EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OAeE 804.1- 085:82.035

OA?AAE ??EIA ?AAAI?AIA

Eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino?

o?aioeocueeiai ae?eiaiai eenoa a i?ea?iae? oa

ia?aeeaae?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.16 — ia?aeeaaeiciaanoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ia
eaoaae?? oai??? oa i?aeoeee ia?aeeaaeo ?iiainueeeo iia

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee —

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?

*a?aaeie/aiei Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oai??? oa

i?aeoeee ia?aeeaaeo ?iiainueeeo

iia Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio

IAI Oe?a?ie

Oea/aiei I?ano Ai?eniae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa ?inoeoooo

iiaiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie ?i. I.I.Iioaai?

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio I?eieoithe sse?a

?aaiiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e

o?aioeocueei? o?eieia?? Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?iai? A?eai??y Neiai?iaee, eaoaae?a ?iiainueei?

o?eieia??, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 24 ” a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.001.11. a

Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252601, i. Ee?a, aoe. O.
Oaa/aiea, 14 , e.56).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252601, i. Ee?a,aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58, e.10).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 24 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ae.o.i.A?eiaa
A.Ae.

?aoa?iaaia ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ieo
iciae o?aioeocueeiai ae?eiaiai eenoa(AeE) a i?ea?iae? oa ia?aeeaae?.

C 80-o ?ie?a a ia?aeeaaeiciaanoa? ii/aa ?icaeaaoeny oaeee ia?niaeoeaiee
oai?aoeei-i?aeoe/iee iai?yiie, ye aeai?iaa oai??y ia?aeeaaeo. Aiia ia?
iaaeaoe ? i?aeoeeai, ? e?eoeeai ieceo ia’?eoeaieo, nenoaiieo iieaciee?a
aeey aecia/aiiy oeo oaenoiaeo iniaeeainoae, a?aeoai?aiiy yeeo ?
iaiao?aeiei ? aeinoaoi?i aeey aeai?iai? aaeaeaaoiino? i?ea?iaeo ?
ia?aeeaaeo. Ia aaaeeeaino? ii??aiyeueiiai aea/aiiy oaeno?a a iaaeao
iaaieo aeai??a oa nooo?a?e aac? oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey ?icaoaeiae
aeai?iaeo oai??e ia?aeeaaeo iaiaeii?aciai iaaieiooaaeiny a i?aoeyo
a?o/eciyieo a/aieo [Iia?eiaa I.I., *a?aaeie/aiei I.?, Iaea?aiei I.?.,
?eiae/ E.I. oa ?i.]. Nai?/aniei ? eii/a iio??aiei a ca’yceo c oeei aoei
aaaaeaiiy aei oai??? ia?aeeaaeo iiiyooy “aeai?iai-noee?noe/ia»
aeii?iaioa” (AENAe). AENAe aecia/a?oueny ye noeoii?noue iiaieo,
eiiiiceoe?eieo ? i?aaiaoe/ieo iciae, ye? ooai?ththoue niaoeeo?eo oaenoo
iaaiiai aeai?o *a?aaeie/aiei I.?.. O oeueiio eiioaeno? ne?ae caoaaaeeoe,
ui ieoaiiy i?i eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? eiie?aoieo oei?a
oaeno?a, ui iaeaaeaoue aei oiai /e ?ioiai noeeth /e aeai?o, caeeoa?oueny
iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaiei. Iaaaeueia iio?aaa o ?icaoaeia? aeai?iaeo
oai??e ia?aeeaaeo, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aea/aiiy oaiiiaia aeai?iai?
aaeaeaaoiino?, coiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ia’?eoii yeiai ? oaenoe ae?eiaeo eeno?a o?aioeocueeith iiaith oa ?oi?
oe?a?inuee? ia?aeeaaee.

Ae?eiaee eeno – oea a?aiaoe/ii ioi?ieaiee oa naiaioe/ii caaa?oaiee oei
oaenoo, ui ia? iniaeeao eiioi?eaoeaio no?oeoo?o oa iaae?eaiee
aeieoiaioaeueiith neeith. Aei eiioi?eaoeaieo caaaeaiue, ui ae??oothoueny
ca aeiiiiiaith ae?eiaiai eenoa, iaeaaeaoue: anoaiiaeaiiy ia?oia?nueeeo
noinoie?a, noai?aiiy aoiinoa?e aeia??e oa ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?ae
ia?oia?aie c iaoith ?icaycaiiy /anii neeaaeieo ? noia?a/eeaeo i?iaeai,
ye? aeieeathoue o i?ioean? ae?eiaiai ni?eeoaaiiy. Oaeei /eiii,
neeaaeaiiy ae?eiaiai eenoa iio?aao? iaaii? eiiiaoaioe??, yea ia?
aacoaaoeny ia?aaeian?i ia aeeaieiio ?icoi?ii? noee?noe/ieo oa
i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae oeueiai aeai?o.

I?aaeiaoii ?icaeyaeo o aeena?oaoe?? ? ci?no ? oi?ia o?aioeocueeiai
ae?eiaiai eenoa oa ?o a?aeoai?aiiy a oaeno? ia?aeeaaeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? a?aeiia?aea? eiiieaeni?e i?aeeaoaae?aeuei?e iaoeia?e oai?
“Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeai?iai-noee?noe/ieo i?iaeai ia?aeeaaeo ? noai?aiiy ia
oe?e iniia? no/anii? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e.”

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: /a?ac aea/aiiy no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ieo oa
i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae oaeno?a ae?eiaeo eeno?a oa ?o ia?aeeaae?a,
aeyaeoe eiiiiiaioe aeai?iai-noee?noe/ii? aeii?iaioe ae?eiaiai eenoa.

Iaoa ?iaioe aeiaaa? ?aae?caoe?? oaeeo caaaeaiue:

1. Ia??oiooaaoe i?aaii??i?noue aeae?eaiiy ae?eiaiai eenoa ye ie?aiiai
iiaeaii?aiai aeai?o a iaaeao io?oe?eii-ae?eiaiai noeeth oa ye
niaoeeo?/iiai caniao eiioi?eaoe??.

2. Aecia/eoe oeie ae?eiaeo eeno?a ia iniia? oeiiaeo eiioi?eaoeaieo iciae
oa neooaoe?e ni?eeoaaiiy.

3. Anoaiiaeoe no?oeoo?ii-eiiiiceoe?ei? iniaeeaino? oaeno?a aiae?ciaaiiai
aeai?o c eiai eiinoaioieie oa oaeoeueoaoeaieie eiiiiiaioaie.

4. I?iaiae?coaaoe oeyoii ii??aiyeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeno?a i?ea?iaeo
? ia?aeeaaeo ae?eiaeo eeno?a ?oith ?ioi?iaoeaio no?oeoo?o.

5. Aea/eoe iiai?, eiiiiceoe?ei? ? i?aaiaoe/i? iciaee, ui ooai?ththoue
aeai?iai-noee?noe/io aeii?iaioo oaenoo ae?eiaiai eenoa, oiaoi eiai
?iaa??aio.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o:

1) caeo/aii? aei aiae?co iaeiaeine?aeaeaiiai iaoa??aeo, yeei ? oaenoe
ae?eiaeo eeno?a o?aioeocueeith iiaith.

2) ni?ia? i?aaenoaaeoe ci?no oaenoo ae?eiaiai eenoa ye noeoii?noue
o?ueio aeae?a ?ioi?iaoe?? – aeaiioaoeaii?, noee?noe/ii? oa i?aaiaoe/ii?,
nie?ath/enue ia ?nioth/o eiioeaioe?th ?ioi?iaoeaii? no?oeoo?e oaenoo;

3) iiaiio iiaeyae? ia eiioi?eaoeaio no?oeoo?o eenoa, ui i?aaenoaaeaia
i’youeia eiioi?eaoeaieie aeieaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui aiie
iiaeooue:

— aooe aeei?enoai? o i?ioean? iiaeaeueoeo ia?aeeaaeaoeueeeo ?ica?aeie c
i?iaeaie ?iaa??aioa ia?aeeaaeo;

— aooe canoiniaai? i?e ae?iaeaii? e?eoa???a ioe?iee yeino? ia?aeeaae?a
oaeno?a aeaiiai iiaeaii?aiai aeai?o;

— ni?eyoe i?aeoe/iiio iaieiae?iith caeiiaie iiaoaeiae oaeno?a aeaiiai
aeai?o c aieo oeo, ooi aea/a? ae?eiaa iiaeaiiy;

— aooe aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a oa
niaoeeo?n?a c ae?eiaiai eenooaaiiy, ii??aiyeueii? noee?noeee, oai??? oa
i?aeoeee ia?aeeaaeo, ye? aoaeoaaoeiooueny ia iniia? c?noaaiiai aea/aiiy
o?aioeocueei? oa oe?a?inueei? iia.

Iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaenoe ae?eiaeo eeno?a o?aioeocueeith
iiaith, ye? i?ieoee /a?ac eiia?oe?eiee a?aeae?e aaoiiiiiiai ii?oo i.
?oaio, io?oe?ei? eenoe, ui iaae?eoee aei aaei?i?no?aoe?? oaeoeueoaoo
?iicaiii? o?eieia?? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. O. Oaa/aiea, iiaeae?
eeno?a, ye? iiaeathoueny a aeia?aeieeiaeo aeaeaiiyo c ae?eiaiai
eenooaaiiy o?aioeocueeith iiaith, oa ?oi? io?oe?ei? ia?aeeaaee, ye? aoee
c?iaeai? eaae?o?eiaaiei ia?aeeaaea/ai, ui i?aoeth? a Oe?a?i? ca
i?ia?aiith OAN?S, oa /anoeiai — aaoi?ii aeaii? ?iaioe. Ianya
ii?aoeueiaaiiai iaoa??aeo neeaaea? a?ey 900 eeno?a.

Iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

?. Ae?eiaee eeno (ye o?aioeocueeith, oae ? oe?a?inueeith iiaith) ?
ie?aiei iiaeaii?aei aeai?ii o iaaeao io?oe?eii-ae?eiaiai noeeth, ui
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny niaoeeo?/iith eiioi?eaoeaiith no?oeoo?ith.

2. Ae?eiaee eeno ia? iaaio ?ioi?iaoeaio no?oeoo?o (ci?no) ? iiaea aooe
i?aaenoaaeaiee ye eiiieaen o?nii iia’ycaieo aeaiaio?a, ye? ianooue
aeno?ae?iaa?noe/io ?ioi?iaoe?th. ?? neeaaeiaeie ? aeaiioaoeaia,
noee?noe/ia ? i?aaiaoe/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y.

3. Aea?? noeoiiino? iiaieo oa eiiiiceoe?eieo iciae ae?eiaiai eenoa
i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee aeinyaiaiith i?aaiaoe/ii? iaoe (oeeaaeaiiy oaiaee,
ia?aeiiaiiy a i?eeiyoo? iaaiiai ??oaiiy oiui)

4. Aecia/aeueiith aeey aeai?iai-noee?noe/ii? aeii?iaioe (aai ?iaa??aioa)
AeE ? eiai ?ioi?iaoeaia no?oeoo?a (ci?no), ui i?iyaey?oueny o noeoiiino?
eiiiiceoe?eieo, iiaieo oa i?aaiaoe/ieo iciae.

5. Aaeaeaaoi?noue ia?aeeaaeo AeE caaacia/o?oueny oeyoii a?aeoai?aiiy
iino?eieo eiiiiiaio?a AENAe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
“E?iaai-iaoiaee/i? eiioeaioe?? iaa/aiiy iiae aeey niaoe?aeueieo oe?eae”
(Ee?a, ea?oaiue 1995 ?.); “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy no/anii? o?eieia??” (Ee?a,
aeiaoaiue 1996 ?.), a oaeiae ia iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e
oai??? oa i?aeoeee ia?aeeaaeo ?iiainueeeo iia Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. O.Oaa/aiea (aeiaoaiue 1995 ?.).

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i’yoe
ioae?eaoe?yo: /ioe?e noaoo? o ca??ieeao oa iaeia a aeo?iae?.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a.

Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? – 175 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo, a oiio
/ene? oaaeeoe? — 1 noi??iea, noaie – 2 noi??iee; caaaeueia e?euee?noue
aeiaeaoe?a iaeei, ui caeia? 30 noi??ioe; o nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
237 iiceoe?e.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ? iiaecio ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaaii
iaoo oa caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, aecia/aii iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iiaeaii ia?ae?e
iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

?icae?e ?. Oai?aoe/i? canaaee aiae?co ae?eiaiai eenoa a aniaeo?
ia?aeeaaeo.

I?iaeaia noeeth oa aeai?o ? iaeiaeiai aaaeeeaith ye aeey noee?noeee, oae
? aeey oai??? ia?aeeaaeo. Aca?iica’yceo oeeo aeaio aeenoeeie?i
i?eae?eyee oaaao aaaaoi ia?aeeaaeiciaaoe?a, cie?aia A.A.Oaaei?ia,
E.N.Aa?ooaea?ia, A.A.Aae, A.A.Eii?na?ia, A.A.Eiio?eia, AE.-I.A?ia,
AE.Aea?aaeueia. C oi/ee ci?o ia?aeeaaeaoeueei? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aeai?iaa
iicia/aiiy oai?o ? oei «oaenoiaei ia?ea?ii, yeee coiiaeth? no?oeoo?i?
iniaeeaino? oaenoo, a iaai?e i??? aieeaa? ia eiai ianya, iia?/ii
a?aeia?aaea?oueny a eiai iiai?e noanoaioe?? [Eooa?aiei A.A.].
I?aeoiaey/e aei ia?aeeaaeo c iiceoe?? aeai?iai-noee?noe/iiai aiae?co, ie
noeea?iinue c eiiia?aoeaiei aea/aiiyi oaiaoe/ii aiaeia?/ieo oaeno?a
aeaio iia, a oaeiae c i?iaeaiith aeinyaiaiiy eiioi?eaoeaii ??aiioe?iiiai
ia?aeeaaeaoeueeiai aea?aaeaioo oeeo oaeno?a.

?nioaaiiy io?oe?eii-ae?eiaiai noeeth (IAeN) a
ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/ieo nenoaiao o?aioeocueei? ? oe?a?inueei? iiae
aeicaieeei iai i?iaiae?coaaoe eiai iniiai? eiioi?eaoeai? iciaee ?
aeae?eeoe ni?euei? noeeueia? ?ene(N?). sse iane?aeie, anoaiiaeaii, ui
eaeii?/i?noue, noene?noue, ia’?eoeai?noue, oi/i?noue,
noaiaea?oeciaai?noue, yni?noue, aa?/eea?noue, ia?aeiieea?noue,
eia?/i?noue ? ni?eueieie N? aeey iaio iia.

Ienaiia io?oe?eii-ae?eiaa iiaeaiiy iaoa??ae?co?oueny o ??cieo oeiao
aea?aeaaieo, aeeieiiaoe/ieo aeieoiaio?a oa a ae?eiaiio eenooaaii?. A
naiiio aeai?? “ae?eiaee eeno” ie aeae?ey?ii: 1)eiia?oe?ei? eenoe;
2)io?oe?ei? eenoe iaeiia?oe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o. Oaea ii?aeiaiiy a iaeei
aeai? c?iaeaii ia i?aenoaa? oiai, ui oe? iaeaeaa oeie eeno?a iathoue
ni?eueio eiioi?eaoeaio iaoo ? ni?euei? N?.

Ia iniia? aeae?eaiiy oeiiaeo aeey iaio iia eiioi?eaoeaieo iciae oa
neooaoe?e ni?eeoaaiiy iiaeaii oeiieia?/io eeaneo?eaoe?th AeE, ui
aeeth/a? eenoe-caieoe, i?iiiceoe?? (ioa?oe), oaeoo?e, ?aeeaiaoe??,
eenoe-iaaaaeoaaiiy.

Eiioi?eaoe?y ye i?ae iaeiiiiaieie, oae ? i?ae aeaiiiaieie aae?anaioii ?
aae?anaoii ca aeiiiiiaith eeno?a oneeaaeith?oueny /a?ac a?aenooi?noue
inoaiiueiai a iiiaio ia?aaea/? iia?aeiieaiiy ? oea niiioea? aae?anaioa
aei: 1) aeei?enoaiiy aa?aaeueiiai eiaeo a eiai a?ao?/i?e oi?i?; 2)
aenie?eaoe?? noeoiiino? ?aoa?aioe?eieo aeaiaio?a, ui iio??ai?
iaea?aeoaa/o aeey ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? a?aei?aaieea; 3) iiaoaeiae iiiieia?/ii
iaeii??aeiiai iia?aeiieaiiy (iiaeaiiy aae?anaioa ia iiaea aooe a
aoaeue-yeee iiiaio ia?a?aaia ni?aaan?aeieeii). O ca’yceo c oeei
no?oeoo?a ienueiiaiai iia?aeiieaiiy noa? neeaaei?oith a eiiiiceoe?eiiio
ieai?.

E??i oiai, ca aeaiiiaii? ienueiiai? eiioi?eaoe?? ia?aeeaaea/ caeia?
i?ii?aeio iiceoe?th i?ae aae?anaioii ? e?ioeaaei aae?anaoii, ine?eueee
a?i, ia?aeeaaea/, ? ia?oei ?aoeei??ioii o aeaiiio eiioi?eaoeaiiio aeo?.
?ioa?i?aooth/e AeE, a?i iiaeiai a?aoiaoaaoe aiaeii/an oiiae oai?aiiy
oaenoo oa aeina?ae, ia yeee i???iooaaany aae?anaio, a oaeiae oiiae oa
iiia?aaei?e aeina?ae ethaeae, ye? aiai?youe iiaith ia?aeeaaeo [Eii?na?ia
A.I.]. O oaeiio eiioi?eaoeaiiio aeo? ia?aeeaaea/ ae??oo? neeaaeia
caaaeaiiy ii ia?aae?aaeaiith o?nii iia’ycaieo aeaiaio?a oaenoo
i?ea?iaeo, ye? aecia/athoue ci?no aeo?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??, a naia
aeaiioaoeaiiai, eiiioaoeaiiai oa i?aaiaoe/iiai niene?a [*a?aaeie/aiei
I.?.].

