2

IAOe?IIAEUeIA TH?EAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss
OE?A?IE

?iai?
ss?INEAAA IOAe?IAI

AEO?AAEUeIAA
Aaiia Naiai?aia

OAeE 342.53 (477)

EIINOEOOOe?EI? CANAAeE NOAIIAEAIIss
? ?ICAEOEO

IA?EAIAIOA?ECIO
A OE?A?I?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue:
12.00.02 – eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? eiinoeoooe?eiiai ? aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa
th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai —
ei?an-

iiiaeaio Aeaaeai??
i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie

OAIIAAE Aieiaeeie?
Ieeieaeiae/, noaeaey

Eiinoeoooe?eiiai noaeo
Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai??
i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie OIAeEEA TH?ee Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie
?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio ?AA?AOIA Iaaei Ai?eniae/, noaeaey
Eiinoeoooe?eiiai noaeo Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – eaoaae?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “__14_”_o?aaiy_1999 ?. i___14___aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.086.03 a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e
th?eaee/i?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai (310 024, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea,77).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeii iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai (310 024, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea,77).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “__13_”__ea?oiy_1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
AEeaaee?i I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioeane noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i? ? aecia/aeueieie aeey iio?aa
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. Ci?no oeeo i?ioean?a caaacia/o? ia o?eueee
aeaiie?aoe/ia iaiiaiaiiy aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, a ? eiai ?aaeuei?noue o
oe?eiio. Aea/aiiy noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?
iio?aao? aeine?aeaeaiue o noa?ao ??cieo iaoe. I?ioa /e ia
iaeaaaeeea?oeie o?aaa aaaaeaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?aaiai? i?iaeaiaoeee
«ia?eaiaionueeiai aeeooy», ianaiia?aae eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaia? ca ci?noii
? ca iaoiaeeeith aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiiiaio ia?eaiaioa?ecio. I?e oeueiio
o?aaa a?aoiaoaaoe, ui naia Eiinoeoooe?y ye Iniiaiee Caeii aea?aeaae
anoaiiaeth?, eiinoeooth? ia?eaiaio, naia ii?ie aaeoc? eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa ?aaeaiaioothoue i?aeoe/ii on? ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino?
eieaa?aeueiiai i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai i?aaio aeaaee.

O iaea?eueo?e i??? neacaia noino?oueny e?a?i, aea ia?eaiaioa?eci ia
??ai? oai??? ? i?aeoeee ciaoiaeeoueny o noaae?? noaiiaeaiiy. C
ia’?eoeaieo i?e/ei aei oaeeo e?a?i ia? aooe a?aeianaia Oe?a?ia. A iao?e
e?a?i? o 90-o? ?iee aoei aeaeaii ieceo ?ia?o iaoeiaoe?a-th?eno?a
(caeaa?eueoiai noaoae ? oac aenooi?a ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo), aaoi?e
yeeo aeine?aeaeoaaee ??ci? noi?iie i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino?
ia?eaiaioo. Aea/aiith ieoaiue uiaei ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?eaiaioo
i?enay/aia i?aoey a/aieo, cina?aaeaeaieo a ?inoeooo? caeiiiaeaanoaa
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i ?nioaaiiy iio?aae a
ocaaaeueiaiiyo ca ci?noii i?iaeai th?eaee/ii? oai???, iia’ycaii? c
yaeuaie ia?eaiaioo ? ia?eaiaioa?ecio a oe?eiio, ? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie cie?aia.

Cia/ou?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o ia?oo /a?ao coiiaeaia
iio?aaaie aecia/aiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy no?oeoo?ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie c iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino? ia?eaiaioo oa eiai i?aai?a ? iinaaeiaeo
in?a. Aaaeeeaei ? ? oa, ui ia nueiaiaei? a?aenooi? ocaaaeueiai?
th?eaee/i? ?ic?iaee, i?enay/ai? oai??? ? i?aeoeoe? ia?eaiaioa?ecio a
Oe?a?i?. A aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaaia iiceoe?y ca ci?noii ieoaiue, ye?
aeeneooothoueny o oaoiaiio na?aaeiaeu?, ? oei naiei c?iaeaia ni?iaa
aianeo ia a?aeiia?aeiiio ??ai? o cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aaeueiiai
ia?eaiaioa?ecio ia iaoeo oa?aiao.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaiee c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe ?inoeoooo caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie: oaia
aeena?oaoe?? aeeth/aia aei ia?ae?eo ?ic?iaie c i?iaeaiaoeee
ia?eaiaionueei? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?.

Aieiaia iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?
i?iiiceoe?e uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiai noaoono
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. Aiaeii/an iaiao?aeii canoa?aaoeny, ui
iiaeeeaino?

oi?ioethaaiiy i?iiiceoe?e i?aeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o iathoue a?oiooaaoeny ia
oai?aoe/iiio inieneaii? a?aeiia?aeieo i?ioean?a ? yaeu. Oiio a ?iaio?
cia/io oaaao i?eae?eaii ieoaiiyi oai??? oa ?noi??? ia?eaiaioa?ecio a
Oe?a?i?, c?iaeai? ni?iae naiiaecia/eoeny uiaei iiiyoue eiioeaiooaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o (ia?eaiaioa?eci, ia?eaiaio, ooieoe?? ia?eaiaioo,
ia?eaiaionueea i?aai oiui). Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeuaaecia/aieo oe?eae a
aeena?oaoe?? o?aaa aoei ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe no/aniee noai na?oiai? eiinoeoooe?eii? i?aeoeee uiaei
io?oe?eieo aeao?i?oe?e ia?eaiaioo;

— aecia/eoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe oai?aoe/i? iiiyooy ia?eaiaioo ?
ia?eaiaioa?ecio;

— aecia/eoe nenoaio ooieoe?e ia?eaiaioo. Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie
cie?aia;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ia?aae?noi??th oa ?noi??th ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?,
anoaiiaeaoe ?? iniiai? a?oe ? ia??iaee;

— ?ice?eoe ci?no iniiaieo ia??iae?a ?noi??? ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?,
caeoeaiooaaaoe oaaao ia ieoaiiyo ianooiieoeoaa ? ia oeo a?aei?iiinoyo o
iie?oe/iiio i?aaenoaaieoeoa? ia?iaeo /a?ac i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
eio?? ?nioaaee o ??ci? ?? ia??iaee;

— ooi/ieoe ci?no iiiyooy ia?eaiaionueeiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae
eiinoeoooe?eieo ?inoeooo?a (?inoeooo?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa), ye?
ia’?eoeaii niieo/ai? c i?aai?caoe??th ? ae?yeuei?noth Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie;

— aena?oeeoe iniiai? i?iaeaie ?iciaaeoaaiiy eiiiaoaioe?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie ? eiiiaoaioe?? ?ioeo aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaae a eiioaeno?
eiinoeoooe?eiiai oi?ioethaaiiy «Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie ? ?aeeiei i?aaiii
caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee a Oe?a?i?»;

— aeine?aeeoe oi?ie ?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie (ye
aaciina?aaeiuei, oae ? /a?ac ae?yeuei?noue ?? i?aai?a oa iinaaeiaeo
in?a) ? cai?iiiioaaoe caniae oaeineiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiai
noaoono ia?eaiaioo.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaia?
a?aeiineie, ye? aeieeathoue ca iane?aeeaie a?aeiia?aeiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue i?ioeane ?icaeoeo ia?eaiaioa?ecio a
Oe?a?i?; oii?ioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee, ye? cae?enithaaee iie?oe/ia i?aaenoaaieoeoai oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo o ??ci? ia??iaee ?noi??? ia?eaiaioa?ecio; no/aniee
noai eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiai noaoono Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ?iaioe oi?iothoue caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee
ae?aeaeoe/iiai i?ciaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a, aeeth/ii i?ioean?a o
aea?aeaa? ye aaaeeeai? neeaaeiai? nioe?oio. C iaoith iaea?aeaiiy
iaea?eueo iiaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?e cae?eniaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae
canoiniaoaaeeny niaoe?aeuei? iaoeia? iaoiaee —
?noi?eei-i?aaiaee, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee (eiiia?aoeaiee),
oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee ? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue caeiaooee ianaiia?aae
a?o/eciyieo a/aieo, ye? aeine?aeaeothoue noaiiaeaiiy ??cieo aeaiaio?a
aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie, cie?aia ?aeeiiai i?aaio
caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee: O.A.Ao?/aea, TH.I.A?ioaaiai, A.A.Eiiae/eeiaa,
E.O.E?eaaiei, A.O.Ii?eoea, A.O.Iiai??eea, A.ss.Oaoe?y, ?.A.Oeoiiiai?,
TH.I.Oiaeeee, I.A.Oea?ea, A.I.Oaiiaaea, TH.N.Oaioo/aiea,
E.I.THcueeiaa oa aeayeeo ?ioeo. Aoee aea/ai? i?aoe? a/aieo, i?enay/ai?
aaiac? a?o/eciyiiai ia?eaiaioa?ecio o ia?oo /a?ao I.E.Eiieeaiea ?
I.I.Ie?iiaiea. Ia’?eoeaiee ?ioa?an aoa aeyaeaiee ? aei aeine?ae?a c
?noi??? iie?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a, ui aoei
i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Ae.Aii/a?aiea ? A.E.?iaiaeeia. Ia
caeeoeeenue iica oaaaith aeine?aeaeaiiy inoaii?o ?ie?a c ieoaiue
noaiiaeaiiy iiaiai aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio, cie?aia I.I.Ai?iiiaa,
I.A.Ia?oeaeyea, A.N.Ie?eiee. Aea/ai? ?iaioe i?ia?aeieo ca?oa?aeieo
eiinoeoooe?iiae?no?a, a oaeiae i?aoe? eeanee?a oai??? eiinoeoooe?? ?
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa. Iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea oaie cae?enithaaeanue c
o?aooaaiiyi aeine?ae?a i?aaenoaaiee?a no/anii? iaoee oai??? i?aaa, a
oaeiae ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o oea?ei? ?ioeo aaeocae
ioae?/iiai i?aaa.

