?INOEOOO IAAe?AO???, AEOOA?NOAA OA A?IAEIEIA??

AEAAeAI?? IAAeE*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

IA?AI?EA *?AOCI? AIAEA

OAeE 618.14:616-006.363.03/-08-089

EIINA?AAOEAII-IEANOE*I? IIA?AOe?? I?E

O?A?II?IIAO OA I?E?IAeAEAIEO AAAeAO

?ICAEOEO IAOEE O AE?IIE ?AI?IAeOEOEAIIAI A?EO

14.01.01 – Aeooa?noai oa a?iaeieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? AII
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe

i?ioani? ?aaithoa E?ae?y ?aai?aia

?inoeooo iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eaiiy ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? ae?iie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII oa IAIO

Noaiaie?anueea Aaeeia Einoyioei?aia

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey IICO,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ? 1

— aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Eioaiaae/ ?aaai?y A?eoi??aia

Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii?

ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ? 3

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aeooa?noaa
oa a?iaeieia??

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 10 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 1300
aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee (Ae 26.553.01) ii
caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe ca
niaoe?aeueiinoyie “Iaae?ao??y, Aeooa?noai ? a?iaeieia?y” i?e ?inoeooo?
iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie (252050, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Iaio?euenueeiai, 8).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieiea?? AII Oe?a?ie (252050, i. Ee?a,
aoe. Iaio?euenueeiai, 8).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 17 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eaaoi?ia E.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee oa
e?eoaaiiy iaie?aeiino? a oetha? caeia? iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue a
a?iaeieia??. Oea coiiaeaii, c iaeiiai aieo, aenieith /anoioith
iaie?aeieo oetha?a, a c ?ioiai — ??ciiiai?oi?noth oaeoi??a
iaie?aeiino?.

*anoioa iaie?aeieo oetha?a na?aae ianaeaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo ca
aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e neeaaea? a?ae 8,0 aei 15,0% (I.A.O?ieiaa, C.C.Oieiaa,
E.TH.Naeaciaaa, 1997). Iaie?aei?noue ia??aeei cono??/a?oueny i?e
o?a?ii?iiao oa i?e?iaeaeaieo aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee o ae?iie
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo.

O?a?ii?iia iaoee caeia? iniaeeaa i?noea a no?oeoo?? iooeei ae?ii/i?
noaoaai? nenoaie oa ae?aaiinoo?oueny o 20,0-25,0% ae?iie
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo (E.A. Aaeaiyi, C.?. Ca?oaeaie, N.E. Eenaeaa,
1997). O 45-84% oai?eo ia i?iio iaoee a?aei?/a?oueny ia?aeiia aai
aoi?eiia iaie?aei?noue (A.N. Aa?aiai, N.A.Aiae?aaa, E.A.Uaiaeaaa e
niaao., 1986).

Iaoiaaiac iaie?aeiino? o oai?eo c o?a?ii?iiith neeaaeiee ? ia iiai?noth
?ice?eoee, oiio ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae o?a?ii?iiaie iaoee oa iaie?aei?noth
caeeoa?oueny noia?a/eeaei (I.I. Oeeiaa, I.E. Aieeia, A.I. Nouaa? e
niaao., 1997).

40,0-50,0% on?o a?iaeieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e a?aeaoaathoueny c i?eaiaeo
i?iie iaoee (I.A. Aioaei, I.I. Iiaaaeeineee, A.I. Coaa e niaao., 1994)
oa 45,0-75,0% on?o oai?eo ia i?iio iaoee iio?aaothoue iia?aoeaiiai
ao?o/aiiy (I.I. Aaneeue/aiei, A.A. Ei?aeiaa, I.I. Oea/aiei, 1993).
Na?aae eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo iia?aoe?e o oai?eo c o?a?ii?iiith
caneoaiao? oaaae eiina?aaoeaia i?iiaeoii?y, yea aeicaiey? a?aeiiaeoe ia
o?eueee iaino?oaeueio, aea e ?ai?iaeoeoeaio ooieoe?th o ae?iie
oa?oeeueiiai ia??iaeo (TH. Eaiaeaoianeee, 1992; E.?.?aaithoa,
I.TH.Aiaeia?/oe, 1993; ?.A.Eioaiaae/, E.ss.Aa?aae/, A.A.Aieiao?a ?
ni?aaao., 1995; ?.A.Eioaiaae/, 1998). Iaeiae, eiina?aaoeaia i?iiaeoii?y
neeaaea? anueiai 8,2-18,9% iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia iaooe? (I.A. Aioaei,
I.I. Iiaaaeeineee, A.I. Coaa e niaao., 1994).

Oai?? c i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoee neeaaeathoue 0,1-2,7% a?ae
caaaeueiiai /enea a?iaeieia?/ieo oai?eo (N.I. Aeaauaeia, A.I.I?eia, I.I.
Eaaeo e niaao., 1987; A. E.Noaiaieianeay,1997).

*anoioa iaie?aeiino? i?e i?e?iaeaeaieo aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee
eieeaa?oueny a?ae 11,0 aei 38,4%, i?e/iio ia?aeiia iaie?aei?noue
neeaaea? 9,1%, ui na?ae/eoue i?i cia/ou?noue aaae ?icaeoeo iaoee a
ii?ooaii? ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? o ae?iie (Z. Ben-Rafael, D.S.Seidman,
K.Racabi et al., 1991). Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae iaie?aei?noth oa
i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoee ? noia?a/eeaei (F. Maneschi,
M.Parlato, M.S.Incandela et al., 1991).

Haie?aei?noue i?e aiiiae?yo ?icaeoeo iaoee iiaea aooe iieacaiiyi aei
iao?iieanoeee o?eueee i?ney ?aoaeueiiai ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo oa aeyaeaiiy
?ioeo i?e/ei, ye? iiaeooue i?ecaanoe aei ia? (Z. Papp, Z.Toth,
K.Csecsei, 1986). I?e a?aenooiino? ?ioeo i?e/ei iaie?aeiino? i?e
i?e?iaeaeaieo aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee iao?iieanoeea ? ?aeeiei iiaeeeaei
iaoiaeii e?eoaaiiy (N.I. Aeaauaeia, A.I. I?eia, I.I. Eaaeo e niaao.,
1987) oa aeicaiey? a?aeiiaeoe ? caa?aaoe ae?oi?iaeio ooieoe?th o ae?iie
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo (G. Teti, Maffei S., Pippi E et al., 1991).
Iaeiae, i?e a?aenooiino? ?ioeo i?e/ei iaie?aeiino? aoaeoeai?noue
a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? i?ney iao?iieanoeee caeeoa?oueny
iecueeith ? neeaaea? aei 23%. I?e iao?iieanoeoe? iioeiaeueiei oiaiei
iaoa??aeii, yeee caaacia/o? iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaee ia?aa?a
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo e ooai?aiiy i?oeiiai ?oaoey, ? eaanai
(E.?.?aaithoa, 1995).

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue e?eoaaiiy iaie?aeiino? o ae?iie i?e
o?a?ii?iiao oa i?e?iaeaeaieo aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee
eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieie iia?aoe?yie ia aeeeeea? noii?a?a. Cia/ia /enei
aeine?aeaeaiue i?e eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo iia?aoe?yo ia iaooe? o
oai?eo c o?a?ii?iiith oa i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoee
i?enay/aii aea/aiith iieacaiue, iaoiaeai iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy, iiooeo
iaee?auiai oiaiiai iaoa??aeo, i?neyiia?aoe?eii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??,
a?aeaeaeaiei ?acoeueoaoai, i?iaeaiai iia?iaaiiai i?aaio, aieeao o?ce/ieo
oaeoi??a oiui. Iaeiae, a?aenooi?e aiae?c ee?i?ei-ia?aee?i?/iiai
ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo, ye? ia?aianee eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/i? iia?aoe??, c
iaoith a?eueo oni?oiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy o ieo iaino?oaeueii? oa
?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?e. Cacia/aia aoei i?aenoaaith aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa ? o?aaiaioii IAe? “Ii?aeiai? oi?ie iaie?aeiino?,
aeeoa?aioe?aeueia ae?aaiinoeea, iniaeeaino? ia?aa?ao ? iaoiaaiaoe/ia
ei?aeoe?y” a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ?IAA AII
Oe?a?ie (? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0.1.96. ? 006280).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo
iia?aoe?e i?e o?a?ii?iiao oa i?e?iaeaeaieo aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee o
ae?iie ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo ia i?aenoaa? oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oa aea/aiiy ee?i?ei-ia?aee?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aei ? i?ney o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

Aea/eoe aiaoii?/iee oa ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai iaoee oa i?eaeaoe?a aei ?
i?ney iia?aoe??.