?icae?e ??. No?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i? ? i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino?
o?aioeocueeiai ae?eiaiai eenoa a i?ea?iae? oa ia?aeeaae?.

Ca?aeii c oai???th eiioi?eaoe?? ie /eaio?ii oaeno AeE ia ?yae
ooieoe?iiaeueii-a?aei?iieo eiioi?eaoeaieo aeie?a (EA), ye? ?
oi?aa?naeueieie aeey iaio iia:

1. Aeie caa?oaiiy ? i?ea?oaiiy, aea aea?? iiaieo cania?a caeaaeeoue a?ae
nioe?aeueiiai noaoono ia?oia??a ii eenooaaiith (5-10% a?ae caaaeueiiai
ianyao).

2. Aeie iineeaiiy ia iiia?aaei? eenooaaiiy (10%).

3. Aeie iniiaiiai iia?aeiieaiiy, aea oi?ioeth?oueny aieiaia oaca eenoa,
yea a?aeia?aaea? ?ioaioe?th aaoi?a iia?aeiieaiiy: i?iiiceoe?y aei
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, iia?aeiieaiiy i?i i?iaeaae oiaa?o aai iaaeaiiy iineoa,
aeneiaeaiiy i?aoaic?e oiui (60%).

4. Aeie niiioeaiiy aei iiaeaeueoi? eiioi?eaoe?? (10%).

5. Aeie aoeeaoieo oi?ioethaaiue oa i?aeieno (5-10%).

Eiaeai c EA aeeiio? a oaeno? naith eiioi?eaoeaio ooieoe?th ? aiaeii/an
neoao? aeinyaiaiith caaaeueii? eiioi?eaoeaii? iaoe anueiai iiaeaii?aiai
oai?o.

Ia?oee EA neeaaeathoue oi?ioee caa?oaiiy. I?e ?o ciai?oi?e no?oeoo?i?e
iiae?aiino? (ocae/a?ia icia/aiiy + aiaeyoea) niinoa??aathoueny e
?ica?aeiino?. Oea noino?oueny aaeeaaiiy ?i’y oa ii aaoueeia? a
oe?a?inueeiio oaeno?. A?aecia/aii, ui o?aioeocueeee AeE ia? a?eueoee
a?naiae oi?i i?ea?oaiue, ye? caaacia/othoue aae?anaioa caniaaie
ia?eoaaiiy nioe?aeueii-?ieueiaeo a?aeiioaiue a ?aieao eiioi?eaoeaiiai
aeoo o noa?? ae?eiaiai ni?eeoaaiiy. I?e ia?aeeaae? aeaiiai EA
aea?aaeaioi?noue aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii aeiai?o a oe?a?inuee?e iia?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiia?aeiee?a, coiiaeaieo caaaeueiieoeueoo?iei
eiioaenoii oa iiaiith ii?iith. Ii?.: Mon Cher Monsieur et Ami — Oaiiaiee
iaia.

Iayai?noue aeieo iineeaiiy ia iiia?aaei? eenooaaiiy a AeE iaiia iiaaie ?
oaeoeueoaoeaiith ? aecia/a?oueny neooaoe??th ni?eeoaaiiy, yea ? noeioeii
aei neeaaeaiiy eenoa. Oey oaenoaia iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia a oaeno?: 1)
naiino?eiei ?a/aiiyi ? aeae?eyoeny a ie?aiee aacaoe; 2) aieiaiith
/anoeiith neeaaeiii?ae?yaeiiai ?a/aiiy; 3) ae?oai?yaeiei /eaiii ?a/aiiy.
Aea?aaeaioiee ia?aeeaae aeaiiai EA oe?a?inueeith iiaith caaacia/o?oueny
aaeeaaiiyi iino?eieo aai ieac?iiaeueieo a?aeiia?aeiee?a, ii?.: Nous
recevons ce jour…- Ie io?eiaee nueiaiaei?…; Faisant suite a votre
commande – O a?aeiia?aeue ia Aaoa caiiaeaiiy.

Aeie iniiaiiai iia?aeiieaiiy neeaaea?oueny c iecee i?e?ioai, ui iathoue
oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa? ? aeae?eai? a ie?ai? aacaoee. ?o noeoii?noue
oi?io? aieiaio oaio AeE. Oaeno AeE o?aioeocueeith iiaith ia? aenieee
nooi?iue /eaioaaiiy ia aacaoee. A on?o aeiaaeeao a?ao?/i?noue aacaoeo
aenooia? ye aaaeeeaee can?a i?eaa?iaiiy oaaae /eoa/a oa
iiina?aaeeiaaiiai aieeao ia aae?anaoa, oiio aea?aaeaioia a?aeoai?aiiy
no?oeoo?e OI a OI aa?aioo? eiai aaeaeaaoia ni?eeiyooy.

Aeie niiioeaiiy aei iiaeaeueoi? eiioi?eaoe?? iiaea aooe aaoiiiiiei/
iaaaoiiiiiei o a?ao?/iiio ioi?ieaii? oaenoo AeE o?aioeocueeith ?
oe?a?inueeith iiaaie. A?i iiaea a yeino? eiiiiiaioa neeaaeiino?yaeiiai
?a/aiiy aoiaeeoe aei iniiaiiai EA aai ye a?aeie?aieaia ianoaaeia, /e
ae??i?eeiaoieeiaee cai?io aooe /anoeiith aeieo, aea i?noyoueny
noa?aioeii? caiaaiaiiy a iiaac?, ae?oaea? oiui. Aeaiee EA iiaea aooe
oaeiae iacaeaaeiei ?a/aiiyi ? aeeeaaeaoeny a ie?aiiio aacaoe?. Aieiaiei
ci?noii oeueiai EA ? niiioeaiiy aae?anaoa aei ae??, oiaoi eiai
i?aaiaoe/iee aieea — i/aaeaeiee. Naiaioeea aeaii? oaenoaie ? ni?eueiith
aeey iaio iia ? aeeth/a? aeneiaeaiiy niiae?aaiiy ia iiaeaeueoa
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai; ae?aaeaiiy iaae?? ia aaeaea caaa?oaiiy ni?aae,
oi?a?aaeueii? oaiaee aai ia oa, ui yeanue i?ee??noue ia iiaoi?eoueny;
oi?ioethaaiiy iiaeyee ca iaaeaio iineoao, aeiiiiiao, niiae?aaiiy ia oa,
ui aiia aoaea iaaeaaaoeny e aeae?.

I’yoee EA neeaaeathoue aoeeaoi? oi?ioethaaiiy iiaeyee, caiaaiaiiy a
ae?oaei?o ii/oooyo oa i?aeien. O?aioeocueeee AeE oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
a?eueoei ?icia?ooyi aoeeaoieo o?ac, i?ae oe?a?inueeee. I?e ia?aeeaae?
caeeth/ii? /anoeie eenoa aeinyaiaiiy aea?aaeaioiino? iia’ycaii c
ia’?eoeaieie ao?aoaie, ui i?iaeeeoiaai? eoeueoo?ii-iiaieie o?aaeeoe?yie.
A oeueiio aeiaaeeo aaeaeaaoieie a oe?a?inuee?e iia? aoaeooue
ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiia?aeieee. Aea/aiiy aeieo aoeeaoieo oi?ioethaaiue
iieacaei, ui ?aae?caoe?y i?eioeeio aa?/eeaino? ? ?ioaineai?oith o
o?aioeocueeiio AeE.

?ioi?iaoeaia no?oeoo?a oaenoo ?icaeyaea?oueny /a?ac aeine?aeaeaiiy ??
neeaaeiaeo: aeaiioaoeaii?, noee?noe/ii? oa i?aaiaoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??.
sse?nii ?aeaaaioiei aeey ia?aaea/? aeaiioaoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? (Ae?) ?
aeie iniiaiiai iia?aeiieaiiy, aea iiaea?oueny iaenooo?a?oa ?ioi?iaoe?y
AeE, ui iaoa??ae?co?oueny ia?aaeian?i a eaeneoe?. Ni?euei? aeey iaio iia
aeai?ia? aeiiae AeE coiiaeththoue aeei?enoaiiy caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo ne?a
oa niaoe?aeueii? eaeneee. Aaeaea eiia?iaoe?y ?o a ?a/aii? ni?ey? e?au?e
?aae?caoe?? eiioi?eaoeaii? ni?yiiaaiino? oaenoo AeE. Inoaiith a?oio
neeaaeathoue eaene/i? iaeeieoe? (EI), ui a nai?e naiaioe/i?e no?oeoo??
iathoue o?eueee oa?i?iieia?/ia cia/aiiy (iaeiiieaiia?), iai?: escompte,
m,- aeeneiio oa EI, ui ii?aeiothoue oa?i?iieia?/ia ? iaoa?i?iieia?/ia
cia/aiiy (aeaiieaiia?), iai?.: marche, m — 1) ?eiie, 2) oaiaea, 3)
i?iaeaae, ?eieiaa oe?ia; tresorerie, f – 1) eacia/aenoai, 2) eiooe.
Iaeaea? a?oie neoaothoue eiie?aoecaoe?? Ae? oa ci?iathoue a oaeno?
aio?ii?th i?e aeaeiaeoaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? AeE. Iaia’yceiaa i?enooi?noue
iacaaieo EI a oaenoao eeno?a o?aioeocueeith ? oe?a?inueeith iiaith
aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i ieo, ye i?i iino?eiee eiiiiiaio AENAe ae?eiaiai
eenoa. Oa?i?iieia?/ia eaeneea iiaea aooe ia’?aeiaia a oaiaoe/i? a?oie:
1) iacae aeieoiaio?a; 2) o?ainii?ooaaiiy; 3) oiiae o?ainii?ooaaiiy; 4)
aa?o?noue oiaa?o, ieaoaae?; 5) ye?noue oiaa?o.

