CAII??CUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

NAOIIIA TH??e Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 883 (091) (Aaee/ei)

130.3+14+930.221

EIIOeAIOe?ss AeOOIAIINO? EA??AIEEA AeA?AEAAE A E?OIIEN? NAI?EEA
AAEE*EA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.01.01 — oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Caii??aeaey – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a E?eai??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eiceia Aiaoie?e Aaneeueiae/,

E?eai??cueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Niaieue Aaeaioeia Ieaenaiae??aia,

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e.

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Iaeaoaiei TH??e Aieiaeeie?iae/,

?inoeooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie,

Noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo aeaaiuei? ? eeane/ii? e?oa?aoo?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 23 a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo i 13:00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 17.051.02 i?e Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? (330600, i. Caii??aeaey, aoe. AEoeianueeiai, 66, ei?i. 2,
o?eieia?/iee oaeoeueoao, aoaeeoi??y 230)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (330600, i. Caii??aeaey, aoe. AEoeianueeiai,
66, ei?i. 2)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «20» eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee …………………………………. O.A. Oii’ye

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Oai? eicaoeueeiai eioiienoey Naiieea
Aaneeueiae/a Aaee/ea aoa iaienaiee i?ae aieeaii
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? a?eie 1648-1654??. i?ae i?iaiaeii
A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai, aea o?eueee a 40-o ??. XIX no. a?i iio?aiea o iiea
ci?o oe?a?inueei? iioae?aaioei?, cie?aia I.Ia?eaae/a,
I.Aieaoeueeiai-Iinaiea oa ?i., /e? iiaeyaee aoee a iniiaiiio noi?iiaaii
«Inoi?i?th ?onia».

Aaea ia ii/aoeo 40-o ?ieia O?O noie?ooy i?ae aieeaii N.Aaee/ea i eiai
eioiieno iieieeenue O.Oaa/aiei, I.Einoiia?ia, I.Aiaeyinueeee, I.Aoeae,
I.Eoeio oa iioi iaoeiaoe? e e?oa?aoi?e. Iiaa?oath/enue ic caneaiiy a
1857 ?ioei, O.Oaa/aiei caa?ioany a eenoi c Ieaeiueiai Iiaai?iaea aei
I.Eoeioa c i?ioaiiyi ia?aaeaoe o?e iioaeieiaaii a Ee?ai oiie oai?o
N.Aaee/ea: «*e ia o?aieoueny a oaaa eioiien Aaee/ea? sse ii?aeao, oi
aicueie c niaith, a ye ia ii?aeao, oi ia?aaeae Aa?aioeiao». I.Iaeneiiae/
aeineiaeaeoaaa oeae eioiien ye eioa?aoo?iee oai?, iiaee?anethth/e, ui
a?i i?ieiyoee «anaia?iaeiei aoii?ii».

sse?nii iiaee ??aaiue inieneaiiy E?oiieno Nai?eea Aaee/ea ye oai?o ia
eeoa ?noi?e/iiai, iaoeiaiai, ioae?oeenoe/iiai, a e e?oa?aoo?iiai
ooaa?aeaeaii a i?aoeyo ?.O?aiea. One?ae ca I.Iei?iei, A.Nianiae/ai
(“Enoi?ey neaayineeo eeoa?aoo?”, Iaoa?ao?a, 1865), ?.I?eaeiaei
[“Iaei?inney (THaeiay ?onue) a enoi?ee aa eeoa?aoo?u n XI ii XVIII aae”,
Ai?iiaae, 1869), I.Iaiiianueeei (“?noi??y e?oa?aoo?e ?onueei?”, Euea?a,
1887] ?.O?aiei a?aeiineoue oa?? Aaee/ea o ?ic?yae neie?aoe/ieo i?aoeue.

O OO noieiooi oeae oa?? aeine?aeaeoaaee a?o/eciyi? eioa?aoo?iciaaoei:
A.Ia?aooe — “Enneaaeiaaiey e iaoapeaeu ii enoipee noapeiiie oepaeineie
enoi?eia?aoee”; I.Apooaanueeee — «Ia oepaeineie enoipeiapaoee»;
I.A?eaoeueeee — “I?iaeaie aea/aiiy noa?iaeiii? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e
e?ioey XVIIno.”; I.Ieoaie/ — «C inoi?i? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eioa?aoo?e
XVII-XVIII noie?ooy»; ? «Oe?a?inueea eioa?aoo?a aeiae aa?ieei: i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeaeaiiy»; ss.Aece?a — «E?oiien Nai?eea Aaee/ea ?
oai?/?noue O.Oaa/aiea»; I.Caaaeei — “?aeaeii-ooaeiaei? iniaeeaino?
oe?a?inueei? iieai?noe/ii? e?oa?aoo?e e?ioey XVI-XVIII noie?ooy”;
?.Aa?aca — “E?oiieni? o?aaeeoe?? Ee?anueei? ?on? a oe?a?inuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?/i?e i?ic? XVIII noie?ooy”; ?.Aece?a — “Aieea eicaoeueeiai
e?oiienaiiy ia e?oa?aoo?o oe?a?inueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia?oi? iieiaeie
XIX noie?ooy”, a oaeiae I.Iiiia, A.E?aeioaiue, I.Noeeia. Inoaii?
ooiaeaiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy — oea i?aoey A.Niaieue “E?oiien Nai?eea
Aaee/ea ye yaeua oe?a?inueeiai e?oa?aoo?iiai aa?iei”. O 1991 ?ioe?
Aae.Oaa/oe cae?eniea aeaeaiiy e?oiieno, c?iaeaoe ia?aeeaae oaenoo
no/aniith oe?a?inueeith iiaith. ? ana ae i?iaeaia aeooiaiino? ea??aieea
aea?aeaae a E?oiien? Nai?eea Aaee/ea ua ia noaaeeany.

Iiaeaeueoa aeine?aeaeaiiy e?oiieno, ia iaoo aeoieo, aeanoue iiaeeeainoue
i?inoaaeeoe ? iaaio aaiethoeith aeooiaiino? ethaeeie-ea?iaieea
ai?iaeiaae noieioue, neeanoe a?eueo iiaia oyaeaiiy i?i naioiaeyae,
ii?aeueii i?eioeeie, iieioe/i? e nioeiaeueii oeiei oa iaeaaee
aaoueiaiaoo ? oe?a?ioe?a acaaae?. Aea a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo aeoeaio
?iaeoueny ia aea/aii? caaaeueii? eiioeaioe?? aeooiaiino? ea??aieea
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ia??iaeo aaoueiaiueie a E?oiien?, ui eii/a
iaiao?aeia nueiaiaei?, a /ane aeoeaiiai iaacaeooiaeaiiy noni?euenoaa.

Inieneaiiy oeueiai oi?eaeueiiai oai?o ia? ia iao?, oi/a a o caaaeueieo
?enao, c’ynoaaoe oaeaae nenoaio aeayeeo ?ioeo eiai oe?iiinoae:
eiioeaioe?th aeooo oiae?oiuei? aea?aeaae, i?oeue ? neeo noa?eo
e?oiienieo o?aaeeoe?e.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiioaaeanue a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoeiaiai iai?yieo
eaai?aoi?ii “Ethaeeia: na?oiaeyae, eoeueoo?a, aeooiai?noue”, ui
aoiaeeoue aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e E?eai??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaa oaeno ? ci?no E?oiieno Nai?eea Aaee/ea.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiie?aoi? aeyae, oeie e oi?ie aeooiaiino?
ea??aiee?a Oe?a?ie XVII — XVIII noie?oue, na?aae yeeo — Iao?i
Eiiaoaae/-Naaaeaea/iee, C?iia?e Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee, TH??e
Oiaeueieoeueeee, ?aai Aeaianueeee, Iaaei Oaoa?y, ?aai A?thoiaaoeueeee,
Iao?i Aei?ioaiei, Aeai’yi Iiiaia??oiee, Ieoaeei Oaiaiei, ?aai
Naiieeiae/, ?aai Iacaia, Iao?i ?aaiaiei, Ieeei I?eee, ?aai N??ei oa
?io?. Aaeaea oea ethaee, ye? a?ae?a?aaaee, ca naiae/aiiyi Naiieea
Aaee/ea, iiiioio ?ieue a inoi?i? Oe?a?ie, a oiio ?oii aei?, a/eiee i
?ene oa?aeoa?o ianee a niai iaai? ciaee aeooo /ano i aeooiaiino? ia?iaeo
Oe?a?ie XVII-XVIII noieioue.

Iaoa ?iaioe: oeyoii aiaeico aeya?a aeooiaiino? a ae?yo ? a/eieao oa
aeoieao aaoueiai?a Oe?a?ie, cia?aaeaieo o E?oiien? N.Aaee/ea,
aeine?aeeoe ci?no ? ooieoe?? aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae, ?
aeooiaiee oa aeoiaiee iioaioeiae oeueiai oai?o, aeaanoe caaaeueio
eiioeaioe?th aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae XVII-XVIIIno.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei aeeiiaoe oae? eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy:

1. Nenoaiii-aiae?oe/ii aea/eoe noai ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie aena?oeaiiy
aeooiaiino? ia?niiaae?a ooaeiaei?o oai??a, cie?aia oa?aeoa??a ? ia?ac?a
aea?aeaaieo ea??aiee?a.

2. Aeine?aeeoe aaiethoe?th ci?noo aeooiaiino? a iaooe? e e?oa?aoo??.

3. Iaa?oiooaaoe ?noi?e/io coiiaeai?noue iaiao?aeiino? ?ice?eooy
aeooiaiino? aea?aeaaieo ea?iaie/?a c E?oiieno Nai?eea Aaee/ea.

4. I?iaiaeicoaaoe ca Eioiienii Aaee/ea oa?aeoa?e ? ae?? i?iaiaeieo
aaoueiaiia c iaoith aecia/aiiy iniiaieo oi?i aeya?a aeooiaiinoi
ea??aieea aea?aeaae.

5. Aeyaeoe oi?ie ? ??ai? aeooiaiino? aaoueiai?a Oe?a?ie.

6. Neioacoaaoe aeniiaee i?i ci?no ? iniaeeaino? oeiieia?? aeooiaiino?
aaoueiai?a ? ia ?o iniia? noi?ioethaaoe eiioeaioe?th aeooiaiino?
ea??aieea aea?aeaae a E?oiien?. C?iaeoe caaaeuei? aeniiaee.