I?iaanoe ii?oieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoa??ae?a, io?eiaieo i?e
i?iiaeoii?? oa iao?iieanoeoe?.

Aecia/eoe a?noio?i?/io ?aaeoe?th ia aetheiciai?iiae?eaie, ae?eiaai ?
AeIE oeaiei i?iiao??y.

I?iaanoe aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oeaiei i?iiao??y.

Aea/eoe a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ae?iie c
o?a?ii?iiith ? i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoee oa noai
aaia?aoeaii? ooieoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa ia i?aenoaa? ee?i?/ieo,
aia?aoieo oa niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aea/aii noai iaoee
i?ney eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo iia?aoe?e ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaii?
ooieoe?? o oai?eo c iaie?aei?noth i?e o?a?ii?iiao oa i?e?iaeaeaieo
aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee. Aea/aii ii?oieia?/io oa a?noio?i?/io no?oeoo?o
iaoee. Aeaii ioe?ieo noaio iaoee ia i?aenoaa? ee?i?/ieo, aiaeineii?/ieo
(eaia?ineii?y, a?noa?ineii?y) aeine?aeaeaiue a aeeiai?oe? aei ? i?ney
iia?aoe??. Aea/aii ?ai?iaeoeoeaio ooieoe?th i?ney ??cieo aeae?a
iia?aoe?e, ia?aa?a oa caaa?oaiiy aaa?oiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii /?oeo nenoaio
ianoaaeaiiy ae?iie c iaie?aei?noth oa o?a?ii?iiith, i?e?iaeaeaieie
aaaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoee, yea aeeth/a? ee?i?/i?, ?aioaaiieia?/i?,
oeueo?acaoeia?, aiaeineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iieacaii, ui
eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/i? iia?aoe?? a?aeiiaeththoue oi?io ? oiiia?ao?th
iaoee o iaie?aeieo ae?iie c o?a?ii?iiith oa i?e?iaeaeaieie aiiiae?yie
?icaeoeo iaoee ? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iaeii/anii onoiooe ?io? oaeoi?e
iaie?aeiino?, ye? aeiaaathoue iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy. Aeiaaaeaii
a?aeiiaeaiiy iaino?oaeueii? oa ae?oi?iaeii? ooieoe?e i?ney
eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo iia?aoe?e. Aea/aii ia?aa?a aaa?oiino?.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?eueo?noue ae?iie aeiiioo? aaa?oi?noue c ia?iaeaeaiiyi
aeeaeo ae?oae.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe a?iaeieia?/ieo caeeaae?a
Aeiiaoeueei?, Oa?iii?euenueei? oa Iaeanueei? iaeanoae.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeeth/ai? a oeeee
eaeoe?e aeey e?ea??a eo?n?a noaaeoaaiiy oa ?ioi?iaoeee ca oaiith
“Ae?aaiinoeea oa e?eoaaiiy iaie?aeiino?” i?e ?inoeooo? iaae?ao???,
aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

Eiiieaenia ee?i?/ia ianoaaeaiiy 150 ae?iie, a oiio /ene? 110 – c
o?a?ii?iiith ? 40 – c i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoee oa
iaie?aei?noth aei ? i?ney eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo iia?aoe?e.

Eiiieaenia aia?aoia ianoaaeaiiy ? aeoeaia o/anoue a iia?aoe?yo o
/anoeie ianoaaeaieo oai?eo.

Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa ?o noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
i?aaenoaaeai? ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
o??o?a??” (Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1997); ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaaeiiooaaiiy aaa?oiino?” (*a?i?aoe?, 1997); ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
a?aeae?eaiiy ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? ae?iie ?
aeooa?nueeiio a?aeae?e? ?IAA AII Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1999).

Ioae?eaoe??: ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 5 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, c ieo 3 ( o i?ia?aeieo aeo?iaeao, 1 ( a ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue ? 1 – a oacao eiioa?aioe??.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 150 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo
e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 238 aeaea?ae. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 28
oaaeeoeyie ? 25 iaethieaie, ye? aeeeaaeai? ia 18 noi??ieao.

Aaaaeath nai?i i?e?iiei iaia’yceii aeneiaeoe aaciaaeio aaey/i?noue ca
iino?eio aeiiiiiao a ?iaio? caa?aeoaa/o ii?oieia?/ii? eaai?aoi??? ?IAA
AII Oe?a?ie ae.i.i. i?ioani?o Caaei?iaei?e O.Ae.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia’?eo oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Eiiieaenii ianoaaeaii 150 iaie?aeieo
ae?iie ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo c i?iiith oa i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie
?icaeoeo iaoee. Oai?eo ?iciiae?eaii ia aea? a?oie. Ia?oo a?oio neeaaeaee
110 ae?iie c o?a?ii?iiith, ae?oao – 40 c i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo
iaoee (ia?aoeiea ii?iaeieie ? aeai?iaa iaoea). An?o oai?eo ianoaaeaii a
ieaiiaiio ii?yaeeo a aeeiai?oe? aei ? i?ney iia?aoe??. Ee?i?/ia
ianoaaeaiiy ae?iie aeeth/aei aea/aiiy aiaiiaco oai?iae oa aeeooy,
ia’?eoeaia a?iaeieia?/ia, caaaeueiiniiaoe/i? oa caaaeueiiee?i?/i?
eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

An?i ae?ieai i?iaiaeeeinue oeueo?acaoeiaa, ?aioaaiieia?/ia
(a?noa?inaeuei?iaia?ao?y, a?eiio?anoia a?iaeia?ao?y,
?aioaaiiiaeuea?ia?ao?y) ianoaaeaiiy i?aai?a iaeiai oaca, ca iieacaiiyie
? aiaeineii?/i? (a?noa?ineii?y, eaia?ineii?y) ianoaaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
ianoaaeaiue a?aoiaai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ieaio e?eoaaiiy eiaeii? oai?i? oa
i?aeaioiaee aei eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo iia?aoe?e (eiina?aaoeaia
i?iiaeoii?y ? iao?iieanoeea), ni?yiiaaieo ia a?aeiiaeaiiy oa caa?aaeaiiy
?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe??. C iaoith ioe?iee a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
e?eoaaiiy aea/aeenue ?ici??e iaoee ? oi?ia ?? ii?iaeieie, iaino?oaeueia
ooieoe?y ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe??.

Ii?oieia?/ia aea/aiiy io?eiaiiai i?e iia?aoe?? iaoa??aeo (ae?eyiie
o?a?iiaoiciiai aocea oa oeaieie ia?aoeiee iaoee) i?iaaaeaii o an?o
ianoaaeaieo, o 17 – a?noio?i?/ia ? o 5 ( aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?eaiooaaiiy oa caaa?aeaiiy iaoa??ae?a aeey
ii?oieia?/iiai aea/aiiy i?iaiaeeeenue cae/aeieie a?noieia?/ieie
iaoiaeaie (aaiaoienee?i-aiceiii oa i?e?iooeneiii ca Aai-A?ciiii),
a?noio?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aetheiciai?iiae?eai?a ? ae?eiaaio ca
aeiiiiiaith OEE-?aaeoe??, ?aaeoe?y ia ai?no AeIE – ca Oaeueaaiii,
aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ca cae/aeiith iaoiaeeeith.

Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a o i?ioean?
ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ieo ? aia?aoieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ii??aiyiiy iieaciee?a
o aeeiai?oe? cae?enithaaeenue ca noaiaea?oiith iaoiaeeeith. A i?ioean?
ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a ae?aoiaoaaee na?aaei? a?eoiaoe/ia cia/aiiy
aa??aoe?eiiai ?yaeo (I), na?aaeith iioeaeo na?aaeiueiai a?eoiaoe/iiai
(m). Aeey ioe?iee ??cieoe? i?e ii??aiyii? na?aaei?o cia/aiue
aeei?enoiaoaaee e?eoa??e No’thaeaioa (t-?iciiae?e). ??cieoey i?ae
cia/aiiyie iieaciee?a aoea aeinoia??iith o aeiaaeeao, eiee ?(0,05.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy. Ianoaaeai? ae?iee
ciaoiaeeeenue a ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiio a?oe? a?ae 20 aei 40 ?ie?a. Na?aaei?e
a?e ?o neeaaeaa 30,9(0,4 ?ieo, a oiio /ene? 31,7(0,4 ?ieo a ia?o?e a?oi?
? 28,6(0,7 ?ieo o ae?oa?e.

