1

A?EIOeA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

A?IAeIANUeEEE Ieaenaiae? Noai?neaaiae/

OAeE 636.7:617.711-002

EII’THIEOEA?OE O NIAAE

(Iioe?aiiy, iaoiaaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie,

oeaieii? ci?ie, ?aoe?iiaeuei? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy)

16.00.05. — aaoa?eia?ia o??o?a?y

AAOI?AOA?AO aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe

A?ea Oea?eaa — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ai?enaae/ Aieiaeeie?
Ai?eniae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
o??o?a??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Caneoaeaiee i?aoe?aiee ia?iaeii?
ina?oe, Iaiueei ?aai Naiaiiae/, A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a o??o?a??

eaiaeeaeao aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, aeioeaio TH?/aiei Eaii?ae ?aaiiae/,
Oa?e?anueeee ciiaaoa?eia?iee ?inoeooo, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o??o?a??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa 

Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo, eaoaae?a
o??o?a??, i. Iieoaaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 18 ” aa?aciy 1999?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 27.821.02 i?e
A?eioea?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:
256400, i. A?ea Oea?eaa, aoe. Noaaeuainueea, 126; iaa/aeueiee ei?ion ?
5, aoae. ? 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? A?eioea?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i. A?ea Oea?eaa, Niai?ia ie., 8/1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 11 ” ethoiai 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe
I.I. Noaaeiee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Eii’thieoea?oe o oaa?ei cono??/athoueny ii??aiyii
/anoi ? ia??aeei noi?iaiaeaeothoueny oneeaaeiaiiyie, ye? iiaeooue
i?eaiaeeoe aei ao?aoe ci?o. Na?aae aeiiaoi?o oaa?ei eii’thieoea?oe
iaea?eueo /anoi cono??/athoueny o niaae, ui ? iaoiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue
aea?aii? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

I?iaeaiith eii’thieoea?o?a aaoa?eia?ii-iaaee/i? iaoeia? i?aoe?aieee
caeiathoueny aeaaii. A iniiaiiio ?o coneeey aoee ni?yiiaai? ia
anoaiiaeaiiy ao?ieia??, ee?i?/ieo iniaeeainoae oa e?eoaaiiy caiaeueieo
i?ioean?a niieo/ii? iaieiiee iea, ia?aaaaeii o ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ? eiiae.
I?e oeueiio iica oaaaith aeine?aeiee?a caeeoeeiny aaaaoi aaaeeeaeo
ieoaiue, o oiio /ene? aeyaeeeny iaaeinoaoiuei c’yniaaieie iaoiaaiaoe/i?
iaoai?cie eii’thieoea?o?a oa oa?aeoa? oeaieiieo ci?i niieo/ii? iaieiiee
iea i?e caiaeueieo i?ioeanao, a oaeiae aeaye? iaoiaee ?o e?eoaaiiy o
niaae.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Caaaeath/e ia aeooaeuei?noue
i?iaeaie, oey ?iaioa ? o?aaiaioii caaaeaiiy AeIOI 7 “Caoeno
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei a?ae caoai?thaaiue oa iia?
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/i? i?aia?aoe aeey aaoa?eia???” oa /anoeiith
?i?oe?aoeaii? oaie eaoaae?e o??o?a?? IAO “Eii’thieoea?oe o oaa?ei”.

Iaoa ?iaioe — aea/eoe ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo
eii’thieoea?o?a o niaae, aena?oeeoe iniiai? iniaeeaino? ?o ia?aa?ao oa
?ic?iaeoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? iaoiaee oa?ai??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

— c’ynoaaoe aeaee eii’thieoea?o?a, iaea?eueo iioe?ai? o niaae;

— aea/eoe iaoiaaiac iaea?eueo iioe?aieo oi?i eii’thieoea?o?a o niaae;

— aea/eoe oa?aeoa? oeaieiieo ci?i niieo/ii? iaieiiee iea oa noiooi?o
i?enoinoaaeueii-caoenieo aiaoii?/ieo ooai?aiue (caeic, nini/e?a,
oie?eoe?a oiui);

— aena?oeeoe iniaeeaino? e?eoaaiiy niaae i?e iniiaieo ee?i?/ieo oi?iao
eii’thieoea?o?a;

— ?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe i?iiiceoe?? aeey aaoa?eia?ii-iaaee/ieo
iooaeueiieia?a uiaei ae?aaiinoeee oa ?aoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy
eii’thieoea?o?a o niaae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa o
aaoa?eia?i?e iooaeueiieia?? oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaai?
iaoai?cie caiaeaiiy niieo/ii? iaieiiee iea, ye? ae?aaeathoueny
noaeeiieie ?aaeoe?yie caiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, aeeno?io?/ieie ?
i?ie?oa?aoeaieie ci?iaie ai?oae?th eii’thieoeae, iia?e?caoe??th
oeaieiieo iae?ioaa?a, a?ia?ieac??th nini/e?a, oie?eoe?a oa caeicenoeo
ooai?aiue, o?aaeaiiyi iniiaii? neueicii? caeice, ui aeaei ciiao
?ic?iaeoe eeaneo?eaoe?th ? aeeoa?aioe?aeueio ae?aaiinoeeo iaea?eueo
iioe?aieo eii’thieoea?o?a o niaae (eaoa?aeueiee, i?e o?eaaeiio ia?aa?ao
yeiai iiaeeeaa aeieeiaiiy caai?ioo iia?e; ai?eiee oa oeaaiiiiciee
eii’thieoea?o; aoi?eiii-aeeneieaoe?eiee, nini/eiai-oie?eoey?iee;
aeaiaeoey?iee, “nooee”, aea?ii?aeiee eii’thieoea?o oa eii’thieoea?o i?e
noi?iiiueiio o?e?), ?ic?iaeoe, ai?iaoaaoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe ?aoe?iiaeuei?
iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

?ic?iaeaia aeaoaeueia eeaneo?eaoe?y eii’thieoea?o?a o niaae; aea/ai?
ee?i?/i? iniaeeaino? iaea?eueo iioe?aieo eii’thieoea?o?a; ?ic?iaeaii
aeeoa?aioe?aeueio ae?aaiinoeeo oa ?aoe?iiaeuei? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeeeaaeai? o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?,
ocaaaeueiai? o iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo, iioae?eiaai? o
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo aeaeaiiyo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

Aaoi?ii naiino?eii aeeiiaii aanue ianya aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiaeeeany ia ia?o?e
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e eiioa?aioe?? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoieia?a
(i. Ee?a, 13-15 eeno. 1996 ?.), ae?oa?e i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie aao. ianeoaia. ae??aieo aeiiaoi?o oaa?ei» (i.
Ee?a, 2-3 aeiao. 1997 ?.) oa ia iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. i?io.-aeee. neeaaeo
oa ani??aio?a OAI IAO (1993-1997 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? o o?ueio noaooyo,
ui aeeoee o aeo?iaeao «Aaoa?eia?ey» (1), «Aaoa?eia?ia iaaeeoeeia
Oe?a?ie» (2) oa iaoa??aeao o?ueio eiioa?aioe?e (3 ioae?eaoe??).

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e oa i?iaaaeaii?
eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue ia eaoaae?ao o??o?a?? oaeoeueoao?a
aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
A?eioea?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Iieoaanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo, a oaeiae i?e
e?eoaaii? oaa?ei o aaoa?eia?ieo ee?i?eao i?noa Ee?aa oa iaeano?.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 149 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ?ethno?iaaia 39 ?enoieaie oa 5 oaaeeoeyie. Aiia
aeeth/a?: anooi, iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c oaie aeena?oaoe??, aeani?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeniiaee oa
i?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe??. Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
i?noeoue 119 i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a ? 55 ca?oa?aeieo.

AEA?? IAI?ssIE?A AeINE?AeAEAIUe, IAOA??AEE ? IAOIAeE AEEIIAIIss ?IAIOE

Anueiai aeine?aeaeaii 1126 niaae, a oiio /ene? ee?i?/ii — 1107, o 76
niaae i?iaaaeaii a?iin?th eii’thieoeae, o 49 aeeiiaii o??o?a?/ia
ao?o/aiiy ia iia?eao, o 48 oaa?ei eii’thieoeao oa ne?ci? caeice
aeine?aeaeoaaee i?ney ?o nia?o?.