?ioei eiiiiiaioii AENAe aeine?aeaeoaaiiai aeai?o ? noa?aioeii?
oi?ioethaaiiy (ee?oa), ye? iaaoaathoue a AeE iaiia iiaaie oe?ieiai
aaeeoeo. Aoei aeyaeaii ianooii? oaiaoe/i? a?oie ee?oa: 1) i?iiiceoe?y;
2) i?ioaiiy; 3)i?aoaic?y, aeaeue c i?eaiaeo ?aeeaiaoe??; 4) aeaa/aiiy.
?nioaaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e iia? iiae?aieo a?oi aeneiaethaaiue cia/ii
iieaaoo? ?o ia?aeeaae c o?aioeocueei?. Ii?.: A la verification de votre
envoi – I?e ia?aa??oe? Aaoi? iineeee; Veuillez nous excuser de — Ue?i
ia?ai?ioo?ii Aan ca….

Aeaiioaoeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y AeE ia?aaea?oueny, ye i?aaeei, ca aeiiiiiaith
neeaaeieo neioaene/ieo no?oeoo?. Aeii?iaioieie aeey AeE o?aioeocueeith e
oe?a?inueeith iiaith ? oae? oeie: neeaaeiii?ae?yaei?, neeaaeiino?yaei?,
”ci?oai?”, a yeeo ii?aeio?oueny i?ae?yaei?noue c i?e?aeiaiiyi,
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiee ? no?yaeiee ca’ycie. Iacaai? no?oeoo?e iae/ano?oa
o?aieythoueny a eenoao-caieoao oa ioa?oao. Ii?yae c oeei
oe?ieiaaeeaaieie ? i?ino? ?a/aiiy c oneeaaeiaiith no?oeoo?ith.
O?aioeocueea ?a/aiiy iaaoaa? oneeaaeiaiiy /a?ac aeei?enoaiiy
?io?i?oeaieo i?aiiceoeaieo eiino?oeoe?e, a?aeae??ne?aieo i?eeiaoiee?a,
aa?oiae?th, ye? ? caniaaie iiaii? aeiiii??, iaaeath/e ?a/aiith
aeiaeaoeiai? i?aaeeeaoe?? oa aeiiiaithth/e eiai aeaiioaoeaiith
?ioi?iaoe??th.Ii?.: En deballant la marchandise, nous avons constate que
32 verres et 3 carafes etaient arrives casses par suite d’utilisation
d’un emballage inadequat pour leur transport… — I?e ?iciaeiaoaaii?
oiaa?o ie iii?oeee, ui 32 neeyiee oa 3 a?aoeia iaae?eoee ooeiaeaeaieie
/a?ac aeei?enoaiiy iaa?aeiia?aeii? aeey ?o o?ainii?ooaaiiy oa?e. O
ia?aeeaae? ?aie?ea caa??aa? noa’?eo ae??, aea ?? no?oeoo?a aeaui
ci?ith?oueny. Aa?oiae?e o?ainiiio?oueny a ?iaiio neioaaio c
i?eeiaiieeii, o ye?e ?iaiiee oiai ae ei?aiy, ui ? eaene/iee aea?aaeaio
ae??i?ene?aieea (i?e ?iciaeiaoaaii?), ? aeeiio? a ?a/aii? ooieoe?th
ianoaaeie /ano. O aeiaaeeao, eiee o?aioeocueea ?a/aiiy oneeaaeith?oueny
aaniethoiei ae??i?eeiaoieeiaei aai ?io?i?oeaiei cai?ioii, oi oe? oi?ie
o?ainoi?iothoueny i?e ia?aeeaae? a i?ae?yaeia ?a/aiiy i?e/eie aai
c’ynoaaeueia. ?io?ieoeai? i?aiiceoeai? eiino?oeoe?? a?aeoai?ththoueny
aea?aaeaioii (Nous vous demandons de nous faire parvenir — I?ineii
iaaeaoe iai) aai o?ainoi?iothoueny a i?ae?yaeia ?a/aiiy oiiae (Nous vous
saurions gre de tenir vos engagements. – Aoee a Aai ue?i aaey/i?, yeui a
Ae aeio?eioaaeenue Aaoeo ciaia’ycaiue).

A iaio iiaao anoaiiaeaii ni?eueio caeiiii??i?noue o aeei?enoaii?
caeiaiieeiai? ia?aaeeaie, ui i?aaenoaaeaia caeiaiieeaie ia?oi? iniae
iaeieie oa, /ano?oa (75%), ae?oai? iniae iiiaeeie. O o?aioeocueeiio AeE
cono??/athoueny /ania? oi?ie Present, Passe compose, Imparfait, Future
simple, a a ia?aeeaae? – oaia??oi?e, ieioeee oa iaeaooi?e /ane.

O o?aioeocueeiio AeE aeii?iaioieie ? ae?eniee oa oiiaiee niiniae ae??
ae??neiaa, ye? ia?aaeathoueny aea?aaeaioieie oi?iaie a ia?aeeaae?.
?iia?aoeaia oi?ia ae??neiaa, ui aaeeaa?oueny a oe?a?inueeiio ae?eiaiio
eenooaaii?, ia aeanoeaa aeey o?aioeocueeiai AeE. Oeae niin?a ae??
i?aaenoaaeaiee eeoa a?oa?/iith oi?iith aa?/eeaiai ?iia?aoeao (veuillez).

Ae?oaith neeaaeiaith ?ioi?iaoeaii? no?oeoo?e oaenoo AeE ? noee?noe/ia
?ioi?iaoe?y (N?). ?? ooieoe?y iieyaa? o ia?aaea/? ioe?iee, noaeaeaiiy
aai coieniiai aeae?eaiiy eaaio?a ?ioi?iaoe?? oei, ooi aiai?eoue aai
ieoa, c iaoith aiioe?eiiai aieeao ia iaea?aeoaa/a [*a?aaeie/aiei I.?.].
Oiaoi N? ca?eueoo? i?aaiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae aeneiaethaaiiy. A iaoiio
aeine?aeaeaii? ie ?iciiae?eeee an? aeaiaioe i?aai?caoe?? N? ca?aeii c
eiioi?eaoeaiei iai??ii ia aea? a?oie. Aei ia?oi? a?aeiinyoueny
noee?noe/i? caniae (NC), ye? aeiiiiaaathoue aaoi?o ?aaoethaaoe oaaao
?aoeei??ioa ? niiioeathoue eiai aei iaaii? ae?? (aeinyaiaiiy
aeiiiaeaiino?, ocaiaeaeaiiy iieiaeaiue aeiaiai?o, eoi?aey/i?iaeaae
oiaa?o oiui). Oeth a?oio neeaaeathoue aaeaa?aioii aeni?aneaia eaeneea,
yea iaaoaa? a oaeno? noee?noe/iiai ia?eoaaiiy, i?iione neoaeaiaeo ne?a,
eaeneei-naiaioe/iee iiaoi? (iiaiee, iiaoi?ia iii?iaoe?y). Aei ae?oai?
iaeaaeaoue NC, ye? aeiiiiaaathoue /a?ac ae?aaeaiiy niaoeeo?/iiai
noaaeaiiy aei aae?anaoa, a oaeiae aei iiae?e oa oaeo?a, ui iienothoueny
a eeno?, noai?eoe caaaeueiee iiceoeaiee oii eenoa, ia oe? yeiai
iiaea?oueny ??cia, iaa?oue iaaaoeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y. Ae?oao a?oio
ooai?ththoue ia?eo?ace, aaoai?cie oa a?ia?aiee.

?ieue eaeneee o noai?aii? noee?noe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?inoaaeo?oueny ye ia
??ai? ?a/aiiy, oae ? ia ??ai? oe?eiai oaenoo. A oaeiio ?ac? iaaoaathoue
cia/aiiy aeenoaioi? noee?noe/i? ca’ycee, caaaeyee yeei Ae? iia?aeiieaiiy
io?eio? aeiaeaoeiaa ia?eoaaiiy. O oaeee niin?a ?aae?co?oueny aaoi?nueea
?ioaioe?y. Oae, iai?eeeaae, neiai absorber (aniieooaaoe, aae?aoe),
iio?aieyth/e o iaaeanoeaee aeey iueiai eiioaeno ae?eiaiai iiaeaiiy, noa?
noee?noe/ii ia?eiaaiei. Aea aaeeoa ia ii/aoeo eenoa, a yeiio eaeaoueny
i?i cieaeeo oe?ie ia oiaa?, aiii aeiaeaoeiai ia?eo?oueny aeenoaioii
?icoaoiaaiith ia?aeaeueiith neioaene/iith eiino?oeoe??th, yea caaa?oo?
aeie iniiaiiai iia?aeiieaiiy:

…Si votre clientele a pu absorber votre precedente augmentation de 6%,
nous doutons fort qu’elle accepte celle de 12%…

…Si vous maintenez les prix indiques, nous serons obliges de faire
face au choix suivant:

— reduire l’importance de notre commande;

— etudier la concurrence..