Aiae?c nea?a i?e anooi? iieacaa, ui o an?o oai?eo aoea iaie?aei?noue,
a?aeiia?aeii o 84 (76,4%) ? 19 (47,5%) oai?eo ia?oi? oa ae?oai? a?oi –
ii?ooaiiy iaino?oaeueiiai oeeeeo, o 3 (2,7%) ? 15 (37,5%) –
iaaeiiooaaiiy aaa?oiino?, o 16 (14,6%) ? 6 (15,0%) – a?eue aieco
aeeaioa. Ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? i?aai?a iaeiai oaca a?aei?/aeinue o 7 (6,4%)
oai?eo ia?oi? a?oie. O oai?eo ia?oi? a?oie ia?aaaaeaei ii?ooaiiy
iaino?oaeueii? ooieoe?? (?(0,05), a ae?oai? – iaaeiiooaai?noue.

Ia??iae anoaiiaeaiiy iaia?oa o oai?eo eieeaaany a oe?ieeo iaaeao: a?ae
9,5 aei 18 ?ie?a ? a na?aaeiueiio neeaaeaa 13,0(0,1 ?ieo o ae?iie ia?oi?
? 13,3(0,2 ?ieo ( ae?oai? a?oie. Na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue iaino?oaeueiiai
oeeeeo noaiiaeea 29,0(0,3 ? 29,9(0,7 aeiy. O?eaae?noue iaino?oaoe?? –
a?ae 2 aei 10 aei?a (na?aaeiy 5,0(0,2 aeiy). Oa?aeoa? iaino?oaoe?? oa
e?euee?noue ao?a/aii? e?ia? aoee ii?ooai? o 78 (70,9%) oai?eo ia?oi?
a?oie ? o 16 (40,0%) – ae?oai?. O oai?eo ia?oi? a?oie ii?ooaiiy
iaino?oaoe?? aoei, iae/ano?oa, ca oeiii a?ia?iaino?oaoe??, a a ae?oa?e –
iao?i?aa??.

Ii?yae ?c ci?iaie oa?aeoa?o iaino?oaeueii? ooieoe?? aeyaeaii ii?ooaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio y?/iee?a, ye? ioe?ithaaeenue ca oanoaie
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o?eueee 39 (35,5%) oai?eo
ia?oi? a?oie oa 10 (25,0%) – ae?oai? iaee ii?iaeueiee aeaioaciee
iaino?oaeueiee oeeee. O 19 (17,3%) ae?iie ia?oi? ? o 9 (22,5%) ae?oai?
a?oie niinoa??aaeanue iaaeinoaoi?noue ? nei?i/aiiy ethoa?iiai? oace, o
16 (14,6%) ? 7 (17,5%) ae?iie a?aeiia?aeii – iaaeinoaoi?noue ethoa?iiai?
oace, o 13 (11,8%) ? 2 (5,0%) – nei?i/aiiy ethoa?iiai? oace. Iiiioaciee
oeeee aoa o 19 (17,3%) ae?iie ia?oi? a?oie ? o 7 (17,5%) – ae?oai?.
Ioaea, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui ii?ooaiiy iaoeyoe?? aoei iaei??th c i?e/ei
aeieeiaiiy iaie?aeiino? o 71 (65,5%) oai?i? ia?oi? a?oie ? o 30 (75,0%)
— ae?oai?.

Na?aae oaeoi??a, ui ni?eythoue aeieeiaiith iaie?aeiino?, cono??/aeenue
aeeoy/? ?ioaeoe?? o 53 (48,2%) oai?eo ia?oi? ? o 14 (35,0%) – ae?oai?
a?oie, o?ii?/iee oiicee?o – a?aeiia?aeii o 50 (47,3%) ? o 22 (55,0%)
oai?eo. ?ai?oa ia?aianai? iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy ia i?aaiao /a?aaii?
ii?iaeieie ? iaeiai oaca aoee o 51 (46,4%) ae?iee ia?oi? a?oie oa o 13
(32,5%) – ae?oai?. O 96 (87,3%) oai?eo ia?oi? a?oie ? 37 (92,5%) –
ae?oai? noiooi?ie aoee o?ii?/i? caiaeuei? caoai?thaaiiy aioo??oi?o
noaoaaeo i?aai?a.

O?eaae?noue iaie?aeiino? o ianoaaeaieo ae?iie eieeaaeanue a?ae 2 aei 18
?ie?a ? a na?aaeiueiio neeaaeaea 6,6(0,5 ?ieo. O 97 (64,7%) ianoaaeaieo
oai?eo iaie?aei?noue i?iaeiaaeoaaeanue 6 ? a?eueoa ?ie?a. An? aiie
iaiaeii?aciai e?eoaaeenue ??ciiiai?oieie eiina?aaoeaieie iaoiaeaie aac
iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O 72 (65,4%) oai?eo ia?oi? a?oie ? 21 (52,5%)
ae?oai? aoea ia?aeiia iaie?aei?noue, a o 38 (34,6%) ? 19 (47,5%)
a?aeiia?aeii – aoi?eiia.

Aiae?c ia?aa?ao aaa?oiino? aei iia?aoe?? (?en. 1) iieacaa, ui o?eueee 12
(31,6%) oai?eo ia?oi? a?oie ? 1 (5,3%) – ae?oai? aeiiooaaee aaa?oi?noue
aei oa?i?io iieia?a c ia?iaeaeaiiyi aeeaeo ae?oae, ui, i/aaeaeii,
iia’ycaii c ii?ooaiiyi oiiia?ao?? iaoee oa ?? ii?iaeieie, aeeeeeaiei
iayai?noth o?a?iiaoicieo aoce?a ? aiiiae?? ?icaeoeo iaoee (A.E.
AEaeaciia e niaao., 1990; N.E.Eenaeaa e niaao., 1995).

I?e ia’?eoeaiiio ianoaaeaii? o 105 (95,5%) oai?eo ia?oi? a?oie aeyaeaia
iaoea ?ici??aie a?ae 11 aei 24-oeaeiaai? aaa?oiino?, iaiaeii??aeii?
eiinenoaioe?? oa oi?ie. ?c 110 oai?eo c o?a?ii?iiith iaoee iiiaeeii?
aocee aeyaeaii o 61 (55,5%), iiiaeeiie? – o 49 (44,5%). Ae?aiao? aoce?a
aoa a?ae 10 aei 105 ii. O 80 (72,7%) ae?iie ii?iaeieia iaoee aoea
aneiao?e/iith, aeaoi?iiaaiith o?a?iiaoicieie aoceaie.

?c 40 oai?eo ae?oai? a?oie o 14 (35,0%) aeyaeaia aeai?iaa iaoea, o 26
(65,0%) ( ia?aoeiee ii?iaeieie iaoee. O 15 (37,5%) oai?eo aecia/aia
a?iiieanoe/ia iaoea, o 15 (37,5%) ( iaoea cae/aeieo ?ici???a, o 10
(25,0%) – iaoea ca?eueoaieo ?ici???a, ?icoe?aia a ae?eyioe? aeia.

Ii?ooaiiy ?ooiiino? iaoee aeyaeaii o 96 (87,3%) oai?eo ia?oi? a?oie oa o
31 (77,5%) – ae?oai?, ci?ie ?? ?icoaooaaiiy – o 34 (49,5%) ? 11(31,4%)
oai?eo a?aeiia?aeii. O 41 (37,3%) ae?iee ia?oi? ? o 23 (57,5%) – ae?oai?
a?oie e?aee aai i?aaee y?/iee, aai iaeaeaa y?/ieee aoee iaeueiaoi?ii
ca?eueoai?.

A ?acoeueoao? ?aioaaiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui aeaoaeoe
iaiiaiaiiy ii?iaeieie iaoee aoee o 17 (15,5%) oai?eo ia?oi? a?oie.
Aneiao?e/ia, aeaoi?iiaaia o?a?iiaoicieie aoceaie ii?iaeieia iaoee
aeyaeaia o 80 (72,7%), noana?ici? o?a?iiaoici? aocee – o 39 (35,5%)
oai?eo, eoeaaeaeia ? iai?aeia oi?ie o?ea iaoee – a?aeiia?aeii o 4 (3,6%)
? 1 (0,9%). Ca?eueoaiiy i?eaeaoe?a iaoee aoei o 40 (36,4%) oai?eo,
iai?io?aei?noue iaio iaoeiaeo o?oa – o 62 (56,4%).

