AEAAeAI?ss I?EEI?AeIIIEO A?ENUeE OE?A?IE

?iai? Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai

Iaeoo?ia Ia?eia Ay/aneaa?aia

OAeE 344:345.213(477)

EIIO?AEO

I?I I?IOIAeAEAIIss A?ENUeEIAI? NEOAEAE

A?IIAAessIAIE OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 20.02.03 — A?enueeiaa i?aai;

a?enueeia? aniaeoe i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Caeiaoaa/ _________ Iaeoo?ia I. A.

Oiaeueieoeueeee –1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oeea?eueiiai i?aaa oa oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano
Aeaaeai?? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?iai? Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai,
Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao o ni?aaao ioi?iie aea?aeaaiiai ei?aeiio Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio AAOUeIAIOeAAA I?ia Aeieo??aia,

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a,

eaoaae?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa oa oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano, aeioeaio eaoaae?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

caneoaeaiee th?eno Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

I?IEIIAIEI Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/, *a?eanueeee ?inoeooo oi?aae?iiy,
eaoaae?a oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo aeenoeeie?i,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e;

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe *OIAE A?eoi? Aaneeueiae/,

Aeaaeai?y I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?i. Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai,

eaoaae?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa,

ia/aeueiee eaoaae?e.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y —

Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ?inoeooo ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? ne?ae/eo ? ae?ciaaa/?a, I?i?noa?noai aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 20 o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 70.705.02 i?e Aeaaeai?? I?eei?aeiiieo
a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?iai? Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai ca aae?anith: 280003,
i.Oiaeueieoeueeee, aoe. Oaa/aiea, 46.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aeaaeai?? IAO
(280003, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, aoe. Oaa/aiea, 46).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 15 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo.

O/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe,

aeioeaio A. Aae?iia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

I?ioean ?icaoaeiae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ia no/aniiio aoai? aeiaaa?
iaaaeyei? oaaae aei ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi
a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie. Aaeeeiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? aaeineiiaeaiiy
nenoaie eiiieaeooaaiiy oe?a?inueei? a?i??, yea ia?ac? cae?enith?oueny ia
ci?oai?e iniia? (ia i?aenoaa? caaaeueiiai a?enueeiaiai iaia’yceo oa
aeia?ia?eueii ia i?aenoaa? eiio?aeoo).

Iiaecia ?inoeoooo eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae
coiiaeth? ?yae i?iaeai eiai canoinoaaiiy, ye? aeyaeythoueny i?e
oeeaaeaii?, aeino?ieiaiio ?ic??aaii? eiio?aeoo oa o i?aeoeoe?
a?enueeiaeo noae?a Oe?a?ie ? iio?aao? ?aoaeueiiai oa aeineiiaeueiiai
aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ieo aniaeo?a eiai canoinoaaiiy.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia oaeeie
ianoaaeiaie. Ii-ia?oa, iecea oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue uiaei eiio?aeoo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae a?iiaaeyiaie Oe?a?ie (iiiyooy,
th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea, ci?no) ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ? ia?ic?iaeaieie oa
aeeneon?eieie. ?o ae??oaiiy a oiiaao no/aniiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy oa
i?iaaaeaiiy a?enueeiai? ?aoi?ie ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ii?iioai?/i?
ae?yeueiino?. Ii-ae?oaa, caneoaiao? ia oaaao aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?a
eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae. Oey i?iaeaia
iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeoaaeany a e?oa?aoo??, oi/a ?? ?ieue a i?aeoe/i?e
noa?? aeineoue aaaiia. Ii-o?ao?, ?yae iieiaeaiue a?enueeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae ? noia?a/eeaeie ?
ia a?aeiia?aeathoue ?aae?yi nueiaiaeaiiy. Ianaiia?aae oea noino?oueny
i?aenoaa oa ii?yaeeo ?ic??aaiiy eiio?aeoo. ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae ia i?aenoaa? eiio?aeoo c oi/ee ci?o th?eaee/ii?
oaoi?ee oa ?aae?caoe?? i?aaiaeo ii?i caeeoa?oueny iaaeineiiaeei,
ine?eueee ia?aiaoyaeaia aace?//th ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae
a?iiaaeyiaie Oe?a?ie oa eiai cia/aiiy a oiiaao i?iaaaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
?aoi?ie. I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea? nenoaia ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, ye?
aecia/athoue ii?yaeie oeeaaeaiiy, ci?ie, ?aae?caoe??, i?eieiaiiy ae??
eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae oa i?aeoeee eiai
canoinoaaiiy.

Ca iaoeiai-oai?aoe/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy acyo?
i?aoe? oa aeniiaee oaeeo o/aieo, ye: A.E.A?a?/?a, N.I.?aaiia,
A.A.??ueiiaiei, I.?.AEeaaee?i, A.A.AEa?iaeia Ae.I.Aao?ao,
A.?.Iiainueieia, ie?ai? iai?aoethaaiiy c oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa.
Aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ie?ai? iai?aoethaaiiy ?in?enueeeo aaoi??a (?.I.Iaoei,
N.A.Oa?aoeiae/) uiaei c’ynoaaiiy i?aaiai? i?e?iaee oa ci?noo eiio?aeoo
i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae a ?in?enuee?e Oaaea?aoe??. A
?iaio? ocaaaeueithaaeeny ieoaiiy aeioe?eueiino? aaaaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?
eiio?aeoiiai niiniao eiiieaeooaaiiy a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue oa
aiae?co?oueny aeina?ae eiiieaeooaaiiy a?i?e aeayeeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yi
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe Aeaaeai?? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?e oeea?eueiiai
i?aaa oa oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe ia oaio “Eiio?aeo ye
i?aenoaaa anooio a?iiaaeyi ia a?enueeiao neoaeao”, caoaa?aeaeaio
Ia/aeueieeii IIO Aea?aeeiiei?aeiio Oe?a?ie 15 n?/iy 1998 ?ieo,
a?aeiia?aea? Ia?niaeoeaiiio ieaio aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue a
I?eei?aeiiieo a?enueeao Oe?a?ie a 1998–2005??, iia’ycaia c i?ia?aiith
i?iaaaeaiiy a?enueeiai-i?aaiai? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o eiiieaeniiio aiae?c? caeiiiaeaanoaa ? iaoeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e uiaei ieoaiue eiiieaeooaaiiy Ca?ieieo nee oa ?ioeo
a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ca eiio?aeoii oa
o ae?iaeaii? ia eiai iniia? iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e,
ni?yiiaaieo ia oaeineiiaeaiiy a?enueeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy noaaeeenue
oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aeaoe ?noi?eei-i?aaiaee aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy ?inoeoooo eiiieaeooaaiiy
a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ca eiio?aeoii.

2. Aecia/eoe iiiyooy oa c’ynoaaoe i?aaiao i?e?iaeo eiio?aeoo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae.

3. Aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? i?aainoa’?eoiino? noi??i i?e oeeaaeaii? eiio?aeoo
i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae.

4. Anoaiiaeoe caaaeueiee ii?yaeie oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae.

5. Ie?aneeoe ci?no eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae
oeyoii iiae?eo eiai oiia ia ?iia?aoeai? oa aeiaia??i?.

6. Cae?enieoe caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?aenoaa i?eieiaiiy ae??
eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeee canoinoaaiiy a i?e
ae?aeaeoe/iiai, iaoeiai-iaoa??ae?noe/iiai, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaiai,
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai oa ?ioeo iaoiae?a iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy.

Aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy, ui i?noyoueny a ?iaio?, a?oioothoueny ia
eiinoeoooe?eieo ii?iao, a oaeiae ia ii?iao caeiiiaeaa/eo oa ii?iaoeaieo
aeo?a, ui ?aaoeththoue ii?yaeie i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae ca
eiio?aeoii, aeinyaiaiiyo iaoee o?oaeiaiai, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa,
oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, ?ioeo aaeocae th?eaee/ii? iaoee.

Aeena?oaio aeei?enoiaoaaea i?aeoeeo a?enueeiaeo noae?a Euea?anueeiai oa
Oiaeueieoeueeiai aa?i?cii?a oa Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio ca 1995-1998??,
Ocaaaeueiaiiy noaeiai? i?aeoeee a?enueeiaeo noae?a Oe?a?ie ii ?icaeyaeo
nea?a a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a ia ae?? oa ??oaiiy i?aai?a a?enueeiaiai
oi?aae?iiy ? a?enueeiaeo iinaaeiaeo in?a, i?iaaaeaia A?enueeiaith
eieaa??th Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aieaooaaiiy
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a.