Aeei?enoaiiy ia?aeaeueii? neioaene/ii? eiino?oeoe?? c ?io?ieoeaaie
iaaea? aeneiaethaaiith eaoaai?e/iino? e aeiiiiaaa? aae?anaoo a?coaeueii
aeae?eeoe a oaeno? ianooii? i?ney i?aeaeuaiiy oe?ie e?iee aae?anaioa.
Aaeaeaaoio ia?aaea/o N? caaacia/o? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?aiaoaoi?ecaoe?y
neiaa «absorber». Eiai aeaiioaoeaia cia/aiiy, aaeeoa a iaoa?aeoa?iiio
ioi/aii?, aeooae?co?oueny ? ii?iaeaeo? eiie?aoio eiiioaoeaio
?ioi?iaoe?th. ?aiaoaoi?ecoth/enue a oaeno? ia?aeeaaeo (OI), oey EI
ni?ey? caa?aaeaiith N? iia?aeiieaiiy oa eiai i?aaiaoe/iiai aoaeoo. A
aeaiiio ?ac? i?aaiaoe/iee aoaeo caiaeeoueny aei oi?ioaaiiy o na?aeiiino?
aae?anaoa noii?ao uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy oe?ie ia oiaa? ? iiaithaaiiy
ao?aoeoe iino?eiiai ee??ioa. Oiio a oe?a?inueeiio aa??aio? ie
i?iiiio?ii:

— sseui aaoa ee??ioo?a ciiaea «i?ieiaoiooe» iiia?aaei? i?aeaeuaiiy oe?ie
ia 6%, oi ie aeoaea noii?aa?iiny, ui aiia ciiaea i?eeiyoe i?aeaeuaiiy ua
ia 12%.

Eaeneei-naiaioe/i? iiaoi?e, ye? aeoaea /anoi aaeeaathoueny a AeE iaiia
iiaaie aeiiiiaaathoue aae?anaioo eiioeaio?oaaoe oaaao /eoa/a ia iaaieo
a?ae??ceao ?ioi?iaoe??. Aiie ? oeie “iii?aie”, ia ye? nie?a?oueny
ia?aeeaaea/ a nai?e ?ioa?i?aoaoi?nuee?e ae?yeueiino?. Ca aeiiiiiaith
oaeiai NC aaoi? “neeith” o?eia? oaaao aae?anaoa oi?iaeiaae ni?eeiyooy
anueiai oaenoo, /ei caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueiee i?aaiaoe/iee aieea.
Iiooaeiei caniaii i?eaa?iaiiy oaaae /eoa/a ? iiaiee eaene/iee iiaoi?.
Oae, iai?eeeaae, a AeE, ui neeaaea?oueny c i’yoe ?a/aiue, caeiaiiee
„nous“ iiaoi?th?oueny a?n?i ?ac?a. Oei naiei a oaeno? ooai?th?oueny
aoaeo eaene/iiai iaaeeeoeo. Oaea iaaei??ia aaeeaaiiy caeiaiieea ia?oi?
iniae iiiaeeie ? iane?aeeii coieniiai aeoeaiooaaiiy oaaae ?aoeei??ioa ia
oiio, ui aae?anaio ? aieiaiith ae?eiaith iniaith, ? a?i iaiieyaa? ia
aeeiiaii? iaaii? ae??.

N?, ui aeieea? a oaeno? o ?ac? aeei?enoaiiy eaeneei-naiaioe/ioai
iiaoi?o, iioe?th?oueny caaaeyee ni?a?nioaaiith c iei a oaeno?
ii??aiyiue, iaoii?i??, neioaene/iiai ia?aeae?cio ?a/aiue. I?aaiaoe/iee
aoaeo oaeiai iia?aeiieaiiy — aenieee. Iai?eeeaae:

— … Si, par surcroit, vous etes amateur de crus moeleux et pleins,
veloutes et fermes; si vous pensez que le vin est a la table ce que la
fleur est au jardin, ne manquez pas de parcourir le choix courant
ci-joint qui vous offre un bouquet des plus nobles cepages de France …

Aeaia aeneiaethaaiiy ? /anoeiith ioa?oe, aea aeey iieoiee i?iiiio?oueny
aeae?eueea ni?o?a aei. I?aaiaoeea oeueiai iiaeaii?aiai oai?o i/aaeaeia.
Aae?anaio caoe?eaaeaiee a io?eiaii? caiiaeaiiy, oiio aanue
eaeneei-noee?noe/iee a?naiae ni?yiiao?oueny aaoi?ii ia aeinyaiaiiy nai??
iaoe. Iiaoi?ia iii?iaoe?y ooo i?aaenoaaeaia neiii?iaie crus — vin, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny o a?aeiioaii?: aeae/??ae. Aaoi? oa?aeoa?eco? oiaa? ?yaeii
ai?oao?a oa iaoaoi?e/iei ii??aiyiiyi (…le vin est a la table ce que la
fleur est au jardin), oiio iiaoi?ia iii?iaoe?y iaaoaa? ia?aciino?, /ei
i?eaa?oa? oaaao ?aoeei??ioa. Caaa?oo? aeneiaethaaiiy iaoii?i?/ia
iaeiaioaaiiy, yea aeeiio? ooieoe?th iiaoi?ii? iii?iaoe?? (un bouquet des
plus nobles cepages de France). Oaea iaceaaiiy iaeiiai e oiai ae ia’?eoa
??cieie iiaieie caniaaie ci?ia? iiiioiii?noue aeneiaethaaiiy e iino?eii
o?eia? oaaao aae?anaoa. I?aaiaoe/iee aieea, ui a?ae/oaa? ?aoeei??io i?e
ni?eeiyoo? noee?noe/ii ioi?ieaii? oaeei /eiii aeaiioaoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??,
i?aeneeth?oueny ia?aeae?ciii iaio /anoei aeneiaethaaiiy. Caaaeii, o?aaa
a?aecia/eoe, ui aeaiee oei AeE ca iaai?ii NC iaaeeaea?oueny aei
?aeeaiieo oaeno?a.

?ioei, ia iaio aaaeeeaei caniaii ia?aaea/? N?, yea iieyaa? a ciaioaii?
?ioaineaiino? neee cia/aiiy cia?aaeoaaiiai i?aaeiaoa aai iii’yeoaiiy
a?aaeaiiy, ui ni?aaey? ia aae?anaoa ?ioi?iaoe?y AeE, ? iii?iaeuei?
ia?eo?ace oa aaoai?cie. Oe? NC cono??/athoueny a AeE o?aioeocueeith
iiaith, aea eaeaoueny i?i iiae??, ye? ? iaaaoeaieie aeey iaeiiai c
eiioi?eaio?a. Aaoi?, ea?oth/enue ii?iaie aoeeaoo, oieea? o oaeee niin?a
i?yieo ioe?iie iiae?e, oaeo?a. I?aaiaoe/iee aoaeo aeneiaethaaiiy
i?aeaeuo?oueny i?e eiia?iaoe?? ia?eo?ac oa aaoai?ci?a c ?ioeie NC.
Iai?eeeaae: …Dans les conditions actuelles, il n’y a face a ces frais
aucune recette. L’ASCPAR est dans l’impossibilite d’honorer ces charges
ou alors devrait vous demander une augmentation substancielle de la
subvention … Ci?noii aeneiaethaaiiy ? ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i oa, ui nii?oeaia
oiaa?enoai aaoiiiiiiai ii?oo ?oaio (ASCPAR) ia ia? ca?ac eioo?a aeey
iaaieo caoiae?a, aea aeneiaeoe oea i?yii aae?anaio ia iiaea c aoe/ieo
i??eoaaiue. Naia oiio a?i aaea?oueny aei aaoai?cio “il n’y a face a ces
frais aucune recette”, yeee a?aeia?aaea? eiai o?iainiaee noai, oa
iii?iaeueii? ia?eo?ace “est dans l’impossibilite d’honorer ces charges”
, yea neoao? o?e aea oe?e?. Eiia?iaoe?y oeeo NC ia? aeeeeeaoe o
aae?anaoa ?icoi?iiy noaio oiai, ooi ieoa, oa ?i?oe?thaaoe aaaeaiiy
iaaeaoe aeiaeaoeia? eiooe. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui caa?aaoe a ia?aeeaae?
noee?noe/io ?ioi?iaoe?th i?ea?iaeo e aeiiiaoeny oioiaeiueiai
i?aaiaoe/iiai aoaeoo iiaeia ca aeiiiiiaith aeiai?o ieac?iiaeueieo
a?aeiia?aeiee?a ia ??ai? iaoe eiioi?eaoe??. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo caaaeaia
?aie?ea aoaea iaoe a oe?a?inuee?e iia? oaeee aeaeyae: “A oaia??oi?o
oiiaao ENAAI? ia iiaea acyoe ia naaa iiae?ai? aeo?aoe. Aeey ia? oea
aoaea iaiii??iei oyaa?ai, oiio ie ciooai? i?ineoe o aan ?noioiiai
ca?eueoaiiy aeioaoe?e”.