7. Ie?aneeoe ia?niaeoeai? aniaeoe e oeyoe ?ic?iaee aeaii? i?iaeaie o
iiaeaeueoiio aea/aii? oeueiai oai?o.

Iaoiaeieiai-oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee iaoeia?
eiioeaioe?? o?aeooaaiiy ? oeoia/aiiy eaoaai??? “aeooiai?noue” o i?aoeyo
A??noioaey, Aaaaey, A.Eiienueeiai, A.Neiai?iaee, A.Ein?aa, I.Aa?aey?aa,
A.Oeiea?oea, N.E?einueeiai oa ?i.; eiioeaioe?? aeooiaiino? ethaeeie ?
noni?euenoaa o i?aoeyo N.I?ie??aa, E.Eiaaia, E.Eieiaa?ai?; i?aoe?
I.AEoeeinueeiai, I.Eiiiiaiea, A.Ia?ea c ieoaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy ethaeeie
a e?oa?aoo?? oa ooaeiaeiuei? eiioeaioe?? ethaeeie; aeine?aeaeaiiy
A.Oaaetheiai? oa ?ioeo c i?iaeaie aeooiaiino? ia?niiaaea o ooaeiaeiueiio
oai??.

Iniiaieie iaoiaeaie ?: nenoaiia niinoa?aaeaiiy ? aiae?c E?oiieno Aaee/ea
c iiceoe?? aeooiaiino? iniaenoino?; iaoiae neioacoaaiiy
aeei?enoiao?oueny i?e i?aeaaaeaii? i?aenoie?a aiae?co. O ?iaio?
aeei?enoaii oaeiae ii??aiyeueiee iaoiae (oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue; e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? ii??aiyiiy oa?aeoa??a aaoueiai?a oiui).

Nooi?noue iaoiaeeee aeaii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia?ace (oi/iioa —
ooaeiaeii iiaeae?) aaoueiai?a eioiieno Aaee/ea aeine?aeaeothoueny c
oi/ee ci?o aeooiaiino? iaeneiaeueii anaai/ii, iaio aeoeaii i aieueo
noiaei ca oa?aeoa?ii aaoueiaie aiae?cothoueny ye oei /e ye oeiiaa a?oia
ea??aiee?a aea?aeaae.

A oiae? aiaeico a/eieia, ?en, ??aiy naiaeiiinoi ia?niiaae?a iinoieii
aecia/aeeny oa?aeoa? ?oiuei? ni?yiiaaiinoi ia aeia?i /e ia cei, ia aeaai
/e ia oeiaeo aea?aeaai i ia?iaeo, aai?noe/ia /e aeueo?o?noe/ia
nea?iaai?noue ?oiuei? naiaeiii? aeiyeueiinoi. Aeaoaeueii aeyaeyeeny an?
aecia/aeuei? i?aeaaeeie aeooiaiino? ea??aiee?a aea?aeaae.

Ana oea aea/aeinue aeey oiai, uia yeiiiaa oi/iioa aecia/eoe
iaeaeii-anoaoe/iee ? aeooiaiee iioaioeiae oa?aeoa?o ye eiaeiiai ie?aiiai
ia?niiaaea, oae i ethaeeie-ea?iaieea a oeieiio – eiioeaioe?th eiai
aeooiaiino?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae a E?oiien?
N.Aaee/ea ? aea/aiiy noaio ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie aaeeny o o?iiieia?/i?e
iine?aeiaiino? ae?yeueiino? aaoueiai?a – oea coiiaeaii
ae?aeaeoeei-aaiethoe?eiei i?aeoiaeii.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaei??th c ia?oeo ni?ia aecia/eoe
??ai? aeooiaiino? ea??aiee?a aea?aeaae o e?oiien? Nai?eea Aaee/ea; o
?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaia i?ea?iaeueia nenoaia e?eoa???a oa ioe?iie
aeooiaiino? ethaeeie, iaoiaeeea ?o canoinoaaiiy a aeine?aeaeaii?
e?oa?aoo?iiai oai?o.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? ianaiia?aae o iiaeaeueoiio aecia/aii?
iaoiae?a ? niinia?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue aeooiaiino? oa a ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy aeooiaiiai iioaioe?aeo oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioe?ththoue ?
iiaeeaeththoue e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? oa ?noi??ia?ao?/i? i?aeoiaee aei
aea/aiiy E?oiieno Aaee/ea /a?ac i?ecio aeooiaiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny iiaeeea?noth aeei?enoaiiy
?? iaoa??ae?a aeey aeeaoiai ? aeaoaeuei?oiai aea/aiiy E?oiieno Nai?eea
Aaee/ea. Iieiaeaiiy e aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia caeo/eoe aei
aoc?anueeiai eo?no “Aeaaiy e?oa?aoo?a”, a oaeiae niaoeeo?n?a oa
niaoenai?ia??a, aei iiaeeaeaiiai /e oaeoeueoaoeaiiai aea/aiiy oe?eueiiai
eo?no oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e.

A??ia?aei?noue ? iaa?oioiaai?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe caaacia/othoueny
aaaaoueia aaaiieie oai?aoe/ieie iieiaeaiiyie ? i?aeoe/ieie aeieacaie oa
oaeoaie c oaenoo oai?o. Ia’?eoeai?noue aeniiae?a, noi?ioeueiaaieo o
aeena?oaoe??, iaoiiaeaia iii?ith ia iaoeiao eia?eo e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa ?
o?einio??; canoinoaaiiyi aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?e
aeeiiaii? caaaeaiue eiaeiiai aoaio, ye?niei ? e?euee?niei aiae?cii
cia/iiai ca ianyaii iaoa??aeo.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa?:

1) o iiaeeaeaii? aea/aiiy ia?ac?a ? oa?aeoa??a E?oiieno Nai?eea Aaee/ea,
yea ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c ineoieia??, aeoiie ? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie ia
an?o ??aiyo ?? na?aeiiino?: a?ae i?e?iaeii-aaiaoe/ieo iciae ?
niaaeeiainoae aei o?einionueei-?aeaieia?/ieo iiceoe?e oa
iaaeaaia?/ii-aeoiaieo iiaeyae?a ? oi?i ia?aaea/? naiai aeaniiai
aeina?aeo ?ioei ethaeyi;

2) o cae?eniaii? nenoaiiiai aiae?co a/eie?a ae?th/eo in?a, oiaoi o
aeyaeaii? ??aiy aeooiaiino? eiaeiiai ea??aieea aea?aeaae a E?oiien?
Nai?eea Aaee/ea;

3) a inieneaii? ??aiy aeooiaiino? iaeiiai c e?aueo oai??a
?noi??ia?ao?/ii? i?ice – E?oiieno Nai?eea Aaee/ea;

4) o oi?ioethaaii? eiioeaioe?? aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae a
E?oiien? N.Aaee/ea.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oa aeniiaeia aeineiaeaeaiiy
caeienithaaeanue o aeiiia?aeyo ia iiaeia?iaeiiio neiiicioii «Ethaeeia:
iiaa, eoeueoo?a, iiciaiiy» (E?eaee ?ia, 1995), ia ?anioaeieainueeeo
«Neiai?iaeeinueeeo /eoaiiyo» (E?eaee ?ia, 1994), ia anaoe?a?inuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aeooiaiino?” (E?eaee ??a, 1995), ia ??
I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Ethaeeia: iiaa, eoeueoo?a, i?ciaiiy” (E?eaee
??a, 1995), ia eicaoeuee?e eiioa?aioe?? o i.Ee?a? (Ee?a, 1997), ia
??-a?e anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aeooiaiino?”
(E?eaee ??a — Ee?a). Aeena?oaoe?y /anoeiaie ? iiai?noth e?eueea ?ac?a
iaaiai?thaaeany ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e
E?eai??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo, aea e aoea
?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei caoenoo.

Ca iaoa?iaeaie aeena?oaoei? o aoc?, a e?oeayo oa a?iiac?yo E?eaiai ?iao
/eoaeeny niaoeeo?ne i i?iaiaeeeeny niaoenaiiia?e: «Aeooiaiinoue ethaeeie
a eioa?aoo?i XVIII noieiooy», «Aeooiaiee iioaioeiae E?oiieno Naiieea
Aaee/ea», «Aeooiaia nai??iaeiinoue eicaoeueeeo eioiienia», «Ooaeiaeii
iioa?i?aoaoei? eicaoeueeeo aaoaaeeia».

Ioae?eaoe??

Ani iniiaii iieiaeaiiy i aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aenaioeaii e iioaeieiaaii o 8 noaooyo ? 2 oacao.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo
aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (252 iaeiaioaaiiy). Ianya
oaenoo ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 154 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O Anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, aecia/ai? ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa, iniiai? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?ice?eo? iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a; ie?aneaii iniaenoee aianie
caeiaoaa/a; aeacai? i?noey oa niiniae ai?iaaoe??; aeeeaaeai? iieiaeaiiy,
ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Aaiethoe?y ci?noo aeooiaiino? a iaooe? e e?oa?aoo??”
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ieioeee ? no/aniee aoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai
aeooiaiino?, aecia/aii iniiae, ci?no, oi?ie ae?aaeaiiy, iciaee, ooieoe??
aeooiaiino?.

Aeyaeaii, ui ia nueiaiaei? ua ia ?nio? ai?iaiaaii?
iaoiaeieiai-oai?aoe/ii? nenoaie, yea aoea a ao?eaia o oe?e?niiio
?icoi?ii? aeooiaiino? – iei? niinoa??aathoueny eeoa ??ci? iai?yiee
aiae?co ?? nooiino?.

Aaiethoe?th ci?noo iiiyoue “aeoo”, “aeooa”, “aeooiai?noue” ?icaeyiooi
a?ae iaeaeaai?oeo noa?iaeaaiuei-a?aoeueeeo /an?a ? aei iaoeo aei?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Oi?ioaaiiy ci?noo eaoaai??? “eiioeaioe?y
ethaeeie” o o?einio?? oa e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa?” a o?iiieia?/i?e
iine?aeiaiino?, ?icaeyiooi i?ioean iaoeiai? iinoaiiaee ? ?ica’ycoaaiiy
i?iaeaie ethaeeie, aena?oeaii e?eueea eiai aoai?a.

