EE?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE

E?IAA?NOE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AAAeC Na?oeaia Oaaei??aia

OAeE 802.561.62

EIIOI?EAOEAII-I?AAIAOE*I? INIAEEAINO? AENEIAETHAAIUe C ?IOA?IAAOEAIEI
CIA*AIIssI

O NO*ANI?E AIAE?ENUeE?E IIA?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1998

Aeenna?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? a?aiaoeee oa ?noi??? aiae?enueei? iiae
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Ii/aioeia Aai?a?e Aai?a??ae/, eaoaae?a
a?aiaoeee oa ?noi??? aiae?enueei? iiae

Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Noa?eeiaa Ieaia Ieeiea?aia, eaoaae?a
aiae?enueei? o?eieia?? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? O.A.Oaa/aiea, i?ioani?

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

?iiaiianueea THe?y TH???aia,
eaoaae?a

aiae?enueei? iiae Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, eaoaae?a ?iicaiieo iia.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 20 » eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. i 10-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.054.02 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a (eaiaeeaeaoa)
o?eieia?/ieo iaoe i?e Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio e?iaa?noe/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? (252650 INI, Ee?a -5, aoe. Aaeeea Aaneeuee?anueea, 73).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ( aoe. Aaeeea Aaneeuee?anueea,
73).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 20 aeiaoiy 1998 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee i?ioani?

I.I.Aeai?aeaoeueea ?aoa?iaaia
aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith
eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae aeneiaethaaiue c
?ioa?iaaoeaiei cia/aiiyi, cie?aia, aea/aiith ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy ye
iniiaiiai iiaiiai caniao ae?aaeaiiy iiaeaii?aiai aeoo eaaneoeao. Iio?aaa
a iiaeaeueoiio aea/aii? ?ioa?iaaoeaieo aeneiaethaaiue iiynith?oueny ?o
aeiyoeiaith ?ieeth aeey ?aae?caoe?? iniiaii? eiioi?eaoeaii? ooieoe??
iiae.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieeaa? c
iaiao?aeiino? ?icaeyaeo ?ioa?iaaoeaieo eiino?oeoe?e a ?aieao oai???
iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?, ine?eueee ai?iiy ni?eeoaaoeny iieyaa? ia eeoa
o i?aaeeueiiio oi?ioethaaii? aeneiaethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei
a?aiaoe/ieo i?aaee, aea e o ciaii? oiai, a yeeo ae?yeuei?nieo eiioaenoao
iiaeeea? o? /e ?io? aeneiaethaaiiy. ?nioth/ee aein?
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/iee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy ?ioa?iaaoeaieo eiino?oeoe?e
ia i?a iiynieoe ?o ooieoe?iiaeueii-eiioi?eaoeaia i?ecia/aiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia a iaaeao
iaoeiai? oaie «Oeiieia?y oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaieo iaeeieoeue
oiiaoe/ii?, a?aiaoe/ii? oa eaene/ii? nenoai no/anieo aa?iainueeeo ?
?iiainueeeo iia: eiai?oeaiee, eiioi?eaoeaiee oa i?aaiaoe/iee aniaeoe»,
ui ?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith a?aiaoeee oa ?noi??? aiae?enueei? iiae
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (oaia caoaa?aeaeaia
?aaeith EAeEO, i?ioieie ?5 a?ae 27 n?/iy 1997 ?ieo).

Iniiaia iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — eiiieaeniee aiae?c
ooieoe?iiaeueii-eiioi?eaoeaieo iniaeeainoae ?ioa?iaaoeaieo
aeneiaethaaiue o no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia? — aecia/eea iaiao?aei?noue
ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

— ?iciaaeoaaoe ?ioa?iaaoeai? aeneiaethaaiiy ca iciaeith ?o
?ioi?iaoeaiino?/ ia?ioi?iaoeaiino?;

— anoaiiaeoe ca’ycie i?ae ieoaeueiei ?a/aiiyi ? a?aeiia?aeaeth ia
iueiai, ia iniia? oeueiai ca’yceo cai?iiiioaaoe eeaneo?eaoe?th
ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue, ye? aaeeaathoueny o no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?;

— iienaoe eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? eiaeiiai oeio
ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy;

— ?icaeyiooe iai?yi? caniae ae?aaeaiiy ?ioa?iaaoeaiiai cia/aiiy;

— ?icoe?eoe ?iaaioa? caaaeueiiaeciaieo iciae ?ioa?iaaoeaiino?;

— anoaiiaeoe ? iienaoe eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa neioaene/i?
iniaeeaino? caieoaiue caaaaeie oa caieoaiue a?eoi?ei ye
inaaaei?ioi?iaoeaieo caieoaiue;

— ?icaeyiooe aoi?eii? ooieoe?? ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy c oi/ee ci?o eiai
aieeao ia ae?yeuei?nio iiaaae?ieo aae?anaoa a oiiaao neooaoe??
eiioi?eaoeaiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa oa a eiioe?eoi?e neooaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui a
iueiio aia?oa aeae?eythoueny e nenoaiii iienothoueny
ooieoe?iiaeueii-naiaioe/i? iniaeeaino? inaaaei?ioi?iaoeaieo caieoaiue.
Ooi/ith?oueny e aeiiiaith?oueny ia?ae?e iciae ?ioa?iaaoeaiino? oa
oaeniiii?y ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue. ?icaeaa?oueny ?aeay aoi?eiieo ooieoe?e
ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue. Aoi?eii? ooieoe?? oeeo ?a/aiue aea/athoueny ia
iniia? eiioi?eaoeaii? oa nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae?? iiaoe?a.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a iaea?aeaii? iiaeo a?aeiiinoae
i?i i?aaiaoe/i? aeanoeaino? aeneiaethaaiue c ?ioa?iaaoeaiei cia/aiiyi o
no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?, a oaeiae i?i iniaeeaino? ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy
a eiie?aoieo neooaoe?yo iiaeaii?aiai ni?eeoaaiiy. Oea aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
eiie?aoiith ?ic?iaeith iaei??? c iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo i?iaeai
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee, a naia: i?iaeaie aea/aiiy i?aaiaoe/iiai aniaeoo
iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe??, aeine?aeaeaiiy iiae c oi/ee ci?o ??
aeei?enoaiiy aeey aieeao ia ni?a?iciiaieea. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ? iaaiei
aianeii o ?ic?iaeo oai?aoe/ieo aniaeo?a i?aaiaoe/iiai neioaeneno ?
iiaeooue ni?eyoe a?eueo iiaiiio aea/aiith i?aaee iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee
eiioi?eaio?a.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
eiai iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a a i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy ?yaeo aeenoeeie?i,
i?e i?aeaioiaoe? oao?aoey c aiae?enueei? iiae, cie?aia, ia caiyooyo c
i?aeoeee aiae?enueei? ?iciiaii? iiae, iniaeeai ae?aeia?/iiai iiaeaiiy, o
eo?n? c oai?aoe/ii? a?aiaoeee i?e aea/aii? neioaeneno iiaeaiiy. Oea
aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eyoeia oi?ioaaiith eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? oeo,
ooi aea/a? aiae?enueeo iiao. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue oaeiae
canoiniaoaaoenue o iaoeiai-iaa/aeuei?e ?iaio? nooaeaio?a i?e iaienaii?
eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a
?c aeniiaeaie aei eiaeiiai c ieo, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, a?ae?ia?ao??,
aeaea?ae ?ethno?aoeaiiai iaoa??aeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e a?aiaoeee oa
?noi??? aiae?enueei? iiae Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeai? oaeiae o aeiiia?ae? ia
i’yo?e i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iiaa ? eoeueoo?a» (?inoeooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
1996 ??e), ia OLIV iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean?
Oe?a?iee (Eooeuee, 1998 ??e).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a i’youeio noaooyo oa
aeaio oacao.