?ioaineai?noue neueicii? nae?aoe?? aecia/aee ca aeiiiiiaith i?iae
Oe?ia?a.

A?noieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee c aeei?enoaiiyi oa?aoaaiiy
aaiaoienee?i-aiceiii oa i?e?iooeneiii ca Aai A?ciiii. A?noio?i?/ii
aeine?aeaeoaaee oa?iaioe (eoaeio oa eeneo oinoaoace) ca iaoiaeii Aiii??.
Ioeea?iia? eeneioe aeyaeyee oieo?aeeiiaei nei?i ca iaoiaeii Aeia?niia.
I?ioaiae?eaie aeine?aeaeoaaee ?aaeoe??th c aeueoe?aiiaei nei?i i?e
??cieo cia/aiiyo ?I ?ic/ei?a. N?aeia? eeneioe a c??cao aeyaeyee ca
iaoiaeii A.I.Iiaeeueii? oa A.Ea?ioa?aee?, c iaoith eiio?ieth i?iaiaeeee
?aaeoe?th “i?eoiaaii?” iaoao?iiac??. Ae?eii?ioa?iia? niieoee ? ae?eiaai
aeyaeyee ?aaeoe??th IAN .

A?noieia?/i?, a?noio?i?/i? oa oeeoieia?/i? iieacieee eii’thieoeae oa
neueicieo caeic aea/aee i?ae na?oeiaei i?e?ineiiii, oioia?aooaaee,
iaea?aeai? oeeo?ia? aeai? ia?iaeyee iaoiaeii aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee ca
iaoiaeii ?.A.No?aeeiaa.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AEAIUe OA ?O AIAE?C

A?noieia?/ia oa a?noio?i?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea eiithieoeae ? ne?cieo caeic
o ee?i?/ii caei?iaeo niaae

Eii’thieoeaa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaiith ai?eciioaeueiith oa
aa?oeeaeueiith ai?ciii?oi?noth oa i?aaiiith niaoe?ae?caoe??th. Iaea?eueo
neeaaeio aoaeiao ia? eii’thieoeaa iia?e oa neeai?iiy. A ai?oae?aeueiiio
oa?? ooo aeyaeythoueny iie?eai? oa nae?aoi?i? (aieaeiaeaei?) ee?oeie.

Eii’thieoeaa i/iiai yaeoea ae?eoa aaaaoioa?iaei ai?oae??i, yeee
neeaaea?oueny c iie?eaieo ee?oei. Ai?oae?e eii’thieoeae ?ia?aee i?noeoue
ae?eiaai.

A iooeei? aieaeiaeaeieo ee?oei eii’thieoeae niaae aeyaeai? i?ioaiae?eaie
oa ae?eii?ioa?iia? niieoee. Iooeei oi?io? ia iiaa?oi? eii’thieoeae
caoeniee aa??? i?ioe iioeiaeaeoth/eo oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

I?aeai?oae?aeueia niieo/ia oeaieia a ae?eyioe? iia?e oa neeai?iiy
i?noeoue cia/io e?euee?noue iiiiioeeaa?ieo oaaioeeo?a (a?no?ioeeo?a), a
oaeiae iiiioeeoe, iae?ioaae oa e?ioioeeoe. Iaeiae iniiaieie ee?oeiieie
aeaiaioaie ooo ? o?a?iaeanoe oa o?a?ioeeoe. Ia aioo??oi?e iiaa?oi?
ieaaeueii? ia?aoeiee aeyaeythoueny nini/ee — aeieiaiiy iooeiai
niieo/iioeaieiiiai oa?o iniiae eii’thieoeae. O iie?ioee?eoeyoi?iiio
e?iaiiiniiio ?one? nini/eia ia?aaaaeathoue aaioee, iaaeiei yeeo
neoi/othoueny iiiiioeeaa?e oa eiioioeeoe. Ia??aeei a nini/eao
aeyaeythoueny eiioaoe/ii aoceeee oeio eiioaoe/ieo inaaaeioieieoeia (aac
naioeeo aa?iiiaoeaieo oeaio?ia) — oieieoee iaeiie/aiiy eiioioeeo?a.
Inoaii? aaaao? ia eeneo oinoaoaco. ?o ooai?aiiy iia’ycaia c ae?aaeaiei
aioeaaiiei iiae?aciaiiyi.

Neueicia oa iiaa?oiaaa neueicia caeice o?aouei? iia?ee iathoue
o?oa/aoi-aeueaaiey?io aoaeiao c /ioeei ?iciaaeoaaiiyi ia ie?aii
aeieueee. A eeioeiieo aeaiaioao ?o aoeiionia aeyaeythoueny iniiaii
noaaei? nae?aoi?iiai oeeeeo — oace neioaco, iaeiie/aiiy, iaiaeiaiiy oa
aeaaaeaiiy nae?aoo (ia?ie?eiiaee oei nae?aoe??). Neueici? caeice o niaae
i?iaeoeothoue ci?oaiee nae?ao, aei neeaaeo yeiai aoiaeyoue eenei
ioeiiieinaoa?eaee (ia?aaaaeii oiiae?i?oeinoeueoaoe), iaeo?aeuei?
iie?naoa?eaee, eao?iii? a?eee oa aeueoa- ? aaoa- niaeiai (iae?aiiiiai)
eeneioe.

Ca?aeii ?nioth/eo oyaeaiue ioeinoanoaioe?? aieaeiaeaeieo ee?oei
eii’thieoeae oa aeaiaeoeioeeo?a neueicieo caeic ooai?ththoue ia iiaa?oi?
niieo/ii? iaieiiee iea ianiaoeeo?/io aioeaaeoa??aeueio oa i?ioea??onio
nenoaie i?ioaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o o aeaeyae? ie?a/anoiai o?ceei-o?i?/iiai
aa???o ia i?e?iaeieo oeyoao i?iieeiaiiy aaeoa??e oa a??on?a a i?aai?ci
oaa?eie. Aaaeeeao caoenio ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue oaeiae ? oa?iaioe
neueiciec caeic, cie?aia a?ae?ie?oe/i?, i?i ui na?ae/eoue aeniea
aeoeai?noue eenei? oinoaoace a oeeoiieaci? eae?eiaeueieo
aeaiaeoeioeeo?a.

Iaoiaaiac ? oeaieii? ci?ie i?e eii’thieoea?oao

Ia i?aenoaa? aeaoaeueiiai ee?i?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy 825 niaae aeyaeaii
aeaa’youe oi?i caiaeaiiy niieo/ii? iaieiiee iea o niaae (oaae.1).

Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie ? eaoa?aeueiee (27,76%) oa nini/eiai-oie?eoey?iee
(16,48%) eii’thieoea?oe.

Aino?ee eaoa?aeueiee eii’thieoea?o oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeieeiaiiyi
caiaeueii? a?ia?ai?? a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao noaai?oae?aeueii? niieo/ii?
oeaieie, na?iciith aenoaeaoe??th, aeaiie?ia?ecaoe??th iniiaii? ?a/iaeie,
aeaa?aioeyoe?ath ianoioeeo?a (oo/ieo ee?oei). Iae?ioaae iineeaii
oaaioeeoothoue, i?ney /iai a?aei?/a?oueny caoooaiiy caiaeueii?
a?ia?ai??. Ia? i?noea iineeaiiy nae?aoi?ii? aeoeaiino? ai?oae?th
eii’thieoeae ca ?aooiie a?ia?o?io?? oa a?ia?ieac?? aieaeiaeaeieo ee?oei,
a oaeiae cia/ia aeoeaaoe?y neueicii? nae?aoe??.