Ii?iaoeaia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?oioo?oueny ia aiae?c? ii?iaoeaiiai ci?noo Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie ?
caeii?a Oe?a?ie, ?ioeo /eiieo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ci?no yeeo
ni?aa?aeianaiee c ia?aiith oaiith. Iaoeiaee aiae?c aoa iioe?aiee ia
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino?
ia?eaiaio?a a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao, ianaiia?aae o oae caaieo
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo ? iino?aaeyinueeeo e?a?iao. Ia’?eoii
a?aeiia?aeiiai?ioa?ano aoee oaeiae ia/eii? i?aaia? aeoe, ui neeaaeaee
i?aeaaeeie noaiiaeaiiy ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i? o ?ao?iniaeoea?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui oia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e
iaooe? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa cae?eniaii ni?iao ia ocaaaeueiaiiio ??ai?
?icaeyiooe oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoie ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaaii ?yae iieiaeaiue,
aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, cie?aia

— oia?oa noi?ioeueiaaii oaco i?i oa, ui aeai?ia iie?oe/ia
i?aaenoaaieoeoai /a?ac ia?eaiaio iia’ycaia ianaiia?aae ia c
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi oeueiai i?aaio, a c ae?yeuei?noth aeaiooao?a. Oiio
i?aaenoaaieoeueeee oa?aeoa? ia?eaiaioo ? iiina?aaeeiaaiei, ? a eiai
iniiao iieeaaeaii iaiaeao (iaiaeaoe) aeaiooao?a;

— ae?noaea ?icaeoie oaca i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?aeiiae a?ae aaeeaaiiai
?iiae? oa?i?io «i?aaenoaaieoeueea aeaaea», yeee ? oeaiei c iaeyaeo ia
eiinoeoooe?eia anoaiiaeaiee i?eioeei iiae?eo aeaaee;

— nenoaiaoeciaaii ooieoe?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. I?e oeueiio
aeae?eaii onoaiia/o ooieoe?th ia?eaiaioo, yeo a?i ?aae?co? o i?ioean?
i?eeiyooy Iniiaiiai Caeiio oa aianaiiy aei iueiai ci?i;

— ae?noaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoeiaa iiceoe?y, ca yeith on?
«iiae?eai? aeaaee» ? a?aeiia?aei? i?aaie ? iaeiiii?yaeeiaeie,
??aiioe?iieie ? ??aiicia/oueie, ? na?aae ieo ia ?nio? a?aeiinei
noai?aeeiaoe??;

— cai?iiiiiaaii ooi/iai? aecia/aiiy eeth/iaeo iiiyoue, iia’ycaieo ?c
yaeuai ia?eaiaioa?ecio, cie?aia iiiyooy naieo ia?eaiaioo ?
ia?eaiaioa?ecio;

— oia?oa noi?ioeueiaaia iiiyooy caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee ye oaei?, ui ii-
ia?oa, iicia/a? ci?no ? iane?aeee aieaaeyaeaiiy ia?iaeo (aeai?/iai
ei?iono) ia a?aeiia?aeieo ?aoa?aiaeoiao; ii-ae?oaa, a?aeia?aaea?
noeoii?noue iiaiiaaaeaiue ??cieo aeaiaio?a aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio
(ianaiia?aae ia?eaiaioo), i?yii ni?aa?aeianaieo ?c caeiiioai?/?noth;
ii-o?ao?, o?eno? «oeooeueio» ooieoe?th ia?eaiaioo; ii-/aoaa?oa, iaceaa?
nai ia?eaiaio ? iicia/a? eiai i?ecia/aiiy;

— oia?oa canoa?aaeaii, ui ii/aoee ?noi??? ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?
iiaeia iaaiith i??ith iia’ycoaaoe c ae?oaith iieiaeiith XIX no., eiee ia
iaoeo oa?aiao ?icii/aany i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? ?aeaieia??.
Caii/aoeoaaiiy ae i?aeoeee ia?eaiaioa?ecio a?aeia?aceei ooai?aiiy ?
ae?yeuei?noue ca /an?a aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917-1920 ?. onoaiia
i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai oa?aeoa?o, eio?? cae?enithaaee aea?aeaaii-aeaaei?
ooieoe??;

— noi?ioeueiaaia oaca, ui i?aeoeea i?aai?caoe?? i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?aaeyinueei? aeiae, ianaiia?aae iaeaeui?
eaiee nenoaie oeeo i?aai?a, aoea i?iaeiaaeaiiyi na?oiai? ?noi???
iie?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa ia?iaeo /a?ac i?aaie aeaaee;

— oia?oa noi?ioeueiaaia iiiyooy ia?eaiaionueeiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie ye
i?aeaaeoc? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, noeoiiino? eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo
ii?i, eio?? ?aaoeththoue i?aai?caoe?th ? ae?yeuei?noue Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae ?aaeaiaioothoue ieoaiiy aca?iia?aeiinei ia?eaiaioo c
?ioeie i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee o ca’yceo c ?aae?caoe??th eiai
ooieoe?e ? iiaiiaaaeaiue;

— noi?ioeueiaaia oaca, ui eii?oaoe Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie iiaeii?
cae?enithaaoe iaai? eiio?ieuei? ooieoe?? uiaei ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo,
«i?io?eueieo» i?i?noa?noa oa ?ioeo oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee;

— noi?ioeueiaaia i?iiiceoe?y uiaei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? iie?oe/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? /eai?a Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ia?aae Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie ? uiaei iiaae?caoe??
/eiii? Eiinoeoooe?? c iaoith ni?eeiyooy oaeiai caniao ia?eaiaionueeiai
eiio?ieth, yeei ? ?ioa?iaeyoe?y;

— ooi/iaia oyaeaiiy i?i oa?aeoa? oaeeo noaae?e caeiiiaeaa/iai i?ioeano,
ye ?aae?caoe?y i?aaa caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae ? ?aae?caoe?y i?aaa aaoi,
noi?ioeueiaai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iiaeeeaiai ci?iaiiy eiea noa’?eo?a
i?aaa caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae o Aa?oiai?e ?aae? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a
oiio,ui noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy,
ocaaaeueiaiiy, aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe??, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
oaeineiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ?
ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, a iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e ?iaio?, i?e
aeeeaaeaii? o/aiaiai eo?no eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A aeena?oaoe?? ? o aenooi? ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaanoaa
Oe?a?ie» aoea aeei?enoaia ii?eethaeiaia ?ai?oa iiceoe?y iaoeiaiai
ea??aieea uiaei aecia/aiiy ia?eaiaionueeiai i?aaa ye i?aeaaeoc?
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa. I?ioa naia aecia/aiiy ia?eaiaionueeiai i?aaa ?
i?ea?iaeueiei ? iaeaaeeoue aaoi?o aeena?oaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe??, ui i?noeoue
aeena?oaoe?y, ia?aaeai? aei ?inoeoooo caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie c iaoith ooi/iaiiy iiceoe?e uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaiaionueei?
?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeeth/ai? aei aeena?oaoe??,
ii?eethaeithaaeenue ?? aaoi?ii ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie» (Ee?a, ?inoeooo
caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, o?aaaiue 1996 ?.), ia iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie ? i?aeia?iaeia i?aai» (Ee?a, ?inoeooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. O.Oaa/aiea ?
Oiaa?enoai «Ciaiiy», eenoiiaae 1997 ?.), a oaeiae ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ao?eaiiy a aeeooy iieiaeaiue
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie» (Ee?a, Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa IAI
Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, aa?anaiue 1998
?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? ocaaaeueiaiiy, aeniiaee ?
i?iiiceoe?? oaeiae ii?eethaeiai? o aeaeyae? i’yoe noaoae o oaoiaeo
iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo oa iaeieo oacao aeiiia?ae?