Iniiaiee ci?no

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ie ?icaeyaea?ii
ia?aeiio ooieoe?th ieoaeueieo aeneiaethaaiue, cie?aia, ooieoe?th caieoo
iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Ia iao iiaeyae, ieoaeuei? aeneiaethaaiiy ne?ae
?iciaaeiaoaaoe ca iciaeith ?o ?ioi?iaoeaiino?/ia?ioi?iaoeaiino?. O ca’
yceo c oeei ie aeae?ey?ii aea? a?oie ieoaeueieo aeneiaethaaiue: 1)
?ioi?iaoeai? (iaia’ yceiaa oiiaa oni?oiino? – a?aenooi?noue o ciaiiyo
aae?anaioa iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??) oa 2) inaaaei?ioi?iaoeai?
(aae?anaio noaaeoue caieoaiiy, a?aeiia?aeue ia yea a?i cia?).

?niothoue aeaa niiniae ae?aaeaiiy iiaeaii?aiai aeoo caieoaiiy: 1)
i?yiee (/a?ac aeei?enoaiiy ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue) oa 2) iai?yiee (oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy iaieoaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e o ooieoe?? ieoaeueieo).

Ie aaaaea?ii, ui iiaia ? aaeaeaaoia aea/aiiy ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue ye
i?yii? oi?ie ae?aaeaiiy caieoaiiy iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae ?o ?icaeyaeo o
o?niiio ca’yceo c a?aeiia?aeyie ia ieo. C iaeyaeo ia oaeee ca’ycie ie
iiae?ey?ii an? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy ia /ioe?e eeane:

1. Caaaeuei? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy, iaoa yeeo iaea?aeaoe i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
aai ae caia?a/aiiy oiai /e ?ioiai oaeoo ae?eniino?.

2. Niaoe?aeuei? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy, ye? aeiaaathoue eiie?aoii?
a?aeiia?ae? noiniaii yeiainue aeaiaioa neooaoe?? /e neooaoe?? a oe?eiio.

3. Ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy ci?oaiiai oeio. Aoaeo/e caaaeueieie ca nai?th
no?oeoo?ith, aiie aeiaaathoue ia eeoa i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy /e caia?a/aiiy
yeiainue oaeoo ae?eniino?, aea ? eiai iiaeaeueoi? eiie?aoecaoe??. Oaeei
/eiii, a?aeiia?aeue ia ieoaeueia ?a/aiiy ci?oaiiai oeio neeaaea?oueny ?c
noie a?aeiia?aeae ia caaaeueia oa niaoe?aeueia caieoaiiy.

4. Aeueoa?iaoeai? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue o yeino?
a?aeiia?ae? aea?? iaei??? c aeaio /e a?eueoa caaeaieo o caieoaii?
aeueoa?iaoea.

Ca nai?th neioaene/iith aoaeiaith caaaeuei? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy ? aeoaea
iaiaeii??aeieie. Iaai? iniaeeaino? a ?o no?oeoo?? ni?e/eiththoue aeaye?
a?aei?iiino? a naiaioeoe? caieoaiue oeueiai oeio. O ca’yceo c oeei ie
aaaaea?ii ca aeioe?eueia ?icaeyaeaoe oae? i?aeoeie caaaeueieo ieoaeueieo
?a/aiue: caaaeueia ieoaeueia ?a/aiiy c ?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a,
caaaeueia ieoaeueia ?a/aiiy c ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a, ?icae?eiaa
ieoaeueia ?a/aiiy.

Caa?oath/enue aei caieoaiiy caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, i?aaenoaaeaiiai
ieoaeueiei ?a/aiiyi c ?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a, iiaaoeue a iaeiaeia?e
i??? aeiionea? ye iiceoeaio, oae ? iaaaoeaio a?aeiia?aeue ia iueiai.
Oea na?ae/eoue i?i iiaio ia?ioi?iiaai?noue eiioi?eaioa uiaei ?aaeueiino?
i?iiiceoe?eiiai ci?noo, yeee eaaeeoue a iniia? i?iaeoeiaaiiai iei
ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei aae?anao aeaeiaeo? caaaeueia
ieoaeueia ?a/aiiy c ?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a ye ?acoeueoao iiaiiai
iaciaiiy iiaoeai iaaii? neooaoe??. Ca oeeo ianoaaei a oiiaao
eiioi?eaoeaiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa aae?anao ia??aeei iaaea? aae?anaioo
?ioi?iaoe?th aeia?aaeaeoth/iai oa?aeoa?o.

“Hoy!” said the telephone. “Pickering?”

“Oh hullo, Mr.Llewellyn. Are you in the hospital?”

“Sure I’m in the hospital. St.Swithin’s” (Wodehouse 1975).

Aae?anao ni?eeia? iaaaaeaia aeua caieoaiiy Are you in the hospital? ye
iane?aeie iaciaiiy aae?anaioii oiai, ui a?i (aae?anao) ia?aaoaa? a
e?ea?i?. Ca?aene aae?anaoo noa? i/aaeaeii, ui ine?eueee aae?anaioo
iaa?aeiii i?i oa, ui aae?anao o e?ea?i?, oi oei a?eueoa eiio ia iiaea
aooe a?aeiii, o ye?e a?i e?ea?i?. Inue /iio aae?anao iia?aeiiey? nai?io
ni?a?iciiaieeia? ?? iacao St.Swithin’s.

?aaaoth/e ia caaaeueia caieoaiiy c ?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a
a?aeiia?aeaeth aeia?aaeaeoth/iai ci?noo, aae?anao ia eeoa i?aaia yeiiiaa
iiai?oa e?ea?aeoaaoe iaciaiiy iiaoeai iaaii? neooaoe??, aea ?acii c oei
iaiaaa?oueny oaeoiaii ia aeiionoeoe aeayei? iai?oaeaiino? a ?iciia?,
aaeaea, aeei?enoiaoth/e ye a?aeiia?aeue eeoa Yes /e No (aai ae ?o
ooieoe?iiaeueii-naiaioe/i? aea?aaeaioe) aae?anao na?aeiii /e iana?aeiii
i?aeooiaoo? aae?anaioa aei iiaeo caieoaiue, oei naiei caiaey/e aan?aeo
aei aeieooaaiiy. Aeieooaaiiy ae , ye a?aeiii, caaaeaee iineoue
iaaaoeaiee oa?aeoa?. A?eueoa oiai, eiee aaea nai ii nia? eaaneoea
noai?th? ”ineoieia?/ia iai?oaeaiiy a ni?eeoaaii?” (Eaaiiaa, Ao?eaeiaa,
Ii/aioeia 1981), oi iiaeaii?aee aeo aeieooaaiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
“iineeaiiyi oeueiai ineoieia?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy “ (Ei/a?yi 1986). O
neooaoe?? “aeiooaiiai” eiioi?eaoeaiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa aae?anao ia
iaaea? aae?anaioo a?eueoi? ?ioi?iaoe?? iiiaae oo, yea ? i?aaeiaoii eiai
caieoo. Iai?eeeaae:

“Do you waive the right to counsel?” the civilian asked.

“Yes!”

“You willing to co-operate?”

“Yes” (Clancy 1990).

A?aeiia?aeue ia caaaeueia caieoaiiy c ?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a iiaea
aooe ia eeoa aeia?aaeaeoth/iai, aea e aenieaiaoi?iiai oa?aeoa?o.
Aenieaiaoi?ia a?aeiia?aeue oa?aeoa?ia oaeiae ? aeey caaaeueieo
ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue c ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a, ui ?, ia iao
iiaeyae, ia?aeiieeaei na?ae/aiiyi oeaiino? o??? oi/ee ci?o (Oeo?eeiaa
1992), ca?aeii yei? caieoaiiy oeueiai i?aeoeio aaaaeathoueny
ia?ioi?iaoeaieie.

“So you think everything’s all right?”

“Everything is perfect. True, she is engaged to be married to some body
else, but she is extremely fond of you. It showed clearly in her
manner.”

The effect of these words on Joe was somewhat similar to that which
would have been produced by a blow on the bridge of the nose by a wet
fish. His jaw fell. His eyes bulged. He tottered and might have fallen
had he not clutched at the umbrella stand (Wodehouse 1975).