I?e aino?iio eaoa?aeueiiio eii’thieoea?o? caiaeaiiy iineoue ii?ia?a?/iee
oa?aeoa?. Oeaieii? ci?ie neaai ae?aaeai?, aiane?aeie /iai ia? i?noea
ii??aiyii oaeaeea ii?iae?caoe?y ii?ooaii? o?io?/ii? ooieoe??
eii’thieoeae, o a?aeiiaeaii? yei? cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue aeoeaiaai?
a?no?ioeeoe (oeaieii? iae?ioaae).

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeaee eii’thieoeaioia oa ?o /anoioa o niaae

Oa?aeoa? iaoieiai/iiai i?ioeano Oi?ia ia?aaiao EieueeinoueA i?ioeaioao
a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?Eaoa?aeueiee Aino?ee 229 27,76
I?aeaino?eeO?iii/iee Aiieiee (iiaa?oiaaee) — “ — 86 10,42Ia?aioiiaoiciee
(oeaaiiiiciee) — “ -54 6,54 Aoi?eiii-aeeneieaoeieiee — “ — 107 12,97
Nini/eiai-oieieoey?iee — “ — 136 16,48 Aeaiaeoey?iee (aaeaiiiaoiciee) —
“ — 94 11,39 «Nooee» — “ -77 9,33 Aea?ii?aeiee Aino?ee 19 2,3
Iiaeaino?eeEii’thieoeaio i?e noi?iiiueiio oiei — “ — 23 2,79

O?ii?/iee eaoa?aeueiee eii’thieoea?o a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aino?iai
/anoeiaith aeaneaaiaoe??th iie?eaieo ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oei, iaaiei
ii?ooaiiyi caoenii? aa?oeeaeueii? ai?ciii?iino? ai?oae?th. Oeeoiieacia
aieaeiaeaeieo ee?oei i?noeoue a iniiaiiio IAN-iiceoeai? ae?ei- oa
ioeii?ioa?ie, a eene? ioeiiie?naoa?eaee iaeaea ia aeyaeythoueny. A
oiiaao o?ii?/iiai caiaeaiiy a ai?oae?aeueieo aeaiaeoeioeeoao
a?aeaoaathoueny ci?ie oa?aeoa?o nae?aoe??, aiane?aeie /iai cieaeo?oueny
caoenia caeaoi?noue eii’thieoeaaeueiiai iooeeio.

A i?aeai?oae?aeuei?e niieo/iioeaieii?e iniia? eii’thieoeae
ia?aaaaeathoue cano?eia a?ia?ai?y, na?icia aenoaeaoe?y, iineeaia
a?aeeeaaeaiiy eeneeo ioeiiie?naoa?eae?a, cia/ia aeoeaaoe?y i?noeaaiai
a?no?ioeeoa?iiai ?aca?ao, a oaeiae ai?a?aoe?y c e?iaiiiniiai ?onea
iiiioeeo?a. Iniaeeai ianiaaii? ?io?eueo?aoe?? iiiiioeeaa?aie caciathoue
aiaieua iaeiie/aiiy e?ioioeeo?a o aeaeyae? oae caaieo iani?aaaei?o
oie?eoe?a. O ciiao, aea neoi/aiiy e?ioioeeoa?ieo ee?oei a?aenooi?,
iiiiioeeaa?e ae?acii ?io?eueo?othoue i?aeai?oae?aeueiee oa? o aeaeyae?
aeeoocieo ooai?aiue aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae aacaeueiith iaia?aiith.
?ooeea?, aeaeiaaeaii? oi?ie iiiiioeeaa?e ia??aeei noai?ththoue aonoo
aacio?eueio iano; aeiionea?ii, ui a oeeo aeiaaeeao iiaa eaea i?i
a?ia?a?a?/io oaco o?ii?/iiai caiaeaiiy.

Aiaieuaaa i?ie?oa?aoe?y oo/ieo ee?oei noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaeiie/aiiyi a
inoaii?o ia o?eueee aenieinoeueoaoiaaieo eeneeo ioeiiie?naoa?eae?a oeio
aaia?eio, aea e oae caaiiai iaeinoeueoaoiaaiiai aaia?ei-iiiinoeueoaoo,
yeee, ye a?aeiii, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ii??aiyii iecueeith
aeaoieneeaoe?eiith caeaoi?noth.

Aeey aeaii? oi?ie eiithieoea?oo oa?aeoa?iei ? ia??aiii??iee oa?aeoa?
caiaeueii? oa aeeno?io?/ii-aeaaaia?aoeaii? ?aaeoe?? a i?aeai?oae?aeuei?e
niieo/i?e oeaiei?. I?ae ai?oae??i, ui cacia? iae?ia?ico, aeyaeythoueny
aiaieua i?ie?oa?aoeaii? ?aaeoe??, yea iaaaaeo? niaith ooai?aiiy
a?aioeyoe?eii? oeaieie. A neeaae? inoaiiuei? iiaeooue aeyaeyoeny
neoi/aiiy aonoi? iniiaii? ?a/iaeie, neea?ioe/i? yaeua, ui iiaea
i?ecaiaeeoe aei eiio?aeoo?e oa aeao?ao?aoe?? iia?e (iae/ano?oa
ieaeiuei?) c aeieeiaiiyi iaeueiaa?aeueiiai caai?ioo .

Ai?eiee eii’thieoea?o noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeyaeaiiyi ia iiaa?oi?
niieo/ii? iaieiiee iea ia?aaaaeii eieiaeo oi?i i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. A
ai?oae?aeueiiio oa?? aeyaeythoueny /eneaii? i?e?iaeaoaeoe oeio
i?e?ia?ic?e, iaoiiaeai? aeeno?io?/ieie, iae?ia?ioe/ieie oa iae?ioe/ieie
i?ioeanaie a ee?oeiao ai?oae?th. Iniaeeai ae?acii iioeiaeaeothoueny
noaeeie eiithieoeae. Aiie ?icoe?ai?, aonoi iaoa?oe?iaai? ee?oeiieie
aeaiaioaie a?ei? e?ia?, ia?aaaaeii iie?ii?oiiyaea?ieie eaeeioeeoaie.
?ioaineaia i?a?aoe?y inoaii?o noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ae?aaeaiei oaenenii a
a?e ai?oae?aeueii? iiaa?oi?.

Ooieoe?iiaeueii-aaoenia aeoeai?noue iaeo?io?eueieo a?aioeioeeo?a i?e
ai?eiiio eii’thieoea?o? a iniiaiiio ?aae?co?oueny ia iiaa?oi? oa a oiau?
ai?oae?aeueiiai oa?o niieo/ii? iaieiiee iea.

Iinooiiai ai?eia ?io?eueo?aoe?y ci?ith?oueny iae?ioaaaeueiith, ui
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i/euaiiyi eii’thieoeae a?ae caeeoe?a c?oeiiaaieo
ee?oeiieo oa aieieienoeo aeaiaio?a. Niieo/iioeaieiia iniiaa eii’thieoeae
ou?eueith?oueny, niinoa??aa?oueny o?a?iaeanoe/ia oa ai?oae?aeueia
?aaaia?aoe?y. Inoaii?ie ?aaaia?othoue aieaeiaeaei? ee?oeie, aea ?o
e?euee?noue oa nae?aoi?ia aeoeai?noue ua iii?oii a?aenoathoue a?ae
ii?ie.