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a (naie i?ae?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae (220 iaeiaioaaiue). Ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 175 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO.

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ? cia/ou?noue oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny nooi?iue ??
?ic?iaeaiino?, aecia/athoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, ie?aneth?oueny
iaoiaeieia?/ia ? oai?aoe/ia iniiaa. Noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy,
aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe??, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, caeoeaioiaaii ia
iaoeia?e iiaeci? ? i?aeoe/iiio cia/aii? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e «Aeooaeuei? oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?» i?enay/aiee naiiaecia/aiith noiniaii
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ? iaea?eueo caaaeueieo iiiyoue, iia’ycaieo ?c
i?aai?caoe??th ? ae?yeuei?noth ia?eaiaio?a acaaae?. Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie cie?aia.

ssaeua ia?eaiaioo ? ia?eaiaioa?ecio, ye? ? aca?iiiia’ycaieie ? cia/iith
i??ith ca?aathoueny, caaaey/othoue nai?e iiya? iiaei ?noi?e/iei /anai.

Iaeiae aaiaca oa?i?io «ia?eaiaio» iia’ycaia c oaiaeaeueiei ia??iaeii. Ia
nueiaiaei? oeae oa?i?i ye ?iaeiaa iacaa i?aai?a caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee ?
caaaeueiii?eeiyoei. ?acii c oei, ye aeania iacaa a?aeiia?aeieo i?aai?a
a?i io?oe?eii aaeeaaiee eeoa a aeayeeo e?a?iao. A ?yae? e?a?i, aea
i?aaie caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee iathoue ?ioo aeanio iacao, oa?i?i ia?eaiaio
aaeeaa?oueny ?acii c oe??th iacaith aai ? neeaaeiaith a?aeiia?aeii?
eiinoeoooe?eii? aeao?i?oe?? (iaeei c i?eeeaae?a no. 75 Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie).

O a?o/eciyi?e iie?oeei-i?aaia?e aeoioe? oa?i?i «ia?eaiaio» c’yaey?oueny
ia ii/aoeo XX no. o i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaioao oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e. Aea aaoi?e a?eueoino? eiinoeoooe?eieo i?iaeo?a a?aeiia?aeieo
/an?a canoa??aaeeny aaeeaaoe oeae oa?i?i, ui aoei cia/iith i??ith
coiiaeaii iane?aeeaie aaaaoie?oiueiai iie?oe/iiai ?nioaaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a oiiaao a?aenooiino? aeanii? aea?aeaaiino? ?
iioe?aiiy na?aae a?o/eciyieo iie?oee?a ? th?eno?a o caaaeai? /ane
??ciiai ?iaeo «oaaea?ae?nonueeeo» ?aeae. Ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a oa?i?i
«ia?eaiaio» ia’?eoeaii ia ocaiaeaeoaaany c ?nioaaaoith oiae? oai???th ?
i?aeoeeith aea?aeaaiiai aeaaea?thaaiiy.

Aia?oa oa?i?i «ia?eaiaio» aoa aaeeaaiee ia io?oe?eiiio ??ai? o Caeii?
Oe?a?ie «I?i iacao, no?oeoo?o ? e?euee?niee neeaae iiaiai ia?eaiaioo
Oe?a?ie» a?ae 7 aeiaoiy 1993 ?. O iiaeaeueoiio a?i aoa canoiniaaiee ye
neeaaeiaa eiinoeoooe?eii? aeao?i?oe?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie.
Iayai?noue aeinoaoiuei ?icai?iooi? eiinoeoooe?eii? aeao?i?oe??
ia?eaiaioo, iniaeeai a oiiaao oae caaieo iino?aaeyinueeeo e?a?i, iiaeia
aaaaeaoe iiceoeaiith ?enith. Eiinoeoooe?eia o?enaoe?y aeao?i?oe??
ia?eaiaioo ?c canoinoaaiiyi a?aeiia?aeii? oa?i?iieia?? ia’?eoeaii
ni?eyoeia oei??iaiith caeiaooe?a onoaeaii? aeaiie?ao?? oi/a a ia ??ai?
ianiai? iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?, noi?ioaaiith o a?iiaaeyi nai???aeieo
aeaiie?aoe/ieo «?aoeaen?a».

Eiinoeoooe?eia aeao?i?oe?y Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ye «?aeeiiai i?aaio
caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee» aeoeaioo? oaaao ia ?? i?noe? o aea?aeaaiiio
iaoai?ci?. A?aeiia?aeiee eiinoeoooe?eiee i?eien iiaeia ni?eeiaoe ? ye
canoa?aaeaiiy uiaei iiaeeeainoae oco?iaoe?? caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee ?ioeie
i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. C ?ioiai aieo, ?c cacia/aiiai ia aeieeaa?,
ui Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie cae?enith? caeiiiaeaa/o aeaaeo naiino?eii ?
aac o/ano? ?ioeo i?aai?a (i?aai caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie ? Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, i?aai aaoi I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie).

Aeao?i?oe?y Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, ui i?noeoueny o no. 75
Eiinoeoooe??, ? /e ia iaeaaeae?oith ii??aiyii c a?aeiia?aeiith
ii?iioai?/?noth ia oa?aiao eieeoiueiai N?N?. Aiia iicia/a? aieiaio
ooieoe?th ia?eaiaioo, eiai «caeiaeiaaia» o iiiyoo? caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee
i?ecia/aiiy. Aaaeeeaei ? ? oa, ui caaaeaia aeao?i?oe?y ? /?oeith,
noeneith ? th?eaee/ia ei?aeoiith. Aeeneon?eieie ? ie?ai? eiinoeoooe?ei?
aeao?i?oe??, ye? aecia/athoue ia?eaiaio ye «aeuee i?aaenoaaieoeueeee
i?aai». Oei naiei i?ae-oi ia ?nioaaiiy noai?aeeiiaaii? nenoaie
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a, oa?i/aii? naiei ia?eaiaioii. Oaeee i?aeo?ae
ia a?aeiia?aea? onoaeai?e oai??? ia?eaiaioa?ecio, a?i iiaea
?icaeyaeaoeny ye ni?iaa «?aai?ioaaoe» i?aai?caoe?th aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
iiaoaeiaaii? ia i?eioeeiao nenoaie ?aae. Ia iiaeia oaeiae iiaiaeeoeny c
aeayeeie eiinoeoooe?eieie aecia/aiiyie ia?eaiaioo ye «aeuiai
i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai ? caeiiiaeaa/iai i?aaio». O oaeee niin?a iiaea
aeieeiooe iaii?icoi?iiy c i?eaiaeo oiai, /e ?niothoue a aea?aeaa? ?io?,
«ieae/?» caeiiiaeaa/? i?aaie. Oeae i?aeo?ae oaeiae iiaea aooe
ei?aeueiaaiee oai??? ?aaeyinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aeaaea?thaaiiy, ca yeith
on? ?aaee aeciaaaeeny i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee.

A Eiinoeoooe?? Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie ia aecia/aia ye i?aaenoaaieoeueeee
i?aai aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, oi/a ?? i?aaenoaaieoeueeee oa?aeoa? i?yii
aeieeaa? c i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo iaiaeao?a ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie.
I?e oeueiio ni??iei ? aeieo?eiaeueia aecia/aiiy Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie
ye «?aeeiiai i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai i?aaio ia?iaeo». O ia?oo /a?ao,
aeieeathoue noii?ae uiaei ei?aeoiino? neiainiieo/aiiy «i?aai ia?iaeo»,
aaeaea i?ioyaii aaaaoueio ?ie?a a th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oe?ieiaaeeaaiei
aoa eeoa oa?i?i «i?aai aea?aeaae». Inoaii?e iiaeia ni?eeiaoe ye neiii?i
oa?i?i?a «i?aai aea?aeaaii? aeaaee» ? «aea?aeaaiee i?aai». Ni??iei ?
oaeiae oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oi?eaeuei?noue Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ye
iie?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaieea oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo: ca ci?noii iieiaeaiiy
/anoeie /aoaa?oi? no. 103 Eiinoeoooe?? («I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie ia iiaea
iaoe ?ioiai i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai iaiaeaoa») i?eionea?oueny aeniiaie, ui
a?aeiia?aeia iie?oe/ia i?aaenoaaieoeoai cae?enith?oueny ? I?aceaeaioii
Oe?a?ie. A?eueo ei?aeoiei aaaaea?oueny aecia/aiiy Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie ye caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ? oaeiai, ui ae?? iino?eii,
i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai eieaa?aeueiiai i?aaio aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, yeee
aiaeii/an ? ?aeeiei i?aaiii caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee.

