IAOe?IIAEUeIA TH?EAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

?iai? ss?INEAAA IOAe?IAI

Na?ueia?i A?oae?e Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE
342.5

EIINOEOOOe?EIEE I?EIOeEI AEANIINO?

O Ae?ssEUeIINO? I?AAI?A

AeA?AEAAII? AEAAeE OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.02 — eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? eiinoeoooe?eiiai ? i?aeia?iaeiiai
i?aaa

Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie,
aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oiaeeea TH??e Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaaee eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1. Aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? O?eoeueeee Ieaa Oaaei?iae/,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie;

2. Eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio ssai?nueeee Aieiaeeie?
Aeieo?iae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa Iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?iai?
A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, i?iaeai
caeiiioai?/ino? ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 10.00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.086.03 a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e th?eaee/i?e
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai (310024, i.Oa?e?a,
aoe.Iooe?inueea, 77).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai (310024,
i.Oa?e?a, aoe.Iooe?inueea,77).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 14 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee AEeaaee?i I.?.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?iaieioaiiy ia eiinoeoooe?eiiio
??ai? iieiaeaiiy, ui Oe?a?ia ? aeaiie?aoe/iith, i?aaiaith aea?aeaaith,
aeiaaa? aeinyaiaiiy aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ocaiaeaeaii? a on?o
aeaiaioao i?aaiai? nenoaie. I?e oeueiio ae?ae aaaeeeai, uia o /eiiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? aoee cae??ieai? iniiaiiieiaei? th?eaee/i? i?eioeeie, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue aoiai?noe/i?e i?e?iae? iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino?,
caaaeueiiethaenueeei oe?iiinoyi ? aeaiie?aoe/iei ?aeaaeai, ine?eueee
aiie aenooiathoue aoaeoeaiei nenoaiiooai?thth/ei oaeoi?ii on??? i?aaiai?
nenoaie. Aeoiaey/e c i?ia?aeii? ?ie? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa o
iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?aaia?e nenoai?, c iniaeeaith ?aoaeuei?noth ne?ae
i?aeoiaeeoe aei aea/aiiy i?eioeei?a oe??? aaeoc?, ye? ?
iie?oeei-i?aaiaeie i?aeaaeeiaie cai?iaaaeaeoaaieo a Oe?a?i? ?aoi?i ?
aecia/athoue iai?yie ?icaeoeo noni?eueieo i?ioean?a, a?aeiinei i?ae
i?aaiaie ioae?/ii? aeaaee ? a?iiaaenuee?noth.

Na?aae oaeeo i?eioeei?a aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? i?eioeei aeaniino?,
ine?eueee aeaiie?ao?y ia?aaeaa/a? aeoeaio o/anoue a?iiaaeyi a oi?aae?ii?
aea?aeaaieie ni?aaaie, ?o caeaoi?noue ?aaeueii aieeaaoe ia ci?no ?
ni?yiiaai?noue aea?aeaaii-aeaaeieo ??oaiue. Oea ? iiaeeeaei eeoa ca oiia
ii?ioi?iiaaiino? oe?ieiai caaaeo i?i noni?euei? ni?aae, ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?a ioae?/ii? aeaaee a ?aaeei? iino?eiiai ae?aeiao c ianaeaiiyi oa
aeniei? aeia??e aei aeaaeieo no?oeoo? c aieo a?iiaaenueeino?. O ia??iae
noaiiaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?inoeooo?a, ne?ae iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eeoe
nenoai? aa?aio?e, caeaoieo caoenoeoe non-i?euenoai a?ae iaaaoeaieo yaeu
aaoi?eoa?ecio: oioaeueii? nae?aoiino?, ath?ie?aoecaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai
aia?aoo, a?ae?eao aeaaeieo ??oaiue a?ae iio?aa noni?euenoaa ? aieeao
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee. Ca aeaieo oiia cae??i-eaiiy o caeiiiaeaanoa? e
?aae?caoe?y ia i?aeoeoe? i?eioeeio aeaniino? ? iaei??th c aoaeoeaieo
aa?aio?e aeaiie?ao??, ine?eueee aea? iiaeeea?noue noni?euenoao
iia?aoeaii ?aaaoaaoe ia oaiaeaioe?? naiai ?icaeeo.

Noaiiaeaiiy no/anii? aea?aeaaiino? a Oe?a?i? ni?aiaei a /an? c
ia?aoiaeii i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa a?ae ?iaeono??aeueiiai aei
ye?nii iiaiai noaio noni?euenoaa — ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai, ui aaco?oueny ia
iiaeeeaino? aacia?aoeiaeiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iai?io ia aoaeue-ye?e
a?aenoai? ? noai?aiiy ?aeeiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o.
Caaaeueiina?oia? oaiaeaioe?? a ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e noa??, ii?yae ?c
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?eioeei?a o noni?eueia aeeooy Oe?a?ie,
a?aee?eoino? ?iaioe aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai
ieth?ae?cio, ciaeoee ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa cae??ieaiiy o Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie oa ?yae? caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, i?eeiyoeo a inoaii? ?iee, cie?aia
a caeiiao “I?i ?ioi?iaoe?th”, “I?i ?ioi?iaoe?ei? aaaionoaa”, “I?i
ae?oeiaai? caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? (i?ano) a Oe?a?i?”, “I?i
oaeaaa/aiiy ? ?aae?iiiaeaiiy”, “I?i ii?yaeie aena?oeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy
caniaaie ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? a Oe?a?i?”, “I?i aea?aeaaio oa?iieoeth”,
“I?i caa?iaiiy a?iiaaeyi” oa ?i. Oeae ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaee ianea
i?aeeyaa? ?aoaeueiiio iaoeiaiio aiae?co c oi/ee ci?o cae??ieaiiy a
iueiio i?eioeeio aeaniino?, a oaeiae eiai ?aae?caoe?? a ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?.

Iaai? aniaeoe caaacia/aiiy aeaniino? ?icaeyaeaeenue ua ca ?aaeyinueeeo
/an?a, cie?aia o aeena?oaoe?eieo ?iaioao A.I.Aacoaeiaa, I.A.Einoth/aiei,
A.I.E?yaeeiaa, A.O.Eaeca?iaa, O.A.??aeaiiai?, O.A.Einoaoeueei?,
A.A.Eaioii?eiaa. Iaeiae ?o ci?no, ni?yiiaai?noue, ?icoi?iiy aoee
iaoiiaeai? oiai/anieie aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeie ?aae?yie, a oiio cia/iith
i??ith aaea ia a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai nueiaiaeaiiy. A?eueoa oiai, c
ii?aceith iie?oeee ia?aaoaeiae ? ?iciaaeii N?N? oa?i?i “aeani?noue” aoa
oaeoe/ii aeaaaeaiee c iaoeiaiai aaeeoeo, ? eeoa i?ney i?eeiyooy
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie 1996 ?. ciiao iio?aiea o iiea ci?o iaoeiaoe?a c
iaeyaeo ia iio?aao ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e aeaiie?ao??.

??aaiue iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeai caaacia/aiiy i?eioeeio aeaniino?
o no/ani?e a?o/eciyi?e th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ia a?aeiia?aea? caaaeaiiyi
iiaoaeiae a?aee?eoiai noni?euenoaa oa aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae.
Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui ianueiaiaei? a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i? noi?iiaaia
aeania i?aaiaa iniiaa aeaniino?, oa e nai ci?no oeueiai i?eioeeio cia/ii
caaaaoeany ca ?aooiie ni?eeiyooy na?oiaeo caeiaooe?a eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio
? ieth?ae?noe/ii? aeaiie?ao??, ?nio? iaaaeueia iio?aaa iaoeiaiai
inieneaiiy eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo ii?i ? iie?oeei-i?aaiai? i?aeoeee a
Oe?a?i? c iaoith noai?aiiy oe?e?nii? eiioeaioe?? i?eioeeio aeaniino?.
Iaiao?aeii c’ynoaaoe i?noea ? ?ieue oeueiai i?eioeeio o i?aaia?e
iaoa???, iniaeeaino? eiai i?iyao ? cae??ieaiiy uiaei ??cieo aea?aeaaieo
?inoeooo?a, aeyaeoe iaaeie?ee ? noi?ioethaaoe eiie?aoi? iaoeia?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
a?aeiinei. Aeacai? oaeoi?e aecia/athoue aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?? aaaeeea?noue aeey aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?.

Caycie i?aoe? c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue “I??i?eoaoi? iai?yiee
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ? i?eeeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia IAN Oe?a?ie ia ia??iae 1995-2000 ??.”
ca?aeii c ioieoii 1.2.2 “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaiino? ?
i?aaa”, caoaa?aeaeaieo ??oaiiyi Eieaa?? IAN Oe?a?ie (4 EI/2 a?ae 28
ethoiai 1995 ?.).