A ae?oa?e a?oi? aeyaeaii /?oe? eiioo?e iaoee o 39 (97,5%) oai?eo.
Ia?aoeiee ??ciiai nooiaiy ae?aaeaiino? aeyaeai? a ii?iaeiei? iaoee o 14
(35,0%) oai?eo, o 26 (65,0%) – aeai?iaa iaoea. A?aei?/aii ca?eueoaiiy
y?/iee?a o 20 (50,0%) oai?eo, iai?io?aei?noue iaio iaoeiaeo o?oa – o 17
(42,5%).

Oeueo?acaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaia oai?ei ia?oi? a?oie,
aeicaieeei aeyaeoe aeaoi?iaoe?th eiioo??a iaoee o an?o ? ca?eueoaiiy
?ici???a – o 105 (95,5%) oai?eo. Noana?ici? o?a?iiaoici? aocee aeyaeai?
o 7 (6,4%) oai?eo, ii?aeiaii c ?ioa?noeoe?aeueieie – o 86 (78,1%) ?
noaioeicieie aoceaie – o 17 (15,5%). Iiiaeeii? (a?eueoa aeaio) aocee
aeyaeai? o 61 (55,5%) oai?i?, iiiaeeiie? – o 49 (44,5%). Ae?aiao? aoce?a
aoa a?ae 10 aei 105 ii. Ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a i?eaeaoe?a aeyaeaii o 41
(37,3%) oai?i?, e?noo y?/ieea – o 9 (8,2%).

O 25 (62,5%) oai?eo ae?oai? a?oie ae?aaiinooaaeanue aeai?iaa iaoea, o 7
(17,5%) – ia?aoeiea ii?iaeieie iaoee. O 20 (50,0%) oai?eo aeyaeaii
ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a y?/iee?a, o iaei??? – e?noo y?/ieea.

I?e aiaeineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo o oai?eo ia?oi? a?oie ia o?eueee
aeyaeaii o?a?iiaoici? aocee, a e ooi/iaii ?o ?icoaooaaiiy. Aecia/aii
oi?io aaae ?icaeoeo o oai?eo ae?oai? a?oie. Aeyaeaii ?io? iaoieia?/i?
noaie i?aai?a iaeiai oaca, a oiio /ene? iie?e?noici? y?/ieee – o 41
(37,3%) oai?i? ia?oi? a?oie, niaeeiaee i?ioean i?aai?a iaeiai oaca
(((-(V nooiaiy ( o 41 (37,3%), iae? oi?ie aiaeiiao??ico ( o 6 (12,0%).
Noaioeici? o?a?iiaoici? aocee niinoa??aaeenue o 13 (11,8%) oai?eo ia?oi?
a?oie, ?ioa?noeoe?aeuei? aocee, ye? iaaeaaaee iaooe? iai?aaeeueio oi?io
( o 97 (88,2%). Ie??i oiai, aaeaiii?ic iaoee aeyaeaiee o 8 (7,3%)
oai?eo, a?ia?ieac?y aiaeiiao??y – o 55 (50,0%), iie?iic aiaeiiao??y – o
42 (38,2%), iie?ie oea?a?eaeueiiai eaiaeo – o 3 (3,6%). A?/ea iaio
iaoeiaeo o?oa aoee i?ee?eo? iie?iaie o 21 (19,1%) oai?i?, iaei??? o?oae
– o 8 (7,3%).

O 14 (35,0%) oai?eo ae?oai? a?oie aeyaeaia aeai?iaa iaoea, o 26 (65,0%)
– ia?aoeiea ii?iaeieie iaoee, a oiio /ene? o 11 (27,5%) – oioaeueia, o
15 (37,5%) ( noaoioaeueia. Anoaiiaeaia iayai?noue iie?e?noicieo y?/iee?a
o 20 (50,0%) oai?eo, niaeeiaiai i?ioeano i?aai?a iaeiai oaca (((-(V
nooiaiy ( o 23 (57,5%), aaeaiii?ico iaoee ( o 3 (7,5%), a?ia?ieac?y
aiaeiiao??y – o 7 (17,5%), e?noe y?/ieea ( o 1 (2,5%). O 33 (82,5%)
oai?eo a?/ea iaio iaoeiaeo o?oa a?coae?coaaeenue o aeaeyae? i?ai?nyoey,
o 5 (12,5%) – o?eueee c iaeiiai aieo, a o 2 (5,0%) ( a?/ea ia
a?coae?coaaeenue.

An? oe? oaeoi?e oaeiae aieeaaee ia noai ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe??
ianoaaeaieo ae?iie, oiaoi ia oi?ioaaiiy ii?aeiaieo oi?i iaie?aeiino?.
Eiiieaenia ianoaaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaia o oai?eo, aoei iaiao?aeiei aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy inoaoi/iiai ae?aaiico ? ooi/iaiiy ieaio oa aeai?o iaoiaeo
eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo iia?aoe?e.

Caaaeuei? i?eioeeie, ye? canoiniaoaaeenue i?e an?o iia?aoe?yo, aeeth/aee
i?i?iaeueia o?aaioaaiiy oeaiei, aeei?enoaiiy i?e?io??o?a?/iiai
?ino?oiaioa??th oa iioe/ieo i?eeaae?a. Oai?ei ia?oi? a?oie aeeiioaaee
eiina?aaoeaio i?iiaeoii?th, ae?oai? – iao?iieanoeeo ca Oo?anniaiii aai
Oiiie?inii caeaaeii a?ae ?ici???a iaoee, nooiaiy ae?aaeaiino? oa oi?ie
iiaeai?iiy iaoee. Iia?aoe?y ia iaooe?, i?e iaiao?aeiino?,
noi?iaiaeoaaeanue ao?o/aiiyi ia iaoeiaeo o?oaao ? y?/ieeao.
I?iaiaeeeinue ?ic’?aeiaiiy niaeie i?aai?a iaeiai oaco o 51 (46,4%) ? 11
(27,5%) oai?eo a?aeiia?aeii ia?oi? ? ae?oai? a?oi, ieanoe/i? iia?aoe??
ia iaoeiaeo o?oaao, ye iane?aeie iaoieia?/ieo ci?i ?? no?iie,
iai?io?aei?noue aai aiiiae?? ?o ?icaeoeo – o 96 (87,3%) ? 39 (97,5%),
??ci? ao?o/aiiy ia y?/ieeao (e?noaeoii?y c? caa?aaeaiiyi ? oi?ioaaiiyi
y?/ieea, eeeiiaeaeia ?acaeoe?y iaeiiai /e iaio y?/iee?a,
ae?aoa?iiioieoo?a, oa?iieaooa?ecaoe?y) – o 94 (85,5%) ? 40 (100,0%),
aaii?ecaoe?y aiaeiiao??i?aeieo aiaieu ia i?aaiao iaeiai oaca – o 5
(4,6%) ? 2 (5,0%).

I?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae i?io?eaa aac oneeaaeiaiue, a na?aaeiueiio
9,0(0,5 aeiy. A?aei?/aeanue oaiia?aoo?a 37,3(0,1(N. O?eaae?noue
oaiia?aoo?ii? ?aaeoe?? neeaaeaea 2,2( 0,2 aeiae.

I?e a?noieia?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? oeaiei o?a?ii?iie no?oeoo?i? ci?ie
aeyaeai? ia o?eueee a naiiio aoce? i?iie, aea e ia ae?eyieao i?iiao??y
iiaeeco iueiai. A?aei?/aeanue a?ia?ieac?y aeaaeeii’yciaeo no?oeoo? oa
iaioith i??ith niieo/ii? oeaieie (66,7% niinoa?aaeaiue), ii?ooaiiy
a?o?oaeoii?ee i’yciaeo aieieii oa no?oeoo?e aeaaeeeo i?ioeeo?a (86,6%),
e?euee?ni? ci?ie i?aaiae. Iaa?yeiai-aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie oeaieie ?
i?ie?oa?aoe?y noaeei, a iniiaiiio aaiiciiai oeio, niinoa??aaeenue o
82,6% oai?eo i?e iiiaeeiieeo aoceao ? o 79,7% – i?e iiiaeeiieo. Oe?
ci?ie cono??/aeenue a oeaiei? iiaeeco o?a?ii?iie ye i?e iiiaeeiieeo, oae
? i?e iiiaeeiieo o?a?iiaoicieo aoceao. Iioiauaiiy ? neea?icoaaiiy
a?oa??aeueieo noaeei a?aei?/aeenue /ano?oa a naiiio aoce? i?iie.