Iiiyooy ae ia?eaiaioa?ecio iicia/a? iie?oeei-i?aaiaee ?aaeeii?aai?caoe??
? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio, ca oiia yeiai iayaiainiaeeaa ?
?aaeueia ?ieue o cae?eniaii? aeaaea?thaaiiy naiiai ia?eaiaioo. C?ioiai
aieo, ia?eaiaioa?eci iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye noeoii?noue
no?oeoo?ii-i?aai?caoe?eieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee, ui
noi?iaiaeaeothoueoi?ioaaiiy ia?eaiaioo ? cae?eniaiiy iei aea?aeaaiiai
aeaaea?thaaiiy.

Aeey c’ynoaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?eaiaioo ia?oi?yaeia
cia/aiiy ia? ci?no i?eioeei?a, ca yeeie iiaoaeiaaiee aea?aeaaiee
iaoai?ci. Aei oaeeo i?eioeei?a a?aeianaiee iiae?e aeaaee, aai ca
onoaeaiith o?aaeeoe??th — iiae?e aeaae. Iiae?e aeaaee — oea
eiinoeoooe?eiee i?eioeei (i?eioeei Eiinoeoooe??), yeee, cie?aia, o?eno?
ia iaea?eueo caaaeueiiio ??ai? noaoon ia?eaiaioo ye ?aeeiiai i?aaio
caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee.

Aeey on?o aa??aio?a o?aeooaaiiy i?eioeeio iiae?eo aeaaee ?
iayaieiaeciaiiy nenoaie no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa i?ae a?aeiia?aeieie
i?aaiaie. Caoiia aoaeue-yei? eiie?aoii? iiaeae? no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa
a?aeaoaa?oueny/anoeiaa eiiiaoaioe?eia «i?iieeiaiiy» aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee
a?aeiiniicaeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee. I?eeeaaeii oaeiai «i?iieeiaiiy» ? i?aai
caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae o Aa?oiai?e ?aae? Oe?a?ie, cae?enithaaia
Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie. ?acii c oei ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe oaeei, ui
ia? a?aeiia?aeiee oa?aeoa? i?aai aaoi I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie. Aaoi ? eiai
i?aaii ye aeaae aea?aeaae, a ia ye noa’?eoa aea?aeaaiiai aeaaea?thaaiiy,
ooieoe?iiaeueii ii?aeiaiiai c aeeiiaa/ith aeaaeith.

Nai aea nain iiae?eo aeaaee iieyaa? a oiio, ui on? o?e a?eee
aeaaee,cie?aia caeiiiaeaa/a ? aeeiiaa/a, ? th?eaee/ia
iaeiiii?yaeeiaeie,??aiicia/oueie ? ??aiioe?iieie. C oeueiai ia aeieeaa?,
ui aiie ? ??aieie,aai ii??aithaaieie ca ci?noii. Oaeoe/ia ia??ai?noue
«iiae?eaieo aeaae»coiiaeaia iniaeeainoyie eiie?aoieo oi?i aea?aeaaiiai
i?aae?iiy, ?ioeie ia’?eoeaieie ? noa’?eoeaieie /eiieeaie. Aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy ia? ? oa, ui a?aeiia?aei? i?aaie iieeeeai? ?aae?ciaoaaoe ??ci?
ooieoe??, ?o ae?yeueiino? i?eoaiaii? ??ci? iaoiaee ? caniae.

Aiae?coth/e i?iaeaio iiae?eo aeaaee a eiioaeno? anoaiiaeaiiy
noaoonoia?eaiaioo, iaiao?aeii oaeiae aecia/eoenue uiaei
ni?aa?aeianaiino? iiiyouecaeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee ? naiiai ia?eaiaioo. Oe?
iiiyooy ? neiii?i?/ieie, aiiecia/iith i??ith aca?iii?iieeathoue. Ia
aeoieo aaoi?a aeena?oaoe??, caeiiiaeaa/a aeaaea — oea iiiyooy, yea,
ii-ia?oa, iicia/a? ci?no ? iane?aeee aieaaeyaeaiiy ia?iaeo (aeai?/iai
ei?iono) ia a?aeiia?aeieo, caeiiiaeaa/eo ?aoa?aiaeoiao; ii-ae?oaa,
a?aeia?aaea? noeoii?noue iiaiiaaaeaiue ??cieo aeaiaio?a aea?aeaaiiai
iaoai?cio (ianaiia?aae ia?eaiaioo), i?yii ni?aa?aeianaieo ?c
caeiiioai?/?noth; ii-o?ao?, o?eno? iaeio c aieiaieo, «oeooeueio»
ooieoe?th ia?eaiaioo; ii-/aoaa?oa, iaceaa? nai ia?eaiaio ? iicia/a? eiai
i?ecia/aiiy.

Ca ci?noii Eiinoeoooe??, iiaeia aeae?eeoe e?eueea ooieoe?e Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie. *anoeia c ieo ia’?eoeaii ? aieiaieie, ?io? — noiooi?ie.
Na?aae aieiaieo o ia?oo /a?ao ne?ae iacaaoe naia ooieoe?th
caeiiioai?/ino?. Oea aeania ia?eaiaionueea ooieoe?y, yeo ia ?aae?co?
aeiaeai ?ioee i?aai. Iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i o/anoue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o
caeiiiaeaa/iio i?ioean? aai i?i iayai?noue o aeaae aea?aeaae
caeiiiaeaa/eo iiaiiaaaeaiue, aea iai?aaeeueiei aoaea noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
a?i iaae?eaiee caeiiioai?/ith ooieoe??th. Iaaaaeaia eiinoaoaoe?y
a?aeaeoa a eiinoeoooe?eiiio aecia/aii? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ye
?aeeiiai i?aaio caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee. C ?ioiai aieo, iaoi/i?noth ?
aeei?enoaiiy oa?i?io «caeiiiaeaa/ee i?aai» ye neiii?ia oa?i?io «i?aai
caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee». Aaeaea caeiiiaeaa/ee i?ioean a?aeaoaa?oueny ia
o?eueee o ia?eaiaio?.

?c caeiiioai?/ith ooieoe??th Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie o?nii iia’ycaia ??
onoaiia/a ooieoe?y. I?eeiath/e caeiie i?i aianaiiy ci?i aei
Eiinoeoooe??Oe?a?ie, Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie a?aeiia?aeii cae?enith?
onoaiia/o aeaaeo aaii?eeia? o/anoue a ?? cae?eniaii?. Ua iaei??th
aieiaiith ooieoe??th Aa?oiaii??aaee Oe?a?ie, niieo/aiith ?c
caeiiioai?/ith ooieoe??th, ? caoaa?aeaeaiiyAea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo
Oe?a?ie, aai athaeaeaoia ooieoe?y. Aei aieiaieo ooieoe?e oaeiae
a?aeianaia ooieoe?y eiio?ieth (eiio?ieueia ooieoe?y), cae?enithaaia
Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie aaciina?aaeiuei, a oaeiae /a?ac (a?ae ??
?iai?) niaoe?aeuei? i?aaie ? iinaaeia? iniae. A?aeiia?aeiee eiio?ieue
ia? yeaioo??ia?eaiaionueeee, oae ? ciai?oi?e oa?aeoa?. Ciai?oi?e
eiio?ieue ia? ca i?aaeiao o ia?oo /a?ao ae?yeuei?noue Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie.

Aei aieiaieo ooieoe?e Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ne?ae a?aeianoe ? oo,
yeoi?aaeeueii aoei a aecia/eoe ye iii?iaoe?eio. Nain oe??? ooieoe??
iieyaa? oi?ecia/aii? /e ia?aii? ia iaai? iinaaee, ca?eueiaii? c iinaae,
iaaeaii? caiaee ia i?ecia/aiiy ? ca?eueiaiiy c iinaae. Aecia/aiiy
caaaeaii? ooieoe?? yeiii?iaoe?eii? a?eueoa a?aeiia?aea? nooiino?
a?aeiia?aeii? ia?eaiaionueei?ae?yeueiino?, eio?a ?yaeii aaoi??a
anioe?th?oueny ?c cae?eniaiiyi onoaiia/i?ooieoe??. I?ioa eaeaoueny ia
i?i cai?iaaaeaeaiiy, «onoaiiaeaiiy» iaaieoiinaae, ye? onoaiiaeai? naiith
Eiinoeoooe??th, a eeoa i?i eaae?iai-iii?iaoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie uiaei cai?uaiiy oeeo iinaae.Iaiao?aeii oaeiae a?aoiaoaaoe
ci?no iiiyooy onoaiia/i? aeaaee ye oaeiai, ui ei?aniiiaeiaaia i?ioeano
i?eeiyooy eiinoeoooe?e ? aianaiiy aei ieo ci?i.