Oeaaiiiiciee eii’thieoea?o /ano?oa ? iane?aeeii i?ia?anoaaiiy
iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano c ia?aoiaeii ai?eii? ?io?eueo?aoe?? ia a?eueo
aeeaie? oa?e niieo/iioeaieiii? iniiae eii’thieoeae. ?ioaineai?noue
iaeo?io?eueii? ?io?eueo?aoe?? eiithieoeae a oeueiio aeiaaeeo cia/ii
aeua, i?ae o iiia?aaeiueiio. Oa?aeoa?iei ? ae?aaeaia iioe?aiiy
o?iiaiaaneoe?o?a oa ioei?aeia iaaooaiiy o oiau? eiithieoeae.
Aiiiaai?ciaai? eieaaaiia? aieieia ? io/ee caciathoue o?a?eii?aeieo
ia?aoai?aiue. O?a?eii?aei? ci?ie, ye a?aeiii, yaeythoueny oa?aeoa?ieie
aeey ?aaeoe?e aea?a?/iiai aaiaco oa aaaaoueio ?ioaeoe?eieo o?aaeaiue.

sseui o aeiaaeeao ai?eiiai eiiieoea?oo ?oeioaaiiy iaeo?io?eueieo
eaeeioeeo?a a?aeaoaa?oueny aieiaiei /eiii ia iiaa?oi? aai a oiau?
ai?oae?aeueiiai oa?o, oi i?e oeaaiiiiciiio eii’thieoea?o? cia/ia
?oeiaoe?y iie?ii?oiiyaea?ieo eaeeioeeo?a ia? i?noea oaeiae ? a aeeaei?
i?aeai?oae?aeueiiai niieo/iioeaieiiiai i?ioa?eo. A ca’yceo c oeei
aeiionea?ii o/anoue ?o oa?iaio?a o aaiac? iaoieia?/ieo ci?i
niieo/iioeaieiii? iniiae eii’thieoeae, ui ? oa?aeoa?iith ?enith
ia?aio?iaoiciiai (oeaaiiiiciiai) eii’thieoea?oo.

Ia oii? ioei?aeiiai oa o?a?eii?aeiiai iaaooaiiy eii’thieoeae
a?aei?/a?oueny cyyiiy ia?aiiaiaieo e?ioith aaaaoueio e?ioaoe/ieo noaeei,
ui na?ae/eoue i?i ii?ooaiiy a?aeo?eaiiy e?ioe a?ae niieo/ii? iaieiiee
iea, a oea ? oa?aeoa?iith ?enith iaoiaaiaco oeaaiiiiciiai
eii’thieoea?oo.

C /anii iae?ioaae ?aci?aothoue oa ooee?cothoue ?aooee c?oeiiaaieo ee?oei
oa aieieienoeo ooai?aiue. A?aeaoaa?oueny i/euaiiy niieo/iioeaieiii?
iniiae eii’thieoeae c ianooiiith o?a?iaeanoe/iith ?aaaia?aoe??th, ia
oii? yei? a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiaa a?aeiiaeaiiy ai?oae?aeueiiai oa?o.

Aoi?eiii-aeeneieaoeieiee eii’thieoeaio aeieea? aianeiaeie aiaeaenaiiy
(aeai??o) ieaeiuei? iiaiee, ui ii?ooo? ii?iaeueiee ia?aa?a
i?enoinoaaeueii-caoenieo ?aaeoe?e o oe?e ae?eyioe? eii’thieoeae.
?icaeaa?oueny o?ii?/iee eaoa?aeueiee eiithieoea?o c ioei?aeiei
iaaooaiiyi niieo/iioeaieiii? iniiae eii’thieoeae oa ianooiieie
neea?ioe/ieie ci?iaie. I?ia?anoaaiiy inoaii?o noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
ae?aaeaiith aeaoi?iaoe??th iia?ee, ui aaaea aei ii?ooaiiy ooieoe??
anueiai eii’thieoeaaeueiiai i?oea. Ia oaeiio oii? ia??aeei aeieea?
ea?aoeo.

Nini/eiai-oie?eoey?iee eii’thieoea?o noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny a?ia?ieac??th
nini/e?a ia aoeueaa?i?e iiaa?oi? o?aouei? iia?ee ? ia?aa?aa?, a iaeiiio
aeiaaeeo, ye nini/eiaee, a a ?ioiio — ye oie?eoey?iee eii’thieoea?o.
I?ae /enoi nini/eiaei oa ae?aaeaii oie?eoey?iei eii’thieoea?oii
aeyaeythoueny ia?ao?aei? oi?ie caiaeueii-a?ia?ieanoe/ii? ?aaeoe?? o
aeaeyae? nini/eiai-e?ioioeeoa?iiai o?ii?/iiai caiaeaiiy.

Iniiao oie?eoey?iiai eii’thieoea?oo neeaaea? ae?aaeaia e?ioioeeoa?ia
?io?eueo?aoeaii-i?ie?oa?aoeaia ?aaeoe?y, yea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy
/?oei ioi?ieaieo e?ioaoe/ieo oie?eoe?a ie?oaei? oi?ie ana?aaeei?
a?ia?o?ioiaaieo nini/e?a. Oe? e?ioioeeoa?i? ooai?aiiy neeaaeathoueny a
iniiaiiio c iaeeo oa na?aaei?o e?ioioeeo?a ? ia i?noyoue na?oeeo
aa?i?iaoeaieo oeaio??a, o ca’yceo c /ei ?o aaaaeathoue iani?aaaei?ie
oie?eoeaie .

Ia aeoieo A.A.Ai?enaae/a (1994), ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ecia/aiiy oaeeo
ooai?aiue iieyaa? a cae?eniaii? ee?oeiiiai ?ioi?oaoo, cie?aia, e?ea?ii?
(oeeoioiene/ii?) ae??, ni?yiiaaii? i?ioe i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. Iaaei??ia
oeeoioiene/ia aeoeai?noue o ca’yceo c e?ioioeeoa?iith a?ia?ieac??th, ye
??ciiaeaei?noue ia?aaaaeii a?ia?a?a?/ii? caiaeueii? ?aaeoe??,
i?eaiaeeoue aei o?aaeaiiy aeanieo ee?oeiieo aeaiaio?a oa noaeeiieo
no?iie (aooiaa?an?y) eii’thieoeae, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny o?ii?caoe??th
caiaeaiiy.

Aeaiaeoey?iee eii’thieoeaio — nai??iaeia oi?ia eii’thieoeaioo, ui
iieyaa? a i?ieioa?aoei? caeicenoi? oeaieie, aieiaiei /eiii iiaa?oiaai?
neueicii? caeice o?aouei? iiaiee. I?e oeueiio aeyaey?oueny caieueoaiiy a
?icii?i aa?oiaeiai? /anoeie ieaaeueii? ia?aoeiee.

?ic?iuaiiy caeicenoi? oeaieie a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii a?oiueeoaaiiy
aoe?ion?a. Iiainoi?iiaai? ae?eyiee caeicenoi? oeaieie ? oe?eeii
oeiiaeie, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieie ? iineeaii i?iaeoeothoue nae?ao. Cia/ia
/anoeia e?ioeaaeo a?aeae?e?a ? i?ioie?a ?icoyaiooa nae?aoii ? /anoi
e?noicii ?icoe?aia. Iaeii/anii niinoa??aa?oueny o?aaeaiiy o?yua o?aouei?
iia?ee. Aeyaeythoueny yaeua aiaieuaaiai aai oioaeueiiai oiiae?ie?co,
iaoiiaeaiiai a?ae?ii?/iith aeeno?io??th oiiae?ioeeo?a. Oea ni?ey?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ieaaeueii? ia?aoeiee.

I?e/eiith caoai?thaaiiy ia aeaiaeoey?iee eii’thieoea?o iiaea aooe
?io?eoaaiiy aaeaiia??onaie. A.A.Ai?enaae/ (1996) ?icaeyaea?
aeaiaeoey?iee eii’thieoea?o ye nai???aeio eii’thieoeaaeueio
aaeaiia??onio ?ioaeoe?th. Ia iaoo aeoieo, a iaoiaaiac? caeicenoiai
eii’thieoea?oo ae??oaeueio ?ieue a?ae?a?a? ia no?eueee ca?eueoaiiy a
?ici??? aa?o?aeiai? /anoeie o?aouei? iia?ee ? aeieiaiiy ?? ca iaae?
eii’thieoeaaeueiiai i?oea, ce?eueee e?i?iiaa aeoeai?noue (aeanoeaa
caeicenoei ooai?aiiyi) a?ia?ieaciaaii? oeaieie caeice, cao?eiea nae?aoo
a e?noao c ianooiiei aniieooaaiiyi eae?e?a?io (a?aae?e?i?io) a e?ia oa
e?ioaoe/io nenoaio, a oaeiae aeeooc?y caaaeaieo iaae?aoi??a caiaeaiiy a
iaaeieeoi? oeaieie, ui i?iaieo?, i?ieiiao? oa iineeth? eii’thieoea?o.