A aioe/i?e o?einio?? ethaeeia o?aeooaaeanue ye oaea noai??iiy i?e?iaee ?
Aiaa, yea ? ia?aaeian?i iin??i aeooo, a nai aeooiaiee ii/aoie ?icoi?any
ye iaae?iaeea?aeoaeueiee ? aaciniaiaee.

O oaiaeaeueiiio noni?euenoa? iiaeyaee ?ic?eoeeny. C iaeiiai aieo,
ethaeeia aa/eeany nioe?aeueiith iaeeieoeath, “iie?oe/iith oaa?eiith”, a
c ?ioiai, ?noioith iaeooioai?aiith, oai??iiyi Aiaa.

Iaiieaoii?ci ?aianaino oeoia/ea ethaeeio ye “iaoa??aeueio ?noioo”, aea
ia i?inoi ?noioo, a ye iniaeno?noue, ui ooaa?aeaeo? naaa o nai?io
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio, naiino?eiiio ?nioaaii?; ye ?noioo, ui ona?aeiieth?
naith oe?ii?noue.

Ethaeeia aiioe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy ni?eeiyoa ye i?e?ieini, ui noaaeoueny a
oeaio? onueiai Anana?oo, ye ?noioa oai?/a e aeineiiaea a?ae i?e?iaee.
I?e oeueiio oaaaa aeoeaiooaaeany ia aa?iii?? aeoo? e o?ea, ia
/ooo?ai-aiioe?ei?e noi?ii?.

C?iaeaoe na?e aaaiiee aianie o ?icoi?iiy ethaeeie, i?ina?oeoae?
aeciaaaee, ui aiia, ethaeeia, ii?aeueia ? aeooiaia.

Ca A.Neiai?iaeith ? eiai oai???th i?i “aea? iaoo?e”, ethaeeia iiaeiia
oaeineiiaethaaoe nai? i?ciaiiy, naiaiaeo ? o?oaeiao ae?yeuei?noue, a uia
aooe uaneeaith, aiia iiaeiia i?ciaoe naaa, nai? cae?aiino? ? aea?aoe
a?aeiia?aeii i?aoeth aei aiiaeiae.

O aecia/aii? iiiyooy “ethaeeia” o XIX – ii/. XX no. oaaaa aeoeaioo?oueny
ia?aaeon?i ia oaeeo iniaeeainoyo: ia ii/oooyo (?.Aaiai), ia
naiiaecia/aii? ethaeeiith aeeoo?aiai aeai?o (N.E’??eaai?), ia aie?
(A.Oiiaiaaoa?), ia a?? aeeaeo nee (O.I?oeoa), ia ?ioo?oe?? (A.Aa?anii),
ia ia?aaeeaaiiyo no?aoo ia?aae e?ioeai naiai ?nioaaiiy (I.Oaeaeaaa?) ?
o.?i.

O OO no. o?einioe ? e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe? oaeiae ii-??ciiio i?aeoiaeyoue aei
aecia/aiiy iiiyoue “ethaeeia” ? “eiioeaioe?y ethaeeie”. I.AEoeeinueeee
iaaieioo? ia caaaa/aii? oyaeaiue i?i ethaeeio, ?ic?iaey? aaoi?nueeo
nenoaio e?eoa???a ? oaeoi??a aecia/aiiy ia?aco a oe?a?inuee?e
e?oa?aoo??. I.Eiiiiaiei aecia/a? i?iaeaio iiooeo cania?a a?aeoai?aiiy
aioo??oiueiai na?oo ethaeeie.

?acii aiie aaaaeathoue, ui ci?no iiiyooy “eiioeaioe?y ethaeeie” neeaaea?
noeoii?noue i?eioeei?a ooaeiaeiueiai cia?aaeaiiy ethaeeie, iiaeyae?a ia
?? nueiaiaeaiiy e iaeaooi?, aeooiaiee, ?ioaeaeooaeueiee oa aiioe?eiee
??ai? e aeeoo?ao iaoo, i?noea a noni?euenoa?, noinoiee c ?ioeie
ethaeueie. A.Eiceia aa/eoue ethaeeio ye oe?eee eiiieaen
o?ce/ii-iaoa??aeueieo, o?c?ieiai-aaiaoe/ieo,
oaiia?aiaioii-ineoieia?/ieo, nioe?aeueii-iiaooiaeo, aoe/ieo,
cae/a?ai-i?aaiaeo, iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ieo, na?oiaeyaeii-o?einionueeeo,
anoaoe/ieo oa ?ioeo ?en ? iniaeeainoae.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “?noi??y o?aeooaaiiy “aeooo”, “aeoo?”,
“aeooiaiino?” oa ooaeiaeiueiai cia?aaeaiiy ?o” a?aecia/aii, ui aioe/i?
o?einioe Ieaoii, A??noioaeue oaa?aeeee, ui “aeooa”, “aeoo”,
“aeooiai?noue” – oea “aea?oiee aia?a” oaeei ethaeyi, eio?? aeinoiei? ?
aiaiiiae?ai?; ai?thoue oai?eoe, aeeaiei ieneeoe ? aieiae?oe nai?i o?eii.

Na?aaeiueia?//y caaee/oaaei ?ae?a?eia noieanoe/ii-ii?ae?caoi?nueea
iaeooioai?aiiy ethaenueeiai aoooy.

A.Neiai?iaea nooue aeooiaiino? aaa/aa o i?aaae? oa ?noei?, o ae?iaeaii?
e oe?ioaaii? ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo canaae – aeia?a, /ano?, ni?aaaaeeeaino?,
ye? aeey aeeooy ? ae?yeueiino? ?noeiii aeooiaii? ethaeeie ?
ae??oaeueieie.

O?einionueea inieneaiiy aeooiaiino? a O?O no. aeyaey? iaaecae/aeio
neeaaei?noue, aaaaonoai ? aaaaoia?aii?noue oeueiai oaiiiaio ethaenueeiai
aoooy, ui aaea naii ii nia? ia?aaeaa/a? ia o?eueee i?aaii??i?noue, a e
?acoeueoaoe ??cieo iiceoe?e ? i?aeoiae?a.

O OO no. iaoeiaoe? (A.Einaa) aaaaeathoue, ui aeooiai?noue ? aioo??oi?
ono?aie?iiy oa?eoe a eiioaeo c aeuith ae?eni?noth, ii?aeiaoeny c iath ?
– ye iane?aeie oeueiai eiioaeoo ? ii?aeiaiiy – ia?aoai?eoe iaoa ?noai a
iiao iniaeno?noue, iiao i?e?iaeo.

E?oa?aoo?iciaaoe? oaa?aeyoue, ui aeooiai?noue – oea oaea nooi
ethaenueea, noni?eueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy, i?e?iaeieo
oa noni?eueieo ?en ? iciae, ae?e, a/eie?a ? naiiai niiniao aeeooy
ie?aii? ethaeeie /e noni?euenoaa, eio?a aaco?oueny ia oiio, ia ui naia
ni?yiiaaii ?oi? aoooy acaaae?: ia aeia?i ? aeaai nia? ? ethaeyi (aeia?a
/e aeaaa aeooiai?noue aai i?inoi aeooiai?noue); ia cei nia? e ?ioei
ethaeyi (cea aeooiai?noue aai aioeaeooiai?noue); i? ia cei, i? ia aeaai
i? nia?, i? ?ioei, a eeoa ia i?ei?oeaia caaeiaieaiiy nai?o iecueeeo
o?c?ieia?/ieo iio?aa (aacaeooiai?noue). Aiie noiaeyoueny ia oiio, ui
aeooiai?noue ia?niiaae?a ? acaaae? aeooiaiee iioaioe?ae ooaeiaei?o
oai??a ua iaeiaeine?aeaeai?.

O aeena?oaoe?? acyoi ca iniiao ci?no iiiyooy “aeooiai?noue”,
noi?ioeueiaaiiai o eaai?aoi??? “Ethaeeia: na?oiaeyae, eoeueoo?a,
aeooiai?noue”: «Aeooiaiinoue — oea oaea nenoaia oiiaiinoae i
?aaeaiaioaoeie iiaaaeiiee i aeie ethaeeie, oaeee ?iaaiue eoeueoo?e, i?e
yeiio ie?aia ethaeeia, a?oia ethaeae /e oeiea noniieuenoai (aai e
ethaenoai acaaaei) ni?yiiaothoue naith aeanio i?e?iaeo, nai? aeoiee,
aei? i aeiyeueiinoue (i iaaioue iaaeieeoith i?e?iaeo) ia oai?aiiy i
caa?aaeaiiy aeia?a, iaeaaea aa?iiii?, i?ae?aniiai a aeeooi iioeo ethaeae
i o.ii.”

Aeey aecia/aiiy aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae aaoi? aeena?oaoe??
oa?aeoa?eco? ia?niiaae?a ca iaeaaaeeea?oeie ??aiyie na?aeiiino?:
i?e?iaeii-aaiaoe/iee, iaoa??aeueii-iiaooiaee, nioe?aeueiee,
aoeeaoii-iiaooiaee, ii?aeueiee, cae/a?aee, i?aaiaee, iie?oe/iee,
o?einionueeee, ?aeaieia?/iee, iaaeaaia?/iee, anoaoe/iee.

Iniiaiith iciaeith ??aiy aeooiaiino?, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ?
noeeuei?noue, oyae?iiy aei aeia?a /e cea, ia?aaaaa iiceoeaiiai /e
iaaaoeaiiai a ia?niiaae?. Ooieoe??th aeooiaiino? aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaaaea? ni?yioaaiiy ia?niiaaea (aaoueiaia) ia caaacia/aiiy aeaaa ?
aeia?a a aeeoo? ?ioeo ethaeae, noni?euenoaa.