Noiooi? ooieoe?? ia?eaiaioo, /a?ac ?o aocueeee ci?no, iiaeia aecia/aoe
ye ooieoe??-iiaiiaaaeaiiy. Ca i?eeeaae neoao? ooieoe?y-iiaiiaaaeaiiy
uiaei onoiaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie c iinoa a ii?yaeeo ?ii?/iaioo, ??
iiaeia aeciaoe noiooiueith eaac?noaeiaith ooieoe??th.
Cae?eniaiiy on?o ia?eaiaionueeeo ooieoe?e iio?aao? aeiaeaoeiaiai aei
eiinoeoooe?eiiai, caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? ae?yeueiino?
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «?noi?eei-i?aaia? aniaeoe
noaiiaeaiiyia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?» aeine?aeaeo?oueny aaiaca,
ia?aae?noi??y oa ?noi??y(aieiai? a?oe) ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?,
aiae?co?oueny i?iaeaiani?aa?aeianaiino? oai??? ia?eaiaioa?ecio c
i?aeoeeith i?aai?caoe??i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
?aaeyinueei? aeiae.

Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii ca?iaeaeaiiy ia?eaiaioa?ecio aoee c?ooaiiy onoa??
noni?eueiiai aeeooy. *a?ac ia’?eoeai? i?e/eie a?aeiia?aei?
c?ooaiiynii/aoeo oa?aeoa?ecoaaee noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee ? aea?aeaaiee
noai /anoeiee?a?i Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, ? o?eueee c /anii i?ioean
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeoia?eaiaioa?ecio iaaoa cia/aiiy
caaaeueii?a?iiaenueei? ? na?oiai? oaiaeaioe??.

Ia??aeei ia?eaiaio ye aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo ii noo? ooo/ii aaeeaethaaany
o iaoai?ci aeaaea?thaaiiy. Ca?aene aeieeaee i?iaeaie uiaei ?aaeueiino?
ia?eaiaioa?ecio ia eiie?aoiiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?. A ?ioeo aeiaaeeao
iiaeaeue ia?eaiaioo caiice/oaaeanue a oiiaao ooai?aiiy iiaeo aea?aeaa,
ui oaeiae ni?e/eiyei aeieeiaiiy neeaaeieo neooaoe?e. Oei naiei i?i
na?oiaee ia?eaiaioa?eci e?ioey XVIII — ii/aoeo XX no. iiaeia aiai?eoe
aai ye i?i oaeee, ui aeiee ia aeaniiio noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio a?oio?,
aai ye i?i caiice/aiee.

Naia e?iaoeue XVIII — ii/aoie XX no. aoa ia??iaeii oe?ieiai noaiiaeaiiy
ia?eaiaioa?ecio, iinooiiaiai iaaoooy iei ?en, ye? iiaiith i??ith
i?eoaiaii? eiai no/aniiio noaiia?. I?ioa ne?ae aiai?eoe ? i?i
ia?aae?noi??th ia?eaiaioa?ecio, niene yei? aaea aeaaii ? i?aaeiaoii
aeeneon??. Oey aeeneon?y iia’ycaia c ??ciei o?aeooaaiiyi iiiyooy
i?aaenoaaieoeueei? aeaiie?ao??. *a?ac ieooaieio, ui aeieeea o ca’yceo ?c
cacia/aiei o?aeooaaiiyi, ?iiae? aaeeaathoueny iiiyooy «aioe/iee
ia?eaiaioa?eci» aai «na?aaeiueia?/i? ia?eaiaioe». Oe? ? iiae?ai? iiiyooy
iiaeooue aooe ni?eeiyo? oiiaii ? eeoa ye oae?, ui iicia/athoue
iayai?noue ca a?aeiia?aeieo /an?a aeaiaio?a aeai?iiai
i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai ia/aea o aea?aeaaiiio oi?aae?ii?.

Aeai?ia i?aaenoaaieoeoai «ia?iaeo» /a?ac aea?aeaai? i?aaie aoei aia?oa
a?eueo-iaio ianooaaii cae?eniaia ca /an?a
noaiiai-i?aaenoaaieoeueei?oaiaeaeueii? iiia?o??. Naia oe? /ane o?aaa
aaaaeaoe ?aaeueiith ia?aae?noi???thna?oiaiai ia?eaiaioa?ecio. Iaeiae
?noi??y oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? cia’?eoeaieo i?e/ei ia ciaea ia??iaeo
noaiiai-i?aaenoaaieoeueei? iiia?o??.Aiaeii/an ?noi?e/i? aeaea?aea
i?noyoue aaaaoi na?ae/aiue i?i oa, ui aeai?iee, ?oiio i?aaenoaaieoeueeee
oa?aeoa? iaee aeaye? c eicaoeueeeo ?aae /an?a ?nioaaiiyCaii??cueei? N?/?
? aea?aeaaiiai ooai?aiiy, a?aeiiiai ye Aaoueiaiueia (XVII-XVIII no.).
A?aeiia?aeiee ia??iae o?aaa aaaaeaoe ia??iaeii
ia?aae?noi???ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?.

Ii/aoee ?noi??? ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i? iiaeia iaaiith
i??ithiia’ycoaaoe c ae?oaith iieiaeiith XIX no. Naia oiae? ?icii/aany
i?ioean(oi?ioaaiiy ?aeaieia?? ia?eaiaioa?ecio ia oe?a?inueeeo oa?aiao.
Oiae? ae aoee ooai?ai? /e ia ia?o? io?oe?ei? i?aaenoaaieoeuee?
?inoeoooe?? e?aeia? naeie Aaee/eie ? Aoeiaeie. Iaeiae iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe, ui oe? naeie aoee ?inoeoooe?yie ia Oe?a?ie, a ?iicaiii?
aea?aeaae. I?i aaciina?aaei?e ii/aoie ?noi??? ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?
ne?ae aiai?eoe o ca’yceo c aeania oe?a?inueeei aea?aeaaioai?aiiyi.
Caii/aoeoaaiiy i?aeoeee ia?eaiaioa?ecio a?aeia?aceei ooai?aiiy ?
ae?yeuei?noue onoaiia i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai oa?aeoa?o, eio?? o ia??iae
aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917-1920 ?. cae?enithaaee iaai? aea?aeaaii-aeaaei?
ooieoe??. *e ia iaea?aeii?oith c oaeeo onoaiia aoea Oe?a?inueea
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea.

I?ioa i? Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea, i? ?io? onoaiiae
i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai oa?aeoa?o ia??iaeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue ia aoee
«eeane/ieie» ia?eaiaioaie, aaeaea a?aeiia?aeia iie?oe/ia
i?aaenoaaieoeoai ia iaei o?aaeeoe?eiiai aeey ia?eaiaio?a caniao
ae?aaeaiiy /a?ac i?yi? aeai?e. Cae/aeii a?aeiia?aei? aeai?e iaee
iai?yiee ? oae caaiee ei?ii?aoeaiee (eo??aeueiee) oa?aeoa?. Oiio
caaaeai? onoaiiae iiaeia aaaaeaoe onoaiiaaie
oa?eoi??aeueii-ei?ii?aoeaiiai iie?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa.

Aei i?aeoe/iiai ao?eaiiy ?aeaieia?? ia?eaiaioa?ecio ia oe?a?inueeeo
oa?aiao iiaeia a?aeianoe «eiino?othaaiiy» oae caaieo ia?aaeia?eaiaio?a ?
ia?eaiaio?a ia ??ai? eiinoeoooe?eieo i?iaeo?a ? eiinoeoooe?eieo ca
i?ecia/aiiyi aeo?a, ii?eethaeiaieo /e aaaaeaieo a ae?th o ia??iae
aecaieueieo ciaaaiue. Ci?no oeeo i?iaeo?a ? aeo?a cana?ae/oaaa iai??
iiaoaeoaaoe i?aai?caoe?th ? ae?yeuei?noue a?aeiia?aeieo
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo onoaiia ? i?aai?a ia canaaeao, i?eoaiaiieo
oiai/aniiio ia?eaiaioa?ecio. Aiaeii/an a?i i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaa oie oaeo, ui
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie a?aeaoaaany o ??/eu? i?ia?aneaii?
oai??? ? i?aeoeee ia?eaiaioa?ecio.

Iaeiae c a?aeiieo i?e/ei oeae ?icaeoie ia iaaoa naiai caaa?oaiiy, oi/a
noi?ioaaa iaai? oaiaeaioe??, eio?? a?aoo?-?aoo ciaeoee aeya o ci?no?
no/aniiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?ioeano. Naia oaeee aeniiaie iiaeia c?iaeoe,
ii??aiyaoe eiinoeoooe?ei? i?iaeoe ia??iaeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue c
eiinoeoooe?eiith ii?iioai?/?noth 90-o ?ie?a. A?aeiia?aeia ii??aiai?noue
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ianooii?noue a ioe?ioe? yaeua ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?,
ca’ycie i?ae eiai ?noi???th ? nueiaiaeaiiyi.