?acoeueoaoe a?noieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeaieie ia?aoeiee aeyaeee
ii?ooaiiy ii?iaeueii? no?oeoo?e i?iiao??y o aeaeyae? oaioe/ii
ia?aieaoaieo oiieeo io/e?a i’yciaeo aieieii c aaeeeith e?euee?noth
niieo/ii-oeaieiieo eieaaaiiaeo aieieii (100,0% niinoa?aaeaiue). A
20,0% aeiaaee?a aeyaeaii iayai?noue aeoii/aieo aeaaeeeo i?ioeeo?a ?c
ciaioaiiyi e?eueeino? i?io?a?ee, i’ycia? aieieia aaciina?aaeiuei
aoiaeeee a neeciao iaieiieo, a 20,0% — iaeaea ia aeyaeai?. I’ycia?
ee?oeie a ia?aoeioe? iaee i?eiioe/i? yae?a ? ia?eioeeaa?iee iaa?ye.
Na?aae oeeo ee?oei aeyaeai? ??cei aeoii/ai?, a yeeo yae?a aeoyaioo?,
iiaeiaaeai?, i?ae i?eeyaathoue iaeia aei iaeiiai. E??i oaioe/iino?
i’yciaiai oa?o, niinoa??aaeenue ??cea aeoii/aiiy /e a?aenooi?noue
aacaeueiiai iie?eao aiaeiiao??y (40,0%), iioiauai? ? neea?iciaai?
a?oa??aeuei? noaeeie, a oaeiae i?ie?oa?aoe?y aaiicieo noaeei (100,0%) c
aeeno?io?/ieie ci?iaie aiaeioae?th, yeee ?icoaoiaoaaany eiiieaenaie o
aeaeyae? eeoai/e?a.

I?e a?noio?i?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? iaoa??ae?a a on?o oai?eo ia?oi? a?oie
a?aei?/aeanue iiceoeaia ?aaeoe?y ia ai?no AeIE a yae?ao o?a?ii?iie i?e
iiiaeeiieeo aoceao oa o 80,0% – i?e iiiaeeiieo. A 83,3% niinoa?aaeaiue
a?aei?/aeanue neaaiiiceoeaia ?aaeoe?y a yae?ao aeaaeeii’yciaeo ee?oei,
?icoaoiaaieo iiaeeco o?a?ii?iie. Iiceoeaia ?aaeoe?y oaeiae a?aei?/aeanue
a yae?ao aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei noaeei, a iniiaiiio ae??aieo.

A oeaiei? ia?aoeiee a?ae oai?eo ae?oai? a?oie aoei aeayea iineeaiiy
?aaeoe?? ia ai?no AeIE a yae?ao io/e?a aeaaeeeo i?ioeeo?a, ? i?noeyie
niinoa??aaeanue ia??aiii??ia ?aaeoe?y a niieo/i?e oeaiei?.

OEE-?aaeoe?y ia iaeo?aeuei? aetheiciai?iiae?eaie ? ae?eiaai a i?aia?aoao
oai?eo c o?a?ii?iiith aoea ia??aiii??iith, iiceoeaiith a on?o (100,0 %)
iioiauaieo aacaeueieo iaia?aiao no?iie noaeei ? a ie?aieo io/eao
aeaaeeii’yciaeo ee?oei, ye? ioi/oaaee ?o (33,3% niinoa?aaeaiue i?e
iiiaeeiieeo aoceao ? 80,0 % ( i?e /eneaiieo). E??i oiai, a?aei?/aeanue
??cei iiceoeaia ?aaeoe?y a io/eao aeaaeeii’yciaeo ee?oei ae?eyiie, ui
i?eeyaathoue aei o?a?ii?iie, iniaeeai iiaeeco ia?aoiaeo o?a?ii?iie a
ii?iaeueio oeaieio iaoee (33,3 ? 80,0 % niinoa?aaeaiue a?aeiia?aeii i?e
iiiaeeiieeo ? iiiaeeiieo aoceao), a ?icoaoiaaieo iaaeiei noaeei
iiiiioeeaa?ieo ?io?eueo?aoe?yo ? a iiiaeeiieeo aiaieuao aacaeueii?
iaia?aie caeic aiaeiiao??y (40,0% niinoa?aaeaiue i?e iiiaeeiieo aoceao).

A ae?oa?e a?oi? a?aei?/aeanue iiceoeaia OEE-?aaeoe?y ia ae?eyieao
ia?aoeiee c iayai?noth oiieeo i’yciaeo io/e?a, o oeeoiieaci? oeeo
aieieii. Oaeiae a?aei?/aeanue iiceoeaia ?aaeoe?y o aeaaeeii’yciaeo
aieieiao, ?icoaoiaaieo aeeoocii a no?ii? ia?aoeiee, a i?noeyie iaaeiei
noaeei.

I?e aeaeo?iii?e i?e?ineii?? aeyaeaii ii?ooaiiy oeueo?ano?oeoo?e
ee?oeiieo aeaiaio?a yae?a, oeeoiieacie aeaaeeeo i?ioeeo?a, niieo/ii?
oeaieie ia ae?eyioe? o?a?iiaoiciiai aocea ? iiaeeco iueiai. A?aei?/aii
aeaeo?iiii-u?eueiee iao?een, ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? i?aaiae, a oiio /ene?
i?oioiiae??e, /anoeia yeeo iaea ae?aaeaio aeano?oeoe?th, ciaioaiiy
?ici???a ? ?aaeoeoe?th e??no. Ci?io yaea? a?aei?/aii o aeaeyae?
eiiaeainaoe?? o?iiaoeio a?ey iaieiiee.

O ia?aoeioe? iaoee i?e i?e?iaeaeaieo aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee a?aei?/aeanue
iaea?eueoa ci?ia a yae?ao aeaaeeeo i?ioeeo?a. Aeyaeyeanue ia??aiii??ia
eiio?ao?aoe?y yae?a, ca?eueoaiiy, iioiauaiiy ? iaoeiiaa ?icoaooaaiiy
yaea?aoeue.

Ioaea, a?noieia?/ia, a?noio?i?/ia oa aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee aeyaeoe aeeaie? ee?oeii? ci?ie o?a?iiaoicieo
aoce?a ? ia?aoeiee ii?iaeieie iaoee o ae?iie c iaie?aei?noth, ui iiaea
iiynieoe, c iaeiiai aieo, i?e/eio ii?ooaiiy nei?i/oaaeueii? ooieoe??
iaoee, a c ?ioiai – ooieoe?iiaeueio iaiiaiioe?ii?noue iaoee ye
i?aaia-oe?e?, ui iiaea aooe i?e/eiith iaie?aeiino?. C oeeo iiceoe?e
o??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy ae?iie ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo c o?a?ii?iiith ?
aaaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoee iiaeia aaaeaoe aei?aaaeaiei, a a aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao iaiao?aeiei c iaoith a?aeiiaeaiiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe??.

*a?ac aeaa-o?e i?nyoe? i?ney iia?aoe?? oai?ei i?iaiaeeee eo?n
?aaa?e?oaoe?eii? oa?ai??, yea aeeth/aea ca iieacaiiyie eiiieaenio
i?ioecaiaeueio oa?ai?th ?c canoinoaaiiyi cania?a ianiaoeeo?/ii?
aeoea?caoe?? ?ioiia?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a (aaeoa??aeuei? iie?naoa?eaee –
i??iaaiae, i?iae?a?icai) c ianooiiei i?ecia/aiiyi aioeaaeoa??aeueii?,
?icniieooth/i? oa?ai??, aeanainea?e?coth/eo cania?a, a?oai?i?a,
o?ciaoiae?a ? i?noeaaa e?eoaaiiy.

A iiaeaeueoiio i?iaiaeeee eiio?ieue ca noaiii iaoee oa iaoeiaeo o?oa.
I?e a?iiooieoe?? y?/iee?a ? a?aeiiaeai?e i?io?aeiino? iaoeiaeo o?oa
i?iaiaeeee ei?aeoe?th ai?iiiaeueieo ii?ooaiue, a i?e iaaeinoaoiino?
ethoa?iiai? oace ia oii? aeinoaoiuei? ano?iaaiii? iane/aiino?
?aeiiaiaeoaaee noeioeyoi?e iaoeyoe??.