“Nooee” eii’thieoeaio aeieea? aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy aai i?eieiaiiy
i?iaeoeoaaiiy neueicii? ??aeeie iniiaieie neueicieie caeicaie.

O neueiciie caeici aeyaeythoueny ae?aaeaii ciiie aoeiionia — /anoeia c
ieo aeia aianeiaeie iineeaiiai i?iaeoeoaaiiy aiae?ieioe/ieo aiceiia,
ia?ea?ii aeoeaiino? yeeo ? ?aaeoe?y ia eeneo oinoaoaco. *anoeia inoaii?o
o oiae? iaaei??iiai iineeaiiy nae?aoi?ii? aeoeaiino? iiai?noth
a?ae?ie?co?oueny ? ia a?noieia?/ieo i?aia?aoao aeyaey?oueny o aeaeyae?
aoeeia?ieo ionoio, ia?aieaieo aacaeueiith iaia?aiith aai no?ieaie
non?aei?o iaeiooeiaeaeaieo aoe?ion?a. sse na?ae/eoue i?aeoeea, oaeee
i?ioean iaiai?ioiee. A?aoo? ianoa? ena?ic ?ia?aee, iaiai?ioia ??
iiiooi?iiy, ?ieiee i?aiaioaoe?y iaeaiioeeoaie. Ae?aaiic noaaeoueny c
aeei?enoaiiyi i?iae Oe?ia?a.

Aea?ii?aeiee eii’thieoea?o iaoiiaeaiee iiae?acithth/ith ae??th
aea?ii?aea. Iaoiaaiia ae?y inoaiiueiai iaoiiaeaia ?inoii aieinny a
eii’thieoeaaeueiiio i?oeo. A?noieia?/ii aecia/a?oueny caiaeueia
a?ia?ai?y, na?icia aenoaeaoe?y, ae?aaeaia iia?e?caoe?y oa aeoeaaoe?y
eii’thieoeaaeueieo a?no?ioeeo?a (iineeaiiy ?ooeeaino? ? oaenen a a?e
ai?oae?th). O?ii?caoe?y caiaeaiiy noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeaci?aai?caoe??th
eieaaaiiaeo aieieii ? iniiaii? i?ii?aeii? ?a/iaeie i?ae ai?oae??i
eii’thieoeae. ?icaeaa?oueny ioei?aeia iaaooaiiy niieo/iioeaieiii? iniiae
eii’thieoeae ia aanue /an ?nioaaiiy aea?ii?aea, ui caeaoia i?ecaanoe aei
neea?ioe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? iia?e aai aei iaaii?iiy a ii?iaeiei?
eii’thieoeaaeueiiai i?oea.

Eii’thieoea?o o ca’yceo c? noi?iii?i o?eii. Iiiaaeaiiy a
eiithieoeaaeueiee i?oie noi?iiueiai o?ea ni?e/eiy? caiaeaiiy niieo/ii?
iaieiiee iea, a naia noi?iii? o?ei, ye i?aaeei, ia?ai?uo?oueny i?ae
ieaaeueio ia?aoeieo, aea eiai aeyaeythoue i?e noa?aiiiio iaeyae?.

I?e oeueiio nii/aoeo aeyaey?oueny eaoa?aeueia caiaeaiiy, yea c /anii
ia?aoiaeeoue a ai?eia c on?ia iane?aeeaie. Aaciina?aaeiuei ii?o/ ?c
noi?iii?i o?eii ?icaeaa?oueny ieineiee?oeiia iaoaieac?y ai?oae?th
eii’thieoeae c iciaeaie i?iaeoeoaaiiy ai?oae?ioeeoaie ea?aoeio.
Ea?aoei?caoe?y noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny yaeuaie neea?icoaaiiy
niieo/iioeaieiii? iniiae eii’thieoeae, ui caeaoia ni?e/eieoe
aeaoi?iaoe?th iia?e.

An? caaaeai? aeua oi?ie eii’thieoea?oo ia??aeei noi?iaiaeaeothoueny
nianoe/iei caai?ioii ieaeiuei? aai (oa) aa?oiuei? iia?e. Nianoe/iee
caai??o iia?e cieea? i?e onoiaii? i?e/eie, yea eiai aeeeeeaea.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui o niaae cono??/a?oueny aaaaoi
oi?i eii’thieoea?o?a, eiaeia c yeeo a?ae??ciy?oueny ca nai?ie
iaoiaaiaoe/ieie iaoai?ciaie oa oa?aeoa?ii oeaieiieo ci?i, ui iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe i?e i?iaaaeaii? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy. Aaaaoioi?ii?noue
eiithieoea?o?a o niaae ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?o iioiaaiaoe/iiai
?icaeoeo o ca’yceo c oae caaiith o?c?ieia?/iith iac??e?noth a iiiaio
ia?iaeaeaiiy (ne?iiia?iaeaeoaai? oaa?eie) ? i?ic??aaiiyi o ?aii?e
ia??iae iinoiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco (A.A.Ai?enaae/, 1978, 1982, 1991).

E?eoaaiiy eiithieoea?o?a o niaae

E?eoaaiiy eii’thieoea?o?a o niaae i?iaiaeeee c o?aooaaiiyi oa?aeoa?o
oeaieiieo ci?i oa iniaeeainoae iaoiaaiaoe/ieo iaoai?ci?a (oaae. 2).

E?eoaaiiy aino?iai eaoa?aeueiiai eii’thieoea?oo aeeiioaaee oeyoii
?inoeeyoe?? a eii’thieoeaaeueiee i?oie e?aiaeue 5%-ai ?ic/eio
aeeiaeneaeo ia 0,5%-iiio ?ic/ei? iiaiea?io (AeI) 6-10 ?ac?a ia aeaiue.
A eiio?ie? canoiniaoaaee e?aie? 3%-ai ?ic/eio oeeieo noeueoaoo oa 10%-ai
?ic/eio iao??th noeueoaoeeeo.