Aieiaia iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?
caaaeueiioai?aoe/ii? eiioeaioe?? i?eioeeio aeaniino?, aeyaeaii? eiai
nooiino?, ci?noo oa iniaeeainoae i?iyao o eiinoeoooe?eiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie, ianaiia?aae i?e ?aaeaiaioaoe?? ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe
aeena?oaio iaa ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

n aeine?aeeoe aaiethoe?th i?eioeeio aeaniino? a ?noi??? a?o/eciyii?
ii-e?oeei-i?aaia?e aeoiee ? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa, caa?ioaoe oaa-ao
ia ?? ca’ycie c i?ioeanaie aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae;

n noi?ioethaaoe aecia/aiiy i?eioeeio aeaniino?, ocaaaeueieaoe nooi?noue
an?o eiai i?iya?a;

n iaa?oiooaaoe i?noea ? ?ieue i?eioeeio aeaniino? a eiinoeoooe?eiiio
i?aa? Oe?a?ie;

n i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? i?aaiaiai cae??ieaiiy i?eioeeio aeaniino? o
/eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? ? aecia/eoe oeyoe eiai iioei?caoe??;

n ?ice?eoe ci?no i?eioeeio aeaniino? ? iniaeeaino? eiai i?iyao a
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?ie o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ?o
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy oa eiiiaoaioe??;

n aena?oeeoe iniiai? i?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio aeaniino? o
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?ie ? ciaeoe
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? oa i?aai?caoe?ei? oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ui
neeaaeathoueny a i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio aeaniino?, cie?aia
?ioi?iaoe?ei? a?aeiineie i?ae i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa
a?iiaaeyiaie e ?inoeoooaie a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. Ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aaiethoe?y, th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea, ci?no, ii?iaoeaia
?aaoethaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?y i?eioeeio aeaniino? o a?o/eciyi?e
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaia?e i?aeoeoe?, ianaiia?aae o ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ?iaioe neeaaea? caaaeueiiiaoeiaee
iaoa??ae?noe/ii-ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae
oe?iei canoiniaoaaeenue ?noi?e/ii-i?aaiaee, oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee,
ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee, nioe?ieia?/iee, noaoenoe/iee, no?oeoo?ii-
ooieoe?iiaeueiee oa ?yae ?ioeo caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo oa niaoe?aeueieo
iaoeiaeo iaoiae?a.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? noaee iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy i?i
nooi?noue, nenoaio oa oi?ie ii?iaoeaiiai cae??ieaiiy i?aaiaeo
i?eioeei?a, i?i ci?no oa oi?ie aeyao i?eioeeio aeaniino?, i?i
aaiethoe?th nenoaie oa i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a,
i?i oa?aeoa? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo a?aeiinei o aea?aeaaiiio aia?ao? oa oi?ie
?ae?caoe?? i?eioeeio aeaniino? o a?aeiineiao i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
c ianaeaiiyi oa a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie, ui i?noyoueny o ?iaioao
eeanee?a aei?aaiethoe?eii? iie?oeei-i?aaiai? aeoiee I.I.Ei?eoiiaa,
N.A.Ei?oa, I.?.Iae??iei, N.I.Iie?ianueeiai, A.I.Neaa?/aanueeiai,
A.I.*e/a??ia, a?aeiieo aeine?aeiee?a a?o/eciyii? ?noi??? I.I.Ea?aic?ia
oa Ae.?.ssai?ieoeueeiai, a oaeiae no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo oa ?in?enueeeo
aea?aeaaiciaaoe?a TH.I.Aaoo??ia, A.I.Aacoaeiaa, TH.I.Aiaoeaae/a,
O.A.??aeaiiai?, A.A.Eaioii?eiaa, A.I.Eieiae?y, O.A.Einoaoeueei?,
TH.A.Ei?coiiaa, E.O.E?eaaiei, A.I.E?yaeeiaa, A.O.Eaeca?iaa,
?.I.Eoeaoaai?, A.O.Ii?eoea, A.O.Iiai??eea, I.A.Ioooeinueeiai,
?.A.Naoa?iaa, N.A.Nie?iiaa, TH.I.Oiaeeee, I.O.O?eoeueeiai, A.I.Oaiiaaea,
E.N.ssae/a oa ?ioeo.

Ii?yae c iaoeiaeie ?ic?iaeaie a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a o aeena?oaoe?? oe?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?aoe? i?ia?aeieo ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaaiciaaoe?a
E.A?aea?iaia, O.A?aoia, A.Ii?iaia, O.Neieea?a, Ae.Aiaeo?eaea, O.Ieaoaea,
A.Oaiann? oa ?ioeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny ia iniia? aiae?co ii?i Eiinooooe??
Oe?a?ie, caeii?a Oe?a?ie, i?aecaeiiieo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ui
?aaeaiaioothoue ?ioi?iaoe?ei? a?aeiineie a Oe?a?i?, eiinoeoooe?e oa
caeii?a ?yaeo ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaa. Iaoeiaiio aiae?co i?aeaeaaaeenue ye
/eii? ii?iaoeai? aeoe, oae ? o?, ui ao?aoeee /eii?noue, aea iathoue
iaoeiao oe?ii?noue a ?noi?e/ii-i?aaiaiio aniaeo?.

Aii??e/iith aacith ?iaioe noaee iaoa??aee i?aeoeee ii?iioai?/i? oa
i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie, Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa,
iioae?eiaai? a io?oe?eieo aeaeaiiyo oa ia??iaee/i?e i?an?, a oaeiae
iaoa??aee uiaei caaacia/aiiy a?aee?eoino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
iioae?eiaai? o a?o/eciyi?e oa ca?oa?aei?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??, iniaeeai
iaoa??aee I?ia?aie ni?eyiiy Ia?eaiaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Iniaeea?noth aeena?oaoe?? ? eiiieaeniee aiae?c i?iaeai aeaniino? c
caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/ieo iiceoe?e /a?ac i?ecio ?ioi?iaoe?eieo a?aeiinei,
iaiaaaiiy caeo/eoe aei ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo i?iaeai ia?aaeia?
aeinyaiaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? aeoiee, ni?iaa a?aooaaoe iia?oi?
oaiaeaioe?? ca?eueoaiiy a?aee?eoino? e aeaiie?aoecaoe?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
noni?euenoaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa?, ianaiia?aae, o oiio, ui aeaia
?iaioa ? ia?oei aeena?oaoe?eiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ieoaiue ii?iaoeaiiai
cae??ieaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio aeaniino?, cae?eniaiei ia iniia?
iaoeiaiai aiae?co /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? iie?oeei-i?aaiai? i?aeoeee
noaa?aiii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Aia?oa a oe?a?inueeiio
aea?aeaaiciaanoa? ia oai?aoe/iiio ??ai? ?icaeyiooi nooi?noue ? ci?no
i?eioeeio aeaniino?, c?iaeaii e?eoe/iee aiae?c eiai cae??ieaiiy o
a?o/eciyiiio eiinoeoooe?eiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? oa i?aeoeee ?aae?caoe?? o
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, ui aeaei ciiao cai?iiiioaaoe oe?e?nio
eiioeaioe?th i?eioeeio aeaniino? ye i?aai?/io neeaaeiao canaae
eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo Oe?a?ie.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?c i?iaeai aeaniino?
cae?eniaii ia c eeaniaeo, aocueei?aeaeieo, a caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/ieo
iiceoe?e, c o?aooaaiiyi iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe??
?ioi?iaoe?eieo a?aeiinei o i?ia?aeieo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao (o NOA,
Eaiaae?, Aaeeeia?eoai??, O?I, Oaaoe?? oa ?i.), aea?aeaaao Oeaio?aeueii?
?a?iie, NIAe ? Aaeo??. Aia?oa cae?eniaii ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee aiae?c
a?aeiia?aeiino? a?o/eciyiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa aeiiaai ?aaee ?a?iie uiaei
a?aee?eoino? aeaaeieo onoaiia ? caaacia/aiiy i?aaa a?iiaaeyi ia
?ioi?iaoe?th.

Aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e aea?aeaaiciaa/?e e?oa?aoo?? cae?eniaii aeo?ae ca
iaae? ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio aeaniino? a ?iaio? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
ioae?/ii? aeaaee, ? iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eaia oeueiio i?eioeeio a ?iaio?
aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Niaoeeo?ea iaoeiaiai caeeaaeo, a yeiio
aeeiioaaeany aeena?oaoe?y, iicia/eeany ia oiio, ui o iiea iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aeaniino? caeo/aia ae?yeuei?noue i?aaiioi?iiieo
i?aai?a, cie?aia i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa oa Neoaeae aaciaee Oe?a?ie.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaaii ?yae iieiaeaiue,
ocaaaeueiaiue, aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e, c /enea yeeo aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno:

· aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiethoe?? i?eioeeio aeaniino? o a?o/eciyi?e
iie?oeei-i?aaia?e aeoioe? oa aea?aeaaiiio aoae?aieoeoa?;

· aecia/aiiy iiiyooy eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?eioeeio aeaniino? ye iaeiiai c
i?eioeei?a iniia eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo Oe?a?ie, ui iieyaa? o aeciaii?
iaiao?aeiino? e aeiic? iaia’yceiaiai aeio?eiaiiy aacia?aoeiaeiiai ?ooo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioie?a i?i yaeua ? i?ioeane a aea?aeaaii-i?aaia?e noa??;