Naia ia aeuacaaaeaieo eiiiiiaioao aiae?co ae?e, aeoiie ? a/eie?a
aaco?oueny aecia/aiiy aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae a E?oiien? Nai?eea
Aaee/ea.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «Iniaeeaino? aena?oeaiiy aeooiaiino? ethaeeie ?
aeaaee a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?/i?e i?ic?» eaeaoueny i?i ooaeiaei?
oai?e ia oaie ?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai, ui caeaoi? aeeeeeaoe aeeaee,
iai?ae?iaiee ?ioa?an oe?ieeo aa?noa. Aei oiai ae aeina?ae oe?a?inueeeo
ienueiaiiee?a (?.A?aa?iee, O.Oaa/aiea, I.Einoiia?iaa, N.?oaeainueeiai,
?.O?aiea oa ?i.), na?ae/eoue, ui oea aoee ni?iae ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
ae?aiaoe/ieo iiae?e ieioeiai, aea oe?iei aoei i?aaenoaaeaii ?oo naieo
ia?iaeieo ian (caaaeaoe oi/a a «Aaeaeaiaee» O.Oaa/aiea /e «*i?io ?aaeo»
I.Eoe?oa). O aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii iaeyae ?noi?e/ii? i?ice ? iniiaieie
?c ieo noaee oai?e ?.Ia/oy-Eaaeoeueeiai «Ia?o? ee?anuee? eiyc?»,
«Oe?a?inueeee aaoueiai Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee ? eica//eia»,
«Oe?a?inuee? aaoueiaie ?aai Aeaianueeee oa TH??e Oiaeueieoeueeee»,
«Oe?a?inuee? aaoueiaie A?ooiaaoeueeee oa Oaoa?y», I.Noa?eoeueeiai
«Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee», A.*aeeianueeiai «Naaaeaea/iee»,
«Caii?iaeaey», A.Eauaiea «C?oeiiaaia ai?caei», «Caii?icueea neaaa»,
«Iaae Eiaeaoeueeei ii?iaii», A.Eaieiai o?eeia?y «Iacaia», I.?eaaea
«Ia?ayneaanueea ?aaea», TH.Iooeaoeea «Naiai Iae?e», «Aaeaeaiaee» oa
?io?.

Ioaea, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ?noi?e/iee i?ioean ia i?inoi
neeaaea?oueny c ie?aieo ethaenueeeo a/eie?a. Iaaiaee, a?i ? aeyaii aeueo
nee ? aaaea aei aeui? iaoe ia an?o ??aiyo ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?.
Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui iaa?oue ? a aeaeaeiio ieioeiio aoei aaaaoi
iiaiiaa?oieo aenieiaeooiaieo iniaenoinoae.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aeooiai?noue ea??aieea aea?aeaae a E?oiien? Nai?eea
Aaee/ea” i?inoaaeaii, ui aaoi?nuee? aeoeaioe cina?aaeaeothoueny ia oaeeo
aenieiaeooiaieo ?enao, ye iao??ioeci ? iaoe?iiaeueia naiia?aeaeai?noue,
aa?i?ci ? aai?ci, ??oo/?noue ? iaaiaaiai?noue; ia ae?oaiio ieai? iinoa?
a e?oiien? i?aaenoaaiee eicaoeueei? noa?oeie, yeiio i?eoaiaii?:
aeenoeeie?iiaai?noue ? iaiie??i?noue, aiey, aiaaiai?noue, o? ae aa?i?ci
? aai?ci, ethaia aei A?o/ecie.

Aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? i?aaioa ia i?inoi one?ae ca N.Aaee/eii
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ea??aiee?a aea?aeaae (aaoueiai?a), /e? ae?? iie?oe/ii
aieeaaee ia noai ? aeieth Oe?a?ie, a aecia/eoe ??aaiue aeooiaiino?
eiaeiiai c i?ia?aeieo ea?iaie/?a, eeoa iio?i (ia iniia? iane?aee?a
aiae?co ?oi?o ae?e ? i?iya?a aeooiaiino?) aeaanoe caaaeueio aaoi?nueeo
eiioeaioe?th aeooiaiino?, oiaoi i?e/eie, noai ? ??aaiue aeooiaiino?
oeiiai-ocaaaeueiaiiai ea??aieea Oe?a?ie XVII-XVIII noie?oue.

Aiae?c e?oiieno c iacaaieo oi/ie ci?o iieacaa, ui eiioeaioe?y
aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae, ca Aaee/eii, neeaaeia ? iaiaeiicia/ia,
ui aaoi? ?ic??ciy? o?e eaoaai??? ea??aiee?a Oe?a?ie — aa?i?, aioeaa?i?,
ethaee c iaae?acieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aaoi?nueea o?aeooaaiiy aeooiaiino?
I.Eiiaoaae/a-Naaaeaea/iiai, A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai, I.Aei?ioaiea, ?.Iacaie,
I.I?eeea, ?.N??ea” aecia/aii, ui a E?oiien? cciai? oe?a?inuee? aaoueiaie
— oea ethaee e?anea?, aiie iathoue /?oei ie?aneai? ?ene iaee//y, ia yeeo
a?aeaeaathoueny ia?aaaaeii ?icoi ? aeaai?iaenoai. O ?.Iacaie,
A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaeooioai?aia aaea naia ciai?oi?noue. E??i neiaanieo
ii?o?ao?a, N.Aaee/ei ai?noea o e?oiien? aeanyoue a?ao?/ieo cia?aaeaiue
iaeaeaeaoi?oeo aaoueiai?a, ui yne?aai i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeoiee Aaee/ea
? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue oyaeoe, yeith aoea naia ciai?oi?noue
aea?aeaaiiai ae?y/a XVII-XVIII no. Ia ?ac Aaee/ei aiai?eoue, ui
a?eueo?noue aeoeaieo caoeniee?a Oe?a?ie iaea caei?ia? i?aai?cie, iii?oi?
iciaee aenieiai ?ioaeaeoo ? iiaooiuei? iaoo?e. Ana oea oaeiae iaei
na?ae/eoe ? i?i iaeooioai?ai?noue.

Iaoa??aeuei? noaoee aenieiaeooiai? aa?i? e?oiieno ca iniiao ia
noaaeyoue. Aiie aeey ieo ia ? eoeueoii, a caniaii aeey ?nioaaiiy oa
aeinyaiaiiy iaoe, oi/a ?oi? (A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai, ?.Iacaie) ? i?inoeo
aa?noa iaoa??aeueia noaiiaeua cia/ii a?ae??ciy?oueny. Ie?ai? aaoueiaie
aaaaeaee, ui iaoa??aeuei? oe?iiino? i?/iai ia aa?o? a ii??aiyii? c
oe?iiinoyie aeooiaieie (?.Iacaia). Aea a?eueo?noue ea??aiee?a
oiae?oiuei? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ?icoi?ea, ui iaoa??aeuei? aeinoaoee —
iaeei ?c iaae?eieo cania?a aeinyaiaiiy ? iniaenoi?, ? aea?aeaaii? iaoe,
iaeei ?c a??ieo iieaciee?a noaa?eueiiai noaiiaeua ethaeeie a
noni?euenoa?. *anoi aaoueiaie (A.Oiaeueieoeueeee, ?.Iacaia) aeiiiiaaaee
ieeinoeiath noa?oeyi oa eae?eai, aoaeoaaee ca na?e ?aooiie oeiee,
iaaea?iaoaaee nai?o ai?i?a oa nithciee?a, oi/a a?io? i?eiee ia aieeaaee
ia ?oi? aaaeeea? ??oaiiy. Iaoa??aeuei? oe?iiino? a oe?eiio ni?eeiaeeny
ye e?ioeaaa iaoa, ye iniiaa aeaaa ia?iaeo. Oea ? ? iaeia c iaeaeueo
iciae aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae.

Aeine?aeaeaii, ui aeooiai?noue aa?i?a e?oiieno caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy
ona?aeiieaiiy naaa ethaeeiith, naiai nioe?aeueiiai noaio, iaeaaeiino?
aei iaaii? n?i’?, ?iaeo, iaoe??; a?ae noaaeaiiy aei ?ioa?an?a oeo a?oi,
aei yeeo aiie aoiaeyoue nai?.

Oae, Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee aoa neiii oe?a?inueeiai oeyooe/a Ieoaeea,
?.Aeaianueeee — ca iioiaeaeaiiyi ?c oe?a?ioe?a, ye? aoee i?ae aeaaeith
Iieueu?, I.Aei?ioaiei — ?c a?enueeiai? ?iaeeie, aaoueei eiai aoa
iieeiaieeii, ?.Iacaia — oe?a?inueeee oeyooe/ eicaoeueeiai ?iaeo. On?
aiie aeeaiei ?icoi?thoue oa?aeoa? ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ae iniiaieie a?oiaie
? ae?thoue a ?ioa?anao oe?eiai noni?euenoaa. Oea oaeiae oa?aeoa?eco?
iiooaei?noue ?oiueiai aeooo. *ano?oa ca ana aiie a?iiaaenuee? ?ioa?ane
noaaeyoue aeua nai?o iniaenoeo, /ei noai?ththoue iaaeiei naaa i?aie
aeniei? aeooiaiino? e aeueo?o?noe/iino?.

Aieiai? iiceoeai? ia?niiaae? e?oiieno (oiaoi ethaee — ea??aieee) c oi/ee
ci?o nioe?aeueiino?- oea aenieina?aeii? ae?y/?, a oiio aiie aenooiathoue
i?ioe nioe?aeueii? iani?aaaaeeeaino? (A.Oiaeueieoeueeee, I.Aei?ioaiei,
?.Iacaia, ?.N??ei).

C iiceoe?? aoeeaoo, cie?aia, noaaeaiiy aei aaouee?a oa ?ioeo ethaeae,
aa?i? a?ae??ciythoueny nai?i i?ea?iaeueiei oaeoii, cae?aiinoth aeeeeeaoe
iaaecae/aeio i?eoeeuei?noue ai?i?a, ethaeae, ae?oc?a, i?aeeaaeeo ?
nithciee?a aei naaa oa ao?th ai?ao aei ai?ia?a (iae/ano?oa
A.Oiaeueieoeueeee, ?.Iacaia, ?.N??ei). Ea??aiee-aa?ie caaaeaee iiaaaea?
oi/eo ci?o aoaeue-eiai. Oaea ethaeeia iiaea?oueny a e?oiien? ye
aeeeth/ii oaeoiaiee ? aeeoaenueee ioae?ee ea??aiee, ui iiaaaea? ? i?e
iaaiae? iaaea?iao? nai?o i?aeeaaeeo oa eicae?a. Aeey eicae?a ? ia?iaeo
oae? iinoao?, iia aaoueee ??aei?. Aeoo ?iaeeie aeey oaeeo ethaeae — oea
aeoo onueiai ia?iaeo. I?i oaeiai iiaiaee?y ia?iae caaaeaee i???, ca
oaeeie ea??aieeaie ?aea ia a?e.