Oaaeeoey 2

?acoeueoaoe eieoaaiiy eii’thieoeaioia o niaae

Eiio?ieue Aeineiae Aeae Eieue-einoueAeii
Aeei-eoaa- Eieue-einoueAeii Aeeieo- ? caoai?thaaiiyoaa?ei
eieoaaiiyeinue, % oaa?eieieoaaiiyaaeinue, %Aino?ee eaoa?aeueiee
eii’thieoeaio 108,7±0,32100 105,5±0,32100 <0,01 O?iii/iee eaoa?aeueiee eii’thieoeaio 817,6±0,9787,5 1010,6±0,54100 <0,01 Aiieiee eii’thieoeaio 88,4±1,06100 10 4,8 ±0,8 100 <0,01 Oeaaiiiiciee eii’thieoeaio 818,4±0,8 75,0 811,25±0,6687,5<0,01 Aoi?eiii- aeeneiea- oeieiee eii’thieoeaio 911 ±0,7177,8 98,2±0,12100 <0,01 Nini/eiai-oieieoey?- iee eii’thieoeaio 1410,2±0,45100 1410,1±0,43100 >0,05 Aeaiaeoey?iee eii’thieoeaio 1210,25±0,37100
129,92±0,28100 >0,05 «Nooee» eii’thieoeaio 537 ±2,57 — 612,33±1,06100
<0,01 Aea?ii?aeiee eii’thieoeaio - - - 59,67±0,48100 - Eii’thieoeaio o ca’yceo ic noi?iiiii oieii - - - 74,85±0,17100 - I?e e?eoaaii? o?ii?/iiai eaoa?aeueiiai eii’thieoea?oo aei caaaeaieo i/ieo e?aiaeue aeiaeaaaee e?aeaco c ?ic?aooieo 64 IAe ia 15 ie ?ic/eio (AeIE); a eiio?ie? canoiniaoaaee e?aie? oeeieo noeueoaoo, aeaenaiacaoiio oa 10%-ai ?ic/eio iao??th noeueoaoeeeo. I?e ai?eiiio eii’thieoea?o? e?eoaaee AeI c aeiaeaaaiiyi aaioai?oeeio aai eaaii?oeao?io; a eiio?ie? i?iaiaeeee ii/a?aiao ?inoeeyoe?th 15%-ai iao??th noeueoaoeeeo oa 5%-ai ?ic/eio aaioai?oeeio aai eaaii?oeaoeio. I?e e?eoaaii? oeaaiiiiciiai eii’thieoea?oo canoiniaoaaee e?aie? AeIE c aeiaeaaaiiyi aaioai?oeeio aai eaaii?oeaoeio, a eiio?ie? aoei oaea ae e?eoaaiiy, ui ? i?e ai?eiiio eii’thieoea?o?, aea c aeiaeaoeiaei canoinoaaiiyi aioo??oiueii’yciaeo ?i’?eoe?e eaiai?oeeio ca?aeii ?ino?oeoe??. I?e e?eoaaii? aoi?eiii-aeeneieaoe?eiiai eii’thieoea?oo ii?aeioaaee iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy c ?inoeeyoe??th i?ioyaii 5-8 aei?a AeIE; o eiio?ie? aeeiioaaee eeoa iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy. A inoaiueiio aeiaaeeo iaei i?noea ?icoiaeaeaiiy oa?a aiane?aeie ?oaoeaaiai noyaiaiiy eii’thieoeae, ui noi?iaiaeaeoaaei o?ii?/iee caiaeueiee i?ioean. O aeiaaeeao nini/eiai-oie?eoey?iiai eii’thieoea?oo an?o niaae e?eoaaee nea?eo?eaoe??th a?ia?ieaciaaieo nini/e?a ca aeiiiiiaith eth?aoee Oieueeiaia i?ney iiia?aaeiuei? aianoac??. Aeaeaeai? oaeei /eiii nini/ee, ye i?aaeei, ia ?aaaia?othoue, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei aee?eiaoaaiiy. Aeaui oaeaeoa ? a?eueo ni?eyoeeai i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae i?ioiaeea o aeiaaeeao ?inoeeyoe?? e?aiaeue AeI, aea oea ia aieeaaei nooo?ai ia aoaeoeai?noue e?eoaaiiy. I?e e?eoaaii? “nooiai” eii’thieoea?oo iae?aoeai? caniae o aeaeyae? caieiaeoaaiiy niieo/ii? iaieiiee iea ??cieie aioenaioe/ieie oa iiaeeaieie e?aieyie (Aa?a Oi?aeo,1978) aeathoue eeoa oei/aniaa iie?ioaiiy, ia aieeaath/e ia e?ioeaaee iaeaea oaoaeueiee ?acoeueoao o aeaeyae? oneeaaeiaiiy ea?aoeoii ? ooai?aiiy a?eueia. ?aaeeeaeueiei caniaii e?eoaaiiy oe??? oai?iae ? ia?anaaeea i?ioiee i?eaooii? neeiii? caeice a eaoa?aeueiee a?aeae?e aa?oiueiai neeai?iiy eii’thieoeaaeueiiai i?oea. E?eoaaiiy aea?ii?aeiiai eii’thieoea?oo i?iaiaeeeinue iia?aoeaiei oeyoii. A i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? canoiniaoaaee e?aie? AeI. Eiio?ieuei? caoiaee, ine?eueee a ieo ia aoei iio?aae, ia aeeiioaaeeny. I?e e?eoaaii? eii’thieoea?oo o ca’yceo c noi?iii?i o?eii inoaii? aeaeaeyee i?ney i?iaaaeaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai ciaaieaiiy. C iaoith oaeaeeiai i?eaaaeaiiy eii’thieoeae o noai ii?ie i?ney ao?o/aiiy canoiniaoaaee ?inoeeyoe?th e?aiaeue AeI. AENIIAEE 1. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie aeyaeaii ??ci? oi?ie eii’thieoeaioo o niaae - eaoa?aeueiee, aiieiee, oeaaiiiiciee, aoi?eiii-aeeneieaoeieiee, nini/eiai-oieieoey?iee, aeaiaeoey?iee, "nooee", aea?ii?aeiee oa eii’thieoeaio o ca’yceo c? noi?iii?i oieii. 2. I?e eaoa?aeueieo oi?iao caiaeaiiy oa i?e aoi?eiii-aeeneieaoeieiiio eii’thieoeaioi ?a?no?othoueny caiaeueia aiia?aiiy, iineeaia i?iaeoeoaaiiy iooeeio oa iiaieicaoeiy ainoiioeeoia, aeoeaaoeiy yeeo noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/iei iineeaiiyi ?o ?ooeeainoi; i?e o?iii/iiio eaoa?aeueiiio eii’thieoeaioi aiaeii/a?oueny ioei?aeiee iaa?ye oa neea?icoaaiiy, ui aeeeeea? aai iineeth? aeaoi?iaoeith iiaie. 3. I?e aiieiiio i oeaaiiiiciiio eii’thieoeaioi ia? iinoea ae?aaeaia iioieueo?aoeiy eii’thieoeae, ia?aaaaeii iaeo?ioieaie, yei a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo ?iciaaeathoueny ia iiaa?oii oa a aeeaei? aiioaeith, a a ae?oaiio, e?ii oiai, a iiaeniiaei?e niieo/i?e oeaiei?. E??i oiai, oeaaiiiiciee eii’thieoeaio noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ioei?aeiei iaa?yeii oa oia?eii?aeiei iae?iaiicii i iae?icii niieo/iioeaieiii? iniiae eii’thieoeae. 4. I?e nini/eiai-oieieoey?iiio eii’thieoeaioi ia oiii caiaeueii? aiia?aii? niinoa?iaa?oueny ?ic?iuaiiy nini/eia ia aoeueaa?iie iiaa?oii o?aouei? iiaiee ia?aaaaeii ca ?aooiie oia?iaeanoe/ii? oa ainoiioeeoa?ii? i?ieioa?aoei? aai ae ooai?aiiy a nini/eao eiioioeeoa?ieo oieieoeia, ui oaeiae noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaiiey?iith aiia?ieaci?th; inoaiiy yaey? niaith iaeei c i?ia?aeieo iaoiaaiaoe/ieo iaoaiiciia i?ieiiaaoei? caiaeueii? ?aaeoei?. 5. I?e aeaiaeoey?iiio eii’thieoeaioi i?ieioa?aoeiy nae?aoi?ieo aoeiionia iiaa?oiaai? neueicii? caeice, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/iith ?? aiia?ieaci?th oa aeieiaiiyi c eii’thieoeaaeueiiai iioea iioiauaii? aa?oiaee ieaaeueii? ia?aoeiee, ? iniiaiei iaoiaaiiei oaeoi?ii caiaeueiiai noaio eii’thieoeae. 6. I?e "nooiio" eii’thieoeaioi iniiaiei iaoiaaiiei /eiieeii ? caionoiiiy nae?aoi?ieo aoeiionia c iiaiei eicoaaiiyi ?o eeioeiiiai neeaaeo, ui aiaeia?aaea? no?eaeiiiaeiaiee ia?aoiae ii?iaeueii? ia?ie?eiiai? nae?aoei? aei aieie?eiiai?. 