· aecia/aiiy ? oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaieo ooieoe?e i?eioeeio aeaniino? a
iaoai?ci? caoenoo i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie ? a?iiaaeyieia —
aiinaieia?/ii?, i?aaicaoenii?, eiioi?eaoeaii?, noaa?e?coth/i? oa
eiio?ieueii?;

· oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i th?eaee/i? iaae? canoinoaaiiy i?eioeeio aeaniino?,
yeeie ?, c iaeiiai aieo, noa?a iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee (o oe?ieiio
?icoi?ii?), a c ?ioiai — noa?a iniaenoiai aeeooy ethaeeie;

· oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe??
i?eioeeio aeaniino? o Eiinoeoooe?? oa /eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie;
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ?ic?iaee ? i?eeiyooy niaoe?aeueiiai caeiio
“I?i a?aee?eo?noue ioae?/ii? aeaaee”;

· i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?eioeeio aeaniino?, cie?aia iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui no.6 Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie ne?ae aeiiiaieoe /.3 oaeiai ci?noo: “I?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, iinaaeia? iniae oa ia’?aeiaiiy a?iiaaeyi
ae?thoue ia i?eioeeiao caeiiiino?, aeaniino? oa oe?ieiai caeo/aiiy
a?iiaaeyi aei oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie ni?aaaie, nenoaiaoe/ii
?ioi?iothoue a?iiaaeyi i?i naith ?iaioo ? i?eeiyo? ??oaiiy”;

· aecia/aiiy iniiaieo aeiia uiaei ?aaoethaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo a?aeiinei
? i?aaee aeinooio a?iiaaeyi aei o?yaeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, na?aae yeeo:
i?acoiioe?y a?aee?eoino? aoaeue-yei? ?ioi?iaoe??; aeeeth/ii caeiiiaeaa/a
?aaoethaaiiy iaiaaeaiue i?aaa ia ?ioi?iaoe?th; caai?iia a?aei/iai
oeoia/aiiy ? aeaoae?caoe?? nae?aoiino?; iaiayceia?noue ienueiiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy a?aeiiae iaaeaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th oa ?i.;

· oaca i?i oa, ui eiaeiiio c aeae?a ?ioi?iaoe?? c iaiaaeaiei aeinooiii
ia? aooe i?enay/aiee ie?aiee caeii c aeiaeaoeii o aeaeyae? ae/a?iiiai
ia?ae?eo ?ioi?iaoe?? aeaiiai aeaeo;

· aecia/aiiy iniiaieo cania?a ?inoeoooe?eiiai ? iniaenoiai caaacia/aiiy
aeaniino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, eiiiaoaioe?? oa i?aai?caoe?eiiai ono?ith;
oaca i?i ?ioi?iaoecaoe?th i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ye ia?niaeoeaiee
oeyo ?icaeoeo aeaniino? ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?;

· iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aeani?noue ?iaioe ia?eaiaioo ia?
caaacia/oaaoenue ia o?eueee /a?ac o?aineyoeth eiai ieaia?ieo can?aeaiue
ii oaeaaa/aiith ? ?aae?i, aea e oeyoii ioae?eaoe?? noaiia?ao?/ieo ca?o?a
ieaia?ieo can?aeaiue, can?aeaiue ia?eaiaionueeeo eii?oao?a oa i?eeiyoeo
??oaiue ? i?aaiaeo aeo?a o aacao? “Aiein Oe?a?ie” oa atheaoai?
“A?aeiiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie”, ia?aaea/? an?o noaiia?ao?/ieo
ca?o?a ? i?eeiyoeo i?aaiaeo aeo?a /a?ac iayaio eiiithoa?io ia?aaeo;

· i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?icaeoeo aeaniino? o?yaeiai? ae?yeueiino? /a?ac
ci?ie a no?oeoo?? aia?aoo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
ia?eaiaionueei? “aiaeeie caieoaiue” oa ?ioeo oi?i “iaaeee ??eaeoic”;

· aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue ia?aoiaeo a?ae aeaniino? noaei/einoaa aei
aeaniino? ae?yeueiino? noae?a, a oaeiae iie?auaiiy eii?aeeiaoe?? i?ae
i?an-neoaeaaie i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a.

Iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio,
ui noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aaeineiiaeaii?
eiinoeoooe?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, o iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e ?iaio?,
iiaeeaeyoue ciaiiy i?i i?eioeei aeaniino? ye iaeei c i?eioeei?a iniia
eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo Oe?a?ie, ni?eyoeiooue ?icaoaeia? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
i?aaiai? aeaaeaae. Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoenue a
o/aiaiio i?ioean? i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a “Eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai
Oe?a?ie” oa “Aea?aeaaia aoae?aieoeoai ? i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy a
Oe?a?i?”.

Iniiai? oace aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy o aenooiao aaoi?a ia
nai?ia?? aeey iieiaeeo aeeeaaea/?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa “Iiaa
Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie” (Ee?a, 26 n?/iy -13 ethoiai 1998 ?.) oa ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aa?iii?caoe??
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie c i?aeia?iaeiei i?aaii” (Ee?a, 29-30 aeiaoiy 1998
?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Noi?ioeueiaai? a ?iaio? aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe?? aeeeaaeai?
aeena?oaioii o oanoe noaooyo oa oacao aeiiia?ae? ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe??.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iaoe, caaaeaiue, i?aaeiaoo ? eia?ee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, naie
i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (171
iaeiaioaaiiy). Ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 179 noi??iie.

Ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?? oa nooi?iue
?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino?, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, aecia/athoueny ??
iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa oa iaoeiaiciaa/a aaca, a oaeiae iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, i?aee?aneth?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia
? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “I?eioeei aeaniino?: ci?no, aaiethoe?y, oa cae??ieaiiy o
eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? Oe?a?ie” i?enay/aiee aecia/aiith aeo?aeieo
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue uiaei ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo, th?eaee/ii? i?e?iaee,
ci?noo, th?eaee/ieo iaae i?eioeeio aeaniino?, a oaeiae i?iaeai i?aaiai?
?aaeaiaioaoe?? o /eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie.

I?eioeei aeaniino? — caeiiii??iee ?acoeueoao aaiethoe??
iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo oyaeaiue i?i iaeaaeiee oa ni?aaaaeeeaee ono??e
aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy, a eiai aeiey o iia?oi?e ?noi??? ia?ic?eaii
iia’ycaia c iioe?aiiyi o noni?euei?e na?aeiiino?
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?aeiiaiue. Canaaee aeaniino? o a?o/eciyi?e
?noi??? aa?ooue na?e ii/aoie a?ae “a?iiaaeii?aanoaa” noa?iaeaai?o
neia’yi, ye? /a?ac o?aaeeoe?? a?/iaiai i?aae?iiy ia?aeoee a aiioo
Eicaoeueei? ?anioae?ee ?, caaaaoeaoenue aeaiie?aoe/iei aeina?aeii
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa, ia?iaiaioii aoee i?enooi? o iie?oe/i?e
na?aeiiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ye iaoe?iiaeueia aeueoa?iaoeaa
aaniethoenonueeiio eaaeia? iiaooi?o non?ae?a — Iieueu? oa ?in??.

Ia aeaeue, aoiaeaeaiiy a?eueoi? /anoeie oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aei neeaaeo
?in?enueei? aea?aeaae i?ecaaei aei i?eaeooaiiy an?o eicaoeueeeo
aieueiinoae, aei oeaio?ae?caoe?? aeaaee ? ia?aoiaeo aei aeeeth/ii
aaoi?eoa?ieo iaoiae?a i?aae?iiy. Ai?iaeiaae OVII? — ii/. O?O no. iaae?
aeaniino? iino?eii ci?ithaaeenue a caeaaeiino? a?ae iie?oe/ieo
oiiaeiaaiue ?iia?aoi?a oa eiai iaeaeeae/iai ioi/aiiy ia oe?
ath?ie?aoecaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, naaa?eey oeaico?e ? ii?ooaiiy
i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie. Eeoa i?ioyaii iaaeiaaiai ia??iaeo “aaeeeeo
?aoi?i” ?iia?aoi?a Ieaenaiae?a ?? io?eiaee ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/i? ?aea? i?i iaiao?aei?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aeaniino? a noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy ?in??, ui aoee ao?eai? o aeaio
oiai/anieo ?aoi?iao — Noaeia?e oa Cainuee?e. Iaeiae iiaa oaeey ?aaeoe??
nei?i caaea iaeaea iai?aaoeue on? aeinyaioo? caeiaooee, a oeaico?i?
ooenee ? ath?ie?aoecaoe?y aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo iaaoee iiaeo ianooaa?a.
I?ae aieeaii iiae?e ?aaiethoe?? 1905 ?. oea?nueeee o?yae aoa aeiooaiee
i?oe ia oi?iaeueia neanoaaiiy oeaico?e ? i?iaieioaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo
i?aa ? naiaiae. Iaeiae ?o ?aae?caoe?y noaea iiaeeeaith eeoa c iiaaeaiiyi
naiiaea?aeaanoaa ? ia?aoiaeii aeaaee aei Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo, yeee oae ?
ia nei?enoaany iaaiaeith aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ae?enii? aeaniino? o
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia aeeooy.