Oaeee ca’ycie c i?eiouaiiyi iiaeia i?inoaaeoaaoe ? ia
i?eeeaae?i?aai?caoe?? i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ui
?nioaaee a Oe?a?i? ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a. A?aeiii, ui A.Eai?i ia
ni?eeiaa ?aeath iiae?eo aeaaee, ui oaeiae icia/aei eiai
iai?eeiyooy eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae ia?eaiaioa?ecio. C ?ioiai aieo,
a?i aeciaaaa nioe?aeueio oe?ii?noue iie?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa /a?ac
ia?ai? ia?iaeii i?aaie aeaaee. A oeueiio aniaeo? iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i
iaaio ii??aiai?noue i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ca
?aaeyinueeeo /an?a c ia?eaiaioaie, i?i ?o ca’ycie o eiioaeno? ?noi???
ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?.

Iiae?aiee ca’ycie ii noo? aeciaaaany ? A.Eai?iei. I?ioenoaaeyth/e ?aaee
«ao?aeoaciei ia?eaiaioai», a?i ii??aithaaa ?o ? ciaoiaeea iaai?
aca?iiniieo/aiiy. A?eueoa oiai, ?iiae? i?yii aiai?ea i?i iiaeeeaino?
niieo/aiiy «aeaiae ia?eaiaioa?ecio» c i/aaeaeieie aeey iueiai ia?aaaaaie
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui o «Ei?ioeiio eo?n? ?noi??? AEI (a)»
o iai?yi?e oi?i? aeciaaaeany «nioe?ae?noe/ia ia?niaeoeaa»
ia?eaiaioa?ecio. Eiai aaoi?e aaaaeaee, ui aei a?aeiieo «Ea?oiaaeo oac»
ia?enenonuee? oai?aoeee ni?eeiaee ia?eaiaioa?io (ia?eaiaionueeo)
?anioae?eo ye iaee?auo iie?oe/io oi?io ia?aoiaeo aei nioe?ae?cio.

I?aeoeea i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?aaeyinueei?
aeiae, ianaiia?aae iaeaeui? eaiee nenoaie oeeo i?aai?a, ia’?eoeaii aoea
i?iaeiaaeaiiyi na?oiai? ?noi??? iie?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa ia?iaeo
/a?ac ia?ai? i?aaie aeaaee. Caaaeoaaia i?aeoeea aaiethoe?iioaaea a?ae
iani?eeiyooy, a?aeoi?aiaiiy ia?eaiaioa?ecio ye iie?oeei-i?aaiai?
?aeaieia?? ? th?eaee/ii? oai???, aei oaeoe/iiai caiice/aiiy iaaieo eiai
canaae ia ??ai? i?aai?caoe?? aeuiai i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai i?aaio
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee.

Noaiiaeaiiy no/anii? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ye ia?eaiaioo a?aeaoeinue
cia/iith i??ith oeyoii aaiethoe?? ?? iiia?aaeieoe?, ui ?nioaaea ca
?aaeyinueeeo /an?a. Ciaiaiii, ui Oe?a?ia ? ?aeeiith oae caaiith
iino?aaeyinueeith e?a?iith, aea ca ia?eaiaioii caa?aaeany iacaa, yeo iaa
ca ieioeeo /an?a «iaeaeuee i?aai aea?aeaaii? aeaaee». Cacia/aia
aaiethoe?y ni?e/eieea ye iiceoeai?, oae ? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee o ?icaeoeo
no/aniiai ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?. Iniaeeaino? oeueiai ?icaeoeo aoee
coiiaeai? ia o?eueee ianooiieoeoaii a?aeiinii ia?eaiaioa?ecio /an?a
aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917-1920 ?.?., a e ci?noiaeie ca’yceaie c
a?aeiia?aeiith i?aeoeeith ?aaeyinueei? aeiae. Oiio oeth i?aeoeeo o?aaa
aeine?aeaeoaaoe a eiioaeno? ?noi??? a?o/eciyiiai ia?eaiaioa?ecio,
iai’yoath/e i?i eiioeaiooaeuei? a?aei?iiino? i?ae ?aaeyinueeith
iiaeaeeth aea?aeaaiiai aeaaea?thaaiiy ? ?aaeueiei
ia?eaiaioa?eciii.

O?ao?e ?icae?e «No/aniee eiinoeoooe?eiee i?ioean ? ?icaeoie
ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?» i?enay/aiee aiae?co no/anieo i?iaeai
eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino? ia?eaiaioo
Oe?a?ie, naiiaecia/aiith noiniaii oai?aoe/ieo canaae oaeiai
?aaoethaaiiy.

Caniae a?aeiia?aeiiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ooai?ththoue
?aei?noue. Oi?iaie oaei? ?aeiino? a iaaeao aaeoc? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa
iiaea aooe ?? i?aeaaeocue aai ?inoeooo. Iaei??th c i?aeaaeocae
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia?eaiaionueea i?aai.
Ia?eaiaionueea i?aai — oea i?aeaaeocue eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie,
noeoii?noue eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo ii?i, ye? ?aaoeththoue i?aai?caoe?th
? ae?yeuei?noue Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae ?aaeaiaioothoue
ieoaiiy aca?iia?aeiinei ia?eaiaioo c ?ioeie i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
o ca’yceo c ?aae?caoe??th eiai ooieoe?e ? iiaiiaaaeaiue. Oei naiei aei
ci?noo ia?eaiaionueeiai i?aaa iathoue aooe a?aeianai? caniae
?aaeaiaioaoe?? i?aaa caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae, i?aaa aaoi oiui. Oaeee
i?aeo?ae caaacia/o? oe?e?nia ni?eeiyooy eiiiaoaioe?? ia?eaiaioo,
iniaeeai ?? ?aae?caoe??.

Ia?eaiaionueea i?aai ? nenoaiiei ca i?e?iaeith ii?iaoeaiei oaiiiaiii.
Nenoaii?noue ia?eaiaionueeiai i?aaa caaacia/o?oueny ?yaeii /eiiee?a, /e
ia iaeaaaeeea?oei c yeeo ? iayai?noue a Eiinoeoooe?? ie?aiiai ?icae?eo,
i?enay/aiiai i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie.
Nenoaii?noue ia?eaiaionueeiai i?aaa i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ? iayai?noth
iaaiiai eiea caeii?a, ye? ?aaoeththoue i?aai?caoe?th ? ae?yeuei?noue
ia?eaiaioo, eiai i?aai?a oa iinaaeiaeo in?a. Ci?noiaa ii?aeiaiiy oeeo
caeii?a caaacia/o?oueny Eiinoeoooe??th oeyoii iineeaiue aai a?aeneeie
aei ieo o oaeno?. Aei oiai ae on? a?aeiia?aei? caeiie iia’ycai? c
Eiinoeoooe??th ca i?aaeiaoii aaeocaaiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

Aaaeeeaith oai?aoe/iith i?iaeaiith ? i?iaeaia ??aiy
«aeieiinoeoooe?eiiai» ?aaoethaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie. Eiinoeoooe?y ia?aaeaa/a? i?eeiyooy niaoe?aeueiiai caeiio
i?i ?aaeaiaio Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, oiaoi ia?aaeaa/aii i?ae-oi
i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy o caaaeai?e noa??. Aea ia
iiaeia c?iaeoe iaeiicia/iee aeniiaie, ui oaea i?aeaeuaiiy ni?eyoeia
iie?ioaiith yeino? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? ia noai?eoue aeiaeaoeiaeo
neeaaeiinoae o a?aeiineiao i?ae ia?eaiaioii ? aeaaith aea?aeaae. Aei
neacaiiai o?aaa aeiaeaoe, ui ia?eaiaionuee? ?aaeaiaioe ? iniaeeaeie
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeie aeoaie, a?aei?iieie a?ae caeii?a ye ca oi?iith, oae
? ca th?eaee/iith i?e?iaeith. Ia a?aei?io a?ae caeii?a, ye? ?aaoeththoue
a?aeiineie «i?ney» eiinoeoooe?e (oi/a ? ia ?o iniia?), ?aaeaiaioe
cae?eniththoue ?aaoethaaiiy «?acii» c eiinoeoooe?yie. Cie?aia, /eiiee
?aaeaiaio Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie i?noeoue ii?ie, ye? ?acii c
iaeiici?noiaeie ii?iaie Eiinoeoooe?? ?aaoeththoue aaciina?aaeiuei iaei?
e o? nai? a?aeiineie.

Iayai?noue a Eiinoeoooe?? ie?aiiai ?icae?eo, i?enay/aiiai i?aai?caoe?? ?
ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, cana?ae/o? ?nioaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeiiai ca ci?noii eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?inoeoooo. I?ioa ii?ie,
a?aeianai? aei eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?inoeoooo canaae i?aai?caoe?? ?
ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, i?noyoueny ? a ?ioeo ?icae?eao
Iniiaiiai Caeiio. I?eeeaaeii iiaea neoaoaaoe no. 110 ? III Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie. Neacaia a?aeaeaa? oai?aoe/ia iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui ci?no
eiinoeoooe?eieo ?inoeooo?a ia iiaeia iia’ycoaaoe o?eueee c iaaieie
no?oeoo?ieie /anoeiaie iniiaieo caeii?a, oi/ naia oe? /anoeie
ooai?ththoue ?o yae?i.