7. I?e aea?ii?aeiiio eii’thieoeaioi niinoa?iaa?oueny aieiaiei /eiii aiia?ieaciy oa aiia?nae?aoi?ia aeoeaiinoue aieaeiaeaeieo eeioei eii’thieoeae o aiaeiiaiaeue ia o?eaaea iiae?aciaiiy aieinnyi iiaiooai?aiiy i oi?ioaaiiy i?e oeueiio iioiauaiiai caoeniiai oa?o aonoiai iooeeio. 8. Eii’thieoeaio i?e iayaiinoi noi?iiiueiai oiea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aiieiith iioieueo?aoei?th ia?aaaaeii aiioaeith niieo/ii? iaieiiee iea, iiaieicaoei?th oa ?ooiaith aeoeaaoei?th ainoiioeeoia, a oaeiae ieineieeioeiiith iaoaieaci?th aiioaeith a aeieyioei ?icoaooaaiiy noi?iiiueiai oiea. 9. Aoaeoeaieie iaoiaeaie eieoaaiiy ?: ·  i?e aino?iio eaoa?aeueiiio eii’thieoeaioi - canoinoaaiiy aeeiaeneae-iiaiea?iiaeo e?aiaeue (AeI); ·  i?e o?iii/iiio eaoa?aeueiiio eii’thieoeaioi - aeei?enoaiiy aeeiaeneae-iiaiea?i-eiaeacieo e?aiaeue (AeIE); ·  i?e aiieiiio eii’thieoeaioi - aaaaeaiiy a eii’thieoeaaeueiee iioie AeI c aeiaeaaaiiyi aioeaiioeeia, cie?aia, aaioaiioeeio, eaaiiioeaoeio oiui; ·  i?e oeaaiiiiciiio eii’thieoeaioi aeioeieueii canoiniaoaaoe AeIE c aeiaeaaaiiyi aioeaiioeeia oe?ieiai niaeo?o ae?? (ieneoao?aoeeeeiio, oieaio oiui), yei neiae ii?aeioaaoe c iinoeeyoei?th e?aiaeue 10-30%-ai ?ic/eio iao?ith noeueoaoeeeo; ·  i?e aoi?eiii-aeeneieaoeieiiio eii’thieoeaioi, ui ii?aeio?oueny c aeai?ioii iiaiee, ?aoeiiiaeueii i?iaiaeeoe iia?aoeith ca Aeeoaiaaoii-A?aoa oa iinoeeyoeith AeIE i?ioyaii 5-8 aeiia; ·  i?e nini/eiai-oieieoey?iiio eii’thieoeaioi aeioeieueii aeeiioaaoe nea?eoieaoeith nini/eia oa iinoeeyoeith ia eii’thieoeao AeI; ·  i?e aeaiaeoey?iiio eii’thieoeaioi (aiia?ieanoe/iiio aaeaiiiaoici) iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe aeiiiiio ?acaeoeith aiia?ieaciaaii? caeicenoi? oeaieie ia?aeaeueii o?yuo ieaaeueii? ia?aoeiee oa iinoeeyoeith AeI; ·  i?e "nooiio" eii’thieoeaioi ne?ae aeeiioaaoe ia?anaaeeo i?ioiea i?eaooii? neeiii? caeice c iaeii/aniei canoinoaaiiyi AeIE o aeiaaeeao ae?aaeaii? o?iiicaoei? caiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ea?aoeoo; ·  i?e aea?ii?aeiiio eii’thieoeaioi iaiaoiaeii aeiiiiii aeaeaeyoe iiaiooai?aiiy c ianooiiei canoinoaaiiyi AeI; ·  i?e eii’thieoeaioi o ca’yceo c? noi?iii?i oieii i?ney aeaeaeaiiy inoaiiueiai neiae i?iaiaeeoe iinoeeyoeith AeI. I?AEOE*II ?AEIIAIAeAOeI? 1. Eii’thieoeaioe o niaae oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith ?iciiiaiioiinoth i?iyaeaiiy oai?iaeeaeo i?ioeania. Ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui eii’thieoeaioe o niaae iiaeooue aooe: a) ia?aeiieie - aino?ee oa o?iii/iee eaoa?aeueiee, nini/eiai-oieieoey?iee, aiieiee oa oeaaiiiiciee; a) aoi?eiieie - aeaiaeoey?iee (aiia?ieanoe/iee aaeaiiiaoic), aoi?eiii-aeeneieaoeieiee, "nooee", aea?ii?aeiee, eii’thieoeaio o ca’yceo c? noi?iiiii oieii. 2. O anio aeiaaeeao eii’thieoeaioo iaiaoiaeii ?icia?aoenue o i?e/eiao aeieeiaiiy oa iaoaiiciao ia?aaiao oai?iae, iaia’yceiai aeineiaeeoe eii’thieoeaaeueiee iioie, aeaa?oath/e o?aoth iiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith iiioeaoa (iiney i?iaaaeaiiy iiaa?oiaai? aianoaci?); eeoa iiney oeueiai neiae canoiniaoaaoe aiaeiiaiaeii eieoaaeueii caoiaee. 3. I?e eiina?aaoeaieo niiniaao eieoaaiiy eii’thieoeaioia ?aeiiaiaeo?ii canoiniaoaaoe ?inoeeyoe?th i/ieo e?aiaeue 5%-ai aeeiaeneaeo ia 0,5%-io iiaiea?ii. I?e o?iiicaoei? caiaeaiiy aei oei?? noiioi neiae aeiaeaaaoe eiaeaco c ?ic?aooieo 64 IAe ia 15 ie ?ic/eio. ?inoeeyoeiy oaeeo e?aiaeue 4-6 i aieueoa ?acia ia aeaiue iiia?aaeaea? ooai?aiiy ?oaoeia o niieo/iie iaieiioei iea oa ianooiio aeaoi?iaoeith iiaie (iaeueiaa?aeueiee aeai?io aai caai?io). O aeiaaeeao naioe/iiai ia?aaiao i?ioeano aei neeaaeo aeeiaeneae-iiaiea?iiai? noiioi ?aeiiaiaeo?ii aeiaeaaaoe aioeaiioeee, cie?aia, eaaiiioeaoei, aaioaiioeei, oao?aoeeeeii oiui. 4. I?e nini/eiai-oieieoey?iiio eii’thieoeaio? neiae canoiniaoaaoe nea?eoieaoeith; i?e aeaiaeoey?iiio (aiia?ieanoe/iee aaeaiiiaoic) iaiaoiaeii aeaeaeyoe aiia?ieaciaaio caeicenoo oeaieio, ia iioeiaeaeoth/e o?yua o?aouei? iiaiee; i?e "nooiio" eii’thieoeaio? ?aoeiiiaeueiith ? ia?anaaeea noaiiiiaiai i?ioiea a eaoa?aeueio /anoeio eii’thieoeaaeueiiai iioea; aea?ii?ae aai noi?iii? oiei aeaeaeythoue, iiney /iai canoiniaothoue aeeiaeneae-iiaiea?iiai e?aiei; i?e aeai?ioi iiaiee aeei?enoiaothoue iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy. 5. Iia?aoeaii niiniae eieoaaiiy aeioeieueii ii?aeioaaoe c ?aeiiaiaeiaaieie iaie eiina?aaoeaieie caniaaie, iniaeeai a iineyiia?aoeieiee ia?iiae, ui iiia?aaeaeo? ?aoeeaeeae oai?iae. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??. 1.  Ai?enaae/ A.A., A?iaeianueeee I.N., Ai?enaae/ A.A. Eiithieoea?oe o niaae Aao. iaaeeoeeia Oe?a?ie. - 1996. - ? 8. - N. 32-33. 2.  Ai?enaae/ A.A., A?iaeianeee I.N., Ai?enaae/ A.A. Eiithieoeaeo o niaae (iniaaiiinoe ea/aiey) Aaoa?eia?ey. - 1997. - ? 7. - N. 52-53. 3. A?iaeianueeee I.N. Iniaeeaino? ia?aa?ao ai?eiiai eiithieoea?oo o niaae Aao. iaaeeoeeia Oe?a?ie. - 1998. - ? 3. - N. 19. 4. A?iaeianueeee I.N. A?noiiaoieia?y aino?iai eaoa?aeueiiai eiithieoea?oo o niaae Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy aaoa?eia?ii? iaoieia??: Iaoa?. 1 Anaoe?. iaoe.-ae?iai. eiio. aao. iaoieia?a. - O.1 (Ee?a, 13-15 eeno. 1996 ?.). - Ee?a, 1996. - N. 56-57. 5. A?iaeianueeee I.N.  Nini/eiai-oie?eoey?iee eiithieoea?o o niaae No/ani? i?iaeaie aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie: Iaoa?. iaoe. eiio. i?io.-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa ani??aio?a. - Ee?a, 1997. - N. 85-86. 6.  Ai?enaae/ A.A., Eoae?ya/aiei I.A., A?iaeianueeee I.N.. Oa?ai?y eiithieoea?o?a o niaae I?iaeaie aaoa?eia?iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ae??aieo aeiiaoi?o oaa?ei: Ca. iaoa??ae?a ?? i?aeia?iae. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe?? (i. Ee?a, 2-3 aeiao. 