Oya?ii nia?, ui, a?aeiia?aeath/e ia caieoaiiy a iaaaaeaiiio i?eeeaae?,
aae?anao aea? eeoa noaa?aeaeoaaeueio a?aeiia?aeue, ia aaeath/enue aei
aoaeue-yeeo ?? iiyniaiue. Ia?eieooeaiee aoaeo oaeiai aeneiaethaaiiy (a
naia: Everything is perfect), cae?eniaiee ia aae?anaioa ca oeeo
ianoaaei, aoa ae, aacoiiaii, i?ioeeaaeiei oiio, i?eeeaae yeiai ie
ia?ii a iienoaaiiio aeiaaeeo. O oeueiio ?ac? ia?aae iaie yne?aaa
na?ae/aiiy ??cii? ioe?iee iiaoeyie iaei??? ? o??? ae neooaoe??: ui ?
/oaeiaei a i/ao aae?anaoa, ? aeaoeeaei aeey aae?anaioa ? iaaiaee. sse
aa/eii c ?aaeoe?? aae?anaioa, aenieaiaoi?ia /anoeia a?aeiia?ae?
ni?eeia?oueny iei ia ye oaeoeueoaoeaia, a ye iniiaia.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae caaaeueieo ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue c ?iaa?ciaaiei ii?yaeeii
ne?a, caaaeueiei ieoaiiyi c ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a eaoaai??y
iiaeaeueiino? aeanoeaa ye ocon (Iaea?iaa 1985). Ia iao iiaeyae, iiyaa
oaeeo caieoaiue coiiaeth?oueny noii?aii aae?anaioa o i?aaeeueiino? naiai
noaeaeaiiy, ui ii?iaeaeo? i?eiouaiiy. O e?iaa?noe/i?e iaooe? cae??ieeany
aeoiea i?i oa, ui a?aeiia?aeue ia caieoaiiy ?icaeyaeoaaiiai i?aeoeio
iieyaa? o i?aeoaa?aeaeaii? i?iiiceoe?eiiai ci?noo ieoaeueiiai
?a/aiiy-noeioea (Aa?aeieeiaa 1972, Aoca?ia 1988, Caeeei 1988, Oeo?eeiaa
1992, Pope 1976, Tsui 1995). Aaaaeathoue, ui, caeaaeii a?ae
iiceoeaiiai /e iaaaoeaiiai ni?yioaaiiy oaeiai caieoaiiy, iiaeia noaeeoe
i?i oa?aeoa? aeniaeoaoe?? aae?anaioa uiaei a?aeiia?ae? ia iueiai. Oae,
A.A.Aoca?ia noaa?aeaeo?, ui, aeei?enoiaoth/e ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy c
ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a (a?i iaceaa? ?o “aeaeea?aoeaieie
caieoaiiyie”), iiaaoeue oei naiei iieaco? ia eeoa oa, ui a?i ia?
i?aenoaae iaea?aeaoe noaa?aeaeoaaeueio a?aeiia?aeue ia ieo, aea e
aeyaey? aaaeai?noue oaei? a?aeiia?ae? a?ae ni?a?iciiaieea (Aoca?ia
1988). Ia iaoo ae aeoieo, iiceoeaia /e iaaaoeaia i???ioaoe?y ieoaiiy c
ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a aeaeaei ia caaaeaee ? iciaeith oa?aeoa?o
aaaeaii? a?aeiia?ae?. I?i oea na?ae/eoue oaeee i?eeeaae:

“She spent the weekend here with Greg?” A violent spasm of jea-

lousy racked him.

“No, she went away after lunch” (Miles 1985).

C eiiaioa?y aaoi?a oa c a?eueo oe?ieiai eiioaenoo aeey ian i/aaeaeiei ?
iaaaaeaiiy iiaoey io?eiaoe i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeueio a?aeiia?aeue ia na?e
iiceoeaii noi?ioeueiaaiee caieo.

Ia iao iiaeyae, eiioi?eaoeaia iaoa ieoaiue c ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii
ne?a o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a – iaea?aeaoe ?noeiio
a?aeiia?aeue, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?? iiceoeaiiai /e iaaaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o.
Ie aaaaea?ii, ui naia a?aeiia?aeue aae?anaoa aieeaa? ia oa, /e
aeneiaeaia o ieoaeueiiio ?a/aii? i?eiouaiiy noaia noaeaeaiiyi aae?anaioa
/e i?. I?eiouaiiy ia?aoai?eoueny a noaeaeaiiy a ?ac? iiceoeaii?
a?aeiia?ae? ni?a?iciiaieea, iaaaoeaia ae a?aeiia?aeue aae?anaoa noi?io?
a aae?anaioa oaea noaeaeaiiy, eio?a noia?a/eoeia eiai iiia?aaeiueiio
i?eiouaiith c i?eaiaeo yei?nue neooaoe?? /e ?? ie?aiiai aeaiaioa.
Caaaeuei? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy c ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a cao/aoue ye
iaeaoaai?e/iee i?aenoiie iiaoey uiaei oiai, ui aoei ii/ooa aai iiaa/aia
iei ?ai?oa. Aoaeo iaeaoaai?e/iino? noai?th?oueny ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy
ieoaeueii? ?ioiiaoe??. Iiia?aaei?e eiioaeno ? oei
eiioi?eaoeaii-neooaoeaiei ??oioii, ia yeiio aec??aa? i?eiouaiiy.

Brewster peered at the licence, using a flashlight.

“No points on it,” he said, sounding disappointed. “Lucky for you. This
is your first offence?” (Shaw 1985).

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui iiaeaeuei?noue aeanoeaa an?i caaaeueiei ieoaiiyi
c ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a o ca’yceo c iniaeeainoyie ?o
eiioi?eaoeaii? i?e?iaee, aei ?o neeaaeo iiaeooue aoiaeeoe ae??neiaa
ia?oi?iaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o aai ae iiaeaeuei? neiaa o cia/aii? i?eiouaiiy
oa c iio?aeieie a?ae oeueiai cia/aiiy a?aeo?ieaie: iaaiaaiaiino?,
noii?ao oiui. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui ooieoe?y oaeeo ne?a iieyaa? a
aenie?eaoe?? iaaecia/aiino?.

“Perhaps I can reach him somewhere?”

“I’m afraid that would be impossible. His Honor is out of

the country” (Sheldon 1986).

O neeaae? ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue ?icaeyaeoaaiiai i?aeoeio iiaeooue aooe
oaeiae ia?ea?e aiaaiaiino?: iiaeaeuei? neiaa o a?aeiia?aeiiio cia/aii?,
aioaoe/ia ae??neiai do. Ie ?icaeyaea?ii aaeeaaiiy iiaoeai aeua
cacia/aieo cania?a ia ye iciaeo aiaaiaiino? oiai, ooi caieoo?, o
i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeuei?e a?aeiia?ae? aae?anaoa, a ye eiai aenieee nooi?iue
ia?aeiiaiino? o i?aaeeueiino? naiai i?eiouaiiy. I?e oeueiio ca
aae?anaoii caaaeaee cae??ieaia i?aai ia aeanio aeoieo. Oea i?aai
aae?anaio cana?ae/o? /a?ac ieoaeueio ?ioiiaoe?th, c yeith a?i aeiiaey?
nai? aeneiaethaaiiy. ?ioiiaoe?y o oeueiio aeiaaeeo aenooia? ye
nai???aeia cai?ioaiiy aae?anaoo iiae?eeoeny nai?th oi/eith ci?o c
i?eaiaeo i?iiiceoe?eiiai ci?noo caieoaiiy. Ie ciaoiaeeii iiyniaiiy
ia?aaaaei?e e?eueeino? i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeueieo a?aeiia?aeae ia ieoaeuei?
?a/aiiy c ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a (c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaieo cania?a
ae?aaeaiiy aiaaiaiino? ? aac ieo) o i?anoiiceoe?? oiai, ooi caieoo?. sse
aoei aaea cacia/aii, iiaaoeue noaaeoue oaeiai ?iaeo caieoaiiy, iath/e
ia oea iaai? i?aenoaae, i???iooth/enue ia aaea a?aeii? eiio oaeoe uiaei
iaaii? neooaoe?? /e ?? neeaaeiai?. Naia neooaoeaii-eiioi?eaoeaia oa
eiioaenooaeueia ia??oioiaai?noue caaaeueieo ieoaiue c ia?iaa?niaaiei
ii?yaeeii ne?a ?, ia iaoo aeoieo, i?e/eiith i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?o
i?iiiceoe?eiiai ci?noo, ui niinoa??aa?oueny o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a.
?acii c oei aae?anao, ?aaaoth/e ia oae? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy, ia noeeueiee
aei ne?iiai iane?aeoaaiiy ?o iiaeaeueii? oiiaeueiino?, yea aeeeoo?oueny
aae?anaioii, a caeeoa?oueny i?aaiaoe/ii aeoeaiei, iacaaaeath/e ia i??o
aiaaiaiino? iiaoey o aeneiaeaiiio i?eiouaii?. Iai?eeeaae:

“So you do believe in an after life?”