I?i neeo aeooo ethaeeie-ea??aieea na?ae/aoue aeeoo?aa niaaa, aeeaiei
ona?aeiieaia noaaeaiiy aei naiai iaia’yceo, aei i?aoe?, aei i?e?iaee oa
??aeii? caie?, ye iciaee iaea?aeeiino?, /ooeeaino?, oaaaeiino?,
iaooiaiiino?.

Aa?i? e?oiieno c iniaeeaith oaiith noaaeyoueny aei cae/a?a ? i?aa
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. *a?ac noaaeaiiy aei a?eiaeo iaaeaaiue naiai
ia?iaeo ?ice?eaa?oueny ??aaiue na?aeiiino? ae?th/eo in?a (I.Aei?ioaiei,
?.N??ei). Aeooiaiee na?o aaoueiai?a c iiceoe?? cae/a?a a?aeaeoi
aaaaoia?aiii — /a?ac aniaeoe iaeaea an?o oiai/anieo o?aaeeoe?e,
ia?yae?a, ?eooae?a oa nayo. Iaa?ae’?ii? aeooiai? iio?aae o aeeoo?
oiai/aniiai aaoueiainoaa — oiaeeoe aei oea?eae, aeio?eioaaoeny an?o
o?enoeyinueeeo eaiii?a oa nayo. Aena?oeaia e o?aaeeoe?y i?eoiaeeoe a
/oaeee ae?i c aea?oieaie. Aa?iee aoa cae/ae ia Oe?a?i? — oea aoaioaaiiy
iai’yo? i?aaee?a, cie?aia, oeueiai iaea?eueoa aeio?eioaaeeny a n?i’?
Iao?a Aei?ioaiea. Ioaea, aeooiaii-ia?yaeiaa noa?a o aeeoo? aa?i?a
e?oiieno caeiaea aaaeeeaa i?noea.

Aeniea eiioeaio?aoe?y ae?? ia iaeeieoeth oaenoo a?ae/oaa?oueny a
ai?ciaeao, aea aa?i? oai?eee iia? caeiie ia iniia? /e a iaaeao cae/a?a,
ui caoeuaee oe?a?ioe?a a?ae ceioai?ieo ooene?a, iaiaaeaiue ? aeoeaii
ni?eyee ?icaoaeia? Oe?a?ie.

A/eiee ? ae?? ea??aiee?a-aa?i?a ni?yiiaai? ia i?ciaiiy, ?icoi?iiy,
aeio?eiaiiy caeii?a ? ia ai?iiy ioe?ieoe ?o ? i?ioenoiyoe ?i (o ?ac? ?o
iaaoiaiiino?). Oea ni?eyei aeoiaaiith ii/ooo?a iioei?cio, aeanii?
a?aeiino? (A.Oiaeueieoeueeee, ?.Iacaia). Caeiiiaeaa/a ae?yeuei?noue
oaeeo ea??aiee?a a?aeaeaaeany o iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo aea?aeaaieo
aeieoiaioao: a oi?aa?naeao, noaooyo, eenoao, iinoaiiaao
(A?eioea?e?anueeee ? Ia?ayneaanueeee oi?aa?naee A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai oa
?i). E??i oiai, aa?i?-ea??aieee oo?aothoueny, uia on? oe? aeieoiaioe
aoee aeey Oe?a?ie aea?aei? ? noaee a aeia?ioai?aiiyi aeey ia?iaeo.

O aeena?oaoe?? ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie noaeaeaiiy aaoi?a i?i oa,
ui aa?i? e?oiieno — naiia?aeaeai? iie?oeee, oaeaiiaeo? aeeieiiaoe, ye?
iaiaaaeeny nai?th iie?oe/iith ae?yeuei?noth i?eianoe iaeneiaeueio
ei?enoue nai?e aea?aeaa?, ia coieiyth/enue iaa?oue oiae?, eiee oea
oeiaeeoue iniaenoei ?ioa?anai (A.Oiaeueieoeueeee, ?.Iacaia, ?.N??ei).
Acaaae?, ia?ac A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai ye iie?oeea o Aaee/ea — oea
iaeooioai?aia i??eei aacnoii?aii? ai?aaiino? ? oai?/i? neee, oa, ca /ei
aeaiaeyoue cia/ei?noue oa oe?ii?noue ae?yeueiino? an?o, ooi ea?oaaa ?
aoa caae?yiei o oai?aii? i?oe? aea?aeaae.

Iath/e iao??ioe/io iaea?aeei?noue, aieiaea?nueeee oeno, oi?iiy ea?oaaoe
ianaie, aiie caeiaoee nia? iaiioeoia noaiiaeua ? aeinyaee aeueo ??ai?a
ethaeyiino?.

O e?oiien? aeea?aoaai? aa?i?, ye? i?e/aoi? aei anueiai, ui
a?aeaoaa?oueny o aeeoo?, iaiaaathoueny ?aae?coaaoe eiiieaen aieaethaieo
?aeae, aeinyaoe noaoono a?eueii? ethaeeie oeyoii aecaieaiiy ?? a?ae
aoaeue-yeiai aiiaeaiiy (A.Oiaeueieoeueeee, I.I?eee, ?.N??ei).

Acaaae? ?aeaieia?y oaeiai ea??aieea ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c ?aeaieia??th
ia?iaeo, aaco?oueny ia ?icoi?ii? eiai ?ioa?an?a ? i?aaiaiue eiai aeooo.
Ae?th/e caaaeaee a?aeiia?aeii aei iniaenoeo ia?aeiiaiue /e
caaaeueiiia?iaeieo oe?eae, a oaeiae a?aoiaoth/e ?ioa?ane nioe?aeueieo
a?oi ? ie?aieo in?a, aiie (?.Iacaia, ?.N??ei), ye i?aaeei,
ia?aiaaathoue. ? oiio /a?ac oaanue e?oiien i?ioiaeeoue aenieiaeooiaia
?aeay, yeo i?ooi ia iiaea i? aaeoe, i? caoiioaoe — ooai?aiiy a?eueii?,
iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, niai?ii? Oe?a?ie.Iaeaea an?
aaoueiaie-aa?i?, ii/eiath/e a?ae Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai ? cae?i/oth/e
?aaiii Iacaiith, oi/a a o aeeaei?, oi/a a i?aena?aeiii i?aaioee aei
oeueiai.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeyaeaii, ui ia?aaaao o ?icaeoeo aeooiaiiai iioaioe?aeo
aaoi? E?oiieno iaaea? ?aeaae?noe/i?e oi?i? na?aeiiino? ea??aieea-aa?iy.
A??a a Aiaa ? aecia/aeueiei ? iaenooo?a?oei e?eoa???i o oi?ioaaii?
na?oiaeyaeo aiaeae?a, ye? ae?yeueii ? aeoeaii “aeiiiiaaathoue” Aiaia?
oo?aoaaoeny i?i ioi/oth/eo, i?i i?aeeaaeeo, i?i i?eai?/aieo.

O E?oiien? Aaee/ea nenoaia ca?oiiaaieo ia?ac?a aa?i?a iaae?a? iiooaeii?
iia/aeueiino? o ieai? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy. Ea??aieee aeneiaeththoue
iiceoeaia noaaeaiiy aei iaa/aiiy, iieacaiee a?ae/ooiee iaaeaaia?/iee
aieea aenieiaeooiaii? iniaenoino? ia ioi/oth/eo (A.Oiaeueieoeueeee). O
ae?aeiaao iiceoeaieo ia?niiaae?a /anoi eaeaoueny i?i ina?oo ye i?i
aecia/aeueiee oaeoi? oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? ? iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino?, aeooiaiiai caaaa/aiiy noni?euenoaa.

Aaoi? E?oiieno /a?ac nenoaio iiceoeaieo aa?i?a ooaa?aeaeo?
iaiao?aei?noue aeio?eiaiiy aeniei? eoeueoo?e iiaaae?iee oa anoaoe/ieo
i?eioeei?a, ?ice?eaa? anoaoe/i? eaoaai??? (i?ae?ania ? iaeaeia, aeniea ?
iecueea, aeia?i ? cei). Ia oeueiio ??ai? ae?eia? iniae iathoue nai?
aeiiae aei ?ioeo ? naith nenoaio e?eoa???a aeey ioe?ithaaiiy ?oi?o
ae?e. Aiie aeiiaeea? aei naaa ? aeiaaathoue oeueiai a?ae ?ioeo. Ana oea
a?i/a? aenieee ??aaiue ?oiuei? aeooiaiino?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “Canoaeaeaiiy aioeaeooiaiino?
TH.Oiaeueieoeueeiai, I.Oaoa??, ?.A?thoiaaoeueeiai, Ae.Iiiaia??oiiai,
I.Oaiaiea” ?icaeyae ea??aiee?a-aioeaa?i?a c iiceoe?? eiioeaioe??
aeooiaiino? ethaeeie aeyaea oaea.

Ciai?oi?noue aioeaa?i?a iaeaea i?/ei ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aa?i?a. Oea
ethaee, ye? iathoue caei?ia? i?aai?cie, neeuei? oa?aeoa?e, e?anea? o?ea,
nooi eicaoeueeo ciai?oi?noue, ui oae /e ?iaeoa i?eaa?oa? oaaao ethaeae.

