iai aeeoeia iio?aiey? a eaoaai??th
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo.

3. Aeienii aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie aeioueie neiae aaaaeaoe a ia?oo /a?ao
oeo, a?aeoeeaiiy o iiaaae?ioe? yeeo coiiaeai? oeie /e ?ioeie
a?aeoeeaiiyie o nenoai? ?o noa’?eoeaieo noaaeaiue.

4. Ei?aeoe?y a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe? aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo ae?oae a
aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iiaea aooe oni?oii caaacia/aia a i?ioean?
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny iaie ye
iniaeeaee aeae ae?yeueiino?, ui iieyaa? a i?aai?caoe?? oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
aieeao ia iniaeno?noue ? ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy niaoe?aeueii?
no?aoaa??, oaeoeee ? oaoi?ee ni?eeoaaiiy.

5. Aoaeoeaia ?aae?caoe?y ei?aeoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae ni?eeoaaiiy
caeaaeeoue a?ae aaaaoueio oaeoi??a: iniaeno?nii-i?ioan?eieo aeanoeainoae
a/eoaey (niinoa?aaeeea?noue, oaeoiai?noue, aoiai?ci, aiiao?y,
oiea?aioi?noue oa ?i.), ??aiy eiai caaaeueii? ? ineoieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e,
aieiae?iiy aa?aaeueieie ? iaaa?aaeueieie caniaaie ni?eeoaaiiy,
ciai?oiueiai aeaeyaeo ? o.ae.; ciaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
aeanoeainoae o/i?a ? aeai?o i?aaeeueii? no?aoaa??, oaeoeee, oaoi?ee
ni?eeoaaiiy noiniaii eiaeiiai aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiiai o/iy: a?aeiia?aeiee
niin?a aoiaeaeaiiy a eiioaeo, oi?ea aeei?enoaiiy i?eeii?a aoo?aeoe??,
?aoeaeneaia ? ia?aoeaeneaia neooaiiy, iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy caioi/aiiy
? iiea?aiiy, aeei?enoaiiy ioe?ii/iiai noaeaeaiiy, noaaano??,
iiaeeeainoae i?inoi?iai-/aniai? i?aai?caoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy oa ?i.;
iayaiino? ocaiaeaeaiiai no?eei-iiceoeaiiai noeeth a?aeiinei i?ae
a/eoaeai ? o/iai; aca?iiae?? a/eoaey c oe?eueiei ineoieiaii, aaoueeaie
oa ?i.

Iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caneoaiaothoue oae? aniaeoe i?iaeaie:
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey aei ?iaioe c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie
ae?oueie a oe?eiio ? aei i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy cie?aia;
aca?iiae?y a/eoaey ? oe?eueiiai ineoieiaa o ae?aaiinoeei-ei?aeoe?ei?e
?iaio?; caaacia/aiiy ianooiiino? o i?io?eaeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? n?i’?,
aeioe?eueieo aeeoy/eo caeeaae?a, oeiee oa ?i.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeaiee a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Iiiia?ao??, iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i? iin?aieee, ?aeiiaiaeaoe??:

1. Eicoaianueea ?.A., Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. Nioe?aeueia i?io?eaeoeea
aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee : Ei?aeoe?y a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe?
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo ae?oae a i?ioean? i?ioan?eiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy.- Oaeai?iae: OaeAeO,1998.- 195 n. (aaoi?.- 7 ae?.a?e.).

2. Eicoaianueea ?.A., Ea?aoeiai A.TH., Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. ?ieue ? ooieoe??
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? neoaeae a ?iaio? c n?i’?th.-Oaeai?iae:
OaeAeO,1998.- 173 n. (aaoi?.- 3 ae?.a?e.).

3. Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. No?aoaa?y, oaeoeea ? oaoi?ea iaaeaaia?/iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie ae?oueie iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai
a?eo:Iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee.- Oaeai?iae: OaeAeO,1999.- 75 n.

4. Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. Ethaeeia na?aae ethaeae. I?i aeaye? aniaeoe
ni?eeoaaiiy: Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.- Oaeai?iae: OaeAeO,1998.-28 n.

Iaoeia? noaoo?:

5. Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. Eoeueoo?a i?ioan?eiiai ni?eeoaaiiy // Ii/aoeiaa
oeiea.- 1997.- ?10.- N.50-53.

6. Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. ?ieue iiae?ii?ai? eoeueoo?e a/eoaey o ni?eeoaaii? c
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie o/iyie.//A?niee OaeAeO. Na??y “Iaaeaaia?ea.
Nioe?aeueia ?iaioa”- 1998, Aei.1, — N.71-80.

7. Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. Aaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaiiaai? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey //
Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe iaaeaaia?a”.- Oaeai?iae,: ?inoeooo ci?noo ?
iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy.- 1997.- N.185-187.

8. Eicoaianueea ?.A., Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. Iniaeeaino? ni?eeoaaiiy c
aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie ae?oueie // Aeeaineiai.- 1998.-?7.- N.31-33. (aaoi?.-
0,5 ae?.a?e.).

9. Eicoaianueea ?.A., Naaa?aea A.A., Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. ?ieue ioceee o
aeoiaaii? iieiae? a aeon? iaianeeuenoaa ? ie?o // I?aoe? I?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Iaaeaaia?ea ?aeeiiai ? oe?e?niiai
ie?o”.- ??aia: AAeI?.- 1995.- N. 74-76. (aaoi?.- 0,1 ae?.a?e.).

10. Eicoaianueea ?.A., Naaa?aea A.A., Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. N?i’y oa i?iaeaie
a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe? oeiey??a // No/ani? i?aeoiaee oa iiaeae?
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie iiia?aaeaeaiiy i?aaiii?ooaiue, ia?eiiai?? na?aae
o/i?anueei? ? nooaeaionueei? iieiae?: Ca.iaoeiaeo noaoae.- E.: ?inoeooo
ci?noo ? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, 1997.- N.123-129. (aaoi?.- 0,2 ae?.a?e.).

11. Eicoaianueea ?.A., Naaa?aea A.A., Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. ?aiiy
i?io?eaeoeea i?aaiii?ooaiue iaiiaiie?oi?o a ae?yeueiino? oe?eueii?
ineoieia?/ii? neoaeae// No/ani? i?aeoiaee oa iiaeae? ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeaie iiia?aaeaeaiiy i?aaiii?ooaiue, ia?eiiai?? na?aae o/i?anueei? ?
nooaeaionueei? iieiae?: Ca.iaoeiaeo noaoae.- E.: ?inoeooo ci?noo ?
iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, 1997.- N.162-168. (aaoi?.- 0,2 ae?.a?e.).

Oiaeaiaoeue A.A. EI?AEOe?ss A?AeOEEAIUe O IIAAAe?IOe? AAAEEIAEOIAOAAIEO
O*I?A IIEIAeOIAI OE?EUeIIAI A?EO CANIAAIE I?IOAN?EII-IAAeAAIA?*IIAI
NI?EEOAAIIss – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe c? niaoe?aeueiino? 13.00.01.- oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee.-
?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i?,
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe ei?aeoe?eii?
?iaioe c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie o/iyie iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo a i?ioean?
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy.

?ice?eoi ci?no iiiyoue “ii?ia” ? “a?aeoeeaiiy” o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino?
iieiaeoiai oeiey?a oa eiai iiaaae?ioe? ? iaa?oioiaai? o a?aeiia?aeiino?
c oeei oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy noo? “aaaeeiaeoiaoaaiino?”
ae?oae.

Aeine?aeaeai? ei?aeoe?eii-?aaa?e?oaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? i?ioan?eii-
iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy, iniaeeaino? no?aoaa??, oaeoeee ? oaoi?ee
ni?eeoaaiiy c aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieie ae?oueie.

Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iaiaai?
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? oiiae iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano iaaeaaia?/iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ei?aeoe?? a?aeoeeaiue o oi?ioaaii?
iniaenoino? ? iiaaae?ioe? aaaeeiaeoiaoaaieo o/i?a iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai
a?eo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaaeeiaeoiaoaai?noue, ii?ia, a?aeoeeaiiy, ei?aeoe?y,
?aaa?e?oaoe?y, i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia ni?eeoaaiiy, aa?aaeuei? ?
iaaa?aaeuei? caniae ni?eeoaaiiy.

Oiaeaiaoe A.A. EI??AEOeEss IOEEIIAIEE A IIAAAeAIEE O?OAeIIAINIEOOAIUO
O*AIEEIA IEAAeOAAI OEIEUeIIAI AIC?ANOA N?AAeNOAAIE
I?IOANNEIIAEUeII-IAAeAAIAE*ANEIAI IAUAIEss – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01.- oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee.-
Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaathony enoi?eei-iaaeaaiae/aneea,
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea e iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneea aniaeou
ei??aeoeeiiiie ?aaiou n o?oaeiiainieooaiuie o/aueieny ieaaeoaai
oeieueiiai aic?anoa a i?ioeanna i?ioanneiiaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneiai
iauaiey.

?ane?uoi niaea?aeaiea iiiyoee “ii?ia”, “ioeeiiaiey” a oi?ie?iaaiee
ee/iinoe ieaaeoaai oeieueieea e aai iiaaaeaiee e iainiiaaiu a
niioaaonoaee n yoei oai?aoe/aneea iiaeoiaeu e ii?aaeaeaieth nooe
“o?oaeiiainieooaiinoe” aeaoae.

Enneaaeiaaiu ei??aeoeeiiii-?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe
i?ioanneiiaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneiai iauaiey, iniaaiiinoe no?aoaaee,
oaeoeee e oaoieee iauaiey n o?oaeiiainieooaiuie aeaoueie.

Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaiu e yenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iae?iaaiu
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaoiaee/aneea oneiaey iioeiecaoeee i?ioeanna
iaaeaaiae/aneiai iauaiey n oeaeueth iaania/aiey ei??aeoeee ioeeiiaiee a
oi?ie?iaaiee ee/iinoe e iiaaaeaiee o?oaeiiainieooaiuo o/aueony ieaaeoaai
oeieueiiai aic?anoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?oaeiiainieooaiinoue, ii?ia, ioeeiiaiea, ei??aeoeey,
?aaaeeeoaoeey, i?ioanneiiaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneia iauaiea, aa?aaeueiua e
iaaa?aaeueiua n?aaenoaa iauaiey.

Tovkanetz A.V. Correction of deviations in the behaviour of vulnerable
jiunior schoolchildren by means of professional pedagogic
communication.- Manuscript.

Dissertation for degree of candidate of pedagogical sciences. Speciality
13.00.01.- theory and history of pedagogics – Institute of Pedagogic of
Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

Theoretical-methodological, historical and methodical aspects of
corrective work with vulnerable pupils of primary schools by means of
professional pedagogic communication are considered in dissertation.

The essence of such terms as “norm” and “deviations” in the formation of
pupil’s personality and behaviour is clearified and according to this
the main approaches to the definition of term “vulnerable children” are
based.

Corrective and reabilitative possibilities of professional pedagogic
communication and the peculiarities of the strategy, tactics and
techniques of pedagogical communication with vulnerable children are
investigated.

Principal methodical conditions of optimization of pedagogical
communication with vulnarable children to provide the correction of
deviations in formation of their personality and behaviour are
theoreticaly based and experimentally approbated.

Key words: vulnerable children, norm, deviations, correction,
reabilitation, professional pedagogic communication, verbal and
nonverbal means of communication.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 27.11.98 ?. Oi?iao 60o90 /16

Oi.ae?oe.a?e.1,0. Iae.-aeae.a?e. 0,8

Oe?aae 100. Cai.120

_____________________________________________

Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? OaeAeO. 294000 i.Oaeai?iae, aoe.Eai?ooeueia, 26

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