Eiinoeoooe?eiee ?inoeooo canaae i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie ? neeaaeiei ca ci?noii ? eiiieaeniei ca oa?aeoa?ii
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaei ooai?aiiyi. Aiaeii/an a?i ? ?inoeoooii iaeaeuiai
??aiy nenoaiiino?: eiai iiaeia oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye caaaeueiee. Aeineoue
/?oei ie?aneai? a iaaeao oeueiai caaaeueiiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?inoeoooo
e ?inoeoooe ieae/iai ??aiy nenoaiiino? — aieiai? eiinoeoooe?ei?
?inoeoooe. Oea ?inoeoooe noaoono ia?iaeiiai aeaiooaoa Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo
canaae i?aai?caoe?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie oa ?inoeooo iiaiiaaaeaiue ?
canaae ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. Iacaai? aieiai? ?inoeoooe
i?aai?/ii aca?iiiia’ycai?, ui coiiaeth? ?o ?aei?noue a ?aieao
a?aeiia?aeiiai caaaeueiiai ?inoeoooo. ?acii c oei, eiaeiee c aieiaieo
?inoeooo?a neeaaea?oueny c e?eueeio ii/aoeiaeo. Iai?eeeaae, aei neeaaeo
aieiaiiai ?inoeoooo noaoono ia?iaeiiai aeaiooaoa Oe?a?ie aoiaeyoue oae?
ii/aoeia? eiinoeoooe?ei? ?inoeoooe, ye ?inoeoooe i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai
iaiaeaoa aeaiooaoa, aeaiooaonueei? iaaeioi?eaiino? (?ioi?oaoo) oa aeaye?
?io?. Eiinoeoooe?ei? ?inoeoooe ciaoiaeyoueny o aeeiai?/iiio
aca?iica’yceo c aaeocaaeie eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeie ?inoeoooaie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo canaae eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie aeicaiey?
iaa?oioiaaii ae??ooaaoe a?aeiia?aei? i?iaeaie i?aeoe/iiai ieaio.
Iaei??th c i?iaeai i?aai?caoe?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ? i?iaeaia ??
aioo??oiuei? iiaoaeiae iiiieaia?aeueii? /e a?eaia?aeueii?. Ia nueiaiaei?
iaia? ??oioiaieo th?eaee/ieo a?aoiaio?a, ye? a cana?ae/oaaee
i?eeiyoi?noue aeey ia?eaiaioo Oe?a?ie o??? /e ?ioi? iiaeae? iiaoaeiae.
Iaeiae o?aaa a?aoiaoaaoe, ui, ye cana?ae/o? aeina?ae /anoeie oae caaieo
iino?aaeyinueeeo e?a?i, ni?eeiyooy a?eaia?ae?cio ni?e/eieei ciaioaiiy
?ie? ia?eaiaio?a o aea?aeaaiiio aeaaea?thaaii?.

Aaaeeeaei ieoaiiyi uiaei i?aai?caoe?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ? ieoaiiy
?ie? ?? eii?oao?a. Ia nueiaiaei? eiinoeoooe?eia ? caeiiiaeaa/a
aecia/aiiy noaoono eii?oao?a ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe caaeia?eueiei.
Ianaiia?aae neacaia noino?oueny o/ano? eii?oao?a o cae?eniaii?
ia?eaiaionueeiai eiio?ieth ca i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee. Eii?oaoe ia
ne?ae oiiaiiaaaeoaaoe cae?enithaaoe eiio?ieue ca ae?yeuei?noth Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio, ui ia? aooe noa?ith ae?e naii? Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie. C ?ioiai aieo, eii?oaoe iiaeii? cae?enithaaoe iaai?
eiio?ieuei? ooieoe?? uiaei ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo, «i?io?eueieo»
i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa. Aeey iie?ioaiiy ia?eaiaionueeiai eiio?ieth ca
Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie o?aaa ia eiinoeoooe?eiiio ??ai? cai?iaaaeeoe
?inoeooo, yeee ca onoaeaiith eiinoeoooe?eiith oai???th aecia/a?oueny ye
?ioa?iaeyoe?y. Ca aoaeue-yeeo oiia, iaiao?aeii ooi/ieoe iiiyooy
ia?eaiaionueeiai eiio?ieth. A?aeiia?aeiee eiio?ieue ? oaeei, ui iiaea
cae?enithaaoeny ye Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie aaciina?aaeiuei, oae ?
/a?ac ?? i?aaie oa iinaaeia? iniae. Iaoeiaa o?aeooaaiiy iiiyooy
ia?eaiaionueeiai eiio?ieth oyaia iaiao?aei?noue ooi/iaiiy noaoono
?aooieiai? Iaeaoe ? Oiiaiiaaaeaiiai Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie c i?aa
ethaeeie.

sse cacia/aeinue, «oeooeueiith» ooieoe??th ia?eaiaioo ?
caeiiioai?/?noue. ?aae?caoe?y oe??? ooieoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny a iaaeao
caeiiiaeaa/iai i?ioeano, iaei??th c noaae?e yeiai ? ?aae?caoe?y i?aaa
caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae o ia?eaiaio?. Eiei noa’?eo?a oeueiai i?aaa
iio?aao? ooi/iaiue. Cie?aia, aaaeei iaa?oiooaaoe iaae?eaiiy
a?aeiia?aeiei i?aaii Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie. Ni??iei ?
i?iiiceoe?? oaeoe/ii? iie?oecaoe??» noaeiai? aeaaee oeyoii iaaeaiiy
i?aaa caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae Aa?oiaiiio Noaeo Oe?a?ie oiui. C ?ioiai
aieo, aeioe?eueiei caea?oueny cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?inoeoooo ia?iaeii?
caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae, ia?aaeaa/aii? i?iaeoii Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie,
noaaeaiei Eiinoeoooe?eiith eii?n??th o eenoiiaae? 1995 ?.

Caeiiiaeaa/ee i?ioean o Aa?oiai?e ?aae? Oe?a?ie ia ae/a?io?oueny
noaae?yie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny aaciina?aaeiuei o ia?eaiaio?: ?niothoue ?
i?neyia?eaiaionuee? noaae??. Iaei??th c oaeeo noaae?e ? i?aeienaiiy ?
io?oe?eia ii?eethaeiaiiy i?eeiyoiai Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie caeiio
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie. Oeth noaae?th ne?ae aecia/eoe ye i?iioeueaoaaiiy
(i?iioeueaaoe?y) caeiio. Nai???aeiith aeueoa?iaoeaith i?iioeueaaoe??
? canoinoaaiiy I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie aaoi. sseui iiaeieaiiy aaoi ? nooi
ia?eaiaionueeith noaae??th caeiiiaeaa/iai i?ioeano, oi eiai canoinoaaiiy
oea ia o?eueee i?neyia?eaiaionueea, a e iicaia?eaiaionueea noaae?y. C
iiceoe?e ei?eaoaaiiy i?eeiyoi? a Oe?a?i? oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai i?aae?iiy
aoei a aeioe?eueiei aianoe ci?ie aei Eiinoeoooe?? ? ia?aaeaa/eoe
iiaoi?ia i?eeiyooy caeiio ia iniia? ia eaae?o?eiaaii?, a aaniethoii?
a?eueoino? a?ae neeaaeo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. C o?aooaaiiyi ci?noo
a?aeiia?aeieo iieiaeaiue Iniiaiiai Caeiio, ? iai?eionoeiei canoinoaaiiy
aaoi aei caeii?a i?i aianaiiy ci?i aei Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeathoueny eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ?
ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, ?? i?aai?a ? iinaaeiaeo in?a.
Aiaeii/an oi?ioeththoueny iai?yie ia?niaeoeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?iaaaeaiiy yeeo ia’?eoeaii aieeaaoeia ia noai th?eaee/ieo aeine?ae?a o
oea?ei? oai??? ia?eaiaioa?ecio ? ni?eyoeia ?icaeoeo eiai i?ia?aneaii?
i?aeoeee. E??i oeueiai, o aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iiiyooy, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ci?no yaeu ia?eaiaioo ? ia?eaiaioa?ecio. Cie?aia oae?
iiiyooy, ye ia?eaiaio, ia?eaiaioa?eci, iiae?e aeaae, caeiiiaeaa/a
aeaaea, ia?eaiaionueea i?aai.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? :

1. AEo?aaeueiaa A.N. Canaaee i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino? ia?eaiaioo ye
eiinoeoooe?eiee ?inoeooo // Iaoe. A?ni. *a?i?aaoeuee. oi-oo: Na?.
I?aaiciaanoai. — 1996.- Aei.1.- N.76-78.

2. AEo?aaeueiaa A.N. I?iaeaie ?aaeaiaioaoe?? caeiiiaeaa/iai i?ioeano a
Oe?a?i? // I?aaiaa aea?aeaaa: Ui??/. iaoe. i?aoeue: Aei. aeaayoee.- E.:
?AeI IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. — N.332-337.