A ?iaio? cae?enith?oueny ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c /eiiiai a?enueeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie c caeiiiaeaanoaii ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??,
i?iaiae?ciaaii aeaye? aniaeoe i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae a ?ioeo
e?a?iao (NOA, Aaeeeia?eoai?y, ssiii?y, O?aioe?y, O?I).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? ia?oei
a oe?a?inuee?e th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? eiiieaeniei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae ca
eiio?aeoii o a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiiyo Oe?a?ie. O ?aieao i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa a?aeiia?aeii aei iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia ?icaeyae
? caoeno aeiinyoueny ianooii? iieiaeaiiy:

1) c’yniao?oueny th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae;

2) ?ice?eaa?oueny iiiyooy eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae a ianooiieo aca?iiiia’ycaieo cia/aiiyo: ye oi?ia ?aae?caoe??
a?iiaaeyiaie i?aaa ia aea?? aeaeo caeiyoino? (ia i?aoeth); ye
th?eaee/iee aeieoiaio; ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??iee aeo; ye
i?aaia?aeiioaiiy c i?eaiaeo i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae; ye
?inoeooo a?enueeiaiai i?aaa;

3) cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaiia eeaneo?eaoe?y eiio?aeo?a i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae ca ianooiieie e?eoa??yie: ca neeaaeii
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a; caeaaeii a?ae noa?e canoinoaaiiy (aeaeo
a?enueeiaiai oi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?ie); ca no?ieii; ca noaooth
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey; caeaaeii a?ae aeaeo a?enueeiai? neoaeae (ae?enii?
aai a caian?); caeaaeii a?ae oiia eiio?aeoo; ca oi?iith eiio?aeoo; ca
i?aaiaei noaoonii a?iiaaeyieia ia iiiaio oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo;

4) aea?oueny iiiyooy a?enueeiai-o?oaeiai? i?aainoa’?eoiino? a?iiaaeyi ye
aeaeo niaoe?aeueii? o?oaeiai? i?aainoa’?eoiino?, i?ae yeith ?icoi??oueny
caeaoi?noue a?iiaaeyi oeeaaeaoe eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae i?e iayaiino? iaiao?aeieo aeey oeueiai oiia, oeyoii ?aae?caoe??
yei? aiie aeciathoueny noi?iiith eiio?aeoo;

5) i?iaiaeeoueny ?iciaaeoaaiiy a?enueeiai-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? oa
a?enueeiai-o?oaeiai? i?aainoa’?eoiino? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a;

6) aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?aaiaee noaoon oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a a?enueeiaeo
oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie, ye? ae?thoue a?ae ?iai? aea?aeaae a inia? eiiaiaee?a
a?enueeiai? /anoeie oa ?ieue eiaeiiai c ieo i?e eiiieaeooaaii?
a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ca eiio?aeoii;

7) iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue cai?ie iiiyooy iaeia/a ia a?enueeiao
neoaeao — “aea?aeaaa, a?ae ?iai? yei? ae?? I?i?noa?noai iai?iie Oe?a?ie
a inia? eiiaiaee?a a?enueeiai? /anoeie (ia/aeueieea onoaiiae)” ia:
“aea?aeaaa, a?ae ?iai? yei? ae?? oeaio?aeueiee i?aai a?enueeiaiai
oi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?ie a inia? eiiaiaee?a a?enueeiai? /anoeie”;

8) i?iiiio?oueny aeciaoe i?noea neoaeae, a?enueeiai-o?oaeiao ooieoe?th,
no?ie eiio?aeoo, ii/aoie aeeiiaiiy neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a iaiao?aeieie
oiiaaie eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae;

9) ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i iio?aao cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? ianooiieo
aeae?a eiio?aeo?a i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae: eiio?aeo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae o a?enueeiaiio oi?ioaaii? Oe?a?ie;
eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae a eiie?aoi?e a?enueeia?e
/anoei?; eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae a eiie?aoi?e
a?enueeia?e /anoei? ia eiie?aoi?e a?enueeia?e iinaae?;

10) iaa?oioiao?oueny aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue caeiiiaeaa/iai
cae??ieaiiy ia?ae?eo i?e/ei, c yeeo a?iiaaeyieio iiaea aooe a?aeiiaeaii
o i?eeiyoo? ia a?enueeiao neoaeao ca eiio?aeoii oa iiaeeea?noue
inea?aeaiiy aaci?aenoaaii? a?aeiiae a oeeaaeaii? eiio?aeoo;

11) i?iiiio?oueny anoaiiaeoe ni?iuaio i?ioeaaeo?o ?ic??aaiiy eiio?aeoo
i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae o ca’yceo c iacaaeia?eueiei
?acoeueoaoii aei?iaoaaiiy;

12) a?aoiaioo?oueny iaiao?aei?noue anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaii iiai?
i?aenoaae i?eieiaiiy ae?? eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae ca ?i?oe?aoeaith a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey – “o ca’yceo c nooo?aei
oa (aai) nenoaiaoe/iei iaaeeiiaiiyi oiia eiio?aeoo”.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui
oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoenue o
ae?yeueiino? th?eaee/ii? neoaeae Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo o ni?aaao ioi?iie
aea?aeaaiiai ei?aeiio Oe?a?ie, o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a c iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i “I?aaiaa
?iaioa a Ca?ieieo neeao Oe?a?ie”, “I?aaiaa ?iaioa a I?eei?aeiiieo
a?enueeao Oe?a?ie” o iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e ?iaio? neooa/?a, o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e ? i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo oa
i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c ie?aieo oai cacia/aieo aeenoeeie?i. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aae?ciaai? o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? Aeaaeai?? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie oa o caeiiioai?/?e
ae?yeueiino? Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo o ni?aaao ioi?iie aea?aeaaiiai
ei?aeiio Oe?a?ie ii oaeineiiaeaiith a?enueeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny a?aeiia?aeieie aeoaie ?aae?caoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue aaoi?ii ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?aaa ? naiaiaee ethaeeie
oa no/aniee noni?eueiee i?ia?an” (ethoee 1999?., i.Oaeai?iae), a oaeiae
aeeeaaeaeeny ia iaoiaeieia?/ieo nai?ia?ao aeeeaaea/?a ? aae’thieo?a
Aeaaeai?? IAO o 1998-1999 ?ieao. Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee ?iaioe aoee
aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a c i?aaeiaoo
“I?aaiaa ?iaioa a I?eei?aeiiieo a?enueeao Oe?a?ie”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii i’youe iaoeiaeo noaoae,
a yeeo a?aeia?aaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, ye? ioiieththoue a?n?i
i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a.

Ianya aeena?oaoe?? 168 noi??iie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
neeaaea?oueny ?c 227 iaeiaioaaiue (ia 19 noi??ieao). Aeiaeaoee
i?noyoueny ia 16 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoa e iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny
nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia, nooi?iue ai?iaaoe?? oa
e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e c i?iaeai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae — iiaee
niin?a eiiieaeooaaiiy a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie” i?enay/aiee
oai?aoe/iei oa i?aeoe/iei i?iaeaiai noaiiaeaiiy ?inoeoooo eiiieaeooaaiiy
a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ca eiio?aeoii. O
iueiio c’yniao?oueny i?aaiaa i?e?iaea oa iiiyooy eiio?aeoo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae, aea?oueny eeaneo?eaoe?y oa aeaee
eiio?aeo?a.

Aaoi? ?ice?eaa? ?noi?e/ii-i?aaia? ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy ?inoeoooo
eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae, i?inoaaeo? ?icaeoie
a?i?? ye iaiao?aeiiai ao?eaooo aea?aeaae c /an?a Ee?anueei? ?on? aei
no/aniiai ia??iaeo oa cacia/a?, ui ?noi??? a?aeii? /eneaii? niiniae
eiiieaeooaaiiy a?i??, ui ci?ithaaee iaeia iaeio: ?aaiaeanieoeueea oa
oaiaeaeueia iiie/aiiy, iaeiainoai oa ?ae?oonueea nenoaia, i?eioniaee
iaa?? ia iniia? caaaeueii? a?enueeiai? iiaeiiino?, oiui. Niin?a
eiiieaeooaaiiy a?enueea aeiaie? /anoi na?ae/eoue i?i i?noea ? ?ieue
a?i?? a aea?aeaa? oa ?aeaieia?th aea?aeaae.

Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue o na?o? ?nio? aeae?eueea niinia?a
eiiieaeooaaiiy a?i??: ca i?eciaii, aeia?ia?eueii (oiaoi ca eiio?aeoii)
oa ca ci?oaiei i?eioeeiii. Aaoi? coieiy?oueny ia oa?aeoa?enoeoe?
i?ioan?eieo a?i?e, ia ?o ia?aaaaao oa iaaeie?eao. Iacaaaeath/e ia
aei?iaiaecio nooi aeia?ia?eueieo a?i?e, yea aaaaea?oueny ?o aieiaiei
iaaeie?eii, a na?o? niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei cai?ie i?eciaiiai
aai ci?oaiiai a?enueea ia i?ioan?eia. Iaeiae aaaaeaiiy eiio?aeoiiai
niiniao eiiieaeooaaiiy a?enueea (ye ?aeeiiai i?eioeeio iaai?o ia
a?enueeiao neoaeao aai a ii?aeiaii? eiai c i?eciaii) aeiaaa? a?ae
aea?aeaae ??ciiiai?oieo caoiae?a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy caoe?eaaeaiino?
i?ioan?eieo a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a ye oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy aenieiai
iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, oae ? ?yaeii caoiae?a iai?yiiai
noeioethaaiiy.

Aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui aecia/aiiy nenoaie eiiieaeooaaiiy
a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie coiiaethaaeinue ia o?eueee caiice/aiiyi
aeina?aeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, aea e iaaieie ?noi?e/ieie ia?aaeoiiaaie.
Iniiae ?inoeoooo eiiieaeooaaiiy a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ca eiio?aeoii a oiio aeaeyae?, yeee a?i ia?
ca?ac a Oe?a?i?, aoee caeeaaeai? ua c naieo ii/aoe?a ca?iaeaeaiiy
aea?aeaae oa a?i?? ye aeaio aca?iiiia’ycaieo oa aca?iiiaoiiaeaieo
iiiyoue. Aaoi? i?inoaaeo? ?noi??th oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea c iiiaioo eiai
aeieeiaiiy c ooai?aiiyi Ee?anueei? ?on?, eiai ?icaeoie o neeaae?
?in?enueei? ?iia??? (ia’?aeiaiiy ?in?enueeeo caiaeue iaaeiei Iineae,
a?enueeia? ?aoi?ie ?aaia A?iciiai, Iao?a ?, ?aoi?ia 1904-1905?.?.),
naiino?eia ?nioaaiiy ie?aieo oe?a?inueeeo a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue a
1917-1918 ?ieao, ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? a?i?? o neeaae? Ca?ieieo nee N?N?
oa noai?aiiy no/anii? a?i?? iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Ia
i?aenoaa? ?noi?e/iiai aiae?co ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui iaia’yceiaith
neeaaeiaith an?o aac aeiyoeo a?enueeiaeo ?aoi?i ? ci?ia niinia?a
eiiieaeooaaiiy a?enueea.

A e?ioe? 80-o — ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a iaoiai noie?ooy, a ia??iae
i?iaaaeaiiy a aea?aeaa? iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo ?aoi?i, caii/aoeiaaieo
ia?aaoaeiaith noni?euenoaa, iinoaei ieoaiiy i?i i?iaaaeaiiy /a?aiai?
a?enueeiai? ?aoi?ie. Iaeiei c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo ieoaiue noaea ci?ia
niinia?a eiiieaeooaaiiy a?enueea, iniaeeai c iiiaioo i?iaieioaiiy
Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino?. Iaiao?aei?noue i?ioan?iiae?caoe?? a?i?? oa
aaaaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae ca eiio?aeoii ye iaeiiai ?c niinia?a
eiiieaeooaaiiy a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie coiiaeaia ia eeoa
ciai?oi?ie, i?aeaea?aeaaieie iiae?yie (ianaiia?aae cae?i/aiiyi ia??iaeo
a?enueeiaiai i?ioenoiyiiy oa “oieiaeii?” a?eie), aea e iaaieie
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieie oaeoi?aie. Na?aae oaeeo, a ia?oo /a?ao, iiaeia
iacaaoe aeene?aaeeoaoe?th a?i?? a i/ao noni?euenoaa (o/anoue o a?ei? a
Aoaai?noai?, o ae??oaii? aioo??oi?o i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo eiioe?eo?a ia
oa?eoi??? N?N?), ei?oiiiaai?noue a?enueeiaeo no?oeoo?, iaaaaeaiiy
iieiae? neoaeeoe oa iania? ooeeaiiy a?ae i?eciao ia ae?enio a?enueeiao
neoaeao. E??i oiai, noaaeeiny ieoaiiy i?i iaiiaeeea?noue oeiiieaeooaaiiy
a?enueea aeeeth/ii i?eciaieeaie /a?ac iacaaeia?eueiee noai ?o caei?ia’y
oa o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaee, iecueeee ina?oi?e ??aaiue
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a no?ieiai? neoaeae. A oeeo oiiaao aaaaeaiiy iaeio
ia a?enueeiao neoaeao ca eiio?aeoii ?icaeyaeaeinue ye iaea?eueo
i?eeiyoiee niin?a iiaeieaiiy e?ece a?enueeiai? i?aai?caoe??
noni?euenoaa.

Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e iiiaio caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie i?i aeia?ia?eueio
a?enueeiao neoaeao ? iaaecae/aeii ?icaaeoaeaiei, i?noeoue ??ciiiai?oi?
iaoi/iino? ? i?ioe??//y. Aeaye? ii?iaoeai? aeoe ? oei/aniaeie
(iai?eeeaae, oei/ania? iieiaeaiiy i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae
a?iiaaeyiaie Oe?a?ie, oei/ania? caaaeueiia?enueeia? noaoooe) ? oiio
iio?aaothoue yeiiiaa nei??oi? cai?ie ia iino?ei?. Ii?iaoeaii ia
a?aaoeueiaaieie caeeoathoueny aace?/ ieoaiue, ye? iathoue aaciina?aaei?
a?aeiioaiiy aei anooio ia a?enueeiao neoaeao ia i?aenoaa? eiio?aeoo, ??
i?ioiaeaeaiiy oa ca?eueiaiiy.

C’yniaoth/e i?aaiao i?e?iaeo eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae, aaoi? aeae?ey? o?e iniiai? oai??? eiai i?aaiai? i?e?iaee: 1) ye
??ciiaeae oeea?eueiiai aeiaiai?o; 2) ye aaei?i?no?aoeaiee aeiaia??; 3)
ye o?oaeiaee aeiaia??. Aeena?oaio a?aeoeey? oeea?eueii-i?aaiao oa
aaei?i?no?aoeaio i?e?iaeo a?aeiinei ca eiio?aeoii i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae oa iiynith? oea ianooiieie i??eoaaiiyie.
A?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue i?e i?ioiaeaeaii? a?enueeiai? neoaeae ia
i?aenoaa? eiio?aeoo aeeth/a?oueny aei iniaiaiai neeaaeo a?enueeiai?
/anoeie oa a?aeiia?aeiiai a?enueeiaiai oi?ioaaiiy oa
i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny iaeacai eiiaiaeoaaiiy, ia a?aei?io a?ae
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa. A?aeiia?aeii aei caeiiiaeaanoaa
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe? i?aeeyaathoue iaia’yceiaiio aea?aeaaiiio
iniaenoiio no?aooaaiith, ui a?aenooi? i?e aeeiiaii? iaia’yce?a ca
oeea?eueii-i?aaiaei aeiaiai?ii. Eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae ? niiniaii ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa ia i?aoeth, a?i ? ?acoeueoaoii
aca?iiiai aieaaeyaeaiiy eiai noi??i. Eeoa ocaiaeaeaiiy noi?iiaie an?o
oiia eiio?aeoo na?ae/eoue i?i oaeo eiai oeeaaeaiiy. I?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae ia i?aenoaa? eiio?aeoo a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
i?ioiaeaeaiiy no?ieiai? a?enueeiai? neoaeae, yea a?aeaoaa?oueny a iaaeao
aeeiiaiiy a?enueeiaiai iaia’yceo oa a?oioo?oueny ia aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio
aeo?, yeee aeeeth/a? aieea iniae ia oiiae i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae, a oiio /ene? ia ?? no?ie. Ia iiiaio oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae eiai noi?iie ? ??aiii?aaieie, ia
a?aei?io a?ae aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aeiaiai?o.

Eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae ia o?eueee oyae?? aei
o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o, aea e ? eiai iniaeeaei aeaeii. Ia
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a ca eiio?aeoii iaiao?aeii ?iciianthaeeoe o?oaeiaa
caeiiiaeaanoai o o?e /anoei?, yea ia a?aaoeueiaaia niaoe?aeueiei
caeiiiaeaanoaii. Naia oiae? eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae noaia ?aaeueiei caniaii caoenoo ?ioa?an?a
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a. Iiiyooy “eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae” iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe a ianooiieo aca?iiiia`ycaieo ?icoi?iiyo: 1)
ye oi?ia ?aae?caoe?? a?iiaaeyiaie i?aaa ia aea?? aeaeo caeiyoino? (ia
i?aoeth); 2) ye th?eaee/iee aeieoiaio; 3) ye
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??iee aeo; 4) ye i?aaia?aeiioaiiy i?ae
aea?aeaaith oa a?iiaaeyieiii c i?eaiaeo i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae; 5) ye ?inoeooo a?enueeiaiai i?aaa.