I?ney AEiaoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? aoei iieeaaeaii ii/aoie aoaio “ia?o?eii?
aeaniino?”, eiee oe?iea aioo?eia?o?eia aeeneon?y c aeooaeueieo ieoaiue
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ii?aeioaaeanue c aei?noieith ai?ioueaith
i?ioe iie?oe/ii? iiiceoe??. Iinooiiai, ia oa?ai? iiiiiieueiiai noaiiaeua
a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o?? c ?? o?aaeeoe?yie eiini??aoeaiino? ? ia?o?eii?
aeenoeeie?ie, ua a?eueo ?icaeiaieie a oiiaao ai?iiiai noaio, ii/aea
oaeaeei oi?ioaaoeny iiaa, ?aaeyinueea ath?ie?ao?y, yea ia aoea
caoe?eaaeaia o ?icaeoeo aeaniino?. Aaniethoecaoe?y aeaaee oeaio?aeueieo
i?aai?a ca iaeii/anii? ?o caeaaeiino? a?ae aocueeiai eiea in?a, ye?
cina?aaeeee o nai?o ?oeao anth iiaiioo iie?oe/ii? oa aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
aeaaee, ni?eyea oi?ioaaiith aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie. O
iiaeaeueoiio aeyaeeany cia/ia ?ica?aei?noue i?ae caeeeeaie aei
“?icoe?aiiy” aeaniino?, ui eoiaee c o?eaoi ia?o?eieo c’?cae?a, ?
iianyeaeaiiith ?aaeuei?noth noni?eueiiai aeeooy. I?eeiyooy o 1936 ?.
Eiinoeoooe?? N?N?, a?eueo aeaiie?aoe/ii? ai?ae Eiinoeoooe?y 1924 ?. ca
oa?aeoa?ii aeaeea?iaaieo i?eioeei?a, ni?aiaei c ?icai?oaiiyi ianiaeo
?ai?an?e, a ath?ie?aoecaoe?y aea?aeaaii-ia?o?eiiai aia?aoo ana a?eueo
c?inoaea iii?e an? aanea i?i “?aeiaiiy ia?o?? c ia?iaeii”.

OO c’?cae EI?N aee?ea ? canoaeea eoeueo Noae?ia ? iia’ycaiee c iei
noeeue ea??aieoeoaa aea?aeaaith, a?aee?eaoe oeyo aei aeaiie?aoecaoe??
?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, iaeiae “o?ouianueea a?aeeeaa” aoea
iicaaaeaia i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e ? oe?eeii caeaaeaea a?ae iie?oe/ieo
oiiaeiaaiue ia?o?eieo e?aea??a, oiio aeyaeeany iao?eaaeith, a 70-o? ?iee
aoee iicia/ai? iiaei aeoeii c?inoaiiy ath?ie?aoecio, oa?iiino? o
iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?a?ie, iianthaeiei cai?oaiiyi aeaniino?. Ai?ioueaa
ca ia?aaoaeiao ? aeani?noue, ?icii/aoa a na?aaeei? 80-o ?ie?a, oaae
ia?aoai?eeany ia iie?oe/io eaiiai?th ? aoea i?e?a/aia ia i?iaae,
caeeoeaoe i?ney naaa cai?noue i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e aeaniino? eeoa iaaaoeaia
noaaeaiiy aei anueiai, ui aoei oi/ yeinue iia’ycaia c eo?nii ?aoi?i.
Oiio iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?, ui ia?aea aeaiie?aoe/iee oeyo
?icaeoeo, i?eeoeiny ii/eiaoe ?icaoaeiao i?aaiaeo canaae a?aee?eoiai
noni?euenoaa iaeaea c “/enoiai a?eooa”. No/ani? ci?ie o aea?aeaaiiio
iaoai?ci? oa i?aaia?e nenoai? ni?yiiaai? ia ci?oeiaiiy th?eaee/ieo
iaoai?ci?a caaacia/aiiy aeaniino? an?o noa? noni?eueiiai aeeooy, cie?aia
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a ioae?/ii? aeaaee.

Iie?oeei-i?aaia? ?aae?? nueiaiaeaiiy iio?aaothoue iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei
aecia/aiiy ci?noo oa nooiino? i?eioeeio aeaniino?, a oaeiae aei
iaoai?ci?a eiai ?aae?caoe?? o ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
Oe?a?ie. Oea iaiao?aeii, ine?eueee i?aaia? i?eioeeie ae?aaeathoue
iaeaaaeeea?o? caeiiii??iino? oa i?aeaaeeie noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ii?
oi?iaoe??, oeio i?aaiai? nenoaie, neeaaeathoue ?? aieiaiee ci?no,
iathoue aeuo ?iia?aoeai?noue oa caaaeueiicia/ou?noue. I?eioeei aeaniino?
iieyaa? o aeciaii? iaiao?aeiino? ? aeiic? iaia’yceiaiai aeio?eiaiiy
aacia?aoeiaeiiai ?ooo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioie?a o iie?oeei-i?aaia?e
nenoai?. A?i ? no?eaeiai i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
a?aeiinei, a?aeeeaeath/e aoaeue-ye? ia?aiiie ia oeyoo noni?eueii
cia/oui? ?ioi?iaoe??, ca aeiyoeii eeoa i?i?iaeueieo i?aaiiaiaaeaiue,
iaiao?aeieo aeey caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oa caoenoo iniiaieo
i?aa ethaeeie. Aiaeii/an oeae i?eioeei aeiaaa? a?ae aea?aeaae
iaeaaiaeaeaiiy i?oeieo, iino?eieo ca’yce?a c a?iiaaenuee?noth.

I?eioeei aeaniino? ? i?aeaaeocaaei, ine?eueee ae?? a on?o aaeocyo
ioae?/iiai i?aaa, ui ?aaeaiaioothoue a?aeiineie i?ae i?aaiaie ioae?/ii?
aeaaee oa ie?aieie a?iiaaeyiaie e ?inoeoooaie a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa. Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy a?i iaaoaa? o no/aniiio
eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa?, ine?eueee eiai ?aae?caoe?y ? iaiao?aeiith
oiiaith ?icaoaeiae aeaiie?aoe/ii?, i?aaiai? aea?aeaae, ao?eaiiy o
iie?oeei-i?aaiao i?aeoeeo Oe?a?ie na?oiaeo eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo
oe?iiinoae, aeicaiey? iaeneiaeueii oe?ieiio eieo a?iiaaeyi naiino?eii ?
na?aeiii a?aoe o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee oa aeoeaii
aieeaaoe ia ?? ?aae?caoe?th, ?iaeoue an? eaiee iie?oe/ii? nenoaie
“caeaoieie ia a?aeaoe” aei ci?ithaaieo iio?aa noni?euenoaa.

C oi/ee ci?o eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa i?eioeei aeaniino? aenooia?
iaeii/anii o o?ueio aniaeoao: ye i?eioeei i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?a ioae?/ii? aeaaee, ye i?eioeei aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae aea?aeaaith ?
a?iiaaeyinueeei noni?euenoaii, a oaeiae ye i?iya aeaiie?aoecio i?aaiaiai
noaoono iniae. An? oe? aniaeoe aeaniino? aei?noei ii?aeiai? i?ae niaith
? iiaeooue aooe ?aae?ciaai? ia i?aeoeoe? eeoa ?acii, ine?eueee iathoue
ao?eaooeaiee oa?aeoa?.

Eiinoeoooe?eiee i?eioeei aeaniino? ? iaeiei c ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo i?eioeei?a, ui neeaaeathoue iniiae eiinoeoooe?eiiai
eaaeo Oe?a?ie, ? iieyaa? o aeciaii? iaiao?aeiino? e aeiic? iaia’yceiaiai
aeio?eiaiiy aacia?aoeiaeiiai ?ooo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioie?a i?i yaeua ?
i?ioeane iie?oeei-i?aaiai? noa?e. Aiae?c ??cii-iai?oieo eiai i?iya?a
aea? i?aenoaae ?icae?eeoe ?o ia aea? a?oie, ye? oiiaii iiaeia iacaaoe
“i?eaaoieie” ? “ioae?/ieie”. “I?eaaoi?” aniaeoe aeaniino? noinothoueny
ia?niiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae a?iiaaeyi, ? ?o ?aae?caoe?y caeaaeeoue a?ae
noa’?eoeaii? aie? inoaii?o, a “ioae?/i?” ? caaaeueieie ?iia?aoeaaie,
ni?yiiaaieie aei i?aai?a ioae?/ii? aeaaee oa iinaaeiaeo in?a, ? ?o
?aae?caoe?y ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aaaeaiiy aeeiiaaoe?a. TH?eaee/ieie
iaaeaie ae?? i?eioeeio aeaniino? ?, c iaeiiai aieo, noa?a iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee (o oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai oa?i?io), a c ae?oaiai — noa?a
iniaenoiai aeeooy ethaeeie.