?acoeueoaoe a?aeaeaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui oa?aeoa?
iaino?oaoe?? ii?iae?coaaany oa e?euee?noue ao?a/aii? e?ia? a?aeiiaeeanue
o 91 (82,7%) oai?i? ia?oi? a?oie ? o 32 (80,0%) — ae?oai? (?(0,05
ii??aiyii c aeaieie aei iia?aoe??); ii?iaeueiee aeaioaciee
iaino?oaeueiee oeeee anoaiiaeany o 74 (67,3%) ? 20 (50,0%) a?aeiia?aeii
(?(0,05), i?aaeeueia iieiaeaiiy iaoee a?aei?/aeinue o 101 (91,8%) ? 37
(92,5 %) (?(0,05), ?ooii?noue iaoee ( o 99 (90,0%) ? 35 (87,5%)
(?(0,05), ii?iaeueia o?eeooia oi?ia ii?iaeieie iaoee ( o 105 (96,4%) ?
38 (95,0%) (?(0,05), i?io?aei?noue iaio iaoeiaeo o?oa a?aeiiaeaia o 101
(91,8%) ? 37 (92,5%) (?(0,05). ?oaoe? ia iaooe? aoee i?oei?, iciae
iaiiaiioe?iiino? ?oaoey ia aeyaeaii.

Aaa?oi?noue i?ney eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo iia?aoe?e ianoaea o 60
(54,6%) ae?iie ia?oi? a?oie ii??aiyii c 38 (34,6%) aei iia?aoe??
(?(0,05) (?en. 2). Caaaeueia e?euee?noue aaa?oiinoae neeaaeaea 64
(4 ae?iee iaee iiaoi?io aaa?oi?noue). Caa?ica ia?a?eaaiiy
aaa?oiino? aoea o 30 (43,3%) ae?iie. Aaa?oi?noue cae?i/eeanue niiioaiiei
aai?oii o 1 (1,7%) ae?iee (?(0,05 ii??aiyii c aeaieie aei iia?aoe??),
iieiaaie – o 57 (95,0%), a oiio /ene? ia?aae/anieie – o 1 (1,7%) ?
oa?i?iiaeie ( o 56 (98,3%) (?(0,05). O iaei??? ae?iee aaa?oi?noue
?icaeaa?oueny. A iaeiiio aeiaaeeo (1,7%) aoea iicaiaoeiaa aaa?oi?noue.

Ioaea, ioe?iea ia?aa?ao aaa?oiino? aei o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oa i?ney
iueiai na?ae/eoue, ui eiina?aaoeaia i?iiaeoii?y, ye iaoiae e?eoaaiiy,
aeicaieeea a?aeiiaeoe ? caa?aaoe ?ai?iaeoeoeaio ooieoe?th o ianoaaeaieo
ae?iie. 95,0% ae?iie aeiiineee aaa?oi?noue c ia?iaeaeaiiyi aeeaeo
ae?oae. Ia aoei aeinoia??ii? ??cieoe? i?ae ae?ieaie c ia?aeiiith ?
aoi?eiiith iaie?aei?noth, ca caeaoi?noth aei ca/aooy ? ia?aa?aii
aaa?oiino?. I?ioa, caa?ica ia?aae/aniiai ia?a?eaaiiy aaa?oiino?
caeeoaeanue aieiaiei ? /anoei oneeaaeiaiiyi ia?aa?ao aaa?oiino? o
ianoaaeaieo ae?iie i?ney eiina?aaoeaii? i?iiaeoii??.

A ae?oa?e a?oi? ae?iie i?ney iao?iieanoeee aaa?oi?noue ianoaea o 21
(52,0%) ii??aiyii c 19 (47,5%) aei iia?aoe?? (?(0,05). ?c ieo 3 ae?iee
iaee iiaoi?io aaa?oi?noue. Caaaeueia /enei aaa?oiinoae neeaei 24.
Caa?ica ia?a?eaaiiy aaa?oiino? aoea o 8 (44,4%) ae?iie. Aaa?oi?noue
caaa?oeeanue oo?iaiith caaeaaeeth ieiaea o 1 (4,8%) ae?iee, niiioaiiei
aai?oii – o 1 (4,8%) (?(0,05 ii??aiyii c 78,9% ae?iie aei iia?aoe??),
iicaiaoeiaith aaa?oi?noth – o 1 (4,8%) ? iieiaaie – o 18 (85,7%) ae?iie
(?(0,05). Ii??aiyii c aeaieie ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? aei iia?aoe??
iao?iieanoeea ia ca?eueoeea caeaoiino? ae?iie aei ca/aooy. Aea i?e
ianoaii? aaa?oiino? a?aei?/aeinue cia/ia ciaioaiiy /enea niiioaiieo
aeeeaei?a. 85,7% ae?iie aeiiineee aaa?oi?noue aei oa?i?io iieia?a ?
ia?iaeeee aeeaeo ae?oae. *anoioa caa?ice ia?a?eaaiiy aaa?oiino? ye aei
iia?aoe??, oae ? i?ney ia? nooo?ai ia ci?ieeanue. I?ney iao?iieanoeee
a?aei?/aeanue aeniea /anoioa ianoaiiy aaa?oiino? o oai?eo c aoi?eiiith
iaie?aei?noth ii??aiyii c oai?eie c ia?aeiiith. Aea nooo?ai? ??cieoe? a
ia?aa?ao ? caaa?oaii? aaa?oiino? o ieo ia aoei.

Iieiae a?aeaoeeny /a?ac i?e?iaei? iieiaia? oeyoe o 15 (26,3%) ae?iie
ia?oi? a?oie, ca aeiiiiiaith eana?aaa ?icoeio – o 42 (73,7%). ?oaoe?
i?ney i?iiaeoii?? a on?o aeiaaeeao aoee iiaiioe?iieie. Ia?iaeeeiny 60
ae?oae ianith a?ae 2100 aei 4150 a (a na?aaeiueiio 3275(45 a), ui ia
a?ae??ciyeinue a?ae iieaciee?a o ae?oae, ia?iaeaeaieo caei?iaeie
ae?ieaie.

Iieiae i?e aeiiioai?e aaa?oiino? o 18 ae?iie ae?oai? a?oie a?aeaoeeny ca
aeiiiiiaith eana?aaa ?icoeio, i?iaaaeaiiai a ieaiiaiio ii?yaeeo. ?oaoe?
i?ney iao?iieanoeee aecia/aeeny i?ney nii?iaeiaiiy iaoee ? aoee
iiaiioe?iieie. Ia?iaeeeiny 18 ae?oae. Iana o?ea iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
eieeaaeanue a?ae 1200 aei 3600 a (a na?aaeiueiio 3125(30 a).

O an?o ae?iie iieiae ? i?neyiieiaiaee ia??iae, a oaeiae iia?aoe?y
eana?aaa ?icoeio oa i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae i?io?eaee aac
oneeaaeiaiue.

Ioaea, aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c iaie?aei?noth
i?e o?a?ii?iiao oa i?e?iaeaeaieo aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee o ae?iie
ae?oi?iaeiiai a?eo iieacaa, ui aeey e?eoaaiiy iaie?aeiino? ne?ae
i?iaiaeeoe eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/i? iia?aoe?? (i?iiaeoii?th ?
iao?iieanoeeo), ye? iaiao?aei? aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ii?iaeueii? oiiia?ao??
e aiaoii?/iiai noaio iaoee oa ?? ii?iaeieie c ianooiiei a?aeiiaeaiiyi
iaino?oaeueii? oa ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?e. Ine?eueee a?aei?/athoueny
ii?aeiai? oi?ie iaie?aeiino? i?e o?a?ii?iiao oa i?e?iaeaeaieo aaaeao
?icaeoeo iaoee, ne?ae iaeii/anii, i?e iaiao?aeiino?, i?iaiaeeoe
ieanoe/i? iia?aoe?? ia iaoeiaeo o?oaao ? y?/ieeao. Ca
eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieie iia?aoe?yie ia iaooe? iiaeiia i?ioiaeeoe
?aaa?e?oaoe?eia oa?ai?y, ni?yiiaaia ia ei?aeoe?th ? ii?iae?caoe?th
ooieoe?iiaeueieo noai?a, ca iieacaiiyie ia? i?iaiaeeoenue ai?iiiaeueia
oa?ai?y.