“No, no. I just mean nothing matters all that much. We are not here
for long” (Murdoch 1978).

Ie?aiei ??ciiaeaeii ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue c ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a ?
caieoaiiy, aei neeaaeo yeeo aoiaeyoue aeaoee eh, huh, hey oa ?i.

“But it’s OK to have a look at it, huh?”

“Yeah, go ahead. They dusted it already” (McBain 1979).

I?ecia/aiiy caieoaiue ?c caaaeaieie aeaoeaie, ia iaoo aeoieo, iieyaa? a
aeiaeaoeia?e aiaeyoe?? aei aae?anaoa c iaoith iaea?aeaoe a?aeiia?aeue ia
na?e caieo. E??i oiai, aeey ian i/aaeaeiith ? ao?aeoeaia ooieoe?y
cacia/aieo aeaoe?a, aeei?enoiaoth/e ye?, aae?anaio ia? ia iao?
i?eaa?iooe oaaao ni?a?iciiaieea aei naiai caieoaiiy.

E.I.Aa?aei?eiaa noaa?aeaeo?, ui aeaoe aeaco? ia oa, ui caieoaiiy
iaeaaeeoue aei “iaeia?aiioii?, a?oai?, oai?euey?ii? ?iciiaii? iiae”
(Aa?aeieeiaa 1972). Aeey ian iacaia?a/iei ? noeeueiaa a?aeianaiiy
ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue ?c aeaoeaie aei noa?e i?inoi??//y, aea ie aaaaea?ii,
ui a ?aieao aeaii? iaeano? aeei?enoaiiy ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy, ui
?icaeyaeathoueny, ia cao/aoue ye “iaeia?aiioi?”, “a?oa?” /e
”oai?euey?i?”. Oeeo iaaaoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee aiie iaaoaeooue, eeoa
ia?aeoiaoe c? noa?e i?inoi??//y a ?ioo noa?o, neaae?ii, ae?eiaiai /e
iaoeiaiai iiaeaiiy, aai ae ca oiia ?aii?oaaiiy aae?anaioii aeuiai
eiioi?eaoeaiai noaoono aae?anaoa.

Iaeiei ?c i?aeoei?a caaaeueieo ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue ? ?icae?eia? ieoaiiy.
Oi?eaeuei?noue oeeo ieoaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e, ia iao iiaeyae, iieyaa? o
iiai?e caeaaeiino? ?o ooieoe?iiaeueii-naiaioe/iiai ci?noo a?ae
?ioiiaoe?eiiai iaethiea iaio /anoei oeueiai caieoaiiy. sse iaea?eueo
oeiia? aeae?eythoueny oae? ?ioiiaoe?ei? iiaeae?: 1) ia?oa /anoeia
?icae?eiaiai ieoaiiy aeiiaey?oueny c? niaaeiith ?ioiiaoe??th, a ae?oaa –
c aeno?aeiith; 2) iaeaea? /anoeie ?icae?eiaiai ieoaiiy aeiiaeythoueny
c? niaaeiith ?ioiiaoe??th.

O ia?o?e iiaeae? aeei?enoaiiy niaaeii? ?ioiiaoe?? a ii?aeiaii? c i?yiei
ii?yaeeii ne?a coiiaeth? ni?eeiyooy aae?anaoii ia?oi? iieiaeie
?icae?eiaiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy ye noaeaeaiiy aae?anaioa i?i iaaio
neooaoe?th, ae?oaa ae /anoeia oeueiai caieoaiiy, aeiiaeaia c
aeno?aeiith ?oiiaoe??th, aeaeiaeo?oueny aae?anaoii ye niiioeaiiy
iia?aeiieoe naith aeoieo uiaei noaeaeaiiy iiaoey, aeneiaeaiiai iei o
ia?o?e /anoei?.

Aeoiaey/e c iniiaii? iniaeeaino? ?icae?eiaeo ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue,
aeiiaeaieo ca iiaeaeeth 1, ia iao iiaeyae, eia?/ii aoei a c?iaeoe oaeee
aeniiaie uiaei a?aeiia?ae? ia oaeiai ?iaeo caieoaiiy. A?aeiia?aeue iiaea
aooe: a) oi?niiiith (yeui aiia ca?aa?oueny c iiceoeaiith /e iaaaoeaiith
i???ioaoe??th noaeaeaiiy, ui neeaaea? ia?oo /anoeio ?icae?eiaiai
caieoaiiy); a) eiio?aaeeeoi?iith, aai iieai?/iith (eiee a?aeiia?aeue
noia?a/eoue noaa?aeaeoaaeuei?e /e caia?a/i?e oiiaeueiino? noaeaeaiiy,
caeeaaeaii? a aeaeea?aoeai?e /anoei? ?icae?eiaiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy).

Aenieaiaoi?iee oa?aeoa? a?aeiia?ae? ia ?icae?eia? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy ia ?
iano?eueee yne?aai ae?aaeaiei (a aeey oi?niiieo a?aeiia?aeae ia
oa?aeoa?iee acaaae?), ye o caaaeueieo ieoaeueieo ?a/aiiyo c
?iaa?niaaiei oa ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a.

?icae?eia? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy, aeiiaeai? ca iiaeaeeth 2, cie?aia, eiee
iaeaea? ?o /anoeie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny niaaeiith ?oiiaoe??th,
ae?aaeathoue oiaaiai?noue iiaoey a ?noeiiino? naiai noaeaeaiiy.

Aeaooi c e?iaa?no?a aeae?ey? ye iiaeeeao ua iaeio ?ioiiaoe?eio iiaeaeue
?icae?eiaiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy, ca?aeii yei? iaeaea? eiai /anoeie
aeiiaeythoueny c aeno?aeiith ?ioiiaoe??th (Oeo?eeiaa 1995). Ia iaoo
aeoieo, o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia?oa /anoeia ?icae?eiaiai ieoaiiy ca nai?ie
neioaeoeei-naiaioe/ieie iciaeaie ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae caaaeueiiai
ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy c ia?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a. Ae?oaa ae /anoeia ?
nai???aeiei ?ioaineo?eaoi?ii ?ioa?iaaoeaiino?, i?aaenoaaeaii? o ia?o?e
/anoei?.

Niaoe?aeuei? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy iiaeooue aooe ye iiaiineeaaeiaeie, oae ?
iaiiaiineeaaeiaeie (ae?ioe/ieie). Iiaiineeaaeia? niaoe?aeuei? ieoaeuei?
?a/aiiy ooieoe?iiothoue o ?iciiai?e iia?, ye i?aaeei, a ?ie?
?i?oe?thth/eo ?aie?e ae?aeia?/ii? ?aeiino? caieoaiiy-a?aeiia?aeue.
Ae?ioe/i? niaoe?aeuei? ieoaiiy o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? iathoue
?ao?iniaeoeaiee oa?aeoa? caaaeyee ?o naiaioe/iiio ceeooth c
iiia?aaeiueith ?aie?eith ae?aeia?/ii? ?aeiino? (inue /iio ae?aeia?/ia
?aei?noue, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeeoue ae?ioe/ia niaoe?aeueia ieoaiiy o
ooieoe?? ?aaeoeaiiai, ia iiaea aooe iaio ye o?e/eaiiith).