Aaoi? i?iiiio? ianooii? e?eoa??? eeaneo?eaoe?? eiio?aeo?a i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae: 1) ca neeaaeii
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a; 2) caeaaeii a?ae noa?e canoinoaaiiy (aeaeo
a?enueeiaiai oi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?ie); 3) ca no?ieii; 4) ca noaooth
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey; 5) caeaaeii a?ae aeaeo a?enueeiai? neoaeae
(ae?enii? aai o caian?); 6) caeaaeii a?ae oiia eiio?aeoo; 7) ca oi?iith
eiio?aeoo; 8) ca i?aaiaei noaoonii a?iiaaeyieia ia iiiaio oeeaaeaiiy
eiio?aeoo. Ca ia?oei e?eoa???i eeaneo?eaoe?? eiio?aeoe iiae?eythoueny
ia: eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ?yaeiaiai neeaaeo; eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae i?aii?ueeaie (i?/iaiaie); eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae iniaaie io?oea?nueeiai neeaaeo. Caeaaeii a?ae noa?e
canoinoaaiiy eiio?aeoe iiaeooue oeeaaeaoeny aeey i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae a Ca?ieieo neeao, Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaa?ae??,
I?eei?aeiiieo a?enueeao, Neoaea? aaciaee, a?enueeao Oeea?eueii? iai?iie,
aioo??oi?o a?enueeao I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa oa ?ioeo a?enueeiaeo
oi?ioaaiiyo, noai?aieo a?aeiia?aeii aei caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie.
Eeaneo?eaoe?y ca no?ieii eiio?aeoo aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe aeiiae i?aaiaeo
ii?i (no?ie eiio?aeoo ia iiaea aooe iaioei o?ueio aai i’yoe ?ie?a) oa
aieaaeyaeaiiy noi??i, ye? iiaeooue anoaiiaethaaoe no?ie eiio?aeoo ia
aeaniee ?icnoae, a?aoiaoth/e aeiiae caeiiiaeaanoaa. Ie?aii ne?ae
aeae?eeoe ia?oee eiio?aeo a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a ?yaeiaiai neeaaeo (3
?iee), yeee anoaiiaeth?oueny a ?iia?aoeaiiio ii?yaeeo. A?aoiaoth/e
iniaeeaino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie-ae?ieaie (a?aie/iee a?e oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo,
iaiaaeaiee ia?ae?e a?enueeiaeo iinaae, ye? aiie iiaeooue caeiaoe), ia
iniia? ii?i /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?iaaaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th eiio?aeo?a
caeaaeii a?ae noao? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a. Caeaaeii a?ae aeaeo
a?enueeiai? neoaeae eiio?aeoe iiae?eythoueny ia eiio?aeoe i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy ae?enii? a?enueeiai? neoaeae oa eiio?aeoe i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae a caian?. Ae?oaee aeae eiio?aeoo ia
ia?aaeaa/aiee iaoei caeiiiaeaanoaii, iaeiae aenoaathoueny i?iiiceoe??
uiaei eiai cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?. Ca oiiaaie eiio?aeoo aaoi?
aeae?ey?: a) eiio?aeoe c oiiaith i?i aei?iaoaaiiy aai aac ia?; a)
caeaaeii a?ae iaia’yceiaino? oiiae uiaei i?noey neoaeae oa
a?enueeiai-o?oaeiai? ooieoe??. Ca i?aaiaei noaoonii a?iiaaeyieia ia
iiiaio oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo ?ic??ciythoueny: 1) eiio?aeoe, oeeaaeai?
iniaaie, ye? ia ia?aaoaathoue ia a?enueeia?e neoaea?
(a?enueeiaiciaia’ycai? aai iniae, ui ia ia?aaoaathoue a caian?); 2)
eiio?aeoe, oeeaaeai? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie no?ieiai? neoaeae aai ca
eiio?aeoii, no?ie ae?? yeeo cae?i/o?oueny, a oaeiae eiio?aeoe, oeeaaeai?
eo?naioaie a?enueeiai-iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Noi?iie eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae” i?enay/aiee oa?aeoa?enoeoe? noi??i eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae — a?iiaaeyieio Oe?a?ie oa aea?aeaa?, a?ae ?iai? yei?
ae?? oeaio?aeueiee i?aai a?enueeiaiai oi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?ie a inia?
eiiaiaee?a a?enueeiai? /anoeie.

Aaoi? aea? caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo caeaoiino? a?iiaaeyieia i?ioiaeeoe
a?enueeiao neoaeao ia i?aenoaa? eiio?aeoo. Aeiaiaey/e ?nioaaiiy oa
aiae?coth/e nooue ie?aiiai aeaeo niaoe?aeueii? i?aainoa’?eoiino? —
a?enueeiai-o?oaeiai?, aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui i?ae iath
ne?ae ?icoi?oe caeaoi?noue a?iiaaeyi oeeaaeaoe eiio?aeo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae i?e iayaiino? iaiao?aeieo aeey oeueiai
oiia, oeyoii ?aae?caoe?? yei? aiie aeciathoueny noi?iiith eiio?aeoo.
Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui a?enueeiai-o?oaeiao i?aainoa’?eoi?noue iaiao?aeii
a?aeiaaeiaoaaoe a?ae i?aainoa’?eoiino? a?enueeiai-aaei?i?no?aoeaii?,
ine?eueee inoaiiy oa?aeoa?eco? caeaoi?noue ia?aaoaaoe ia no?ieia?e
a?enueeia?e neoaea?. ?e aeanoea? oae? iniaeeaino?: 1) i?aenoaaith
i?ioiaeaeaiiy no?ieiai? a?enueeiai? neoaeae ? aaei?i?no?aoeaiee aeo –
iaeac a?enueeiaiai eii?na?a i?i i?ecia eiie?aoii? iniae — i?eciaieea,
i?eeiyoee ia i?aenoaa? Oeaco I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie; 2) i?e i?ecia? ia
a?aoiao?oueny aiey i?eciaieea; 3) oiiae i?ioiaeaeaiiy neoaeae, o oiio
/ene? ?? no?ie, anoaiiaeththoueny caeiiiaeaanoaii; 4) iaaeeiiaiiy
caaaeueiiai a?enueeiaiai iaia’yceo oyaia aeey iniae canoinoaaiiy
caoiae?a i?eiono a?aeiia?aeii aei /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.
A?enueeiai-o?oaeiaa i?aainoa’?eoi?noue ? iniaeeaei, niaoe?aeueiei aeaeii
o?oaeiai? i?aainoa’?eoiino?. Aiia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth
caaaeueieo oiia o?oaeiai? i?aainoa’?eoiino? (aeinyaiaiiy iaaiiai a?eo oa
ineo?/ia caeaoi?noue aei neoaeae) oa i?aeaeuaieo aeiia aei iniae
(a?iiaaeyinoai Oe?a?ie, i?eaeaoi?noue aei i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae ca noaiii caei?ia’y, iaaiee a?e). Aeoiaey/e c aiae?co /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a?e, c yeiai iniaa iiaea
anooiaoe ia a?enueeiao neoaeao ? a?e, c yeiai aiia iiaea oeeaaeaoe
eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae — iiiyooy ia oioiaei? ?
ia caaaeaee aeieeathoue iaeii/anii. sse i?aaeei, eiio?aeo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae iathoue i?aai oeeaaeaoe iniae, ye?
aeinyaee 19 ?ie?a. Ii/aoeiaee a?eiaee e?eoa??e a?enueeiai-o?oaeiai?
i?aainoa’?eoiino? eo?naio?a a?enueeiai-iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ?
iaeiaioei: aiie iiaeooue oeeaaeaoe eiio?aeo c 18 ?ie?a aai c 17 ?ie?a,
yeui ?i aeiiaieoueny 18 ?ie?a a ??e oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo. E?ioeaaee
iiiaio a?eiaiai e?eoa??th a?enueeiai-o?oaeiai? i?aainoa’?eoiino?
na?ae/eoue i?i i?eieiaiiy i?aaa ia i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae ca
eiio?aeoii oa iia’ycaiee, ye i?aaeei, c aeinyaiaiiyi a?aie/iiai a?eo
ia?aaoaaiiy ia a?enueeia?e neoaea?. Aiae?coth/e no/ania oe?a?inueea
caeiiiaeaanoai oa i?aeoeeo i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae ia
i?aenoaa? eiio?aeoo a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao, aeena?oaio aaaaea? ca
iio??aia ia?aaeaa/eoe ua aeaa e?eoa??? a?enueeiai-o?oaeiai?
i?aainoa’?eoiino?: iayai?noue iaaii? ina?oe oa i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee;
a?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaee, ye? iiaeii? ia?aaeaa/aoeny
caeiiiaeaanoaii aeey an?o aac aeiyoeo a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e ae?oao noi?iio eiio?aeoo — iaeia/a ia a?enueeiao
neoaeao, aaoi? cacia/a?, ui ca?aeii /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa eiio?aeo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae oeeaaea?oueny i?ae a?iiaaeyieiii
Oe?a?ie oa aea?aeaaith, a?ae ?iai? yei? ae?? I?i?noa?noai iai?iie a
inia? eiiaiaee?a a?enueeiai? /anoeie (ia/aeueieea a?enueeiai? onoaiiae),
noaaeoue i?ae noii?a aeineiiae?noue oe??? ii?ie oa i?iiiio? cai?ieoe ??
ianooiiith: “eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae
oeeaaea?oueny i?ae a?iiaaeyieiii Oe?a?ie oa aea?aeaaith, a?ae ?iai? yei?
ae?? oeaio?aeueiee i?aai a?enueeiaiai oi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?ie a inia?
eiiaiaee?a a?enueeiai? /anoeie”. I?aainoa’?eoi?noue oeaio?aeueieo
i?aai?a a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie uiaei i?eeiyooy ia a?enueeiao
neoaeao a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a ca eiio?aeoii i?iyaey?oueny o ni?eyii?
oeeaaeaiith eiio?aeo?a oa caaacia/aii? aeeiiaiiy ?o oiia c? noi?iie
aea?aeaae, a oaeiae o cae?eniaii? iaiao?aeieo nioe?aeueieo caoiae?a i?e
ca?eueiai? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a c a?enueeiai? neoaeae. Iniaeeaa ?ieue
iaeaaeeoue I?i?noa?noao iai?iie Oe?a?ie, ine?eueee eiio
i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny a?enueeia? eii?na??aoe, ye? i?iaiaeyoue ?iaioo ii
ia?aa??oe? a?aeiia?aeiino? in?a aeiiaai a?enueeiai? neoaeae,
i?iaaaeaiith iaaee/iiai iaeyaeo eaiaeeaeao?a ia a?enueeiao neoaeao,
ioi?ieaiith iniaiai? ni?aae. Iaeiae I?i?noa?noai iai?iie ia ia? i?yeeo
i?aa oa iaia’yce?a uiaei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, ye? i?ioiaeyoue
a?enueeiao neoaeao ia a Ca?ieieo neeao, a a ?ioeo a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiiy
Oe?a?ie. Naia oiio aoei cai?iiiiiaaii aianoe a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie o
caeiiiaeaanoai uiaei ooi/iaiiy ocaaaeueithth/iai iiiyooy iaeia/a ia
a?enueeiao neoaeao. A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui eiiieaeooaaiiy a?enueeiaeo
oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie cae?enith?oueny a iaaeao aeeiiaiiy ooieoe?? iai?iie,
aeena?oaio coieiy?oueny ia oa?aeoa?enoeoe? oe??? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae oa
?ie? oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie oa eiiaiaee??a
a?enueeiaeo /anoei o eiiieaeooaaii? iniaiaiai neeaaeo a?i?? aea?aeaae.