1997 ?.). - Ee?a, 1997. - N. 62-63. A?iaeianueeee I.N. Eii’thieoeaioe o niaae (iioe?aiiy, iaoiaaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie, oeaieii? ci?ie, ?aoe?iiaeuei? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy). - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 16.00.05 - aaoa?eia?ia o??o?a?y. - A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, A?ea Oea?eaa, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith eii’thieoeaio?a o niaae. Eii’thieoea?oe iiaeooue aooe: a) ia?aeiieie - aino?ee ? o?ii?/iee eaoa?aeueiee, nini/eiai-oie?eoey?iee, ai?eiee oa oeaaiiiiciee, 6) aoi?eiieie - aeaiaeoey?iee (a?ia?ieanoe/iee aaeaiiiaoic), aoi?eiii-aeeneieaoe?eiee, “nooee”, aea?ii?aeiee oa eii’thieoea?o o ca’yceo c? noi?iiiii oieii. I?e eiina?aaoeaiiio e?eoaaii? ?aeiiaiaeo?ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?inoeeyoe?th e?aiaeue 5%-ai ?ic/eio aeeiaeneaeo ia 0,5%-iiio iiaiea?i?. I?e o?iiicaoei? caiaeaiiy aei oei?? noiioi neiae aeiaeaaaoe eiaeaco c ?ic?aooieo 64 IAe ia 15 ie ?ic/eio, ui iiia?aaeaea? ooai?aiiy ?oaoe?a o eii’thieoea? ? ianooiio aeaoi?iaoe?th iia?e (aeai??o aai caai??o). I?e naioe/iiio ia?aaiao i?ioeano aei neeaaeo aeeiaeneae-iiaiea?iiai? noiioi ne?ae aeeth/aoe aioeaiioeee, cie?aia, eaaiiioeaoii, aaioaiioeei, oao?aoeeeeii oiui. I?e aeiaaeeao nini/eiai-oie?eoey?iiio eii’thieoea?o? iaiao?aeii canoiniaoaaoe nea?eo?eaoe?th, i?e aeaiaeoey?iiio ne?ae aeaeaeyoe a?ia?ieaciaaio caeicenoo oeaieio ia?aeaeueii o?yuo o?aouei? iia?ee; i?e "nooiio" eii’thieoeaio? ?aoeiiiaeueiith ? ia?anaaeea noaiiiiaiai i?ioiea a eaoa?aeueio /anoeio eii’thieoeaaeueiiai iioea; i?e iayaiinoi aea?ii?aea aai noi?iiiueiai oiea ?o aeaeaeythoue, iiney /iai canoiniaothoue aeeiaeneae-iiaiea?iiai e?aiei. Eeth/ia? neiaa: eii’thieoea?o, e?eoaaiiy, iia?aoe?y, iia?ea, aeeiaeneae, iei. A?iaeianeee A.N. Eiiuthieoeaeou o niaae (?ani?ino?aiaiea, iaoiaaiaoe/aneea iaoaieciu, oeaiaaua eciaiaiey, ?aoeeiiaeueiua iaoiaeu ea/aiey). - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaoa?eia?iuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 16.00.05 - aaoa?eia?iay oe?o?aey. - Aaeioea?eianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Aaeay Oea?eiaue, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth eiiuthieoeaeoia o niaae. Eiiuthieoeaeou iiaoo auoue: a) ia?ae/iuie - ino?ue e o?iie/aneee eaoa?aeueiue, nini/eiai-oieeeeoey?iue, aiieiue e oeaaiiiiciee, 6) aoi?e/iuie - aeaiaeoey?iue (aeia?ieanoe/aneee aaeaiiiaoic), aoi?e/ii-aeeneieaoeeiiiue, “nooie”, aea?iieaeiue e eiiuthieoeaeo a nayce n eii?iaeiui oaeii. I?e eiina?aaoeaiii ea/aiee ?aeiiaiaeoai eniieueciaaoue einoeeyoeeth eaiaeue 5%-ai ?anoai?a aeeiaeneaea ia 0,5%-iii iiaieaeia. I?e o?iiecaoeee ainiaeaiey e yoie niane iaiaoiaeeii aeiaaaeyoue 64 AAe eeaeacu ia 15 ie ?anoai?a, /oi i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao ia?aciaaiea ?oaoeia a eiiuthieoeaa e iineaaeothuoth aeaoi?iaoeeth aae (auai?io eee caai?io). I?e naioe/aneii oa/aiee i?ioeanna a ninoaa aeeiaeneae-iiaieaeiiaie niane neaaeoao aeeth/aoue aioeaeioeee, a /anoiinoe eaaiieoeaoei, aaioaieoeei, oa?aoeeeeei e ae?oaea. A neo/ayo nini/eiai-oieeeeoey?iiai eiiuthieoeaeoa iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaiyoue nea?eoeeaoeeth, i?e aeaiaeoey?iii neaaeoao oaeaeyoue aeia?ieace?iaaiioth aeaeacenooth oeaiue ia?aeeaeueii o?yuo o?aoueaai aaea; i?e ia?aciaaiee “nooiai” eiiuthieoeaeoa ?aoeeiiaeueiui yaeyaony ia?anaaeea noaiiiiaiai i?ioiea a eaoa?aeueiee ioaeae eiiuthieoeaaeueiiai iaoea; i?e iaee/ee aea?iieaea eee eii?iaeiiai oaea eo oaeaeytho, iinea /aai i?eiaiytho aeeiaeneae-iiaieaeiiaua eaiee. Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiuthieoeaeo, ea/aiea, iia?aoeey, aaei, aeeiaeneae, aeac. Brodovsky A.S. Conjunctivitis of dogs (spreading, pathogenetic mechanisms, tissues’ changes, rational methods of treatment). Defended the manuscript of thesis on searching the scientific degree of candidate of veterinary sciences on speciality 16.00.05 - “Veterinary Surgery”, Bila Tserkva’s Agricultural University, Bila Tserkva, 1999. Conjunctivitis can be divided into: a) primary - sharp and chronic, papillary - follicular, purulent and phlegmonic conjunctivitis; b) secondary - hyperplastic adenomator, secondary-dislocational, “dry”, dermoid conjunctivitis and conjunctiva inflammation becouse of foreign body. Under conservative treatment usage of 5% solution Dimexidi on 0,5% Novocaini (in drops) is recommended. In case of chronic conjunctivitis it is necessary to add 64 units Lidaza for 15 ml of solution, in order to prevent scar development and eyelid deformation. The inclusion of antibiotics (Levomicetin, gentamicin, tetraciclin) to Dimexid-Novocaini mixture will be recommended in case of septic processes. In case of papillary-follicular conjunctivitis scarification is recommended; when hyperplastic adenomatoz appears hyperplastic glandular tissues should be removed parallel to third eyelid cartilage; in case of “dry” conjunctivitis the most rational way of treatment is transplant of wall duct into the lateral section of conjunctival cul-de-sac; if there is dermoid or foreign body they should be removed with further application of Dimexid-Novocaini in drops. Under eyelid crease the most effective way of treatment is scarification of scin in the form of triangle at lateral eye angle with surther stitching/ Key words: conjunctivitis, treatment, operation, eyelids, dimexid, eye. Caeaii aei neeaaeaiiy 7.12.98. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 29.12.98. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Oi.ae?.a?e. 1,1. Cai. 197-110. ?aaeaeoe?eii-iie?a?ao?/iee naeoi? a?aeae?eo IOI? AAeAO. 256400, A?ea Oea?eaa, Niai?ia ieiua, 8, oae. 3-11-01.

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