O /eii?e Eiinoeoooe?? i?eioeei aeaniino? ia io?eiaa cae??ieaiiy o
aeaeyae? niaoe?aeueii? ii?ie-i?eioeeio, ui ia icia/a? eiai caia?a/aiiy
ye iniiaiiieiaeii? iie?oeei-i?aaiai? ?aea?, ine?eueee aeaye? i?iyae
aeaniino? io?eiaee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a oaeno? Iniiaiiai Caeiio, a oaeiae o
eiinoeoooe?eiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?. Aiaeii/an ??aaiue i?aaiai?
?aaeaiaioaoe?? i?eioeeio aeaniino? (iniaeeai ioae?/ieo eiai aniaeo?a) o
a?o/eciyiiio eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? aeaeaeee a?ae iioeiaeueiiai.
Cie?aia, aeaye? iieiaeaiiy Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie i?noyoue iioaioe?eio
caa?ico oioaeueiiai a?ae/oaeaiiy oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy a?ae
?aaeueiiai aieeao ia aeaaei? no?oeoo?e, ia?aoai?aiiy aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a
o cae?eo? onoaiiae ?, ye iane?aeie, a?aee?eaathoue oeyo aei iioe?aiiy
aaoi?eoa?ieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy, eoeoa?iiai i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ?
ath?ie?aoe/iiai naaa?eey, aei cai?ie neee a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee neeith
o?iainiai-i?iieneiaiai /e ?ioiai eiaa?. ?ioi?iaoe?eia caeiiiaeaanoai
cia/iith i??ith caeeoa?oueny aeaeea?aoeaiei, ia io?eioth/e iiaiioe?iii?
?aae?caoe??, iniaeeai o a?aeiineiao i?ae i?aaiaie ioae?/ii? aeaaee ?
ia?an?/ieie a?iiaaeyiaie, ui iaoiiaeaii iaae??a?noth anoaiiaeaieo
aa?aio?e i?aaa iniae ia ?ioi?iaoe?th.

I?eeiath/e aei oaaae i?oei? ei?ai? ath?ie?aoecio oa eoeueoo nae?aoiino?,
ui iathoue i?noea a iaoiio noni?euenoa?, o?aaa iaeneiaeueii aeaoaeueii ?
/?oei cae??ieoe a /eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? iaoai?ci ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
noinoie?a i?ae aeaaeith ? noni?euenoaii, ui niiioeaei a ia?aeoe a?ae
i?ei?oeaieo oi?i “iaae?neo?” aei caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo o oeea?e?ciaaiiio
noni?euenoa? “iaaeee ??eaeoic”. I?e oeueiio ia ia?oee ieai aeoiaeeoue
iaiao?aei?noue ia?aianaiiy “oeaio?o aaae” o oeeo a?aeiineiao c
?i?oe?aoeae ie?aii? ethaeeie ia ?i?oe?aoeao i?aai?a aeaaee c o?aooaaiiyi
ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?i, ia?aaaaeaiiy aeaniino? c
iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ii? o i?aaiaoe/ii-o?iainiao oa i?aai?caoe?eio
ieiueio. Aeioe?eueii i?eeiyoe Caeii “I?i a?aee?eo?noue ioae?/ii?
aeaaee”, a yeiio aeaoaeueii a?aaoethaaoe an? noi?iie ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
a?aeiinei o noa?? cae?eniaiiy ioae?/ii? aeaaee. C iaoith iaaeiiouaiiy
iaiaa?oioiaaii? nae?aoiino? eiaeiiio c aeae?a ?ioi?iaoe?? c iaiaaeaiei
aeinooiii ia? aooe i?enay/aiee ie?aiee caeii c aeiaeaoeii o aeaeyae?
ae/a?iiiai ia?ae?eo ?ioi?iaoe?? aeaiiai aeaeo.

A?o/eciyia iie?oeei-i?aaiaa i?aeoeea ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
na?aae no/anieo i?iaeai ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio aeaniino? o
eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? Oe?a?ie i??i?eoao ia? aooe a?aeaeaiee
caaacia/aiith iaeaaeiiai ??aiy a?aee?eoino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
iaeaaiaeaeaiith no?eeiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iai?io i?ae aeaaeith ?
ianaeaiiyi c iaoith iia?aoeaiiai ?aaaoaaiiy ia a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo ?
ei?eaoaaiiy aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a?aeiia?aeii aei ci?ithaaieo iio?aa
noni?euenoaa. Nueiaiaei? aei oeeo i?iaeai aeaaee i?eeooa oaaaa a on?o
aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?iao, ui iathoue a oe?e noa?? a?aeiia?aei? caeiie.
Iaea?eueo ?icaeiaiei ? caeiiiaeaanoai i?i a?aee?eo?noue aeaaee o NOA oa
e?a?iao Neaiaeeiaa??, aea ia o?eueee aeaoaeueii aii?iiaaii iaoai?ci
?aae?caoe?? i?aaa a?iiaaeyi ia aeinooi aei o?yaeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, aea e
ii?iaoeaii caaacia/o?oueny ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no/anieo oaoiieia?e o i?ioean
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iai?io i?ae aeaaeith ? noni?euenoaii. Ia noi?oue
inoi?iiue a?ae caaaeueiina?oiaeo i?ioean?a e Oe?a?ia, ui io?eiaei nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o /eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie cae??ieaiiy ? ?aae?caoe??
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?eioeeio aeaniino? a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee” aeine?aeaeothoueny iniaeeaino? i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? oi?ie cae?eniaiiy i?eioeeio aeaniino? noiniaii
??cieo “a?eie aeaaee” oa ie?aieo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a c o?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeo?ee ?o ooieoe?e, eiiiaoaioe?? oa no?oeoo?ii? aoaeiae.

Iaea?eueo a?aee?eoeie aeey a?iiaaenueeino? a on?o e?a?iao na?oo ?
ia?eaiaioe, ui i?aai?/ii aeieeaa? c ?o nooiino? oa ii?yaeeo i?aai?caoe??
ye i?aai?a ia?iaeiiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa. I?e oeueiio aeae?eythoueny aeaa
aniaeoe i?iaeaie: ?inoeoooe?eiee oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee. Iaeaaiaeeoe
ca’ycie c aeai?oeyie ia ?inoeoooe?eiiio ??ai? icia/a? c?iaeoe ?iaioo
ia?eaiaioo a?eueo a?aee?eoith, eiai caeaoi?noue ?aaaoaaoe ia iio?aae
a?iiaaeyi a ?ioi?iaoe?? — e?auith, ? oaeei /eiii a?aee?eoe ia?aae oeeie
a?iiaaeyiaie iiaeeea?noue o/ano? o i?ioean? ae?iaeaiiy iie?oe/iiai
eo?no. Ca’ycie ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ??ai? — oea iniaenoee ca’ycie
ia?eaiaioa?y c ??cieie a?oiaie, ye? ona?aeiieththoue oa i?aai?ciaaii
a?aenoiththoue aeani? ?ioa?ane, c i?anith oa ie?aieie a?iiaaeyiaie ia
?aaoey?i?e iniia?.

?inoeoooe?eiee ??aaiue a?aee?eoino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie
?aae?co?oueny oeyoii: 1) iaaeaiiy i?aaa aeo?iae?noai oa ia?an?/iei
a?iiaaeyiai aooe i?enooi?ie ia ieaia?ieo can?aeaiiyo ia?eaiaioo; 2)
caaacia/aiiy ae?aaeeoiaaieo i?aaenoaaiee?a CI? iia?aoeaieie
?ioi?iaoe?eieie oa i?aaiaeie iaoa??aeaie, ui iioe?ththoueny na?aae
aeaiooao?a; 3) ?iciianthaeaeaiiy I?an-neoaeaith Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie
?ioi?iaoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a i?i ae?yeuei?noue ia?eaiaioo o caniaao ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??; 4) ii?eethaeiaiiy i?eeiyoeo ia?eaiaioii aeo?a ? ??oaiue; 5)
iaia’yceiaiai aaaeaiiy i?ioieieo, noaiia?aie, aeaeaiiy noaiia?ao?/iiai
atheaoaiy oa noaiia?ao?/iiai ca?oo can?aeaiue Aa?oiaii? ?aaee; 6)
?aaoey?ii? oaea- oa ?aae?io?aineyoe?? ieaia?ieo can?aeaiue ia?eaiaioo, a
oaeiae aeioneo niaoe?aeueieo oaea- ? ?aae?iia?aaea/ i?i noaoon oa
ae?yeuei?noue ?aeeiiai i?aaio caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee; 7) i?iaaaeaiiy
?aaoey?ieo a?eo?ia?a oa i?an-eiioa?aioe?e aeey ae?aaeeoiaaieo
aeo?iae?no?a. Cia/iee aianie o ca?eueoaiiy a?aee?eoino? ia?eaiaioo
?iaeoue a?ae?ioaea Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. A inoaii? ?iee ana a?eueoiai
cia/aiiy iaaoaa? ?ioi?iaoecaoe?y ia?eaiaioo ye can?a caaacia/aiiy
aeaniino?.