Aeey aaaaoueio in?a oeueiai oeio iaoa??aeueia ? iaeaieiai?oei ?
iaeaaaii?oei. Iinoathoue aioeaa?i? a e?oiien? ia?aae /eoa/ai ye oae?, ui
oo?aothoueny eeoa i?i caaeiaieaiiy aeanieo iaoa??aeueieo aaaeaiue, ui
noai?ththoue aeey naaa nieiaeea aeeooy (?.A?thoiaaoeueeee, I.Oaoa?y,
Ae.Iiiaia??oiee, I.Oaiaiei). Aioeea??aieee aai ae cian?i ia
i?aoeththoue, aai ae i?aoeththoue ca?aaee i?eaooe?a, ioneathoue iie?oeeo
ia naiiieea. ? e oae? ai?ciaee, eiee iaoa??aeuei? oe?iiino?
caaieiae?aathoue ?oi?i ?icoiii ? na?aeii?noth, ia?aoai?ththoue ?o oei
naiei ia eaaeiaaaeieo oa aacaeooiaieo ethaeoe?a (TH.Oiaeueieoeueeee).
Eaae? a?io?, i?aenooiii caaieiaaia aeaaea ?iaeyoue aioeea??aiee?a
aacaeooiaieie, a na?aeiiino? o ieo iaoa??aeueia ia o?eueee ia?aaaaea?
iaae aeooiaiei, a e ii?iaeaeo? ceee, ai?iaeee ii?iaeuei?e ethaeei? ?
iaa?oue caei?iaiio aeocaeo aeoo (?.A?thoiaaoeueeee, I.Oaoa?y).

Oaeei /eiii, N.Aaee/ei i?aee?aneth?, ui noaaeaiiy ethaeeie aei
iaoa??aeueieo aeaa oa oe?iiinoae aieeaa? ia oi?ioaaiiy iaa?oue ??
ii?aeueiino? oa aeooiaiino?.

Ea??aieee-aioeaa?i? /anoeiai aai iiai?noth ia ona?aeiieththoue
nioe?aeueieo ?ioa?an?a a?oi ethaeae, aei yeeo aiie iaeaaeaoue, ia
?icoi?thoue oa?aeoa?o ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ae iniiaieie a?oiaie ? ae?thoue
aeaeaei ia a ?ioa?anao noni?euenoaa. Oaeiae nooo?ai ? oa, ui nai? aeani?
?ioa?ane aiie noaaeyoue aeua ?ioa?an?a nai?o ni?eueiee?a, i?ea?/iee?a,
?ioeo ethaeae ? iaa?oue aeua a?iiaaenueeeo (TH.Oiaeueie/aiei,
?.A?thoiaaoeueeee).

Aoeeaoii-iiaooiaa na?aeii?noue ? ae?yeuei?noue ea??aieea-aioeethaeeie
iicia/ai? aeaaei?noth, oaiiethanoaii. Nai?ie a/eieaie a?i ie?aneth? naaa
ye ia/oeio, iaii?yaeio ? iaa?aeio ethaeeio, o yei? iaia? ia oa, ui
iiaaae aei ?ioeo, a e iaa?oue aeaiaioa?ii? naiiiiaaae (iaea?eueo
oa?aeoa?ii aeey TH.Oiaeueieoeueeiai). Nai? noinoiee c ethaeueie
aioeea??aiee ni?yiiao? ia oa, uia aeei?enoiaoaaoe an?o o nai?o oe?eyo. ?
yeui a?ae /oaeicaiiiai aeaaeeee iiaeia ae?noaoe aeaaeo, aaaaonoai,
iaoa??aeuei? oe?iiino? /e a?io?, cae/aeii, ooo aeei?enoiao?oueny
caaoaeueiaaia “ue??noue” oa “a?aeaa?o?noue”. sse i?aaeei, naia oae?
ea??aieee-aioeaa?i? aeoiathoue eeoa i?i iie?oe/io ea?’??o, i?aaiooue
aenieiai /eio, aeiiaaathoueny aaoueiainueei? aoeaae (?.A?thoiaaoeueeee).
E??i oiai anueiai, ciaoiaeeii e a?aie/ia /anoiethanoai
(TH.Oiaeueieoeueeee). Eiee eicaee ii?aaeeee aaoueiaiia? i?eaeooeoe na?e
aiii?, oi a?i ia iiaeoiaa i?i i?aeo?eieo ia?iaeieo niiae?aaiue ? i??e, a
iae?aco noaa ?yooaaoe naaa — ao?e o “/aioe?”.

Aioeaeooiaia ethaeeia o?eueee ia neiaao ethaeoue ? iiaaaea? nai?o
aaouee?a. ?? ethaia iaue?a, a oiio a?eueo?noue ?c oaeeo “aiaeae?a” ia?
i?aee?aneaio naiiiiaaao, nai?ie a/eieaie aeeeeea? o ethaeae
iaaaeiaieaiiy ? iaiaaenoue. Oea eeane/i? c?acee aioeaeooiaiino?.

Ethaeeia-ea??aiee oaeiai oeio iinoa? ia?aae iaie iaaecae/aeii
aai?noe/iith, cacae??niith ?, ia iiaeyae aaoi?a aeena?oaoe??, a?ae
iiae?aiiai o?ii?/ii-caiaeeiai aai?cio ii?iaeaeo?oueny c?aaea
(TH.Oiaeueieoeueeee, I.Oaoa?y).

I?ee?eaath/enue caaaeueieie oe?eyie, aiie, ye i?aaeei, aeeaooue eeoa
aeey naaa, i?e oeueiio oai?youe «oiaaeie, caiono?iiy, a?aei?noue» ? ia
caaeoiothoueny i?i iane?aeee cai?? ae?yeueiino?. Oaeei
aaoueiaiai-ea??aieeai (TH.Oiaeueieoeueeiio, Ae.Iiiaia??oiiio, I.Oaoa??,
I.Oaiaieo) oae? aenieiaeooiai? i?eioeeie, ye /ani?noue, aeia?ioa,
aoiai?ci, a oei ia/a i?iiaoa?ci, ia i?eoaiaii?.

Cae/a?ao na?aeii?noue aioeaeooiaia ethaeeia ni?yiiao? ia cei, ia
ii?ooaiiy o?aaeeoe?e. ?? a/eiee eaeooue o ?ic??c ?c caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie
cae/ayie (?.A?thoiaaoeueeee, I.Oaoa?y). Oea na?ae/eoue i?i aioeaeooiaia
noaaeaiiy aei eicaoeueeeo ? ia?iaeieo ?eooae?a, ia?yae?a oiui.

TH?eaee/ii-i?aaiaa i???ioaoe?y ? ae?yeuei?noue aioeaa?i?a iieacai?
N.Aaee/eii ye caoai?, ine?eueee aiie ia aeio?eiothoueny caeii?a, /anoi
aaniethoii na?aeiii ii?ooothoue ?o. Aioeaa?i? ona?aeiieaii ooeeythoueny
a?ae oai?aiiy iiaeo i?aaiaeo aeieoiaio?a, aoiaiieo ? ni?aaaaeeeaeo.
A?aoo?-?aoo /anoi aai iaa?oue ? iianye/an oae? ea??aieee ii?ooothoue
nai?, iniaenoi i?eeiyo?, aaoueiainuee? oee?eoey?e e oeace, c?aaeaeothoue
nai?i neiaai ? ia?oeyieai (TH.Oiaeueieoeueeee, Ae.Iiiaia??oiee).

Iie?oe/ia na?aeii?noue ea??aiee?a-aioeaa?i?a oe?ae iaiaaeaia
(TH.Oiaeueieoeueeee, I.Oaoa?y). sse i?aaeei, oe? iniae ia iathoue
aeina?aeo o ea?oaaii? aea?aeaaith, ia ?icoi?thoue noo? aeeieiiao??.
Noinoieaie i?ae eeanaie ? noaiaie aaoueiaie ia oe?eaaeyoueny, ai ia
oi/ooue i?i ieo ciaoe, a i?i noinoiee i?ae iaoe?yie ? ia?iaeaie – ia
aaaeathoue ? aiai?eoe. A oiio aiie ia aa?ooue o/ano? o neeaaeiiio
i?aeia?iaeiiio aeeoo? — a?eueo?noue ?o caa?oaiue aei aeaaeee non?aei?o
aea?aeaa i?iaeeeoiaaia iaai?iiyi ni?aaeoeny c aioo??oi?ie i?aeoniaeoeyie
? i?ioenoiyiiyie (TH.Oiaeueieoeueeee, Ae.Iiiaia??oiee).

?aea? ethaenoaa ? noni?euenoaa — ia aeey oaei? a?oie ethaeae, ?o
aaaeyoue eeoa iiaeeeaino? caa?aaoe aoeaao a?ae iiaeeeaeo cac?oaiue
noa?oeie, iinooieoeny ?in?enueeiio ? iieuenueeiio oeaio?ae?cio.
?aeaieia?/ia na?aeii?noue ? ae?yeuei?noue TH.Oiaeueieoeueeiai,
?.A?thoiaaoeueeiai, I.Oaoa??, Ae.Iiiaia??oiiai iinoathoue ia?aae iaie ye
ao?eaiiy ? aeya e?aeiuei? iaiaaeaiino?, aai?cio, a cia/eoue,
aioeaeooiaiino?. An? aai iaeaea an? ?aea? ni?yiiaai? ia caaeiaieaiiy
aeaaeiethanoaa ? caaaa/aiiy oeeo ea??aiee?a.Ca?aaee ?o ?aae?caoe??
aioeaa?i? cieuothoue“/oae?”, oi/a e aeoaea oe?ii? aeey Oe?a?ie ?aea?. A
oea aaea aeua oi?ia aioeaeooiaiino?.

Ia?aaaao a ?icaeoeo na?aeiiino? ea??aiee?a-aioeaa?i?a aaoi? iaaea?
?aeaae?noe/iiio ? aeoae?noe/iiio ni?eeiyooth, eio?a aeicaiey? ?i oai?eoe
cei, oaeueo. Ea??aiee-aioeaa?ie aeoiaaiee ii-nai?io, a?i cieuo?
noi?ioeaiee?a, o?eia? aoeaao ca aeiiiiiaith no?aoo oa aei?noieinoae.