A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao iaiiaiineeaaeiaeie iiaeooue aooe ia eeoa ?aaeoeai?
?aie?ee, ioi?ieai? ye ieoaeuei?, aea e ?i?oe?thth/? ?aie?ee ae?aeia?/ii?
?aeiino? oaeiae. I?e oeueiio ?o neioaene/ia aoaeiaa nooo?ai
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae neioaene/ii? aoaeiae ae?ioe/ieo niaoe?aeueieo
ieoaiue, oaeeoeo c iaoith ooi/iaiiy aai c’ynoaaiiy yeiainue aeaiaioa
iiia?aaeiuei? ?aie?ee. A?aei?ii?noue iieyaa? a oiio, ui a oeueiio ?ac?
aenie?oeeoiiai ae?aaeaiiy iaaoaa? eeoa naiaioe/ii iaeaaaii?oee aeaiaio
ieoaeueiiai aeneiaethaaiiy, o ?ice?eoo? yeiai iiaaoeue a?ae/oaa?
iniaeeao iio?aao. An? ae ?io? eiiiiiaioe (aeeth/ath/e ieoaeueia neiai
ye iniiaiee ao?eaoo niaoe?aeueiiai ieoaiiy) ia iaceaathoueny
aae?anaioii o ca’yceo c oei, ui ?o aeineoue eaaei aeaanoe c eiie?aoii?
iiaeaii?ai? neooaoe??. Iai?eeeaae:

“Occupation, sir?” asked the immigration officer.

“I’m a lawyer”.

“Here on business?”

“In a manner of speaking. Also pleasure”.

“Anticipated length of stay?”

“I’m not sure. No more than a week” (Ludlum 1989).

Ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey ae?ioe/ieo niaoe?aeueieo ieoaiue
noeioethth/iai oa?aeoa?o ia? neooaoe?y, yea coiiaeth? ?o neioaene/io
aoaeiao. Ia iao iiaeyae, iaeneiaeueia ae?ioe/i?noue oaeeo ieoaiue
iiynith?oueny oei, ui aiie aaeeaathoueny o neooaoe?yo, ui aeiaaathoue
yeiaeoaeaeoiai ?aaaoaaiiy.

Ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy, ye? iio?aaothoue ia eeoa i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aai
caia?a/aiiy naiai i?iiiceoe?eiiai ci?noo, aea e ?ice?eooy yeiainue
iaaiiai eiai eiiiiiaioa aoee a?aeianai? iaie aei ieoaiue ci?oaiiai
oeio. Oe? caieoaiiy oi?eaeuei? oei, ui aiie ooieoe?iiothoue ia
aaoiiiiii, a a ieoaeueiiio ?a/aii? ?ioiai oeio — caaaeueiiio.

I?iaaaeaiee iaie aiae?c ieoaiue ci?oaiiai oeio na?ae/eoue i?i
iayai?noue o ieo aeaio aa??aio?a niaoe?aeueii-ieoaeueiiai cia/aiiy:
1) aenie?oeeoiiai oa 2) ?iie?oeeoiiai.

Aenie?oeeoia niaoe?aeueii-ieoaeueia cia/aiiy ?aae?co?oueny i?e
aenie?oeeoiiio ae?aaeaii? an??? naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e ieoaeueiiai
?a/aiiy, cie?aia, caieoo eiiiaoaioiino? oa i?aaeiaoo caieoo.

”Do you know when the parcel was sent off?”

“Yes. On Friday morning” (Le Carre 1987).

Iiceoeaia a?aeiia?aeue ia caieo eiiiaoaioiino? o ieoaeueiiio ?a/aii?
ci?oaiiai oeio, eiee aiia ia noi?iaiaeeoueny a?aeiia?aeaeth ia i?aaeiao
caieoo, iiaea ni?eeiaoeny aae?anaioii ye ?ioi?iaoe?eii iaaeinoaoiy ?
ni?e/eith? iiaoi?io iinoaiiaeo niaoe?aeueiiai ieoaiiy c iaoith
anoaiiaeaiiy i?aaeiaoa caieoo.

“Do you know why I haven’t done it so far?”

“Yeah.”

“Why?”

“You couldn’t find me” (Chandler 1985).

Ieoaeueia ?a/aiiy ci?oaiiai oeio iaaoaa? aenie?oeeoiiai
niaoe?aeueii-ieoaeueiiai cia/aiiy o aeiaaeeo, eiee aae?anaio ia?aae oei,
ye caa?iooenue ?c caieoaiiyi niaoe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, caieoo? a
aae?anaoa aeicaieo ia iueiai, ona?aeiiethth/e, ui aac oeueiai eiai caieo
iiaea aooe ni?eeiyoee ni?a?iciiaieeii ye iaei?aeoiee.

“May I ask you how old you are, Muriel?”

“Yes. I’m thirty-four” (Murdoch 1978).

Iaaaoeaia a?aeiia?aeue ia caieoaiiy oaeiai ?iaeo na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
niaoe?aeueii-ieoaeueia cia/aiiy aae?anaoii ia aoaea ?ice?eoi.

“May I ask why you’re so sure?”

“No” (Hailey 1986).

?iie?oeeoia niaoe?aeueii-ieoaeueia cia/aiiy c’yaey?oueny a caaaeueieo
(ca nai?th neioaene/iith aoaeiaith) ieoaeueieo ?a/aiiyo, yeui
cai?iiiiiaaio iiaoeai ?aio ni?a?iciiaiee ioe?ith? ye iiieeeiao. A oiio
iaiao?aei?noue cai?ie ?? ia i?aaeeueio aeey aae?anaoa noa? i/aaeaeiith.

“Are you from Houston?”

“No, from New Orleans” (Morris 1993).

Aeaeeoe/i? neiaa, ye? ? ?aiith caaaeueiiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy,
iaaeathoue eiio ?iie?oeeoia niaoe?aeueii-ieoaeueia cia/aiiy oaeiae.

”Is it far?”

“Only a step” (Murdoch 1978).

sse aa/eii c i?eeeaaeo, caaaeath/e ia a?aeiini?noue iiiyoue
”aeaeaei-aeecueei”, aae?anao aaaaea? ca iio??aia iaeneiaeueii
eiie?aoecoaaoe naith a?aeiia?aeue, iaaeeaeath/e ?? oei naiei aei
a?aeiia?ae? ia niaoe?aeueia ieoaiiy.

Caaaeuei? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy iathoue cia/aiiy niaoe?aeueiiai ieoaiiy
(i?aaenoaaeaia ?iie?oeeoii), yeui aei ?o neeaaeo aoiaeyoue iaicia/ai?
eaaioeo?eaoi?e: all, one, long, ever, often; some, any, every, no oa
iio?aei? a?ae ieo neeaaeai? caeiaiieee c –body, -thing, -one oa ?i.,
ye? nai?th i?enooi?noth a ?a/aii? noai?ththoue aeiaeaoeiao iaeanoue
iayniino?. E?ea?aeoaaoe oeth iayni?noue iiaeia eeoa a?ae?aaaoaaaoe ia
oaea caieoaiiy-noeioe ye ia ieoaeueia ?a/aiiy niaoe?aeueiiai oeio, oiaoi
?ioi?iaoe??th eiie?aoiiai oa?aeoa?o.

“Are there any jewels left?” Mr.Hasbrook asked in surprise.

“Only the garnets and pearls”, Miss Pridwell replied (Walker 1990).

Niaoe?aeueii-ieoaeueia cia/aiiy oa?aeoa?ia oei caaaeueiei ieoaeueiei
?a/aiiyi, ?noeii?noue/ia?noeii?noue i?iiiceoe?? yeeo i/aaeaeia ye
aae?anaoo, oae ? aae?anaioo o ca’yceo c iniaeea?noth ?o naiaioe/iiai
iaiiaiaiiy. Iai?eeeaae:

“You got a name?” the gunnery sergeant asked.

“Bert Russo, I’m – “ (Clancy 1990).