A E N I I A E E

Iaie?aei?noue o ae?iie c o?a?ii?iiaie oa i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo
iaoee neeaaea? 20-38% na?aae ?ioeo oaeoi??a. Ia??aeei aiia ii?aeio?oueny
c o?oaii-ia?eoiiaaeueiei (73,3%), aiaeie?eiiei oaeoi?ii (16,7%), e?noaie
aai neiae?iiii iie?e?noicieo y?/iee?a (21,3%), ui oo?oaeith? aea??
oaeoeee oa aieeaa? ia ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy.

Ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo c iaie?aei?noth i?e o?a?ii?iiao oa i?e?iaeaeaieo
aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee ne?ae ii/eiaoe c ia?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a
(?aioaaiieia?/ieo, oeueo?acaoeiaeo), a i?e iayaiino? iieacaiue
aeiiiaithaaoe ?iaaceaieie (eaia?ineii?y ? a?noa?ineii?y). O??o?a?/ia
e?eoaaiiy ? e?ioeaaei aoaiii i?ney aac?acoeueoaoiiai iiia?aaeiueiai
canoinoaaiiy eiina?aaoeaii? oa?ai??.

Iiaia ianoaaeaiiy oa i?aaaioeaia i?aeaioiaea oai?eo aei iia?aoe??
ni?eyoeeai aieeaa? ia ia?aa?a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, aeicaiey?
oieeiooe oneeaaeiaiue, nei?i/o? oa?i?i ia?aaoaaiiy oai?eo a noaoe?iia??
ia 2-2,5 e?aeeiaei?, i?aeaeuo? a?aenioie a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaii?
ooieoe??.

A?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo iia?aoe?e
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iiceoeaiei aieeaii ia iaino?oaeueio ooieoe?th
(82,0%), iaoeyoi?iee oeeee (59,3%), ianoaiiy aaa?oiino? (i?ney
i?iiaeoii?? – o 54,6%, iao?iieanoeee – o 52,0%) o a?eueoino? ae?iie.

Caa?ica ia?a?eaaiiy aaa?oiino? o ae?iie i?ney eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo
iia?aoe?e aeinoia??ii ia ciaioeeanue (50,7%), iaeiae canoinoaaiiy
aaeaeaaoii? oa?ai??, ni?yiiaaii? ia caa?aaeaiiy aaa?oiino?, iiceoeaii
aieeaa? ia ?? caaa?oaiiy (ia?iaeeee 92,6% ae?iie).

Ii?oieia?/ia, a?noio?i?/ia ? aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia aea/aiiy
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo (o?a?ii?iia, ia?aoeiea iaoee) aeyaeei
oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? ii?ooaiiy ee?oeiieo aeaiaio?a yae?a, oeeoiieacie
aeaaeeeo i?ioeeo?a, niieo/ii? oeaieie ia o?eueee a ae?eyioe?
o?a?iiaoiciiai aocea, a e a ioi/oth/eo oeaieiao. Aeyaeai? ci?ie ?
i?e/eiith ii?ooaiiy nei?ioeeai? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii? caeaoiino?
o?a?iiaoicii? iaoee.

A?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo iia?aoe?e ia iaooe?,
ni?eyoeeaee aieea ia aaia?aoeaio ooieoe?th, /anoioo ianoaiiy, ia?aa?a oa
caaa?oaiiy aaa?oiino? aeicaieythoue ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ?o aeey a?eueo
oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?e e?eoaaii? iaie?aeiino?.

I?AEOE*I? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

?aeiiaiaeiaaii iaie?aeiei ae?ieai ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo c o?a?ii?iiith
oa i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoee i?iaiaeeoe eiiieaenia
ianoaaeaiiy (ee?i?/ia, aoia?ao?/ia, ?aioaaiieia?/ia, aiaeineii?/ia) c
iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy ae?aaiico, aeyaeaiiy ?ioeo oaeoi??a iaie?aeiino? oa
i?aeaioiaee aei o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

I?e ianoaaeaii? oai?eo c iaie?aei?noth i?e o?a?ii?iiao oa i?e?iaeaeaieo
aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee ne?ae ii/eiaoe c ia?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a
(?aioaaiieia?/ieo, oeueo?acaoeiaeo) ? ca iieacaiiyie aeiiiaithaaoe
?iaaceaieie (eaia?i- ? a?noa?ineii?y).

Aeey eiiieaeniiai e?eoaaiiy iaie?aeiino? o ae?iie c o?a?ii?iiith oa
i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoee ?aeiiaiaeiaaii oe?iei
canoiniaoaaoe eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/i? iia?aoe??, ye? ni?eythoue
a?aeiiaeaiith iaino?oaeueii? oa ae?oi?iaeii? ooieoe?e ? i?e ianoaii?
aaa?oiino? aeicaieythoue ae?ieai aeiiiooaaoe aaa?oi?noue ? ia?iaeaeoaaoe
aeeaeo ae?oae.

I?e ianoaii? aaa?oiino? i?ney eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/ieo iia?aoe?e ae?iee
iio?aaothoue niinoa?aaeaiiy aeey aeyaeaiiy iciae caa?ice ia?a?eaaiiy oa
i?e iaiao?aeiino? nai?/aniiai i?iaaaeaiiy aaeaeaaoii? oa?ai??,
ni?yiiaaii? ia caa?aaeaiiy aaa?oiino?.

NIENIE ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo oaoiieiaie o aeiaaiinoeoei oa eieoaaiii ii?aeiaieo
oi?i iaieiaeiinoi // Eeiii/ia oi?o?aiy.(1998.(? 4.( C. 33-35 (Niiaaao.
Iaaithoa E.I., Aaein I.I., Eiiae?aothe A.E., Aeiiyi A.C.).

Eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/i? iia?aoe?? o aeiiie c iaieiaeiinoth i?e
oia?iiiiiao iaoee // Iaaeiao?iy, aeooa?noai oa aiiaeieiaiy.–1998.–N2.–C.
103-105 (Niiaaao. Iaaithoa E.I.).

Ae?aaiinoeea, o??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy oa ioe?iea aaeaioaoe?eieo
iiaeeeainoae o ae?iie c a?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo oa o?a?ii?iiith
iaoee // Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y.–1999.– ? 7.–N. 43-44 (Niiaaao. ?aaithoa
E.I., Eiiae?aothe A.E., Aeaieeaiei I.A.).

Eiina?aaoeaia iiiiaeoiiiy ye iaeei ic iaoiaeia eieoaaiiy iaaeiiooaaiiy
aaaioiinoi //Iaaeiiooaaiiy aaaioiinoi: Cai?iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.( Ee?a,
1997.( N. 203-205 (Niiaaao. Eiiae?aothe A.E., Aeaieeaiei I.A.).

Canoinoaaiiy aiaeiaaneoey?ieo iaoiaeia aeineiaeaeaiiy o aeiiie c
iaieiaeiinoth aeey aecia/aiiy iaoiaeo oi?o?ai/iiai eieoaaiiy //Iaoa??aee
VII Eiia?ano naioiai? oaaea?aoei? Oe?a?inueeeo eiea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa.(
Oaeai?iae, 1998.( N. 8 (Niiaaao. Iaaithoa E.?., Ei?iaoeueea A.A.,
Aeoaaiei I.Ae.).

AIIOAOe?ss

Ia?ai?ea *.A. Eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/i? iia?aoe?? i?e o?a?ii?iiao oa
i?e?iaeaeaieo aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee o ae?iie ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai
a?eo.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca oaoii 14.01.01 – aeooa?noai oa a?iaeieia?y. – ?inoeooo iaae?ao???,
aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/iei iia?aoe?yi o ae?iie
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo c iaie?aei?noth i?e o?a?ii?iiao oa i?e?iaeaeaieo
aaaeao ?icaeoeo iaoee. Aeaia ioe?iea noaio iaoee ia i?aenoaa? ee?i?/ieo,
?aioaaiieia?/ieo, oeueo?aniiia?ao?/ieo oa aiaeineii?/ieo (eaia?ineii?y,
a?noa?ineii?y) aeine?aeaeaiue a aeeiai?oe? aei ? i?ney iia?aoe??.
Aea/aii ii?oieia?/io, a?noio?i?/io oa aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/io no?oeoo?o
iaoee. Aea/aii a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? i?ney ??cieo aeae?a
iia?aoe??, ia?aa?a oa caaa?oaiiy aaa?oiino?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/i? iia?aoe?? (i?iiaeoii?y ?
iao?iieanoeea) iaiao?aei? aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ii?iaeueii? oiiia?ao?? oa
aiaoii?/iiai noaio iaoee ? ni?eyoeeai aieeaathoue ia aaia?aoeaio
ooieoe?th, /anoioo ianoaiiy, ia?aa?a oa caaa?oaiiy aaa?oiino? o
iaie?aeieo ae?iie ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo c o?a?ii?iiith oa i?e?iaeaeaieie
aaaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoee.