Aiaeii/an i?ye? oaoi?/i? caniae eiioi?eaoe?? ia iiaeooue cai?ieoe
aaciina?aaei? ni?eeoaaiiy aeaiooao?a c aeai?oeyie, oiaoi
?iaeea?aeoaeueiee ??aaiue a?aee?eoino? ia?eaiaioo. A?o/eciyia
caeiiiaeaanoai ia?aaeaa/a? oae? niiniae caaacia/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
??aiy a?aee?eoino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee: 1) ?ioi?ioaaiiy aeaiooaoaie nai?o
aeai?oe?a i?i aeanio ?iaioo o Aa?oiai?e ?aae? oa ?? i?aaiao, i?i ?iaioo
ia?eaiaioo a oe?eiio, i?i aeeiiaiiy ?o ??oaiue; 2) aea/aiiy
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee, iio?aa ? caieo?a ianaeaiiy; 3) iniaenoee i?eeii
a?iiaaeyi o Aa?oiai?e ?aae? oa o aeaiooaonueeeo i?eeiaeueiyo; 4) i?eeii
? ?icaeyae ienueiiaeo caa?iaiue a?iiaaeyi; 5) eiioaeoe aeaiooao?a c
aeai?oeyie oa caniaaie ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? /a?ac nai?o
iii?/iee?a-eiinoeueoaio?a.

Cia/ii iaio a?aee?eoith aeey oe?ieiai caaaeo ? caeiiii?iaeoia ?iaioa, o
oiio /ene? e ?iaioa eii?oao?a, oei/aniaeo oa ne?ae/eo eii?n?e
ia?eaiaioo. I?ioieie, noaiia?aia can?aeaiiy, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
i?ioean iaaiai?aiiy ? i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aai aeniiaeo
eii?oaoo, aeinooii? o?eueee ia?iaeiei aeaiooaoai Oe?a?ie, oa e oi eeoa
ca ?oi?i iniaenoei caa?iaiiyi. Uiaei ieai?a can?aeaiue ia?eaiaionueeeo
eii?oao?a, oi ?o ii?eethaeiaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaii ia ia?aaeaa/aii.
Acaaae?, aeinooi a?iiaaeyi aei i?ioeano caeiiioai?aiiy ? a Oe?a?i?
caaeia?eueiei eeoa ia aoaiao i?eeiyooy caeiio o nan?eiiio cae? oa
aeiaaaeaiiy eiai oaenoo aei a?iiaaenueeino?; aoai i?aeaioiaee
caeiiii?iaeo?a ? oaeoe/ii cae?eoei.

Ae?yeuei?noue aeaae aea?aeaae, c iaeyaeo ia niaoeeo?eo eiai eiiiaoaioe??
oa iiiie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa?, a Oe?a?i?, ye ? a a?eueoino? ca?oa?aeieo
e?a?i, ? cia/ii a?eueo cae?eoith aeey oe?ieiai caaaeo ii??aiyii c
ae?yeuei?noth ia?eaiaioo. Iaeiae oea ia aeaiaeeoue eiai ca iaae? ae??
eiinoeoooe?eiiai ieioeeio aeaniino?, a eeoa aeiaaa? aeaui ?ioeo oi?i
eiai ?aae?caoe??. Caniae caaacia/aiiy aeaniino? ?iaioe I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie aeineoue ??ciiiai?oi? ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii oa ia?ae?eii caeo/aieo
aei oeueiai aeeiiaaoe?a: 1) ii?eethaeiaiiy iiaieo oaeno?a i?aaiaeo
aeo?a, i?aeienaieo aeaaith aea?aeaae; 2) o?aineyoe?? oaea- oa
?aae?icaa?iaiue I?aceaeaioa aei Oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; 3) ioae?eaoe?y o
i?an? oa iaieioaiiy ii oaeaaa/aiith ? ?aae?i iineaiue I?aceaeaioa aei
ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie; 4) ioae?eaoe?y oaeno?a ui??/ieo oa iica/a?aiaeo
iineaiue I?aceaeaioa aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie i?i aioo??oi? ?
ciai?oi? noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie; 5) o?aineyoe?y ioae?/ieo aenooi?a aeaae
aea?aeaae, a oaeiae ioae?eaoe?y o i?an? ?o iiaiiai ci?noo; 6) a?eo?iae ?
i?an-eiioa?aioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie oa ni?a?ia?oiee?a eiai
Aaei?i?no?aoe?? aeey i?aaenoaaiee?a CI?; 7) ?ioa?a’th I?aceaeaioa
i?aaenoaaieeai CI?; 8) i?an-?ae?ce i?i ae?yeuei?noue aeaae aea?aeaae, ui
?iciianthaeaeothoueny I?an-neoaeaith Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie; 9) noaoo? ni?a?ia?oiee?a Aaei?i?no?aoe?? oa aeo?iae?no?a i?i
noaoon ? ae?yeuei?noue aeaae aea?aeaae; 10) oaea- ? ?aae?i?aii?oaae? c
i?noey iiae?e, a yeeo aa?a o/anoue I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie oa ?i.

Na?aae iaeaeooaeuei?oeo i?iaeai caaacia/aiiy aeaniino? ?iaioe
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ne?ae aeae?eeoe ieoaiiy ii?eethaeiaiiy i?aeienaieo
iei caeii?a, oeac?a oa ?icii?yaeaeaiue, i?iaeaio “aeo?a ia aeey ae?oeo”,
oa aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? I?an-neoaeae Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie. I?e oeueiio aaaeeeaei iai?yiii iie?auaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
iai?io i?ae I?aceaeaioii ? a?iiaaenuee?noth ciia-oaee ? a?eueo oe?iea
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae no/anieo cania?a eiioi?eaoe??, cie?aia
oaeaaa/aiiy, ?aae?i, oaeaoiiiiai ca’yceo oa eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aae.

Aeani?noue aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a aeaaee caaaeaee aoea ? caeeoa?oueny
iaea?eueo aino?ith i?iaeaiith, ine?eueee aiie iaea?eueo noeeuei? aei
iaaei??ii? cae?eoino?, ath?ie?aoecaoe?? oa a?ae?eao a?ae iio?aa
ianaeaiiy. O no/anieo aeaiie?aoe/ieo aea?aeaaao aeinooi a?iiaaenueeino?
aei ?ioi?iaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai cia/aiiy caaacia/o?oueny o aeaa niiniae:
caai?iiith oeaico?e ? noai?aiiyi iaoai?cio io?eiaiiy io?oe?eieo
aeieoiaio?a. ?ioi?ioaaiiy oe?ieiai caaaeo i?i ae?yeue-i?noue Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a ? i?eeiyo? iei ??oaiiy caaacia/othoueny: 1) /a?ac Aa?oiaio
?aaeo Oe?a?ie (ca?oe, a?aeiia?ae? ia aeaiooaonuee? caieoe oa ?i.); 2)
/a?ac caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? (oaenoe i?aaiaeo aeo?a, noaoo?,
?ioa?a’th, i?an-?ae?ce oa ?i.); 3) aaciina?aaei?i ni?eeoaaiiyi c
a?iiaaeyiaie (a?aeiia?ae? ia ?ioi?iaoe?ei? caieoe, aan?aee c
a?iiaaeyiaie i?ae /an ?iai/eo ii?caeie I?ai’??-i?i?no?a ii e?a?i? oa
?i.). Naia ii?aeiaiiy an?o o?ueio oeyo?a aea? ciiao iaeaaiaeeoe
iino?eiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee ca’ycie i?ae o?yaeii ? a?iiaaeyiaie. I?ia?aeia
?ieue o caaacia/aii? ii?ioi?iiaaiino? ianaeaiiy i?i ae?yeuei?noue
o?yaeiaeo no?oeoo? iaeaaeeoue a?aeiia?aeiei i?an-neoaeaai, ye? iathoue
caaacia/oaaoe i?yi? oa cai?ioi? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? iioiee i?ae aeeiiaa/ith
aeaaeith ? a?iiaaeyiaie. Iaeiae ianueiaiaei? iaeaaeiee ca’ycie
i?an-neoaea i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa c I?an-neoaeaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie iaeaea iiai?noth a?aenooi?e, a eii?aeeiaoe?y ?o ae?yeueiino?,
iacaaaeath/e ia a?aeiia?aeia ?icii?yaeaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ia
cae?enith?oueny. Aieiaia caaaeaiiy o oe?e noa?? iieyaa? a iaeaaei?e
i?aaia?e ?aaeaiaioaoe?? noaoono i?an-neoaea ia iniia? Oeiiaiai
iieiaeaiiy, a oaeiae o no?oeoo?i?e ?o ia?aaoaeia? c o?aooaaiiyi
ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo.