Aaciina?aaei? oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo cae?enith? eiiaiaee? a?enueeiai?
/anoeie. Ci?no eiai i?aainoa’?eoiino? aecia/a?oueny ooaoii a?enueeiai?
/anoeie, ?? caaaeaiiyie, a ioaea, aiia ? niaoe?aeueiith. O a?aeiioaii?
eiiieaeooaaiiy a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ca
eiio?aeoii eiiaiaee? a?enueeiai? /anoeie ? ieae/ith eaieith nenoaie
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, ye? cae?eniththoue aeeiiaa/o aeaaeo o a?enueeiaeo
oi?ioaaiiyo Oe?a?ie.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “Ii?yaeie oeeaaeaiiy, ci?no oa i?eieiaiiy ae?? eiio?aeoo
i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae” i?enay/aiee ii?yaeeo oeeaaeaiiy
oa ci?ie oiia eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae,
c’ynoaaiith eiai ci?noo oa cae?eniaiiy caaaeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?aenoaa i?eieiaiiy ae?? eiio?aeoo oa ae?iaeaiith i?iiiceoe?e uiaei
aianaiiy ci?i o a?enueeiaa caeiiiaeaanoai.

Eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae iiaeooue oeeaaeaoe ??ci?
eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy: 1) a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?; 2) a?enueeiaiciaia’ycai?;
3) ae?iee, ye? ia ia?aaoaathoue ia a?enueeiaiio iae?eo. A?aeiinii
eiaeii? c oeeo eaoaai??e ?niothoue nai? iniaeeaino?, cie?aia, uiaei
iiia?aaeiueiai a?aeai?o ia a?enueeiao neoaeao. Oeeaaeaiith eiio?aeoo c
iniaaie, ye? ia ia?aaoaathoue ia a?enueeia?e neoaea?, ia?aaeo? ?o
ia?aa??ea aeiiaai a?enueeiai? neoaeae oa a?aea?? na?aae ?ioeo
eaiaeeaeao?a, yeee cae?enith?oueny a?enueeiaeie eii?na??aoaie, a c /enea
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a – aoanoaoe?eieie eii?n?yie oa eiiaiaee?aie
a?enueeiaeo /anoei. Aeena?oaio iaa?oioiao? aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue
caeiiiaeaa/iai cae??ieaiiy ae/a?iiiai ia?ae?eo i?e/ei, c yeeo
a?iiaaeyieio iiaea aooe a?aeiiaeaii o i?eeiyoo? ia a?enueeiao neoaeao ca
eiio?aeoii oa iiaeeea?noue inea?aeaiiy aaci?aenoaaii? a?aeiiae a
oeeaaeaii? eiio?aeoo. Aei i?e/ei, c yeeo a?iiaaeyieio iiaea aooe
a?aeiiaeaii a oeeaaeaii? eiio?aeoo, i?iiiio?oueny a?aeianoe:
a?aenooi?noue o a?enueeia?e /anoei? aaeaioieo iinaae, ye? i?a ae caeiyoe
a?aeiia?aeiee eaiaeeaeao; iayai?noue ??oaiiy aoanoaoe?eii? eii?n??,
caoaa?aeaeaiiai eiiaiaee?ii a?enueeiai? /anoeie, i?i oeeaaeaiiy
eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae c ?ioith iniaith ca
?acoeueoaoaie eiieo?niiai a?aeai?o; iaa?aeiia?aei?noue (aai iaiiaia
a?aeiia?aei?noue) eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiaai a?enueeiai? neoaeae; a?aeiiaa a
aeiioneo aei aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe? aai a?aeiiaa naiiai eaiaeeaeaoa ia
ioi?ieaiiy cacia/aiiai aeiioneo, yeui aeeiiaiiy iaia’yce?a ia iaai?e
iinaae? iia’yco?oueny c iaia’yceiaei aeinooiii aei a?aeiiinoae, ui
neeaaeathoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth; iayai?noue iaciyoi? aai iaiiaaoaii?
noaeeiino?.

Eiio?aeo aaaaea?oueny oeeaaeaiei c iiiaioo, eiee noi?iie ae?eoee caiaee
ii an?o oiiaao eiio?aeoo, ui noaiiaeyoue eiai ci?no oa iaaeaee eiio?aeoo
ia?aaeaa/aio caeiiiaeaanoaii ienueiiao oi?io. I?ae ci?noii ?icoi??oueny
noeoii?noue eiai oiia, ye? aecia/athoue i?aaa, iaia’ycee oa
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue noi??i. Aaoi? aeae?ey? aea? a?oie oiia eiio?aeoo
i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae: anoaiiaeai? caeiiiaeaanoaii
(?iia?aoeai?) oa anoaiiaeai? aaciina?aaeiuei noi?iiaie (aeiaia??i?).