Aeey eiiieaeniiai e?eoaaiiy iaie?aeiino? o ae?iie c o?a?ii?iiith oa
i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoee ?aeiiaiaeiaaii oe?iei
canoiniaoaaoe eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/i? iia?aoe??, ye? ni?eythoue
a?aeiiaeaiith iaino?oaeueii? oa ae?oi?iaeii? ooieoe?e ? i?e ianoaii?
aaa?oiino? aeicaieythoue ae?ieai aeiiiooaaoe aaa?oi?noue ? ia?iaeaeoaaoe
aeeaeo ae?oae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/i? iia?aoe??, iaie?aeiinoue,
o?a?ii?iia, i?e?iaeaeaii? aaaee ?icaeoeo iaoee, ae?aaiinoeea,
ii?oieia?y, a?noio?i?y, aeaeo?iiia i?e?ineii?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iaeaieea *.Y. Eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/aneea iia?aoeee i?e oea?iieiiao e
a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieao ?acaeoey iaoee o aeaiuei ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai
aic?anoa.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.01 – aeooa?noai e aeiaeieiaey. – Einoeooo
iaaeeao?ee, aeooa?noaa e aeiaeieiaee AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

?aaioa iinayuaia eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/aneei iia?aoeeyi o aanieiaeiuo
aeaiuei ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai aic?anoa n oea?iieiiie e a?iaeaeaiiuie ii?ieaie
?acaeoey iaoee. Aeaia ioeaiea ninoiyiey iaoee ia iniiaaiee eeeie/aneeo,
?aioaaiieiae/aneeo, oeueo?acaoeiauo e yiaeineiie/aneeo (eaia?ineiiey e
aenoa?ineiiey) enneaaeiaaiee a aeeiaieea aei e iinea iia?aoeee. Eco/aia
ii?oieiae/aneay, aenoioeie/aneay e yeaeo?iiii-iee?ineiie/aneay no?oeoo?a
iaoee. Eco/aii ainnoaiiaeaiea ?ai?iaeoeoeaiie ooieoeee iinea ?aciuo
aeaeia iia?aoeee, oa/aiea e enoiae aa?aiaiiinoe. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/aneea iia?aoeee (ieiiyeoiiey e iao?iieanoeea)
yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey ii?iaeueiie oiiia?aoee e
aiaoiie/aneiai ninoiyiey iaoee e aeaaii?eyoii aeeytho ia aaia?aoeaioth
ooieoeeth, /anoioo ianooieaiey, oa/aiea e enoiae aa?aiaiiinoe o
aanieiaeiuo aeaiuei ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai aic?anoa n oea?iieiiie e
a?iaeaeaiiuie ii?ieaie ?acaeoey iaoee.

Aeey eiiieaeniiai ea/aiey aanieiaeey o aeaiuei n oea?iieiiie e
a?iaeaeaiiuie ii?ieaie ?acaeoey iaoee ?aeiiaiaeiaaii oe?iei i?eiaiyoue
eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/aneea iia?aoeee, eioi?ua ainnoaiaaeeaatho
iaino?oaeueioth e ?ai?iaeoeoeaioth ooieoeee e i?e ianooieaiee
aa?aiaiiinoe iicaieytho aeaiueiai aeiiineoue aa e ?iaeeoue aeeauo
aeaoae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiina?aaoeaii-ieanoe/aneea iia?aoeee, aanieiaeea,
oea?iieiia, a?iaeaeaiiua ii?iee ?acaeoey iaoee, aeeaaiinoeea,
ii?oieiaey, aenoioeiey, yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey.

ANNOTATION

Obianika C.E. Conservative plastic surgery in women of reproductive age
who have uterine fibroids and congenital uterine anomalies. Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctorate degree in the specialty 14.01.01 — Obstetrics and
Gynaecology.- Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology,
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

This dissertation is aimed at improving the effectiveness of
conservative plastic operations in infertile women of childbearing age
that have uterine fibroids and congenital uterine anomalies.

A complex investigation before and after surgery was performed on 150
infertile women of reproductive age, 110 of which had uterine fibroids
(group 1) and 40 – congenital uterine anomalies (group 2). The
investigations included anamnesis, general medical and gynaecological
examinations, blood picture and biochemistry, coagulogramme and
urinalysis. All the patients had an ultrasonographic examination of the
internal genital organs, plain pelvic X-ray, hysterosalpingography,
bicontrast gynaecography, and where indicated, endoscopy (hysteroscopy
and laparoscopy). Morphological, histochemical and electronmicroscopical
studies of the specimens (fibroid tissue and adjoining myometrium, and
uterine septal tissue) obtained during surgery were carried out.

Investigations before surgery showed that 29.1% of the women in group 1
and 60.0% in group 2 had a normal menstruation. Women in group 1 had
predominantly hypermenstruation while those in group 2 – metrorrhagia.
Ovarian function was characterized in 43.6% and 45.0% of the women in
groups 1 and 2 respectively, by an insufficiency of the luteal phase,
while in 17.3% and 17.5% respectively, anovulatory menstrual cycle.

The following conditions contributed to infertility in the women
studied: tubo-peritoneal factors (73.3% of women), endocrine factors
(16.7%), polycystic ovaries (14.7%), ovarian cysts (6.7%), endometriosis
(4.7%) and adenomyosis (2.0%).

The period of infertility was from 2 to 18 years. 65.5% of group 1 women
and 52.5% of group 2 had primary infertility, while 34.6% and 47.5%
respectively – secondary. Only 31.6% of the women with secondary
infertility in group 1 and 5.3% in group 2 carried their pregnancies to
term and delivered viable babies.

Uterine fibromyoma was diagnosed in all the women in group 1, with
uterine size ranging from 11 to 24 weeks of pregnancy in 95.5%. In
72.7%, uterine cavity was asymmetrical, deformed. 35.0% of the women in
group 2 had bicornuate uterus, 65.0% — septate.

Myomectomy and metroplasty were performed in groups1 and 2 women
respectively, and where indicated, concomitantly with plastic surgery on
the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Histology, histochemistry and electron
microscopy of the tissues obtained at surgery showed severe structural
and ultrastructural cellular changes in the fibroid nodes as well as the
adjoining myometrium, and in the uterine septum. The genesis of
infertility in the women studied could be ascribed to these changes,
hence surgical intervention was indicated and justified.

Long term postoperative results showed that menstrual flow normalized in
82.7% and 80.0% of women in groups 1 and 2 respectively, menstrual cycle
– 67.3% and 50.0%, uterine size – 97.3% and 92.5%, uterine mobility –
90.0% and 87.5%, shape of uterine cavity – 96.4% and 95.0%, and uterine
topography – 91.8% and 92.5%. Fallopian tube patency was restored in
91.8% and 92.5% of groups 1 and 2 women respectively.

The pregnancy rate in group 1 women increased from 34.6% to 54.6%. 93.3%
of the women carried their pregnancy to term with a successful delivery
of live children, as opposed to 31.6% before operation. Metroplasty in
group 2 women led to an insignificant increase in pregnancy rate from
47.5% to 52.0%. 85.7% of the women, however, carried their pregnancy to
term and delivered live children, as against 5.3% before operation.

We conclude, therefore, that infertility in women with uterine fibroids
and congenital uterine anomalies has a multifactorial genesis. A
detailed investigation is mandatory in these women groups to identify
all the factors involved and make adequate plans for surgery.
Specialized gynaecological investigations should be started with
non-invasive methods (roentgenology and ultrasonography), and where
indicated, ended with invasive (hysteroscopy and laparoscopy).

Conservative plastic operations are justified for the complex treatment
of infertility in women of childbearing age that have uterine fibroids
and congenital uterine anomalies, and indispensable for the
normalization of the anatomical features of the uterus. They have a
favourable influence on reproductive function – pregnancy rate, progress
and outcome. We recommend a more liberal use of these operations in
these women groups.

Key words: conservative plastic surgery, infertility, fibroids,
congenital uterine anomalies, diagnosis, morphology, histochemistry, and
electron microscopy.

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