Aioeaeooiaia ethaeeia ia aeae?a? cania?a aeey aeinyaiaiiy nai?o oe?eae,
ia caaeoio?oueny i?i aeniea e iecueea, e?aneaa e iioai?ia. Caaaeii aea
ia?niiaae? (TH.Oiaeueieoeueeee, ?.A?thoiaaoeueeee, I.Oaoa?y,
Ae.Iiiaia??oiee) iiaeai? ye ethaee c? neaaeei aeooii, aac onoaeaieo
ii?aeueieo ii?i ? i?eioeei?a, ia?aeiiaiue. Anth naith ae?yeuei?noue aiie
ni?yiiaothoue ia ii?ooaiiy i?enya ? ? iin?yie ceiai aeooo.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “Iniaeeaino? aa/aiiy aacaeooiaiino?
?.Aeaianueeiai, ?.Naiieeiae/a, I.?aaiaiea (Iao?eea)” aeyaeaii, ui oe?
ea??aieee aoee iaiine?aeiaieie. Nii/aoeo ?.Aeaianueeee ni?aaaaeeeai
aeei?enoiao? aea?aeaai? a?io?, ai?ei ieie ?icii?yaeaea?oueny, iaaeneea?
/anoeio ?o ieciaei eicaeai, ca?aeii ?c caiia?oii A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai ia
oeiaeo? ? nai?o eioo?a. Aea, iiaoaoe aaoueiaiii, a?i noa? oaeei
ei?enoiethaoeai, yeee ca?aaee a?ioae oeo?o?, iaa?oue aee?aaea? nea?ae
Aiaaeaia, a?ae?neaaoe ia?aae oeei eiai neia TH??y iiaeae? a?ae ieo.

Ca ?.Aeaianueeiai eicaoeueea noa?oeia noaea a?aeiaaeiaoaaoeny a?ae ?aooe
eicaoeoaa a ie?aiee eean, iaiaaath/enue cina?aaeeoe a nai?o ?oeao aaeeea
caieaaieiae?iiy oa i?aeaeaoe i?ae naith aeaaeo naeyi ? “ae??aieo”
eicae?a.

O E?oiien? eaeaoueny i?i oa, ui Aeaianueeee nia?oo ooeaa ii?icoi?iiy c
iiiceoe??th, a aeae? ii/eiaa oaeeaaoe aino??oeo cania?a – caieioa
Iieoaaueio ? Caii?iaeaey a?enueeiaith aeieaaeith. A?i aoa iaaiith i??ith
aai?noii, c?aaeeaoe Caii?icueea A?enueei, ia aeio?eiaaoe ia?oeyiee: “Ana
iiaiaeaeoaaoe c aaoith aieath”.

Aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? cina?aaeaeo? oaaao ia oiio, ui aeoaea /anoi oeae
aaoueiai ienaa oi?aa?naee, o yeeo iioe?thaaa a?aoeea? iia?aeiieaiiy. O
E?oiien? aeoeaioo?oueny, ui Aeaianueeee aoa ca?icoi?eee, ceiiai’yoiee,
/anii ia aeio?eioaaany naiai neiaa, iaiaaeae?a i?aaaeo. Oea
a?ae/oaa?oueny a eeno? Ieciaiai eicaoeoaa aei iueiai: “Oe ae,
iaiaaeaey/e i?aaaeo, oceeany ia i?aaaeiiiaoey Iooea?y ? ia eeoa aaea
eiai naiiai, aea e ?ici?ea aiaiai ? ia/ai e?ania i?noi iaoa Iieoaao”.
Aa?n?y Aaee/ea i?i aeeoi Aeaianueeiai ca oeaio – ??ii?/ia, o noaeaeaiiyo
i?i iueiai o?aieythoueny e aeineoue aino?? oa inoaeeea? ?yaeee. ?iaeeiny
oea ia c iaoith aeinoaoiuei iiaeaoe aeani? nai???aei? iiaeyaee ia
?noi??th i/eia ii?ae?, a nei??oa aeey oiai, uia i?aeoaa?aeeoe na?e inoae
ae?e Aeaianueeiai, nea?iaaieo i?ioe ?in??, eio?a aaea oiae? aeiaaaea ia
a?aoa?nueeiai ?aeiaiiy, a iiaiiai i?aeaeainoaa.

A ia?ac? ?.Naiieeiae/a e?oiienaoeue aeae?ey? i?iyae aia?oiino?,
iaaecae/aeii? naiiaiaaiaiino?, caa?oiueino?, iaa?oue aei?noieino?. Aei
naiai noi?ioeaieea Aei?ioaiea a?i noaaeoueny iaaoiaiii, aanue /an
iaiaaa?oueny i?ea?aoe eiai c? naiai oeyoo.

A inia? Iao?eea ii?aeiai? iioya aei aeia?ioai?aiiy ? aacaeooiaiee
i?aaiaoeci, iaai?iiy ?aae?coaaoe iniiai? iai??e, c?aaeieoeoai.

O «Aeniiaeao» ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aeieacaaoe, ui iinoaaeaia i?iaeaia aeooiaiino? ethaeeie, ia?o ca ana
ea??aieea aea?aeaae iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueia, aeena?oaio i?iaiae?coaaa
aeooiaiee ??aaiue iiaiaee??a Oe?a?ie ia??iaeo ?o?ie.

Nai?eei Aaee/ei, ia caaaeath/e ia eiai neiiao?? oa aioeiao?? aei ie?aieo
aaoueiai?a, o oe?eiio ia? aeineoue /?oei ie?aneaio eiioeaioe?th
aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae. Nooue ?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aea?aeaaiee
ea?iaie/ iiaea /anii (ca yeeoinue oiia oa ianoaaei, i?e
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ni?eeoaaii? c aioeaeooiaieie ethaeueie /e a
iiaaae?ioe? c ai?iaii) aeiionoeoe a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae oiai /e ?ioiai
i?aaeea aoeeaoo aai e iaa?oue ii?ooeoe i?eioeei ii?ae? oiui, aea a
aaniethoi?e a?eueoino? eiai cai???a, ae?e ia an?o ??aiyo ?ioo?oe?? oa
na?aeiiino? ia? ia?aaaaeaoe aeia?ioai?aiiy — oo?aioa i?i iaoa??aeueiee
aeinoaoie, aioo??oi?e ? ciai?oi?e ie? oa niie?e, ina?oo, iaoeo ? oiiae
aeey oai?/ino? oe?a?ioe?a. Oiaoi, aeooiai?noue ea??aieea aea?aeaae
iiaeiia aooe aenieith, aaaaoia?aiiith ? caeaoiith oai?/i i?iyaeoeny a
??cieo oi?iao aeia?ioai?aiiy, ca aoaeue-yeeo ianoaaei ? oiia. Iniiaieie
aae?anaoaie aeia?ioai?aiiy aenieiaeooiaiiai ea??aieea iathoue aooe
ia?aaeian?i Oe?a?ia ? ?? ia?iae.

Ci?no aeooiaiino?, ca E?oiienii Nai?eea Aaee/ea, i?iyaey?oueny a oaeeo
iniiaieo oi?iao ? ia oaeeo ??aiyo na?aeiiiai ethaenueeiai
aeia?ioai?aiiy:

A?ae i?e?iaee ea??aiee aea?aeaae ia? aooe ia o?eueee noeeueiei aei
aeia?ioe ? aeia?ioai?aiiy, a e iiaeiai aieiae?oe iiooaeiei ?ioaeaeoii oa
i?eaaaeeaith ciai?oi?noth, ioaei?i oa?aeoa?ii, neeueiith iaoo?ith.

Ia oeo?ath/enue nai?o iaoa??aeueieo noaoe?a, aenieiaeooiaiee ea??aiee
aea?aeaae iiaeiai oo?aoaaoeny i?i iaeaaeia iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy
an??? ni?eueiinoe, anueiai ia?iaeo.

Aenieee aeoo aeaaea?y aea?aeaae iaa aooe a iaaeao naiiiiaaae ? iiaaae
aei ie?aii? ethaeeie ? oe?eiai ia?iaeo, iaa?oue, aei ai?ia?a, aea oey
iiaaaa iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia iniia? aeeaieeo ciaiue i?i ethaenuee? e
i?e?iaei? aeinoi?inoaa.

A inia? aenieiaeooiaiiai (/e oi/a a iaeooioai?aiiai) iiaeiiaeaaeoey
ie?ai? ethaee e oaanue ia?iae iiaeii? aa/eoe c?acie naiia?aeaeaiino? e
aioiaiino? aei naiiiiaea?oae, ii?yaeiino?, /aniino? ? ni?aaaaeeeaino?.
Oiae? aeia??a aei eiai aeia?ioai?/eo caaeoi?a, ieai?a ? ae?e aoaea
caaacia/aia ? ?acoeueoao aa?aioiaaiee.

Iniaeeao oaaao N.Aaee/ei i?eae?ey? noaaeaiith aeaaeeee aea?aeaae aei
cae/a?a ? nayo ia?iaeo — eiai aeooiai?noue iiaeiia ia o?eueee aeieeaaoe
c ia?iaeii? aeooiaiino?, a e ceeaaoeny a ?aeeia oe?ea.

Noa?? e iia? caeiie aaoueiai-aeia?ioai?aoeue iiaeiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe
aea?aeaaieoeueeei iai??ai ? oe?eyi.

Aa?oiaia aeaaea a aea?aeaa?, iino?eii iaaieioo? e?oiienaoeue, iiaeiia
iaeaaeaoe ia?aaeian?i ethaeei? iaeooioai?ai?e, aeina?ae/ai?e, ioae??e ?
aeaeaeiaeyaei?e, aaeaea oaea aeaaea — iniiaia caii?oea aeia?ioai?aiiy.

Aaoi? E?oiieno iino?eii aiai?eoue i?i iaoe?iiaeueio i?eiaeaaei?noue ?
iaoe?iiaeuei? neiiao?? oa aioeiao?? iiaeiiaeaaeoey; ea??aiee Oe?a?ie,
ia?aeiio? a?i, iiaea oai?eoe aeia?i aeey naiai ia?iaeo eeoa oiae?, eiee
a?i eiai ethaeoue aai oi/a a iiaaaea?.

Ia?o? iciaee aeooiaiino?, ye iai??e e ieaie aeia?ioai?aiiy,
aeyaeythoueny o aeanieo caaeoiao oa ?aeayo ea??aieea aea?aeaae, aea a?i
iiaeiai i?eneooaoeny ? aei aeoiie nai?o i?aeeaaeeo, c?noaaeyoe ?o c
?ioa?anaie e niiae?aaiiyie ni?aa?o/eciee?a.

Iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iciae ? caii?oe aeooiaiino? aea?aeaaioai?oey,
aaaaea? N.Aaee/ei, ? eiai iaaiaei?noue. Aea a??a a Aiaa ia? i?iyaeyoeny
ia no?eueee a aano?aeoieo na?oiaeyaeii-o?einionueeeo iiaeyaeao,
iiceoe?yo, ne?eueee a eiie?aoieo ae?yo ia aeaai ia?iaeo ? Oe?a?ie, “ai
neaao Aiaa”.

Aeuith i???th ? aeuith ?enith oa?aeoa?o oe?a?ioe?a, i?aee?aneth? aaaaoi
?ac?a e?oiienaoeue, ? aieaethai?noue — iacaeaaei?noue nooo?aa, a ia
oi?iaeueia ? oei/aniaa. A oiio aaoi? aeoaea /anoi e ??cei ??ii?co? iaae
oae caaiith “aaoiiii??th”. Aeoo iaoe?? ? aeoo ia?iaeo — iacaeaaei?noue.
Oea ? ? aeua aeaai ? aeia?i ia?iaeo — i?ae?ania ? aeniea a na?aeiiino?
ea??aieea Oe?a?ie. A yeui aieiaea? ia ?icoi?? oeueiai ? ia ai?aoueny ca
aieth ia?iaeo, oi a?i aacaeooiaiee. Aioeaeooiaiee a?aeaea? ia?iae o
“i?aeaeainoai”.

O oe?eiio iiaeia aiai?eoe ? i?i iia/aeueiee i?eeeaae ae?yeueieo oa
aeoeaieo aaoueiai?a ? iieeiaiaeoe?a Oe?a?ie. N.Aaee/ei ia ?ac
i?aeiineoue oo?aioo A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai, ?.Iacaie, I.Aei?ioaiea oa ?ioeo
i?i iaiao?aei?noue ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy. Aaoi?ia? aaeaeiny neacaoe, ui
aeooiai?noue ea??aieea aea?aeaae aaaaoa ia?aaeian?i ia?aaea/ath,
aeiianaiiyi aei oe?ieeo ian e?aueo ia?iaeieo cae/a?a ? o?aaeeoe?e.

Ioaea, Nai?eei Aaee/ei ia? /?oei ie?aneaio, aaaaoo ca ci?noii ? aeyaeaio
a aaaaoueio oi?iao oa ia ??cieo ??aiyo na?aeiiino? eiioeaioe?th
aeooiaiino?.

O iiaeaeueo?e ?iaio? iaae ?ica’ycaiiyi oe??? i?iaeaie iiaeia ia o?eueee
ooi/ithaaoe ? iiaeeaethaaoe ciaeaeaia, a e ?icoe?thaaoe eiei ieoaiue.
Oae, iai?eeeaae, ua o?eueee ii/aoi aeine?aeaeaiiy aeooiaiino?
eicaoeueei? noa?oeie, ?icaeyiooi ie?ai? ia?ace, ia aea/aii aeooiai?noue
Anacaii?icueeiai oa ?a?no?iaiai eicaoeoaa oiui.

I?ney anueiai iiaeia aoaea ae/a?iii aeine?aeeoe aeooiaiee iioaioe?ae
E?oiieno a oe?eiio.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii o oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1)Naoiiia TH.I. Ia?iaei? aeoie oa E?oiien Nai?eea Aaee/ea i?i Aiaaeaia
Oiaeueieoeueeiai ye ea??aieea aea?aeaae // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee
a?niee. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998. — ? 2. — N.23-26.2)Naoiiia TH.I.
Iniiai? ?ene ea??aieea aea?aeaae (ca E?oiienii Nai?eea Aaee/ea) //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998. — ? 3. —
N.1-6.3)Naoiiia TH.I. Eiioeaioe?y aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae o
E?oiien? Nai?eea Aaee/ea // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.-
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998. — ?4. — N.1-7.4)Naoiiia TH.I. E?oiien Nai?eea
Aaee/ea ye aeya eiioeaioe?? aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae.//
Oi?ioaaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue oai?/i? iniaenoino?. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. 28 ea?oiy 1998 ?. a i. E?eaiio ?ic?. Naeoe?y ?.
O?eieia?y. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea ? ina?oa, 1998. N.185– 189. —
(A?ae?ioa/ea “I?eaei?i?ianueeiai iaoeiaiai a?nieea”).5)Naoiiia TH.I.
Eiioeaioe?y aeooiaiino? o E?oiien? Nai?eea Aaee/ea // Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeiiai neiiic?oio “Ethaeeia: iiaa, eoeueoo?a”. — E?eaee ??a,
1995. — N.529-530.6)Naoiiia TH.I. Aeaye? aniaeoe aeooiaiino? ethaeeie a
E?oiien? Aaee/ea //Eoeueoo?a – aeooiai?noue – ienoaoeoai: Ca. iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue. — Ee?a, 1995. — N.63-70.7)Naoiiia TH.I. Ethaeeia ye ao?eaiiy
aeooiaiino? (ca E?oiienii Nai?eea Aaee/ea) //Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
aeooiaiino?. Ca??ea iaoa??ae?a anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? o E?eaiio ?ic?. — E?eaee ??a, 1995, — N.153-155.8)Naoiiia
TH.I. Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee — ac??aoeue aenieiaeooiaiiai ea??aieea
eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae (Ca E?oiienii Nai?eea Aaee/ea)//Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie aeooiaiino?: Ca. iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeae oa iia?aeiieaiue ??-?
Anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe??. — Ee?a — E?eaee ??a, 1997. —
N.390-392.9)Naoiiia TH.I. Aeooiaiee na?o ?.Iacaie //E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai,
“I?ina?oa” ? aeooiaiee ?aeaae oe?a?ioey: Iaoa??aee anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. — E?eaee ??a, 1994. — N.66.10)Naoiiia
TH.I. Eiioeaioe?y aeooiaiino? ethaeeie a ai?noiey??? A.N.Neiai?iaee oa
E?oiien Aaee/ea // O?einionueea, iaaeaaia?/ia oa e?oa?aoo?ii-ienoaoeueea
niaaeueia A.N.Neiai?iaee ? no/ani?noue. Iaoa??aee anaoe?a?inueeeo
i?aeaoc?anueeeo /eoaiue c iaaiaee 200-??//y nia?o? ieneeoaey. — E?eaee
??a, 1994. — N.105.Aiioaoe?y

Naoiiia TH.I. Eiioeaioe?y aeooiaiino? ea??aieea aea?aeaae
a E?oiien? Nai?eea Aaee/ea — ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.01 — oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a.-
Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao . — Caii??aeaey, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith ??aiy ? aniaeo?a aeooiaiino?
ea??aieea aea?aeaae o E?oiien? Nai?eea Aaee/ea oa i?noeoue iiaeaeueoo
oai?aoe/io ?ic?iaeo eaoaai??? “aeooiai?noue”.

I?ea?iaeueia iaoiaeeea aiae?co e?oa?aoo?iiai oai?o, yea aoea aeei?enoaia
a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaioai?oe?a, aeaea ciiao
aeyaeoe, iaa?oiooaaoe ? ocaaaeueieoe noaeaeaiiy, ui E?oiien — iaeei ?c
oeo oai??a, eio?ee iaaecae/aeii /?oei oa?aeoa?eco? ethaeeio ye oai?oey
?noi???, ? ia? ?icia?ooy aeooiaieo oa aioeaeooiaieo ia?ac?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaea aooe iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee aiae?co oai?o
e?oa?aoo?e c iaeyaeo eiai aeooiaii? cia/eiino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiioeaioe?y, aeooiai?noue, aeoo, aeooa, aaoueiai,
ea??aiee aea?aeaae, iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay.

Aiiioaoeey

Naoiiia TH.I. Eiioeaioeey aeooiaiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaey ainoaea?noaa
a Eaoiiene Naioeea Aaee/ei

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.01 — oe?aeineay eeoa?aoo?a. — Caii?iaeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao. — Caii?iaeuea, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia o?iaith e aniaeoai aeooiaiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaey
ainoaea?noaa a Eaoiiene Naioeea Aaee/ei e niaea?aeeo aeaeueiaeooth
oai?aoe/aneoth ?ac?aaioeo eaoaai?ee “aeooiaiinoue”.

I?eaeiaeueiay iaoiaeeea aiaeeca eeoa?aoo?iiai i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ay
auea eniieueciaaia a i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe oai?oeia
ainoaea?noaa, aeaea aiciiaeiinoue i?iyaeoue, iainiiaaoue e iaiaueoue
noaeaeaiey, /oi Eaoiienue — iaeii ec oao i?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ia iaiau/ii
/aoei oa?aeoa?ecoao /aeiaaea eae oai?oea enoi?ee e ioee/aaony
?aciiia?aceai aeooiaiuo e aioeaeooiaiuo ia?acia.

Aeaiiia enneaaeiaaiea iiaeao auoue iniiaie aeey ?ac?aaioee aiaeeca
i?iecaaaeaiey eeoa?aoo?u n iiceoeee aai aeooiaiie cia/eiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiioeaioeey, aeooiaiinoue, aeoo, aeooa, aaoueiai,
?oeiaiaeeoaeue ainoaea?noaa, iaoeeiiaeueiay eaeay.

Annotation

Safonov J.N. Conception of spirituality of a head of a state in
Samuel Velichko’s Chronicle

The thesis (manuscript) for awarding the candidate degree in speciality
10.01.01 — Ukrainian literature, Zaporohie State University. Zaporohie,
1998.

The defending manuscript deals with the level of spirituality of the
head of the state in Samuel Velihko’s Chronicle and contains the further
theoretical ground work of the category “spirituality”.

The original methods of fiction analisis, which were used in the process
of research of the activities of the state leader gave the opportunity
to express, to ground and to be convinced of the fact that the Chronicle
is one of the works which characterizez the man as the creator of
history unussually distinctly, it is differ of spiritual and
antispisitual figures.

The given research is the base for the workingout of analysis of a
literary work from the point of view of its spiritual value.

Key words: conception, spirituality, spirituality of the man, the leader
of the state, hetman, national idea.

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