I?ae ?iia?aoeaieie oiiaaie ?icoi?thoueny oiiae, ae?y yeeo
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ia a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey o ca’yceo c naiei oaeoii
anooio eiai ia a?enueeiao neoaeao ia i?aenoaa? eiio?aeoo ? ye?
aaciina?aaeiuei ia iaoiiaeththoueny noi?iiaie, aea i?noyoueny a
ii?iaoeaieo aeoao. Aei ieo aaoi? a?aeiineoue ianooii?: aecia/aiiy
ii/aoeo i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae oa iiiaioo iaa?aiiy eiio?aeoii
/eiiino?; ii?yaeie oa oiiae i?enai?iiy ? iicaaaeaiiy a?enueeiaeo caaiue,
iiiiaeaiiy o ieo; i?ecia/aiiy ia iinaaee, ia?ai?uaiiy, i?inoaaiiy ii
neoaea? oa aoanooaaiiy; aeaee oa o?eaae?noue a?aeionoie, oiiae ?o
iaaeaiiy ? i?iaeiaaeaiiy; aeaee ? ?ici?? iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy;
iain?eia caaacia/aiiy; ii?yaeie oa i?aenoaae ca?eueiaiiy c a?enueeiai?
neoaeae; iaia’ycee a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey, eiiaiaee?a a?enueeiai?
/anoeie, oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaio a?aeiia?aeiiai a?enueeiaiai oi?ioaaiiy
Oe?a?ie, aea?aeaae ii a?aeiioaiith iaeei aei iaeiiai; oiui. Aaoi?
iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?ey? aiae?co ?iia?aoeaieo oiia eiio?aeoo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae, ye? anoaiiaeththoue iaae? cae?eniaiiy
aeayeeo a?iiaaeyinueeeo, iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo i?aa
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a; ii??aith? ?o c aiaeia?/ieie ii?iaie
caeiiiaeaanoaa aeayeeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i oa ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
aiie ? iaieio/eie o ca’yceo c iniaeeaith noa?ith ae?yeueiino?. Iaeiae
aiie iiaeii? a?aeiia?aeaoe ianooiiei iciaeai: 1) aooe anoaiiaeaieie
caeiiii oa ia i?ecaiaeeoe aei caia?a/aiiy oeeo i?aa; 2) canoiniaoaaoenue
aei an?o eaoaai??e in?a, ia yeo aiie iioe?ththoueny, aac aoaeue-yei?
aeene?ei?iaoe??; 3) ia noia?a/eoe ciaia’ycaiiyi, acyoei ia naaa
aea?aeaaith ca i?aeia?iaeieie oaiaeaie.

I?ae aeiaia??ieie oiiaaie eiio?aeoo a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a ?icoi?thoueny
oae? oiiae, ye? anoaiiaeththoueny noi?iiaie oeyoii aaciina?aaei?o
ia?aaiai??a oa iiae?eythoueny ia iaia’yceia? ? oaeoeueoaoeai?.
Aiae?coth/e caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie oa aeayeeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i
(cie?aia, ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??), aeena?oaio anoaiiaeth?, ui aei ieo
iiaeii? iaeaaeaoe: i?noea neoaeae; a?enueeiai-o?oaeiaa ooieoe?y; no?ie
eiio?aeoo; ii/aoie aeeiiaiiy neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a; aeiione aei
aea?aeaaii? oa?iieoe?, yeui aeeiiaiiy neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a iia’ycaia c
aeei?enoaiiyi a?aeiiinoae, ui noaiiaeyoue aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth. O
ca’yceo c oeei aaoi? i?iiiio? cae??ieoe o caeiiiaeaanoa? ae/a?iiee
ia?ae?e iinaae, aeey i?ioiaeaeaiiy neoaeae ia yeeo ia iiaeia oeeaaeaoe
eiio?aeo c iaia’yceiaith oiiaith i?i i?noea neoaeae oa
a?enueeiai-o?oaeiaith ooieoe??th.

I?noea neoaeae ?icaeyaea?oueny aaoi?ii o aeaio ?icoi?iiyo: aocueeiio
(eiie?aoia a?enueeiaa /anoeia oa ?? i?noea?icoaooaaiiy ia iiiaio
oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo, c eiiaiaee?ii yei? oeeaaea?oueny eiio?aeo oa a
ye?e aoaea i?ioiaeeoe a?enueeiaa neoaeaa) oa oe?ieiio (i?ioiaeaeaiiy
neoaeae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeai o a?enueeia?e /anoei? oa a?enueeiaiio
oi?ioaaii?, aecia/aiiio aea?aeaaith, ye ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, oae ? ca
?? iaaeaie, a?aoiaoth/e iio?aao o caeo/aii? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey aei
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae a oiio /e ?ioiio i?noe?).

A?enueeiai-o?oaeiao ooieoe?th aeena?oaio i?iiiio? aecia/aoe ia /a?ac
cacia/aiiy neeaaeo a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, a oeyoii cacia/aiiy
eiie?aoii? a?enueeiai? iinaaee, yeo a?i aoaea caeiaoe a?aeiia?aeii aei
a?enueeiai-iae?eiai? niaoe?aeueiino?. ?? ?aae?caoe?y ? iniiaiith iaoith
oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo oa ci?noii i?aaia?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue ia eiai
i?aenoaa?.

No?ie eiio?aeoo ? eiai iaia’yceiaith aeiaia??iith oiiaith ca?aeii
/eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ca aeiyoeii ia?oeo eiio?aeo?a nieaeao?a,
iao?in?a, na?aeaio?a ? noa?oei, ye? ca?aeii c caeiiiaeaanoaii
oeeaaeathoueny ia 3 ?iee. Aaoi? aaaaea? ca aeioe?eueia a ie?aieo
aeiaaeeao anoaiiaethaaoe no?ie cae?i/aiiy ae?? eiio?aeoo ia o?eueee
eaeaiaea?iith aeaoith, aea e ianoaiiyi iaaii? iiae?? (aeinyaiaiiy
a?aie/iiai a?eo ia?aaoaaiiy ia a?enueeia?e neoaea?). Ii/aoie ia?aa?ao
no?ieo eiio?aeoo iiaeiai aecia/aoeny c oiai iiiaioo, eiee
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue oaeoe/ii i?enooia? aei aeeiiaiiy neoaeaiaeo
iaia’yce?a ia iinaae?. TH?eaee/ia cia/aiiy ia? ye ia?aa?a no?ieo
eiio?aeoo (noi?iie iaae?eai? aca?iieie i?aaaie ? iaia’yceaie), oae ?
eiai cae?i/aiiy (i?eieiaiiy oeeo i?aa ? iaia’yce?a, aeeeth/aiiy iniae ?c
niene?a iniaiaiai neeaaeo a?enueeiai? /anoeie oa a?enueeiaiai oi?ioaaiiy
oa ca?aooaaiiy ?? o caian aai o a?aenoaaeo, yeui ia oeeaaeaiee iiaee
eiio?aeo).

Iaia’yceiaith oiiaith aaoi? i?iiiio? aeciaoe ii/aoie aeeiiaiiy
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeai neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a, yeee iaiao?aeii
a?aeiaaeiaoaaoe a?ae iiiaioo oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo oa a?ae ii/aoeo
ia?aaoaaiiy ia a?enueeia?e neoaea?, ye? aecia/athoueny caeiiiaeaanoaii.
Oeae iiiaio iiaea anoaiiaethaaoeny: eaeaiaea?iith aeaoith; ianoaiiyi
iaaii? iiae??; ianoaiiyi iaaii? iiae?? a ii?aeiaii? c iaaiei i?ii?aeeii
/ano. Eiie?aoiee niin?a iae?a?oueny ca caiaeith noi??i.

I?ecia/aiiy eiio?aeoo ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?o i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae ia aeia?ia?euei?e iniia? iieyaa? o iaeneiaeueiiio
caaacia/aii? i?aa a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey ? oiio a?i iiaeiai i?noeoe
aeiaeaoeia? oiiae. Aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui noi?iiaie iiaeooue
ia?aaeaa/aoenue aoaeue-ye? aeiaeaoeia? oiiae, e??i: aeiaeaoeiaeo oiia
?ic??aaiiy eiio?aeoo; oiiae i?i iiaio aai i?aeaeuaio iaoa??aeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue (ie??i aeiaaee?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo caeiiiaeaanoaii).
Caeiiiaeaanoaii ia?aaeaa/aii ye aeiaeaoeiao eeoa iaeio oiiao eiio?aeoo –
aei?iaoaaiiy. Aiii iaoiiaeth?oueny i?e oeeaaeaii? eiio?aeoo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae oa iiaeiii ?icaeyaeaoeny ye
ocaiaeaeaiiy aeaio iiiaio?a: 1) anoaiiaeaiiy aei?iaoaaiiy; 2)
aecia/aiiy eiai no?ieo. Oiiaa i?i aei?iaoaaiiy iiaiaeaeo?oueny i?e
oeeaaeaii? eiio?aeoo. Aiia iiaea anoaiiaethaaoenue iacaeaaeii a?ae
eaae?o?eaoe?? oa aeina?aeo iniae. No?ie aei?iaoaaiiy ia iiaea
ia?aaeuoaaoe 3 i?nyoe?a. Iaaaoeaiee ?acoeueoao aei?iaoaaiiy iiaeiai aooe
i?aenoaaith aeey ca?eueiaiiy iniae c a?enueeiai? neoaeae o ni?iuaiiio
ii?yaeeo. Aaoi? i?iiiio? neanoaaoe “iaeii?aciaa aei?iaoaaiiy” ye iaeio c
eiai oi?i, ia?aaeaa/aio ?ino?oeoe??th i?i ii?yaeie canoinoaaiiy a
Ca?ieieo neeao Oe?a?ie oei/aniaiai iieiaeaiiy i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae iniaaie io?oea?nueeiai neeaaeo, ine?eueee aiii
noia?a/eoue nai?e noo? aei?iaoaaiiy.