Cia/iith niaoeeo?eith iicia/aia aeani?noue noaeiaeo oa i?aaiioi?iiieo
i?aai?a, ine?eueee ?o ae?yeuei?noue ia? th?enaeeeoe?eiee oa?aeoa?.
Eiinoeoooe?y 1996 ?. ?iciianthaeeea ae?th i?eioeeio aeaniino? ia an?
noaae?? noaeiaiai i?ioeano, caaaeyee /iio a?aeaoeinue ?icoe?aiiy ia’?io
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?eioeeio aeaniino? noaei/einoaa ? aiaeii/an —
ii?iaoeaia cae??ieaiiy iiaeo oi?i eiai ?aae?caoe??. Iaeiae ??aaiue
i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? o aeai?e noa?? ua aeaeaeee a?ae aeineiiaeino?:
o?aaa ua a?eueoa ?icoe?eoe ae?th i?eioeeio aeaniino? ii a?aeiioaiith aei
noaeiaeo i?aai?a, ia?aoai?eaoe eiai c aeaniino? noaei/einoaa ia
aeani?noue ?iaioe noae?a. O?aaa caaaeaoe ia oa, ui aeani?noue o noae?
neeaaea?oueny c e?eueeio aniaeo?a, iniiaieie c yeeo ? a?aee?eo?noue
noaeiai? ae?yeueiino?, ioae?/i?noue oniiai neiaa a noae?, ii?eethaeiaiiy
i?eeiyoeo ??oaiue ?, ia?aoo?, ?ioi?ioaaiiy ianaeaiiy i?i ?iaioo noaeiaeo
i?aai?a. Ia aeaeue, nueiaiaei? noaeiaa aeaaea caieioeanue ia nia?,
aiy/enue ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai aoi?aiaiiy a?iiaaenueeino? o noa?o nai??
ae?yeueiino?, ui o?aaeeoe?eii aoea cae?eoith a?ae oe?ieiai caaaeo.

Uiaei ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a i?inoaaeo?oueny cai?ioiy
oaiaeaioe?y: aeani?noue ?o ?iaioe cia/ii c?inea ? iaaoaa? iiaeo oi?i.
Cia/iee aeina?ae caaacia/aiiy aeaniino? i?aaiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino?
iaeiie/aiee i?ae?icae?eaie IAN oa NAO, aea o?aaeeoe?eia ?iaioa ?c
caa?iaiiyie a?iiaaeyi aeiiiaith?oueny nioe?ieia?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee, o?niith ni?ai?aoeath c ae?oeiaaieie oa
aeaeo?iiieie caniaaie ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?ioeie oi?iaie ca’yce?a c
a?iiaaenuee?noth. Iniiaiee oyaa? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
ni?ai?aoe? ?c CI? ianooue i?an-neoaeae i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, ye?
c’yaeeenue ?ai?oa, i?ae o aaaaoueio ?ioeo i?aaiao aeaaee.

Iaa?eueo “iiooaeieie” i?an-iina?aaeieoeueeeie i?ae?icae?eaie ? oeaio?e
a?iiaaenueeeo ca’yce?a, ui ooieoe?iiothoue a nenoai? IAN. Ca ?iee ?o
ae?yeueiino? iaeiie/aiee cia/iee aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo oi?i
“iaaeee ??eaeoic”, na?aae yeeo iaea?eueo aaeaeeie aeyaeeenue ni?euei?
i?iaeoe c i?noeaaeie oaeaeiiiai?yie uiaei noai?aiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ieo i?ia?ai. ?aii?oaae? c i?noey iiae?e oa
iia?aoeaia noaoenoe/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i cei/eie oa
aei?iaeiuei-o?ain-ii?oi? i?eaiaee, eiiaioa?? i?aoe?aiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo
i?aai?a i?eaa?oathoue oaaao aeyaeaoeueei? aoaeeoi???, a?ae?a?athoue
cia/io iiia?aaeaeoaaeueio ? aeoiaio ?ieue, ia?aeiiothoue
a?iiaaenuee?noue o ae??aino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a. Aiaeii/an c iaoith
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo ne?ae aaeineiiaethaaoe
eii?aeeiaoe?th ? ni?ai?aoeth i?ae ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ieie neoaeaaie
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?eioeeio aeaniino? o /eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie, aecia/athoueny
aniaeoe, aeine?aeaeaiiy yeeo iiaea ni?eyoe ae??oaiith cacia/aieo
i?iaeai. Na?aae aeniiae?a aeae?eythoueny oae?:

n ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae cana?ae/o?, ui cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaniino? ?
iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith aeaiie?aoecaoe?? aea?aeaae, aaaeeeaei
aeaiaioii iaoai?cio caaacia/aiiy iniiaieo i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie;

n i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?ie iinooiiai ?icoe?ththoue aeani?noue
nai?? ae?yeueiino?, cai?iaaaeaeothoue iia? oi?ie ni?eeoaaiiy c
a?iiaaenuee?noth, aea ?o ?iaioa ua cia/iith i??ith aaco?oueny ia
canaaeao aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ath?ie?aoe/iiai aia?aoo ieioeeo /an?a;

n iaea?eueo “a?aee?eoith” aeey a?iiaaenueeino? ? ae?yeuei?noue Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?icia?ooyi niinia?a
?inoeoooe?iiaeueiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai caaacia/aiiy aeaniino?
oeueiai i?aaio, iaeiae caeiiii?iaeoia ?iaioa aein? caeeoa?oueny oaeoe/ii
“cae?eoith” aeey a?iiaaenueeino?;

n iniaeeaino? ?inoeoooo aeaae aea?aeaae ye iaeiiin?aiiai aea?aeaaiiai
i?aaio iio?aaothoue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo oi?i caaacia/aiiy
aeaniino? eiai ?iaioe; yaeyth/enue a?a?o?ii ? eii?aeeiaoi?ii
ae?yeueiino? an?o a?eie aeaaee, I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie ia? acyoe ia naaa
eii?aeeiaoe?th ?oi?o cayce?a c a?iiaaenuee?noth;

n i?aaie aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee caeeoathoueny aeineoue “cae?eoeie”
onoaiiaaie, ui iaoiiaeaii ye iaaaaeaiiyi /eiiaiee?a ?iaeoe ?ioi?iaoe?th
i?i naith ae?yeuei?noue iaaeaaiiyi a?iiaaenueeino?, oae ? aaaeaie
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o;

n iaiaaeaiiy aeaniino? ?iaioe noaeiaeo i?aai?a aeeeth/ii aeani?noth
noaei/einoaa i?ecaaei aei naii?cieyoe?? noaeiai? a?eee aeaaee; oaeee
noai ? iani?eeiyoiei ? iio?aao? aei?aaeaiiy oeyoii ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
aeaniino? ia an? aniaeoe ae?yeueiino? noae?a;

n i?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie iino?eii ?icoe?ththoue aeani?noue nai??
ae?yeueiino?, ieie iaeiie/aii ei?eniee aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo cania?a i?aeo?eiaiiy ae?aeiao c ianaeaiiyi, iaeiae ?i
a?aeo? ocaiaeaeaiino? ae?e aeey a?eueo aoaeoeaii? ai?ioueae ?c
cei/eii?noth ? io?eiaiiy i?aeo?eiee a?iiaaeyi.

n ??aaiue i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo a?aeiinei o noa??
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? iaaeinoaoi?i ? iio?aao?
aaeineiiaeaiiy oeyoii i?eeiyooy iecee caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ye? a /?oei e
aeaoaeueii a?aaoethaaee aeinooi a?iiaaenueeino? aei o?yaeiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, e?eoa??? canae?a/oaaiiy a?aeiiinoae oa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
iinaaeiaeo in?a ca ii?ooaiiy i?aaa iniae ia ?ioi?iaoe?th.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? oae? ?iaioe:

1.Oiaeeea TH., Na?ueia?i A. Eiinoeoooe?eiee i?eioeei aeaniino?: iiiyooy
oa nooi?noue // A?niee Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ?1
(12). — N.50-58.

2.Oiaeeea TH., Na?ueia?i A. Eiinoeoooe?eiee i?eioeei aeaniino? ye
aa?aio?y iniiaieo i?aa ? naiaiae a?iiaaeyi // I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1998. —
?6. — N.22-24,29.

3.Na?ueia?i A.I. I?eioeei aeaniino? o Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie // Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee a aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo o/aieo. Aei.2. — O.:
Oi-o aioo?.ni?aa, 1997. — N.123-127.

4.Na?ueia?i A.I. Aeani?noue a ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? iie?oeei-i?aaiai?
aeoiee oa aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii?
iaoee a aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo o/aieo. Aei.3-4. — O.: Oi-o
aioo?.ni?aa, 1997. — N.167-174.

5.Na??aei A. Eiinoeoooeey e iauanoaaiiia iiaiea // Aecian Eioi?i. —
1996. — ?23. — N.9-11.

6.Na??aei A. Eioi?iaoecaoeey ia?eaiaioia: ia?niaeoeaiia iai?aaeaiea
?acaeoey aeaniinoe caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?aaiia // Aecian Eioi?i. — 1998. —
?20. — N.13-15.

7.Na?ueia?i A.I. Aeani?noue ?iaioe oe?a?inueeiai ia?eaiaioo c oi/ee ci?o
noaiaea?o?a ?aaee ?a?iie // I?iaeaie aa?iii?caoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa
Oe?a?ie c i?aeia?iaeiei i?aaii / Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??. AEiaoaiue 1998 ?ieo. — E.: ?i-o caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie, 1998. — N.213-216.

AIIOAOe??