I?aaiaoe/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y ?icaeyaea?oueny /a?ac eaoaai??th iiaeaeueiino?.
A yeino? ia’?eo?a iiaeaeueiino? aeae?eythoueny ia?oia? ii eiioi?eaoe??
(eiie?aoia iniaa /e onoaiiaa) oa i?aaeiao iaaiai?aiiy. Noaaeaiiy aei ieo
ia?aaea?oueny a oaeno? ??cieie iiaieie caniaaie, ui e ooai?th? eiai
caaaeueio eiioi?eaoeaio ni?yiiaai?noue. Eaoaai??y iiaeaeueiino?
?aae?co?oueny a AeE iaiia iiaaie o oi?iao: 1) ia’?eoeaii-ioe?iii?
iiaeaeueiino? iiaeeeaino?/aaaeaiino?; 2) noa’?eoeaii-ioe?iii?
iiaeaeueiino?, ui i?iyaey?oueny o oi?iao ae?eiai? aa?/eeaino?, yea ?
aeeoa?aioe?eiith iciaeith oaeno?a aiae?ciaaiiai aeai?o.
Oa’?eoeaii-ioe?iia iiaeaeuei?noue iiaeeeaino?, ui ae?aaea?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith: 1) iiaeaeueiiai ae??neiaa pouvoir (iiaoe) oa eiai
neiii?i?a; 2) iiaeaeueieo ne?a, ui ia?aaeathoue cia/aiiy i?iaeaiaoe/ii?
aeinoia??iino? (probablement (eiia??ii), visiblement (i/aaeaeii), peut-
etre (iiaeeeai, iaaooue).

Iaaio i?aaiaoe/io caaa?aeai?noue io?eio? AeE o?aioeocueeith iiaith, yeui
a iueiio eaeaoueny i?i iiaeeea?noue aeeiiaiiy iaaii? ae??, ? oey
iiaeeea?noue ae?aaea?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith eiiaeeoe?iiaeo. Oeae
i?aaiaoe/iee aoaeo iiaea iineethaaoenue oeyoii eaene/iiai iiaoi?o,
iai?eeeaae: Je souhaiterais elargir la gamme de mes produits de
beaute… Si j’etais interesse, je souhaiterais que vous m’octroyez sur
ces commandes les memes conditions d’achat que celles que vous
m’accordez sur vos autres produits.

Ae??ne?aia oi?ia «souhaitera?s» ii/eia? e cae?i/o? iniiaio /anoeio
eenoa. Ia ii/aoeo eenoa oea ae??neiai ?iie?oeeoii ae?aaea? ia?aaeoiiae
aeey iiaeaeueoeo ae?e aae?anaoa, ye? iiaeooue aooe iiceoeaieie aeey
aae?anaioa. Aiii oaeiae oa?aeoa?eco? niaoeeo?eo noa’?eoa a oiio ieai?,
ui ooo eiiaeeoe?iiae ? ??aiioe?iiei niieo/aiith iiaeaeueiiai ae??neiaa
«pouvoir» c ?io?i?oeaii (je souhaiterais elargir = je peux elargir).
Aae?anaio iieaco?, ui a?i oi/a ? ni?aaae? a ciic? ?icoe?eoe ani?oeiaio.
A e?ioe? eenoa oea ae ae??neiai icia/a? a?iioaoe/ii coiiaeaio ae?th e
eiia?io?oueny c ae?aaeaiiyi a?iioaoe/ii? oiiae a i?ae?yaeiiio (yeui oea
iaia caoe?eaaeoue, oi y aaaeaa ae). I?aaiaoe/iee aoaeo i?aeneeth?oueny
caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith a inoaiiueiio ?a/aii? ae??neiaa «octroyer», ui
iaeaaeeoue aei eieaeii? eaeneee. A oe?a?inueeiio aa??aio? aeaiee
i?aaiaoe/iee aoaeo aoaea ?aeaioe/iei caaaeyee caa?aaeaiith
iine?aeiaiino? o?ac oa aaeeaaiith aea?aaeaioii? a?aiaoe/ii? oi?ie
ae??neiaa: ss oio?a ae ?icoe?eoe ani?oeiaio nai?? einiaoe/ii?
i?iaeoeoe??. …O ?ac?, yeui aiia iaia caoe?eaaeoue, y oio?a ae, uia Ae
caaacia/eee aeey ii?o caeoiie o? ae oiiae, ye? Ae iai? iaaeaaaee aeey
?ioi? Aaoi? i?iaeoeoe??. A ia?aeeaae? eiioi?eaoeaii aaaiiei ? aaeeaaiiy
iiaeaeueiiai ae??neiaa a oiiaiiio niinia?. I?e oeueiio noai?th?oueny
oaea eiioaenooaeueia neooaoe?y, eiee iaeii/anii ?c cia/aiiyi i?eiouaiiy
aeneiaeth?oueny iiaaaeaiiy.

Ia?aaea/? ia’?eoeaii-ioe?iii? iiaeaeueiino? neoao? aaeeaaiiy a AeE
i?acoiioeaiiai caieoaiiy. Ci?noii eiai ? iaiiaae i?aeeacea o??? /e ?ioi?
a?aeiia?ae? aae?anaoa, iai?eeeaae: La commande a-t-elle ete passe par
l’intermediaire d’un agent? Oea caieoaiiy ?iie?oeeoii i?noeoue a nia?
noaeaeaiiy iiaeeeaino?. Cia/aiiy aaaiooaeueiino? aenie?eo?oueny a
oe?a?inueeiio ia?aeeaae? caaaeyee ia?aeeaaeaoeueeiio i?eeiio ?icoe?aiiy:
Iiaeeeai, caiiaeaiiy aoei ioi?ieaia /a?ac ?ioiai aaaioa?

Noa’?eoeaii-ioe?iia iiaeaeuei?noue ciaoiaeeoue na?e i?iya o aeei?enoaii?
i?aaeeeao?a iiaeona, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aaoi? aea? ioe?ieo i??e
aeinoia??iino? naiai oyaeaiiy i?i ae?eni?noue, iai?eeeaae: Nous esperons
qu ‘il vous sera possible d’assister a la journee portes ouvertes que
nous organisons le 22 fevrier 19… et au cours de laquelle nos clients
pourrons visiter nos nouvelles installations. A oeueiio aeneiaethaaii?
noa’?eo iiaeaeueii? ioe?iee i?aaenoaaeaiee caeiaiieeii ia?oi? iniae
iiiaeeie. Aae?anaio ioe?ith? iaeaooith ae?th aae?anaoa ye oe?eeii
iiaeeeao. Aenieee nooi?iue i?aaiaoe/iiai aieeao oaei? ?aie?ee
aeinyaa?oueny caaaeyee naaiaioaoe?? iiaeaeueieo cia/aiue: a eiaei?e
/anoei? ?a/aiiy i?enooi? iiaeaeuei? aeaiaioe. Aeneiaethaaiiy
ii/eia?oueny c i?aaeeeaoa, naiaioeeith yeiai ? niiae?aaiiy ia aeeiiaiiy
ae?e, i?i ye? eaeaoueny a i?ae?yaeieo ?a/aiiyo ? a yeeo aae?anaio
iia?aeiiey? i?i iioaioe?eio iiaeeea?noue ?o ?aae?caoe?? a ?aaeueiiio
aeeoo?. Aea?aaeaioia ia?aaea/a oaeiai i?aaiaoe/iiai cia/aiiy
aeneiaethaaiiy cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith ?nioth/eo i?aeiiaieo
a?aeiia?aeiee?a: Niiae?aa?iinue, ui Ae iaoeiaoa iiaeeea?noue i?eeoe aei
ian ia aeaiue «a?aee?eoeo aeaa?ae», yeee ie i?aai?co?ii 22 ethoiai
19…, ? i?ae /an yeiai ee??ioe ciiaeooue iiaa/eoe iaoa iiaa
iaeaaeiaiiy.

Aecia/aeueiith aeey aeai?o AeE iaiia iiaaie ? eaoaai??y ae?eiai?
aa?/eeaino?, ui ?aae?co?oueny a AeE o?aioeocueeith iiaith ca aeiiiiiaith
i?aaiaoe/ieo ee?oa-a?ia?aie. Aeei?enoiaoth/e ?o, aaoi? i?iyaey? nai?
iniaeeaa noaaeaiiy aei aae?anaoa. Eaoaai??y ae?eiai? aa?/eeaino? ?
neeaaeiaith AENAe AeE.