I?eeeaaee ieoaiue ci?oaiiai oeio c ?iie?oeeoiei niaoe?aeueii- ieoaeueiei
cia/aiiyi na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui o iaaeao ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy, yea ?, ye
a?aeiii, i?yiith oi?iith ae?aaeaiiy iiaeaii?aiai aeoo caieoaiiy, ii?o/ c
iciaeaie ?ioa?iaaoeaiino?, ui o?aaeeoe?eii aeae?eythoueny e?iaa?noaie
(oa?aeoa?iee ii?yaeie ne?a, aeei?enoaiiy ieoaeueieo ne?a, a?aeiia?aeiiai
?ioiiaoe?eiiai oa a?ao?/iiai ioi?ieaiiy), iiaeooue ?nioaaoe ?io? iciaee
?ioa?iaaoeaiino?, ye? ie a?aeiineii aei iai?yieo cania?a ae?aaeaiiy
?ioa?iaaoeaiiai cia/aiiy. Nai?th iiyaith o ieoaeueiiio ?a/aii? aiie
na?ae/aoue i?i iaya?noue o ciaiiyo iiaoey ua iaei??? i?iaaeeie, yeo
ne?ae caiiaieoe iaiao?aeiith ?ioi?iaoe??th.

A?aei?ii?noue aeueoa?iaoeaieo ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue a?ae oaea ?icaeyiooeo
iaie ni?e/eiaia oaeeie ianoaaeiaie: 1) iniaeea?noth naiaioe/iiai
iaiiaiaiiy: a aeueoa?iaoeaiiio caieoaii? aae?anaio i?iiiio? aeae?eueea
aeueoa?iaoeaieo a?aeiia?aeae aeey oiai, uia aae?anao aea?aa iaeio c ieo;
2) iaiaeiicia/i?noth ?o neioaene/ii? no?oeoo?e: ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy
oeueiai oeio iiaeooue aoaeoaaoeny ia iniia? caaaeueiiai aai ae
niaoe?aeueiiai ieoaiiy. A iaio aeiaaeeao o ae?oa?e /anoei? ieoaeueiiai
?a/aiiy i?noeoueny aeueoa?iaoeaa. Caieoaiiy, o yeiio ia?oa /anoeia
ca?aa?oueny c ?iaa?niaaiei caaaeueiei ieoaiiyi, a ae?oaa i?noeoue
caia?a/aiiy neacaiiio a ia?o?e /anoei?, ie aaaaea?ii aa??aioii
caaaeueiiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy c ?iaa?niaaiei ii?yaeeii ne?a. A ioaea,
ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy ia c?acie Is Tom ill? oa Is Tom ill, or not? ie
?icaeyaea?ii ye naiaioe/ii ??aiioe?ii?.

Ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy ?, aacoiiaii, iniiaiei, aea ia ?aeeiei caniaii caieoo
iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??. ?ioa?iaaoeaia cia/aiiy iiaeooue iaoe e ?io?
eiioi?eaoeai? oeie ?a/aiiy, naiaioeea yeeo a?aeiia?aea? oiiaai
oni?oiino? iiaeaii?aiai aeoo eaaneoeao. Iniiaieie iioeaaie, eio??
iaoiiaeththoue iiyao oaeiai iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, ?: a?aenooi?noue
iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui aeeeeea? a aae?anaioa ineoieia?/io
iaiao?aei?noue a ?? iaea?aeaii?, a oea, a naith /a?ao, ni?e/eith?
iaiao?aei?noue aiaeyoe?? aei aae?anaoa c iaoith e?ea?aeaoe??
?ioi?iaoe?eii? i?iaaeeie a ciaiiyo aae?anaioa.

O ?iciia?aeieo ?a/aiiyo aenie?oeeoia aeciaiiy iiaoeai iaeiiai c
iaaaaeaieo iioea?a ni?eeia?oueny eiai ni?a?iciiaieeii ye iciaea caieoo
?ioi?iaoe??. Oae, cie?aia, i?i a?aenooi?noue o ciaiiyo iiaoey iaaii?
?ioi?iaoe?? na?ae/aoue i?aaeeeaoe, i?aaenoaaeai? eiai?oeaieie
ae??neiaaie know, say, tell, understand oa ?i., aaeeoeie a caia?a/i?e
oi?i?. I?aaeiao caieoo aenie?eo?oueny i?ae?yaeiei aeiaeaoeiaei ?a/aiiyi,
yea ? iane?aeeii o?ainoi?ioaaiiy ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy a iai?yio
?ioa?iaaoeaio eiino?oeoe?th.

“Lady, I don’t know who you’re talking about, and I’m a busy – “

“My Joe. Joe Romano” (Sheldon 1986).

I?i ineoieia?/io iio?aao a iaa?aeii?e ?ioi?iaoe?? aae?anaio neaiae?co?
/a?ac aaeeaaiiy ne?a /e ae?ac?a-?iea?ceoea?a wonder, want to know, would
like to know, need to know oiui, o neeaae? neeaaeiii?ae?yaeiiai
?a/aiiy. Oae? aeneiaethaaiiy aenie?eothoue “oiiao ue?ino?” – iiaaoeue
i?aaia io?eiaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th, ui ? iniiaiei iioeaii iiaeaii?aiai aeoo
eaaneoeao.

“Captain, I want to know what you did tonight”, the civilian asked.

“I just flew a very long mission, sir ” (Clancy 1990).

Iiaaoeue caa?oa?oueny aei ieoaiue-eiinoaoea?a, ?ic?aoiaoth/e ia
eiioi?eaoeaia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ia?oia?a ii eiioi?eaoe??. Aea o aaaaoueio
aeiaaeeao aae?anaio ia? i?aenoaae noii?aaoenue o oiio, /e ia eiai
caieoaiiy aoaea aeaia a?aeiia?aeue. O oeueiio ?ac? a?i ciooaiee
aaeaaaoenue aei oeo iiaieo cania?a, ye?, caaaeyee nai?i
eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueiei iniaeeainoyi, iiaeooue noeioethaaoe
aae?anaoa aei a?aeiia?ae?-?aaeoe??. Cie?aia, a eiioi?eaoeaii
oneeaaeiai?e neooaoe?? caieoo ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaaoeue aeineoue /anoi
aeei?enoiao? ?iia?aoeai? eiino?oeoe??, ui niiioeathoue aae?anaoa aei
aa?aaeueii? ae??. Oae? aeneiaethaaiiy aenie?eothoue iaeio c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo oiia oni?oiino? iiaeaii?aiai aeoo eaaneoeao, cie?aia,
aiaeyoe?th aei aae?anaoa c iaoith onoiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o a
ciaiiyo iiaoey. Aae?anaio aiaeth? aei naiai ni?a?iciiaieea /a?ac
aeei?enoaiiy o oi?i? ?iia?aoeaa ia?oi?iaoeaieo ae??ne?a answer,
explain, say, tell oa ?i., ia’?aeiaieo ca ni?eueiei naiaioe/iei
cia/aiiyi ”eacaoe”.

“Answer up, who goes there?”

“Me, Riley Henderson” (Capote 1989).

sse aoei aaea cacia/aii, ii?o/ c ?ioi?iaoeaieie ieoaeueieie
aeneiaethaaiiyie ie aeae?ey?ii inaaaei?ioi?iaoeai?, aei yeeo, cie?aia,
a?aeiineii caieoaiiy, i?aaenoaaeai? oaenoii caaaaeee, oa caieoaiiy
a?eoi?eie.

Niaoeeo?ea ooieoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? caieoaiue-caaaaeie oa
caieoaiue a?eoi?ei iieyaa? o oiio, ui aae?anaio niiioea? naiai
ni?a?iciiaieea ia i?inoi aei a?aeiia?ae? ia na?e caieo (ye o aeiaaeeo c
?ioi?iaoeaieie caieoaiiyie), a aei ?ioaineaiiai iiooeo oe???
a?aeiia?ae?.