Na?ueia?i A.I. Eiinoeoooe?eiee i?eioeei aeaniino? o ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.02 — eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai. Iaoe?iiaeueia
th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, Oa?e?a, 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith nooiino? oa ci?noo eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?eioeeio aeaniino?, aaiethoe?? oa no/anieo i?iaeai i?aaiai?
?aaeaiaioaoe?? oeueiai i?eioeeio a?aeiinii ??cieo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee Oe?a?ie. Noi?ioeueiaaii aecia/aiiy i?eioeeio aeaniino?,
iaa?oioiaaii eiai i?noea ? ?ieue o eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? Oe?a?ie.
Aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? ooieoe?? i?eioeeio aeaniino? a iaoai?ci? caoenoo
i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie ? a?iiaaeyieia oa th?eaee/i? iaae? eiai
canoinoaaiiy.

Cae?eniaii eiiieaeniee e?eoe/iee aiae?c iniaeeainoae i?aaiaiai
cae??ieaiiy i?eioeeio aeaniino? o /eiiiio eiinoeoooe?eiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae oi?i ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai i?eioeeio o
ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie oa ?? eii?oao?a, I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie, Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ? oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee, noaeiaeo oa i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a. Coi?ioeueiaaii i?iiiceoe??
uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy Eiinoeoooe?? ? /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ni?yiiaai?
ia i?aeaeuaiiy aeaniino? a ?iaio? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?eioeei aeaniino?, canaaee eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo,
i?aaa ethaeeie, i?aai ia ?ioi?iaoe?th, a?aee?eo?noue aeaaee, i?aaie
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee.

Na??aei A.A. Eiinoeoooeeiiiue i?eioeei aeaniinoe a aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?e-aee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.02 — eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai.
Iaoeeiiaeueiay th?eaee/aneay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu eiaie ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai,
Oa?ueeia, 1999 a.

Enneaaeiaaiu nouiinoue e niaea?aeaiea eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?eioeeia
aeaniinoe, yiethoeey e nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu i?aaiaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee
yoiai i?eioeeia ioiineoaeueii ?acee/iuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe
Oe?aeiu.

Aeaeaaony auaiae i oii, /oi i?eioeei aeaniinoe noae caeiiiia?iui
?acoeueoaoii yaiethoeee iieeoeei-i?aaiauo i?aaenoaaeaiee i aeieaeiii e
ni?aaaaeeeaii ono?ienoaa ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie, a aai noaeueaa a
iiaaeoae enoi?ee ia?ac?uaii naycaia n ?ani?ino?aiaeieai a iauanoaaiiii
niciaieee eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo oaaaeaeaiee. Oeacuaaaony, /oi
i?eioeei aeaniinoe yaeyaony noa?aeiai i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee, ioa?anuaay ethaua i?aa?aaeu ia iooe
iauanoaaiii cia/eiie eioi?iaoeee (ca eneeth/aieai eeoue ieieiaeueiuo
i?aaiia?aie/aiee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey iaania/aiey iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoe e caueou iniiaiuo i?aa /aeiaaea) e iaeiia?aiaiii o?aaoy io
ainoaea?noaa iaeaaeeaaiey i?i/iuo, iinoiyiiuo naycae n
iauanoaaiiinoueth.

Eiinoeoooeeiiiue i?eioeei aeaniinoe ii?aaeaeyaony eae iaeei ec
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo iieeoeei-i?aaiauo i?eioeeiia, ninoaaeythueo iniiau
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai no?iy Oe?aeiu, caeeth/athueeny a i?eciaiee
iaiaoiaeeiinoe e o?aaiaaiee iaycaoaeueiiai niaethaeaiey
aani?aiyonoaaiiiai aeaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia i yaeaieyo e
i?ioeannao iieeoeei-i?aaiaie nenoaiu.

Oeacuaaaony, /oi n oi/ee c?aiey eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa i?eioeei
aeaniinoe aunooiaao iaeiia?aiaiii a o?ao aniaeoao: eae i?eioeei
i?aaiecaoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey; eae i?eioeei acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e
a?aaeaeaineei iauanoaii; eae i?iyaeaiea aeaiie?aoecia i?aaiaiai noaoona
ee/iinoe.

Ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua ooieoeee i?eioeeia aeaniinoe a iaoaiecia caueou
i?aa e naiaiae /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia: aiinaieiae/aneay, i?aaicaueoiay,
eiiioieeaoeaiay e noaaeeece-?othuay. Oeacuaathony th?eaee/aneea i?aaeaeu
aai i?eiaiaiey: n iaeiie noi?iiu — noa?a iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe (a
oe?ieii niunea neiaa), a n ae?oaie — noa?a ee/iie aeecie /aeiaaea.

Inouanoaeai eiiieaeniue e?eoe/aneee aiaeec iniaaiiinoae i?aaiaiai
cae?aieaiey i?eioeeia aeaniinoe a aeaenoaothuai eiinoeoooeeiiiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu, a oaeaea oi?i ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai i?eioeeia
a aeayoaeueiinoe Aa?oiaiie ?aaeu Oe?aeiu e aa eiieoaoia, I?aceaeaioa
Oe?aeiu, Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia Oe?aeiu e oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiia
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, noaeaaiuo e i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia.
Iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeia aeaniinoe ia aunoai,
iieeoe/aneii o?iaia ainoaea?noaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee. Aeaeaaony auaiae i
oii, /oi i?eioeei aeaniinoe ia iieo/ee aeieaeiiai io?aaeaiey a
Eiinoeoooeee Oe?aeiu, iaeiaei cae?aieai a aieueoeinoaa ii?iaoeaiuo
aeoia, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?aaiaie ioaee/iie aeanoe,
ioaeaeueiuie a?aaeaeaiaie e einoeoooaie a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa.

Inaauaiu iniiaiua i?iaeaiu ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeia aeaniinoe a
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe Oe?aeiu, ii?aaeaeaiu
iniiaiua ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaua e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua iooe eo ?ac?aoaiey.
Aeaeaaony auaiae i oii, /oi i?iaeaia “ioe?uoinoe” i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe yaeyaony iaeiie ec iaeaieaa ino?uo, iineieueeo
eo aeayoaeueiinoue aei neo ii? iniiauaaaony i?aeiouanoaaiii ia
i?eioeeiao aaeieieno?aoeaii-ath?ie?aoe/aneiai aiia?aoa niaaoneeo a?aiai.
Iiae/a?eeaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aaaaeaiey aeaniinoe ec
iieeoeei-eaeaieiae/aneie a i?aaiaoe/anee-oeiainiaoth e i?aaiecaoeeiiioth
ieineinoue. Noi?ioee?iaaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth
Eiinoeoooeee e aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, iai?aaeaiiua ia
iiauoaiea aeaniinoe a ?aaioa ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. A /anoiinoe,
iainiiauaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ac?aaioee e i?eiyoey caeiia “Ia
ioe?uoinoe ioaee/iie aeanoe”, i?aaeeaaaaony ia?a/aiue o?aaiaaiee e
i?aaiaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee, eanathueony i?aaee
aeinooia a?aaeaeai e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee.

Auaeaeythony aeaa aniaeoa i?iaeaiu iaania/aiey aeaniinoe ?aaiou i?aaiia
ioaee/iie aeanoe — einoeoooeeiiaeueiue e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue,
enneaaeothony iniaaiiinoe ?aaeecaoeee eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?eioeeia
aeaniinoe a aeayoaeueiinoe ?acee/iuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe
Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?eioeei aeaniinoe, iniiau eiinoeoooeeii-iiai no?iy,
i?aaa /aeiaaea, i?aai ia eioi?iaoeeth, ioe?uoinoue ioaee/iie aeanoe,
i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou, i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

Seryogin V.A. Constitutional principle of glasnost in activities of
state power bodies in Ukraine. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a competition for academic degree of the candidate of
jurisprudence by specialty 12.00.02. — constitutional law. — National
juridical academy of Ukraine named for Yaroslav Mudriy, Kharkiv, 1999.

The paper is devoted to study of the nature and contents of the
constitutional principle of glasnost, its evolution and modern problems
of legal regulation relatively to various state power bodies in Ukraine.
The definition of the principle of glasnost has been formulated, its
place and role in the constitutional law of Ukraine has been
substantiated. The main functions of the constitutional principle of
glasnost in the mechanism of protection human rights and freedoms, the
legal limits of this principle implementation has been analyzed in the
research.

A comprehensive critical analysis has been made relating to legal
regulation the principle of glasnost at law in force, its realization in
deeds of Supreme Rada of Ukraine and its committees, President of
Ukraine, Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and central executive
authorities, courts and law-enforcement agencies. Some propositions are
offered in the field of improvement of the Constitution and laws in
force having in mind an increase in glasnost of operation of state
bodies.

Keywords: principle of glasnost, fundamentals of constitutional order,
rights of human, right of being informed, glasnost of authority,
organization of work, state power bodies.

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione: e.th.i., aeioe. Ai?iiia I.I.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 09.04.99. Oi?iao 60o90/16

Iai?? ionaoiee. A?aeae?oeiaaii ia ?ecia?ao?. Oiiaii-ae?oe. a?e. 0,6

Iae?e.-aeae.a?e. 1,0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai.?115

————————-

Ae?oea?iy

AI “Aecian Eioi?i”

310050, Oa?e?a, aoe.Ia?oaea Aaaeaiiaa,28.

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