C aiae?co oiia, ui neeaaeathoue ci?no eiio?aeoo, aeena?oaio ?iaeoue
aeniiaie, ui eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae ? iniaeeaei
aeaeii o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o, i?aenoaaith aeia?ia?eueiiai anooio
a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie ia a?enueeiao neoaeao, oiiae yeiai (e??i oeo, ui
anoaiiaeai? caeiiiaeaanoaii a ?iia?aoeai?e oi?i?) aecia/athoueny ca
iiaiaeaeaiiyi noi??i ? ia iiaeii? iia??ooaaoe noaiiaeua
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey ii??aiyii c /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii.

Ia iniia? caaaeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?enueeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa aaoi?
?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a iueiio ia cae??ieai? i?aenoaae i?eieiaiiy
ae?? eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae, iaeiae anoaiiaeaii
ia?ae?e i?aenoaa ca?eueiaiiy c a?enueeiai? neoaeae. I?aenoaae i?eieiaiiy
ae?? eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae aaoi? iiae?ey? ia
aeaa aeaee: iia’ycai? c? nieeaii no?ieo eiio?aeoo aai c eiai
aeino?ieiaei i?eieiaiiyi. Aaoi? anoaiiaeth?, ui yeui i?e nieea? no?ieo
eiio?aeoo eiiaiaeoaaiiy a?enueeiai? /anoeie ia aeaeaei nai?/anii iaeac
i?i ca?eueiaiiy c a?enueeiai? neoaeae, oi oea aeicaiey?
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeth iinoaaeoe ieoaiiy i?i iai?aaii??io
aacae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a a?enueeiaiai oi?aae?iiy, aea ia aeicaiey?
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeth naiino?eii i?eieieoe aeeiiaiiy iaia’yce?a ca
iinaaeith. Aeino?ieiaa i?eieiaiiy eiio?aeoo a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a an?o
neeaae?a iiaea cae?enithaaoeny eeoa ca i?aenoaaaie, ae/a?iiee ia?ae?e
yeeo i?noeoueny o caeiiiaeaanoa?: ca aeneoaith no?ieo neoaeae; ca a?eii
— o ?ac? aeinyaiaiiy a?aie/iiai a?eo ia?aaoaaiiy ia a?enueeia?e neoaea?;
ca noaiii caei?ia’y; o ca’yceo c? nei?i/aiiyi ooao?a aai
i?aai?caoe?eieie caoiaeaie o ?ac? iaiiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ia neoaea?;
/a?ac n?iaei? ianoaaeie aai ?io? iiaaaei? i?e/eie, ia?ae?e yeeo
aecia/a?oueny Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie; ca neoaeaiaith
iaa?aeiia?aei?noth; o ca’yceo c iaaeioaaeueiei ae?ieii noaeo, ui iaa?aa
caeiiii? neee. E??i oiai, io?oea?e i?e iayaiino? ia iaioa 5 ?ie?a o
eaeaiaea?iiio ia/eneaii? ia iinaaeao io?oea?nueeiai neeaaeo iiaeooue
aooe ca?eueiai? c a?enueeiai? neoaeae ca aeaniei aaaeaiiyi.
Caeiiiaeaanoai anoaiiaeth?, ooi iiaea aooe ?i?oe?aoi?ii ca?eueiaiiy ca
o??th /e ?ioith i?aenoaaith: a?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue, eiiaiaee?
a?enueeiai? /anoeia aai iaeaea? noi?iie. Ia ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ca?eueiaiiy
c a?enueeiai? neoaeae ca iiaiaeaeaiiyi noi??i.

A aeayeeo aeiaaeeao (iiceoeaia aoanoaoe?y oa iayai?noue aeae?eueeio
i?aenoaa aeey ca?eueiaiiy) ca?eueiaiiy i?iaiaeeoueny ca o??th c
i?aenoaa, yea ia?aaeaa/a? a?eueo nooo?a? i?eueae oa ia?aaaae i?ney
ca?eueiaiiy, a i?e iayaiino? i?aenoaa aeey ca?eueiaiiy ca a?eii oa ca
noaiii caei?ia’y a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe? ca?eueiythoueny c o?aooaaiiyi ?o
aaaeaiiy.

Aeena?oaio i?iiiio? ia?aaeaa/eoe a caeiiiaeaanoa? ua iaeio i?aenoaao
ca?eueiaiiy c a?enueeiai? neoaeae ca ?i?oe?aoeaith a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey
– “o ca’yceo c nooo?aei oa (aai) nenoaiaoe/iei iaaeeiiaiiyi oiia
eiio?aeoo”, a oaeiae cae??ieoe o caeiiiaeaanoa? e?eoa??? iiiyooy
nooo?aiai oa nenoaiaoe/iiai iaaeeiiaiiy oiia eiio?aeoo: iaaeieaoo
(cao?eieo aeieaoe) a?enueeiaith /anoeiith a?ioiaiai caaacia/aiiy
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeth, a?ioiai? eiiiainaoe?? cai?noue ia?aaeaa/aiiai
i?iaeiaieue/iai caaacia/aiiy /e ?ioeo ia?aaeaa/aieo caeiiiaeaanoaii
aeieao, iaaeio?eiaiiy ii?yaeeo i?ecia/aiiy ia iinaaeo, ia?ai?uaiiy oa
i?inoaaiiy ii neoaea?, oiui.

I?i ca?eueiaiiy c a?enueeiai? neoaeae o caian aai o a?aenoaaeo
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a iia?aeiieythoue, ye i?aaeei, ia i?ci?oa ye ca 3
i?nyoe? aei ca?eueiaiiy. I?i aeino?ieiaa ?ic??aaiiy eiio?aeoo
eiiaiaeoaaiiy iiaeiii iiia?aaeeoe a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey ia i?ci?o ye ca
i?nyoeue aei ca?eueiaiiy c? neoaeae. O oeae aea no?ie
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue ia? iia?aeiieoe eiiaiaee?a i?i oa, ui a?i ia?
iai?? aeino?ieiai ?ic??aaoe eiio?aeo. A?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?, ui
ca?eueiythoueny c a?enueeiai? neoaeae, iiaeii? nai?/anii oa iiai?noth
caaacia/oaaoeny on?ia aeaeaie caaacia/aiiy ia aeaiue ca?eueiaiiy.
Aiae?coth/e caeiiiaeaanoai oa noaeiao i?aeoeeo, aeena?oaio aeae?ey?
ianooii? iane?aeee iacaeiiiiai ca?eueiaiiy c a?enueeiai? neoaeae:1)
iiiiaeaiiy a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey ia iinaae?, yeo a?i caeiaa aai ia
??aiicia/i?e iinaae?; 2) aeieaoa a?ioiaiai caaacia/aiiy ca /an
aeiooaiiai i?iaoeo; 3) a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ii?aeueieo caeoe?a, iiianaieo
iniaith o ca’yceo c iacaeiiieie ae?yie (aacae?yeuei?noth) eiiaiaeoaaiiy
a?enueeiai? /anoeie oa aeo?aoe ia i?aaenoaaieoeoai o noae?.

AENIIAEE

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui a
?iaio? ae??oaia iaoeiaa caaaeaiiy noiniaii ae?iaeaiiy i?iiiceoe?e ii
oaeineiiaeaiith /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae ca eiio?aeoii. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy:

iaa?oioiaaii o?oaeii?aaiao i?e?iaeo eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae;

cae?eniaii ?noi?eei-i?aaiaee aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy ?inoeoooo eiiieaeooaaiiy
a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ca eiio?aeoii;

cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaiio eeaneo?eaoe?th eiio?aeo?a i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai? neoaeae ca eiio?aeoii;

cae?eniaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo noi??i eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae – a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie oa aea?aeaae, a?ae ?iai? yei? ae??
oeaio?aeueiee i?aai a?enueeiaiai oi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?ie a inia? eiiaiaee?a
a?enueeiai? /anoeie;

aecia/aii ci?no eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae oa
ioa?aeoa?eciaai? eiai aeiaia??i? oiiae;

iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue caeiiiaeaa/iai cae??ieaiiy
ia?ae?eo i?e/ei, c yeeo a?iiaaeyieio iiaea aooe a?aeiiaeaii o i?eeiyoo?
ia a?enueeiao neoaeao ca eiio?aeoii oa iiaeeea?noue inea?aeaiiy
aaci?aenoaaii? a?aeiiae a oeeaaeaii? eiio?aeoo.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ae?iaeai? eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? ii aianaiith
ci?i o /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai oa cai?iiiiiaaiee i?iaeo eiio?aeoo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae, ?ic?iaeaiee a?aeiia?aeii aei
i?iiiceoe?e oa aeniiae?a aeena?oaoe??.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeueca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Iaeoo?ia I. A. Aeaee eiio?aeo?a i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae
// Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? 8. *anoeia ??. – Oiaeueieoeueeee: Aeae-ai
Aeaaeai?? IAO, 1999. – N. 242-245.