O naith /a?ao, ooieoe?iiaeueii iaoioiaeieie ? e a?aeiia?ae? ia ieo:
a?aeiia?aeath/e ia inaaaei?ioi?iaoeai? caieoaiiy, aae?anao aeaiiino?o?
nai? ciaiiy, aeath/e a?aeiia?aeue ia ?ioi?iaoeaia caieoaiiy, a?i
e?ea?aeo? iaciaiiy aae?anaioa. Aae?anao ?ioi?iaoeaieo caieoaiue
a?aeiia?aea? ia caieoaiiy oae, ye a?i aaaaea? ca iio??aia. A?aeiia?aeue
aae?anaoa inaaaei?ioi?iaoeaieo caieoaiue iiaeiia ca?aaoeny c
i?iaiiciaaiith a?aeiia?aeaeth aae?anaioa.

I?aaiaoe/i? onoaiiaee aae?anaioa ?ioi?iaoeaieo oa inaaaei-?ioi?iaoeaieo
caieoaiue a?ae??ciythoueny.

I?aaiaoe/ia onoaiiaea aae?anaioa ?ioi?iaoeaieo caieoaiue — niiioeaoe
aae?anaoa aei a?aeiia?ae? ia na?e caieo c iaoith e?ea?aeaoe??
?ioi?iaoe?eii? i?iaaeeie a ciaiiyo aae?anaioa. Aae?anaio inaaaei-
?ioi?iaoeaieo caieoaiue ia? aea? i?aaiaoe/i? onoaiiaee: 1)
aaciina?aaeith oa 2) iiina?aaeeiaaio. (I?i i?aaiaoe/i? onoaiiaee
aae?anaioa caaaaeie aeea. E.A.Ayoeiiaa 1989). Aaciina?aaeith
i?aaiaoe/io onoaiiaeo ne?ae ?icoi?oe ye niiioeaiiy aae?anaoa aei
a?aeiia?ae?-?aaeoe??. Iiina?aaeeiaaia i?aaiaoe/ia onoaiiaea ni?yiiaaia
ia ?aae?caoe?th i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue (o aeiaaeeo caieoaiue-caaaaeie –
iaa/eoe aa/eoe uinue iacae/aeia, i?ae?ania o uiaeaiiiio ioi/aii?, oiui.
O aeiaaeeo caieoaiue a?eoi?eie — i?ieiio?iethaaoe ciaiiy aae?anaoa,
noeioethaaoe eiai iaioaeueio aeoeai?noue, cie?aia, ?icaeaaoe
aeiao?aeeea?noue, oi?iiy i???iooaaoenue o neeaaei?e neooaoe?? ? o.i.).

Iniaeea?noth inaaaei?ioi?iaoeaieo caieoaiue o ii??aiyii? c
?ioi?iaoeaieie ? oa, ui ?ioi?iaoeai? caieoaiiy aeieeathoue ?c i?iaeaiii?
neooaoe?? (yeith ? neooaoe?y iaciaiiy iaaii? ?ioi?iaoe??), a
inaaaei?ioi?iaoeai? caieoaiiy oeth neooaoe?th noai?ththoue “ooo/ii”.

Inaaaei?ioi?iaoeai? caieoaiiy, aoaeo/e o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao
iaieoaeueieie ca no?oeoo?ith, iaia’yceiai ?aae?cothoue ieoaeueiee ci?no.
Oeueiio ni?eythoue ineoieia?/i?, nioe?aeuei? oa iiai? /eiieee. Iiaieie
ia?ea?aie ?ioa?iaaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o oaeeo aeneiaethaaiue ? aaeeaaiiy
ne?a iniaiaiai aeaeeneno i?e ii?ooaii? iniiaii? oiiae aeaeeoe/iino? –
iayaiino? /ooo?ai? ni?eeiaiino? oa?aeoa?eciaaiiai i?aaeiaoo;
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ia iaiiaiioa i?iiiiiaaiiai ?a/aiiy, o yeiio
a?aenooi?e iaaiee aeaiaio, aeei?enoaiiy iaoaoi?e/iiai aea?aaeaioa
cai?noue i?yii? iii?iaoe?? caaaaeaiiai aeaiioaoa — o caaaaeeao oa
aeei?enoaiiy iaicia/aieo aeaiao?a (iaicia/aieo caeiaiiee?a, iaicia/aiiai
a?oeeey) — o eiio?ieueieo caieoaiiyo a?eoi?eie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyaeathoueny
aoi?eii? ooieoe?? ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy. Y?oiooth/enue ia ?icoi?ii?
aaaeeeaino? aea/aiiy i?iaeaie iiaeaii?aiai aieeao, oiaoi oi?aae?iiy
ethaenueeith iiaaae?ieith ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeaiiy, ie aaaaea?ii ca
aeioe?eueia aeine?aeaeoaaoe aoi?eii? ooieoe?? ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy naia c
oe??? oi/ee ci?o.

Ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy o aoi?eiieo cia/aiiyo iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey
aieeao ia ae?yeuei?nio oa aiioe?eio iiaaae?ieo aae?anaoa. O nai?io
aeine?aeaeaii? ie iaiaaeo?iinue ?icaeyaeii oeo ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny iiaoeai c iaoith aieeao ia ae?yeuei?nio iiaaae?ieo
ni?a?iciiaieea a iaaeao neooaoe?? eiioi?eaoeaiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa oa
eiioe?eoii? neooaoe??.

A oiiaao neooaoe?? eiioi?eaoeaiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa aae?anaio iiaea
aieeaaoe ia ae?yeuei?nio iiaaae?ieo aae?anaoa /a?ac iiaeaii?a? aeoe
?aeaanoeao oa i?iiiceao, ui i?aaenoaaeai? ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie.

?aeaanoea aoiaeeoue aei ?ic?yaeo niiioeaeueieo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a ? ?
ae?aaeaiiyi aieaaeyaeaiiy iiaoey, yea ni?yiiaaia ia eaocaoe?th ae??
aae?anaoa. Caeaaeii a?ae niiniao ae?aaeaiiy aaaeaii? aeey aae?anaioa
ae??, ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy o ooieoe?? i?ioaiiy aoee iiae?eai? iaie ia aea?
a?oie. Aei neeaaeo ia?oi? a?oie aoiaeyoue ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy c
aenie?oeeoii ae?aaeaiith ae??th. Ae?oaa a?oia i?noeoue ieoaeuei?
?a/aiiy, o yeeo aaaeaia aeey aae?anaioa ae?y i?aaenoaaeaia ?iie?oeeoii.
Ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy ae?oai? a?oie ?iciaaeathoueny , o naith /a?ao, ia
aea? i?aea?oie: caieoaiiy-i?ioaiiy i?i aeica?e (ni?aaaei?e noa’?eo ae??
– aae?anao) oa caieoaiiy-iaoyee.

Ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy, ui ni?aa?aeiinyoueny c iiaeaii?aei aeoii i?iiiceao ?
ia?aaeathoue ?ioaioe?th i?iiiioaaiiy, aoee iiae?eai? iaie ca ?o
ooieoe?iiaeueiith iciaeith ia oae?, ye? aaeeaathoueny 1) o ooieoe??
i?iiiioaaiiy iineoae; 2) o ooieoe?? cai?ioaiiy; 3) a noaanoeai?e
ooieoe??.

Ie aecia/a?ii i?iiiioaaiiy iineoae ye caieo aae?anaioa i?i
aeioe?euei?noue aeeiiaiiy iei o??? /e ?ioi? ae?? ia ei?enoue aae?anaoa.

“May I help you?” he asked.

“I would like to speak with you, Reverend Tiffany,” replied Ann (Dunne
1986).

Cai?ioaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny iaie ye caieo a aae?anaoa uiaei eiai aaaeaiiy
aeeiiaoe aaiaoaeoeaio aeey iueiai, c oi/ee ci?o aae?anaioa, ae?th aai
ae ae?th, yea a ?ioa?anao iaio eiioi?eaio?a.

“I’m giving a dinner party tomorrow night. Would you like to come?”
[…]

“Why not?” (Sheldon 1986).