3. AEo?aaeueiaa A.N. Aeoiee oe?a?inueeiai ia?eaiaioa?ecio // A?/a. —
1998.- ?6. — N.135-140.

4. AEo?aaeueiaa A.N. Iiae?e aeaaee a no/ani?e Oe?a?i? (I?iaeaie oai???
oa i?aeoeee) // I?aai Oe?a?ie. – 1998. — ?11. –N.23-25.

5. AEo?aaeueiaa A.N. Iiiyooy ia?eaiaioo oa eiai aeao?i?oe?y // Iaoe.
A?ni. Iaoe. aeaae. aioo?. Ni?aa Oe?a?ie. – 1998. – Aei.3. – N.51-56.

6. AEo?aaeueiaa A.N., Oaiiaae A.I. Eiioeaioe?y ia?eaiaionueeiai i?aaa a
Oe?a?i? // Eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie : Iaoa?.
iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. – E.: ?i-o ?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, 1996. –
N.185-187.

AIIOAOe??

AEo?aaeueiaa A.N. Eiinoeoooe?ei? canaaee noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.02 eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai. Iaoe?iiaeueia
th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. A i?e
aeine?aeaeothoueny i?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee ia?eaiaioa?ecio.
Caeoeaioiaaii ia ci?no? i?eioeeio iiae?eo aeaaee a eiioaeno? ?aeaieia??
ia?eaiaioa?ecio. A ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii eiioeaioe?th ia??iaeecaoe??
ia?aae?noi??? oa ?noi??? ia?eaiaioa?ecio a Oe?a?i?.
Eiioeaiooaeueiee oa?aeoa? iathoue oaeiae aeine?aee uiaei aecia/aiiy
iiiyoue ia?eaiaioo, ia?eaiaioa?ecio ? caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee, a oaeiae
uiaei eeaneo?eaoe?? ia?eaiaionueeeo ooieoe?e ? aecia/aiiy ?o ci?noo. A
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? ? iaa?oioiaai? eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? noa?e
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie, ia?eaiaio, ia?eaiaioa?eci,
iiae?e aeaaee, caeiiiaeaa/a aeaaea, ooieoe?? ? iiaiiaaaeaiiy ia?eaiaioo,
ia?eaiaionueea i?aai.

AEo?aaeaaa A.N. Eiinoeoooeeiiiua iniiau noaiiaeaiiy e ?acaeoey
ia?eaiaioa?ecia a Oe?aeia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.02 — eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai. — Iaoeeiiaeueiay
th?eaee/aneay aeaaeaiee Oe?aeiu eiaie ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, Oa?ueeia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
i?aaiecaoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa Oe?aeiu. A iae
enneaaeothony aeooaeueiua oai?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey
ia?eaiaioa?ecia a Oe?aeia, oi?ioee?othony iauea iiiyoey,
oa?aeoa?ecothuea niioaaonoaothuee oaiiiai. A /anoiinoe, a n?aaieoaeueiii
aniaeoa i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iiiyoey ia?eaiaioa e ia?eaiaioa?ecia,
niaea?aeaueany a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a e a ii?iaoeaiuo enoi/ieeao ( eae
ioa/anoaaiiuo, oae e ca?oaaaeiuo).Aeoeaioe?iaaii ia niioiioaiee yaeaiee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae e ia?eaiaioa?ecia. I?e yoii ioia/aia eeth/aaay ?ieue
iiiyoey caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe, eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaaony eae
iiiaianiaeoiia yaeaiea, ana noi?iiu eioi?iai i?yii nii?yaeaiu n
ia?eaiaioii a aai aeayoaeueiinoe. A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaii aeieo?eiaeueiia
oieeiaaiea eiinoeoooeeiiiie oi?ioeu “aaeeinoaaiiui i?aaiii
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe a Oe?aeia yaeyaony ia?eaiaio – Aa?oiaiue Niaao
Oe?aeiu” (noaouey 75 Eiinoeoooeee Oe?aeiu). Niune yoie oi?ioee?iaee
ninoieo a oii, /oi inouanoaeaiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe ia yaeyaony
i?a?iaaoeaie ia?eaiaioa (i?aai caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau I?aceaeaioa
Oe?aeiu e Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia Oe?aeiu, i?aai aaoi I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu),
oioy iineaaeiee iainiiaaii ii?aaeaeai eae aaeeinoaaiiue i?aai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aiu enoi?eei-i?aaiaua aniaeou noaiiaeaiey
ia?eaiaioa?ecia a Oe?aeia, i?aaeeiaeaia eiioeaioeey ia?eiaeecaoeee aai
i?aaeunoi?ee e enoi?ee. Enoieaie i?aaeunoi?ee ia?eaiaioa?ecia
ii?aaeaeaia i?aeoeea ia?eiaea nouanoaiaaiey Caii?iaeneie Na/e e
Aaoiaiueiu (aoi?ay iieiaeia OV?? – OV??? no.). Eiaiii a yoio ia?eiae
aia?aua auee noi?ie?iaaiu auai?iua i?aaenoaaeoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a e i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Ia/aei enoi?ee
ia?eaiaioa?ecia a Oe?aeia naycuaaaony n oi?ie?iaaieai niioaaonoaothuae
eaeaieiaee, io?aaeaiiie, a /anoiinoe, a i?ia?aiiiuo aeieoiaioao
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee eiioea OIX – ia/aea XX no. Aaiacen i?aeoeee
ia?eaiaioa?ecia niioianai n i?aaiecaoeeae e aeayoaeueiinoueth
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia ia?eiaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai “?aiannaina”
1917-1920 a.a. (Oe?aeineay Oeaio?aeueiay ?aaea e ae?oaea). A ?aaioa
iiae/a?eiooi, /oi a ?onea ie?iaie enoi?ee ia?eaiaioa?ecia iaiaoiaeeii
?anniao?eaaoue i?aeoeeo i?aaiecaoeee aunoeo i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia
aeanoe niaaoneiai ia?eiaea, oioy oai?aoeei-eaeaieiae/aneay iniiaa yoie
i?aaiecaoeee e eaeaieiaey ia?eaiaioa?ecia iau/ii i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony.

Aaaeiia ianoi a aeenna?oaoeee ioaaaeaii aii?inai, niioianaiiui n
?acaeoeai ia?eaiaioa?ecia a eiioaenoa nia?aiaiiiai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna a Oe?aeia. I?e yoii auaeaeai aiaeec oai?aoe/aneeo iniia
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe Aa?oiaiiai
Niaaoa Oe?aeiu. A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaia ?acaa?iooay eiioeaioeey
ia?eaiaioneiai i?aaa eae iiaeio?anee eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa.
Noi?ioee?iaaii oaeaea iiiyoea iauaai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai einoeoooa iniia
i?aaiecaoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe ia?eaiaioa, i?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey
niioaaonoaothueo einoeoooa n?aaieoaeueii iecoaai o?iaiy nenoaiaoecaoeee.
A aeenna?oaoeee eceiaeaiu e iainiiaaiu eiie?aoiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
niaa?oainoaiaaieth eiinoeoooeeiiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ia?eaiaioneie
i?aaiecaoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe a Oe?aeia. A /anoiinoe, i?aaeeiaeaii
iaaeaeeoue eiio?ieueiuie iieiiii/eyie ioiineoaeueii ioaeaeueiuo
ieienoa?noa eiieoaou Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa Oe?aeiu, ooi/ieoue noaoon N/aoiie
iaeaou e Oiieiiii/aiiiai Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa Oe?aeiu ii i?aaai /aeiaaea,
nei??aeoe?iaaoue ii?yaeie i?aiaeieaiey aaoi I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Aa?oiaiue Niaao Oe?aeiu,
ia?eaiaio,ia?eaiaioa?eci, ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae, caeiiiaeaoaeueiay
aeanoue, ooieoeee eiieiiii/ey ia?eaiaioa, ia?eaiaioneia i?aai.

Zhuravljova H.S. Constitutional fundamentals of formation anddevelopment
of parliamentarism in Ukraine. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the competition for academic degree of the candidate
ofjurisprudence for the speciality 12.00.02 — constitutional law. —
Nationaljuridical academy Ukraine named for Yaroslav Mudriy, Kharkov,
1999.

The thesis is devoted to the study of constitutional regulation of
theorganization and function of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine and
research ofthe problems of theory and practice of parliamentarism.
Special attention is paidto the content of the separation of power
principle in the context of ideology ofparliamentarism. The concept of
division into periods of prehistory and historyof parliamentarism in
Ukraine is proposed. Content researches of such notionsas parliament,
parliamentarism, legislative power as well as classification
anddefinition of functions of parliament are of conceptual character. In
this thesissome certain and well grounded proposals as for
constitutional regulation ofcorresponding sphere of social relations are
proposed.

Key words: the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, parliament,
parliamentarism,separation of power, legislative power, functions and
competence of parliament,the right of parliament.

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