2. Iaeoo?ia I. A. A?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue ye noi?iia eiio?aeoo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? 5.
*anoeia ???. — Oiaeueieoeueeee: Aeae-ai Aeaaeai?? IAO, 1998. — N. 234 —
240.

3. Iaeoo?ia I. A. Eiio?aeo ye i?aenoaaa anooio a?iiaaeyi ia a?enueeiao
neoaeao // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? 6. *anoeia ??. — Oiaeueieoeueeee:
Aeae-ai Aeaaeai?? IAO, 1998. — N. 163 — 168.

4. Iaeoo?ia I. A. Iniaeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie i?aaa
ia i?aoeth // I?aaa ? naiaiaee ethaeeie oa no/aniee noni?eueiee i?ia?an
(iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??). – Oaeai?iae,
24-25 ethoiai 1999 ?ieo. – N. 170 – 173.

5. Iaeoo?ia I. A. Uiaei no?ieo eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? 7. *anoeia ??. — Oiaeueieoeueeee:
Aeae-ai Aeaaeai?? IAO, 1998. — N. 248-252.

AIIOAOe??

Iaeoo?ia I.A. Eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae
a?iiaaeyiaie Oe?a?ie. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 20.02.03 — A?enueeiaa i?aai; a?enueeia? aniaeoe
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. — Aeaaeai?y I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?iai?
Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai, i.Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?noi?eei-i?aaiaiio aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioeano
noaiiaeaiiy a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Oe?a?ie a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ca
eiio?aeoii. C’yniao?oueny iiiyooy, i?aaiaa i?e?iaea eiio?aeoo i?i
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae, eiai aeaee. Cae?eniaia oa?aeoa?enoeea
noi??i i?aaia?aeiinei, ye? aeieeathoue c i?eaiaeo aeia?ia?eueiiai
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae ca eiio?aeoii — a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie
oa aea?aeaae, a?ae ?iai? yei? ae?? oeaio?aeueiee i?aai a?enueeiaiai
oi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?ie a inia? eiiaiaee?a a?enueeiai? /anoeie. Aiae?co?oueny
caaaeueiee ii?yaeie oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai?
neoaeae oa i?aenoaae eiai i?eieiaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiio?aeo i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae,
a?enueeiaa neoaeaa, a?enueeiaineoaeaiaaoeue, eiiaiaee? a?enueeiai?
/anoeie, i?noea neoaeae.

Makuhina M. V. The Contract on passing a military service by the
citizens of Ukraine. — Manuscript.

Thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of
jurisprudence on a speciality 20.02.03 — Military law; military aspects
of the International Law. – Academy of Boundary
troops of Ukraine by Bogdan Khmelnitskiy, city of Khmelnitskiy, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to process of military shapings’ becoming of
Ukraine by the military men under the contract. The concept and legal
nature of the contract about passing a military service, kinds of the
contracts are defined. The parties’ performance of relations was made –
of Ukraine’s citizen and state, on behalf of which the Ministry of a
defense (or other central authority of Ukraine’s military shaping) is
given on behalf of a commander of a military part acts. The general
order of the contracts’ conclusion about passing a military service and
basis of their termination is analyzed.

Key words: the contract on passing a military service, military service,
military man, commander of a military part, place of a service.

Iaeooeia I.A. Eiio?aeo i i?ioiaeaeaiee aiaiiie neoaeau a?aaeaeaiaie
Oe?aeiu. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 20.02.03 – Aiaiiia i?aai; aiaiiua aniaeou
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa. – Aeaaeaiey Iia?aie/iuo aiene Oe?aeiu eiaie
Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeeiai, a.Oiaeueieoeeee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iiiyoey einoeoooa eiio?aeoa i
i?ioiaeaeaiee aiaiiie neoaeau.

A yoii ioiioaiee yaeyaony aeooaeueiui aii?in ia ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaiaie
i?e?iaeu eiio?aeoa i i?ioiaeaeaiee aiaiiie neoaeaa, iineieueeo ia
naaiaeiyoiee iiiaio yoio aii?in yaeyaony nii?iui. A ?aaioa inouanoaeai
enoi?eei-i?aaiaie aiaeec noaiiaeaiey einoeoooa eiiieaeoiaaiey aieineeo
oi?ie?iaaiee Oe?aeiu aiaiiineoaeaueie ii eiio?aeoo, eco/aaony i?aeoeea
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aiaiiie neoaeau a ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao. Aeaaony
oa?aeoa?enoeea nia?aiaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i i?ioiaeaeaiee aiaiiie
neoaeau ia iniiaaiee eiio?aeoa, ec /aai aeaeaaony auaiae i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iaaaeaiey nenoaiaoecaoeee e ono?aiaiey ?ac?iciaiiinoe e
i?ioeai?a/eainoe ?acee/iuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia.

Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeea noi?ii eiio?aeoa i i?ioiaeaeaiee
aiaiiie neoaeau – a?aaeaeaieio Oe?aeiu e ainoaea?noao, io eiaie eioi?iai
aeaenoaoao oeaio?aeueiue i?aai aieineiai oi?ie?iaaiey Oe?aeiu a eeoea
eiiaiaee?a aieineie /anoe; eco/aii niaea?aeaiea eo i?aainoauaeoiinoe.

A ?aaioa eco/aiu iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey niaa?oainoaiaaiey ii?i aieineiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ioiineoaeueii niaea?aeaiey eiio?aeoa i i?ioiaeaeaiee
aiaiiie neoaeau.

I?aaeeaaaaony i?eciaoue iaycaoaeueiuie oneiaeyie eiio?aeoa i
i?ioiaeaeaiee aiaiiie neoaeau n?ie eiio?aeoa, ianoi neoaeau,
aiaiii-o?oaeiaoth ooieoeeth, ia/aei auiieiaiey neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae,
a a neo/aa eiaaea auiieiaiea iaycaiiinoae ii aeieaeiinoe naycaii n
eniieueciaaieai naaaeaiee, eioi?ua niaea?aeao ainoaea?noaaiioth oaeio —
e aeiione e ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeia.

A enneaaeiaaiee aeaaony iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea oneiaee i?ioiaeaeaiey
aiaiiie neoaeau, eioi?ua niaea?aeaony a ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao, e
?ani?ino?aiythony ia noi?iiu a neeo caeeth/aiey ieie eiio?aeoa i
i?ioiaeaeaiee aiaiiie neoaeau.

A enneaaeiaaiee aeaaony iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea ii?yaeea caeeth/aiey e
eciaiaiey eiio?aeoa i i?ioiaeaeaiee aiaiiie neoaeau. Aiaeece?oaony ?ieue
aiaiiuo eiienna?eaoia, aoanoaoeeiiiuo eiiennee aiaiiuo /anoae e
eiiaiaee?ia aieineeo /anoae i?e iiaeai?a ia aiaiioth neoaeao e
caeeth/aiee eiio?aeoia. ?acaeaaaony i?aaeeiaeaiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
cae?aieoue a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa en/a?iuaathuaai ia?a/iy iniiaaiee ioeaca
a caeeth/aiee eiio?aeoa e aeathony eiie?aoiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ioiineoaeueii yoiai.

Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaaiee i?ae?auaiey aeaenoaey
eiio?aeoa i i?ioiaeaeaiee aiaiiie neoaeau, au?aaaouaathony
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioiineoaeueii oniaa?oainoaiaaiey aiaiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. I?aaeeaaaaony nie?aoeoue i?ioeaaeo?o oaieueiaiey
aiaiiineoaeauaai a nayce n iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui ?acoeueoaoii
eniuoaiey, cae?aieoue a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a ea/anoaa ioaeaeueiiai
iniiaaiey e oaieueiaiey n aiaiiie neoaeau ii eieoeeaoeaa
aiaiiineoaeauaai a nayce n nouanoaaiiui e (eee) nenoaiaoe/aneei
iaauiieiaieai oneiaee eiio?aeoa auei au n?aaenoaii caueou eioa?ania
aiaiiineoaeaueo e /eaiia eo naiae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiio?aeo i i?ioiaeaeaiee aiaiiie neoaeau, aiaiiay
neoaeaa, aiaiiineoaeauee, eiiaiaee? aieineie /anoe, ianoi neoaeau.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 14.4.99. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ? 293.

Aeaeaaieoeoai Aeaaeai?? IAO

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