Noaanoeaio ooieoe?th aeeiiothoue o? ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy, /a?ac ye?
cae?enith?oueny caieo uiaei aaaeaiiy /e iiaeeeaino? aeeiiaiiy iaaii?
ae?? aae?anaoii, aai ae aae?anaoii oa aae?anaioii ?acii. Ieoaeuei?
eiino?oeoe??, aaeeo? o noaanoeai?e ooieoe??, ia ? eii?neaieie (ui
a?ae??ciy? ?o a?ae ?ioeo ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue, ye? aaeeaathoueny aeey
ae?aaeaiiy iiaeaii?aiai aeoo i?iiiceao).

“It’s too late to get it together tonight, how about tomorrow?”
(Collins 1987).

Ioi?iethth/e iiaeaii?a? aeoe ?aeaanoeao oa i?iiiceao ca aeiiiiiaith
ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue, aae?anaio oaeei /eiii iaaea? ?i aa?/eeaiai
cao/aiiy, oei naiei niiioeath/e aae?anaoa aei eiioi?eaoeaiiai
ia?oia?noaa. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui aae?anaio ia caaaeaee
aeei?enoiao? ieoaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? c iaoith aeiiiaoeny a?ae aae?anaoa
aeeiiaiiy iaaii? ae??, aoaeo/e aa?/eeaei. Aeey oiai, uia aeiaeoeny
aeeiiaiiy aaaeaii? aeey naaa ae??, aai ae, iaaiaee, ia?aoeiaeeoe
aeeiiaiith iaaaaeaii? ae??, aae?anaio iiaea aieeaaoe ia aiioe?eiee
noai aae?anaoa /a?ac aeei?enoaiiy ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue. Cie?aia, a
oiiaao eiioe?eoii? neooaoe?? iiaaoeue caa?oa?oueny aei iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a
iia?ice oa aeiei?o, ioi?ieaieo o aeaeyae? ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy ye aei
aoaeoeaieo cania?a aieeao ia ae?yeuei?nio iiaaae?ieo aae?anaoa.

“I began with a request, Prime Minister. You saw fit to evade my re
quest three times. I regard that as an unfriendly act. And so I have a
new question: Is it your desire to be at war with the United States of
America?” (Clancy 1997).

As Grangier passed Zuckerman, he hissed, “Why are you sitting there,
you idiot? She’s gone” (Sheldon 1986).

sse iieacaei aeine?aeaeaiiy, aoi?eii? ooieoe?? ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe ia oii? eiioi?eaoeaii? oa nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae?? iiaoe?a,
c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?ieueiaeo noinoie?a oa iniaeno?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?? A?AeIA?AAEAI? O

OAEEO IOAE?EAOe?ssO AAOI?A:

1. Aaaec N. Eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? caieoaeueieo ?a/aiue,
ye? aaeeaathoueny o ooieoe?? i?ioaiiy (ia iaoa??ae? aiae?enueei? iiae)
// Iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ineoieia?? ieneaii?ai? oa iiaii? ae?yeueiino?
/ Studia Methodologica. – Oa?iii?eue, 1997. – Aei. 3. – N.161-163.

2. Aaaec N. Iacaieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy o ooieoe?? eaaneoea?a // Iaoeiaee
a?niee AAeO. — 1997. – N 5. — N. 54-55.

3. Aaaec N. Caieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy o ooieoe?? i?iiiioaaiiy iineoae //
Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. — 1998. – N 3. — N. 72-75.

4. Aaaec N.O. Caieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy ye iniiaiee can?a ae?aaeaiiy
?ioa?iaaoeaiiai cia/aiiy // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ?iiaii-aa?iainueei?
o?eieia??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieiaeeo a/aieo. – AEeoiie?: Iie?a?ao?ea,
1997. – N.178-183.

5.Aaaec N. Ooieoe?iiaeueii-naiaioe/i? oa i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino?
ieoaeueii-a?aeiia?aeii? oi?ie aeey inaaaei-?ioi?iaoeaieo caieoaiue (ia
i?eeeaae? caieoaiue a?eoi?eie) // Iaoeia? caienee ani??aio?a: Ca.
iaoe.i?aoeue. – Aei. 2. – Eooeuee, 1997. – N.12-18.

6. Aaaec N. Eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino?
caaaaeie // I?ia?aei? e?iaa?noe/i? eiioeaioe?? e?ioey OO noie?ooy: Oace
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. – Euea?a, 1996. – N. 75-76.

7. Gedz S. Types of Questions According to the Expected Answer // 2d
National TESOL Ukraine Conference “The Art and Science of TESOL”. –
Vinnytsia, 1997. – P. 150.

AIIOAOe?ss /RESUME/

Aaaec N.O. Eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? aeneiaethaaiue c
?ioa?iaaoeaiei cia/aiiyi o no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae. – Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith naiaioeei-i?aaiaoe/ieo oa
eiioi?eaoeaieo yaeu, iia’ycaieo c ?ioa?iaaoeai?noth a no/ani?e
aiae?enuee?e iia?. A ?iaio? ooi/ith?oueny ? aeiiiaith?oueny a?aeiiee a
e?oa?aoo?? ia?ae?e iciae ?ioa?iaaoeaiino?, a oaeiae oaeniiii?y
ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue. Ia??oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeyaeo ieoaeueieo
aeneiaethaaiue iaa?ae’?iii a?ae a?aeiia?aeae ia ieo. Anoaiiaeaii e
?icaeyiooi ie?ai? oeie inaaaei?ioi?iaoeaieo ieoaiue. Aeine?aeaeai?
aoi?eii? ooieoe?? ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue ia iniia? eiioi?eaoeaii? oa
nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae?? iiaoe?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ioi?iaoeai? ieoaiiy, inaaaei?ioi?iaoeai? ieoaiiy, oeie
ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue, iciaee ?ioa?iaaoeaiino?, ia?aeiia ooieoe?y
ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue, aoi?eii? ooieoe?? ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue.

Aaaec N.O. Eiiioieeaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe auneacuaaiee n
eioa??iaaoeaiui cia/aieai a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 – aa?iaineea ycuee. – Eeaaneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue eeiaaenoe/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth naiaioeei-i?aaiaoe/aneeo e
eiiioieeaoeaiuo yaeaiee, naycaiiuo n eioa?iaaoeaiinoueth a nia?aiaiiii
aiaeeeneii ycuea. A ?aaioa ooi/iyaony e aeiiieiyaony ecaanoiue a
eeoa?aoo?a nienie i?eciaeia eioa?iaaoeaiinoe, a oaeaea oaeniiiiey
aii?ineoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee. Iainiiauaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue
?anniio?aiey aii?ineoaeueiuo auneacuaaiee a ia?ac?uaiie nayce n
ioaaoaie ia ieo. Onoaiiaeaiu e ?anniio?aiu iaeioi?ua oeiu
inaaaeieioi?iaoeaiuo aii?inia. Ia iniiaa eiiioieeaoeaiiai e
nioeeaeueiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aiai?yueo enneaaeiaaiu aoi?e/iua ooieoeee
aii?ineoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eioi?iaoeaiua aii?inu, inaaaeieioi?iaoeaiua aii?inu,
oeiu aii?ineoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee, i?eciaee eioa?iaaoeaiinoe, ia?ae/iay
ooieoeey aii?ineoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee, aoi?e/iua ooieoeee
aii?ineoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee.

Gedz S.F. The Communicative and Pragmatic Features of Utterances with
Interrogative Meaning in Modern English. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree in philology by speciality 10.02.04 –
Germanic Languages, Kyiv State Linguistic University, Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is dedicated to the study of the semantic, pragmatic
and communicative phenomena in present-day English, which convey
interrogative meaning. In this work the list of indications of
interrogative content, which is well-known in literature, as well as the
taxonomy of question sentences, precisely given, are further
completed. It is clearly shown that it is absolutely

necessary to examine interrogative expressions as units inseparable from
the answers given in response to them. Several types of
pseudo-informative questions are determined and examined. Secondary
functions of interrogative sentences are researched on the basis of the
communicative and social interaction of the speakers.

Key words: informative questions, pseudo-informative questions, types of
interrogative sentences, indications of interrogative content, the
primary function of interrogative sentences, secondary functions of
interrogative sentences.

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