?ioei caniaii ia?aaea/? i?aaiaoe/iiai cia/aiiy aa?/eeaino? ? iai?yiee
iiaeaii?aee aeo i?ioaiiy. Oaeee oei aeneiaethaaiiy ni?aaey? ia aae?anaoa
iaaiee ia?eieooeaiee aoaeo, ai aeiaaa? a?ae iueiai ae??-a?aeiia?ae?.
Ia?aaea/a oe??? i?aaiaoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a oe?a?inueeiio ia?aeeaae?
aeinyaa?oueny caaaeyee aaeeaaiith a iaio iiaao oiiaiiai niiniao c?
cia/aiiyi aa?/eeaino?.

?icae?e ???. Ia?aeeaae oaenoo AeE ca aeai?iaeie ??ciiaeaeaie.

Eiio?anoeaiee aiae?c o?aioeocueeeo AeE oa ?oi?o ia?aeeaae?a o anueiio
aeai?iaiio ?icia?oo? aeicaieea aeyaeoe oeiieia?th ye ca?a?a, oae ?
a?aei?iinoae o aeei?enoaii? e?iaaaeueieo cania?a. Oeiieia?/i? ca?ae
iieyaathoue o iiaeeeaino?:

n caa?aaeaiiy eiiiiceoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oaeno?a i?ea?iaeo e ia?aeeaaeo,
ui caaacia/o? aea?aaeaioi?noue ?o ni?eeiyooy oa aaeaeaaoi?noue aieeao;

n a?aeoai?aiiy an?o o?ueio oei?a ?ioi?iaoe??, ui aeinyaa?oueny aeiai?ii
iino?eieo oa ieac?iiaeueieo a?aeiia?aeiee?a ye ia ??ai? neiaa, oae ? ia
??ai? iaoe eiioi?eaoe??;

n a??ii? ia?aaea/? oa?i?iieia?/ii? eaeneee, ui caaacia/o?oueny
?nioaaiiyi a iia? ia?aeeaaeo aea?aaeaioieo EI, cao?eniaaieo a
neiaieeao;

n a?aeoai?aiiy o ia?aeeaae? ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? noee?noe/ieo cania?a
(eaene/iee iiaoi?, ?aiaoaoi?ecaoe?y, neioaene/iee ia?aeae?ci);

n caa?aaeaiiy ii?oieiai-neioaenoe/ieo iciae oaenoo i?ea?iaeo (?iaiieeiaa
iiaeaiiy, oneeaaeiaia ?a/aiiy).

?acii c oei aeyaeai? iaai? a?aei?iiino? aaoaioe/ieo oaeno?a (o.
ca.”iiai? ia?aoeiaee”), iia’ycai? c eoeueoo?ii-iiaieie o?aaeeoe?yie, a
naia:

n e?euee?niee oa ye?niee iaca?a oi?ioe caa?oaiiy oa i?aaiaoe/ieo ee?oa,
ye? caaa?oothoue eiioi?eaoe?th. A oaeeo aeiaaeeao aea?aaeaioi?noue
ia?aeeaaeo aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii aeiai?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiia?aeiee?a
oa iaeo?ae?caoe?? a?ia?aie a oe?a?inueeiio oaeno?;

n ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/i? cnoae, ui iieyaathoue o cai?i? eieaeii?
eaeneee iaeo?aeueieie neiaaie, a?aeiia?aeii aei ii?ie iiae ia?aeeaaeo;

n iayai?noue eieaeieo ia?eo?ac oa aaoai?ci?a, iaaeanoeaeo iia?
ia?aeeaaeo, ye? a?aeoai?ththoueny ca aeiiiiiaith ieac?iiaeueieo
a?aeiia?aeiee?a ia ??ai? eiioi?eaoeaii? iaoe;

n a?aiaoe/i? o?ainoi?iaoe?? neioaene/ieo no?oeoo?, ye? aai ia iathoue
aiaeia?a, aai a?aecia/athoueny iecueeith /anoioi?noth o AENAe iiae
ia?aeeaaeo.

AENIIAEE

I?iaaaeaia a ?iaio? ii??aiyeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aioeocueeeo ae?eiaeo
eeno?a oa ?o oe?a?inueeeo ia?aeeaae?a aeicaieeei iiaeeaeoe iao? oyaeaiiy
i?i niaoeeo?eo iiaeaii?aiai aeai?o o ?aieao io?oe?eii-ae?eiaiai noeeth ?
ae?eoe ianooiieo aeniiae?a.

1. Ae?eiaee eeno a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo ae?eiaeo aeieoiaio?a: a)
niaoeeo?/iith iaoith eiioi?eaoe?? (yea iieyaa? a aeinyaiaii?
aeiiiaeaiino? ca aeiiiiiaith ienueiiaiai ae?aeiao); a) ooieoe?iioaaiiyi
o noa?? aeiiii?/ieo oa aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ae?eiaeo a?aeiinei. Ca oeeie
iciaeaie a?i iiaea aooe aeae?eaiee a ie?aiee iiaeaii?aee aeai? o iaaeao
io?oe?eii-ae?eiaiai noeeth.

2. Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui ae?eiaee eeno ? caniaii canoinoaaiiy iiae aeey
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iaaieo ciaia’ycaiue, oeeaaeaiiy oaiaee aai anoaiiaeaiiy
ia?oia?nueeeo noinoie?a i?ae aeaiia aai a?eueoa eiioi?eaioaie, ie
aecia?ii, ui aeai? ae?eiaiai eenoa ? niaoeeo?/iith oi?iith eiioi?eaoe??,
yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaai?ii ?aeaaaioieo iciae:

— iniaeeaei oa?aeoa?ii eiioi?eaio?a, ui iae/ano?oa aenooiathoue ia ye
o?ce/i?, a ye th?eaee/i? iniae;

— iiaeeea?noth eieaeoeaiiai aae?anaoa;

— aeieoiaioaeuei?noth: ae?eiaee eeno iaia’yceiai ia? aeaoo oa i?aeien,
a?i /anoi ? ienueiiaei aeieoiaioii, ui ia? th?eaee/io neeo;

— aeii?ioaaiiyi ?ioi?iaoeaieo aeaiaio?a ci?noo;

— aenie?oeeoiei i?aaenoaaeaiiyi aaoi?a eenoa;

— niaoeeo?/iei aeiai?ii eaene/ieo, ii?oieiai-neioaene/ieo,
eiiiiceoe?eieo oa noee?noe/ieo cania?a, aeei?enoaiiy yeeo
i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny aeinyaiaiith iaaiiai eiioi?eaoeaiiai aoaeoo.

3.Nie?ath/enue ia oai??th eiioi?eaoe??, a aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaii
oeiieia?/io eeaneo?eaoe?th oaeno?a ae?eiaeo eeno?a, ui aeeth/a?:
eenoe-caieoe, i?iiiceoe?? (ioa?oe), oaeoo?e, ?aeeaiaoe??,
eenoe-iaaaaeoaaiiy.

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeai?o AeE ia oi?iaeueiiio ??ai? aeiaaei, ui eiai
oaeno o?aioeocueeith oa oe?a?inueeith iiaith ia? oi?aa?naeueio
eia?ei-eiiiiceoe?eio no?oeoo?o ? i?noeoue i’youe eiioi?eaoeaieo aeie?a,
iaeei c yeeo — ae?oaee — ? oaeoeueoaoeaiei. Acoaiiaeaii, ui ?iaa??aioii
i?ea?iaeo ? ia?aeeaaeo ia ??ai? eiiiiceoe?? ? iayai?noue aeie?a
i?ea?oaiiy, iia?aeiieaiiy i?i i?aaeiao eenooaaiiy, niiioeaiiy aei ae??
oa e?ioeaaiai eiiie?iaioa. A?aeoai?aiiy a oaeno? ia?aeeaaeo
eiiiiceoe?eii? no?oeoo?e i?ea?iaeo caaacia/o? aea?aaeaioi?noue OI ? OI.

5.Iniiaia /anoeia oaenoo, aea iia?aeiiey?oueny i?i i?aaeiao eenooaaiiy,
neeaaea?oueny c iecee i?e?ioai (i?aaenoaaeaiiy i?iiiiiaaiiai oiaa?o,
oiiae iinoaaee, ?ic?aooieo, iineeaiiy ia i?e/eio i?aoaic?? aae?anaioa
oiui).

6.Aeiaaaeaii, ui oaeno AeE ia? ?ioi?iaoeaio no?oeoo?o, yea ii?aeio? a
iaeia oe?ea naiaioe/i? oa aeni?aneai? eiiiiiaioe, ye? ?ai?acaioothoue
eiai aeaiaioa?i? nienee, ui iaia’yceiai iiaeii? aooe ia?aeeaaeai?.
Ii??aiyeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aioeocueeiai AeE oa eiai ia?aeeaaeo
aeyaeei iayai?noue o?ueio oei?a ?ioi?iaoe??, ui neeaaeathoue eiai
?ioi?iaoeaio no?oeoo?o — aeaiioaoeaii?, noee?noe/ii? oa i?aaiaoe/ii?.

7. Aeaiioaoeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y aeaiiai oaenoo oi?io?oueny ia eaene/iiio oa
ii?oieiai-neioaene/iiio ??aiyo. Ia eaene/iiio ??ai?: aiia i?aaenoaaeaia
o caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo neiaao oa niaoe?aeuei?e eaeneoe?, ia?aaaaeii
aeiiii?/ieo oa?i?iao oa o iiaieo ee?oa. Iaia’yceiaa i?enooi?noue ee?oa
oa oa?i?iieia?/ii? eaeneee a ??cieo oeiao AeE aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i ieo
ye i?i iino?eiee eiiiiiaio AENAe ae?eiaiai eenoa.

Ia a?aiaoe/iiio ??ai? ia?aaea/a aeaiioaoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??
caaacia/o?oueny noeoii?noth ii?oieia?/ieo oa neioaene/ieo cania?a.

· ii?oieia?/i?:

a) na?aae /anoei iiae a AeE ia?aaaaeathoue ?iaiieee, cie?aia
a?aeae??ne?ai?, oa ?io?i?oeae. Caaaeyee iii?iae?caoe?? ae?? aai i?ioeano
aeneiaethaaiiy noa? a?eueo /?oeei, eiiaeainiaaiei. A iaio iiaao o AeE
i?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ?iaiieeiaiai iiaeaiiy aai aei
“noanoaioeaiiai noeeth“.

a) ia?aeaeueia aaeeaaiiy caeiaiiee?a ia?oi? iniae iaeieie oa iiiaeeie,
i?e/iio inoaii? aeei?enoi?othoueny /ano?oa (75% aeiaaee?a).

a) aeei?enoaiiy o o?aioeocueeiio ae?eiaiio eeno? iaiaaeaiiai eiea
/aniaeo oi?i (Prsent, Pass compos, Imparfait, Future simple), a a
oe?a?inueeiio — oaia??oiueiai, iaeaooiueiai, ieioeiai /an?a. A ae?eiaeo
eenoao iaiia iiaaie ia?aaaaeathoue ae?eniee oa oiiaiee niiniae ae??ne?a.

· neioaene/i? caniae

a) ia?aaaaeia aaeeaaiiy a i?ea?iae? ? ia?aeeaae? neeaaeieo ?
iaaeneeaaeieo neioaene/ieo eiino?oeoe?e (aeneiaethaaiue, ui
ia’?aeiothoue a nia? iaeia aai e?eueea neeaaeiii?ae?yaeieo oa
neeaaeiino?yaeieo ?a/aiue, ui iiaeooue aooe, a naith /a?ao, oneeaaeiai?
ae??i?eeiaoieeiaei aai ae??i?ene?aieeiaei cai?ioii).

a) aeei?enoaiiy i?inoeo ?a/aiue c oneeaaeiaiith neioaene/iith
no?oeoo?ith. Oae? oneeaaeiaiiy a?aeaoaathoueny /a?ac aeei?enoaiiy
aa?oiae?y oa aaniethoiiai ae??i?eeiaoieeiaiai cai?ioo – yaeua, ia
oa?aeoa?iiai aeey oe?a?inueei? iiae.

a) aaeeaaiiy a?aeie?aieaieo icia/aiue, ui aeeiiothoue a ?a/aii?
ooieoe?th ianoaaeie /ano, niiniao ae??. O oaeee niin?a aeinyaa?oueny
aeiaeaoeiaa iane/aiiy aeaiioaoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? AeE. Iaie eiinoaoiaaii
oaeo a?aiaoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?e ia?aeeaae? a?aeie?aieaiiai icia/aiiy
a i?ae?yaeia ?a/aiiy i?e/eie, niiniao ae??, /ano aai a
ae??i?ene?aieeiaee cai?io.

8. Caniae oi?ioaaiiy noee?noe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?iciiae?eythoueny ia aea?
a?oie, ca?aeii c eiioi?eaoeaiei iai??ii aae?anaioa: 1) NC, ye?
aeiiiiaaathoue aaoi?o ?aaoethaaoe oaaao ?aoeei??ioa
(noee?noe/ii-ia?eiaai? EI, iaoaoi?e/i? iaeiaioaaiiy, i?iione neoaeaiaeo
ne?a, eaeneei-naiaioe/iee iiaoi?); 2) NC, ye? caeaoi? noai?eoe
caaaeueiee iiceoeaiee oii eenoa /a?ac ae?aaeaiiy niaoeeo?/iiai noaaeaiiy
aei aae?anaoa, iiae?e oa oaeo?a, ye? iienothoueny a oaeno? eenoa
(ia?eo?ace oa aaoai?cie). Aeine?aeaeaii, ui aaeaea ii?aeiaiiy a oaeno?
ae?eiaiai eenoa iacaaieo noee?noe/ieo cania?a caaacia/o? aoaeoeaiee
aieea ia aae?anaoa.

9. I?aaiaoe/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y a oaenoao AeE iaiia iiaaie ?aae?co?oueny
/a?ac a?aiaoe/io eaoaai??th iiaeaeueiino? oa i?aaiaoe/io eaoaai??th
ae?eiai? aa?/eeaino?, ui aenie?eo?oueny a a?ia?aieao, eiiaeeoe?iiaeia?
aa?/eeaino? oa iai?yiiio iiaeaii?aiio aeo? i?ioaiiy. Ine?eueee eaoaai??y
iiaeaeueiino? oa iai?yiee iiaeaii?aee aeo i?ioaiiy ? eaoaai??yie
?ioa?e?iaa?noe/ieie ? ia?aaeathoueny ?aeaioe/ieie iiaieie caniaaie, oi
oea cia/ii iieaaoo? aeinyaiaiiy aaeaeaaoiino? OI ? OI. Aeyaeaii oaeiae,
ui o?aioeocueeee ae?eiaee eeno oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei nooiaiai iiaaae
aei aae?anaoa, ii??aiyii c a?eueo iaeo?aeueiei oe?a?inueeei.

10. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oaeno?a i?ea?iae?a oa ia?aeeaae?a o?aioeocueeeo
ae?eiaeo eeno?a aeia?a, ui aecia/aeueiith aeey aeai?iai-noee?noe/ii?
aeii?iaioe aai ?iaa??aioo oaenoo aeaiiai aeai?o ? eiai ?ioi?iaoeaia
no?oeoo?a, yea i?aaenoaaeaia iacaaieie aeua eiiiiceoe?eieie, iiaieie oa
i?aaiaoe/ieie iciaeaie.

11. A?aeoai?aiiy iino?eieo eiiiiiaio?a AENAe AeE caaacia/o?
aaeaeaaoi?noue ia?aeeaaeo.

Iiaeaeueoa ?icoe?aiiy o?aioeocueei-oe?a?inueeeo ia?aeeaaeaoeueeeo
eiioaeo?a caeaoia aieeiooe ia ?icaeoie ii?i oe?a?inueei? iiae o
eiie?aoiiio aeai?? ae?eiaiai iiaeaiiy, caaaaoeoe eiai iiaeie
ae?aaeaeueieie caniaaie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. I?i aeaye? caniae ae?aaeaiiy eaoaai??? iiaeaeueiino? a ae?eiaiio
eeno? o?aioeocueeith oa oe?a?inueeith iiaaie// Iiaa o nioe?aeueiiio ?
eoeueoo?iiio eiioaeno?.- Ee?a: EAO, 1997.- N.164-172.

2. Analyse comparee de la lettre commerciale en francais et en
ukrainien// La traduction au seuil du siecle: histoire, theorie,
methodologie. – Strasbourg, 1997.- P.162 – 169.

3. Aeaye? aeai?iai-noee?noe/i? iniaeeaino? o?aioeocueeiai ae?eiaiai
eenoa// ?iicaiia o?eieia?y.- Ee?a, 1997.- Aei.26.- N.39-42 (o
ni?aaaoi?noa? c *a?aaeie/aiei I.?.).

4. No?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? o?aioeocueeiai ae?eiaiai eenoa//
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998.- ?15.-
N.29-35.

5.Niaoeeo?ea aeai?o ae?eiaiai eenoa ye caniao eiioi?eaoe??//
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998.- ?59.-
N.44-48.

Oa?aae ?.?. Eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? o?aioeocueeiai
ae?eiaiai eenoa a i?ea?iae? oa ia?aeeaae?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.16 – ia?aeeaaeiciaanoai.- Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ieo
iciae o?aioeocueeiai ae?eiaiai eenoa (AeE) a i?ea?iae? oa ia?aeeaae?.
Cai?iiiiiaaii /eaioaaiiy oaenoo eenoa ia i’youe eiioi?eaoeaieo aeie?a.
Iienaii ?ioi?iaoeaio no?oeoo?o oaenoo. A?aecia/aii i?i ?? aecia/aeueio
?ieue aeey AENAe (?iaa??aioo aeai?o). Aeyaeaii oeiieia?th ca?a?a oa
a?aei?iiinoae o aeei?enoaii? iiaieo cania?a a oaenoao i?ea?iaeo oa
ia?aeeaaeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea?aaeaioi?noue, aaeaeaaoi?noue, aeai?, ae?eiaee eeno,
?ioi?iaoeaia no?oeoo?a, aeaiioaoeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y, noee?noe/ia
?ioi?iaoe?y, i?aaiaoe/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y, aeai?iai-noee?noe/ia aeii?iaioa

Oa?aae E. A. Eiiioieeaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe o?aioeocneiai
aeaeiaiai ienueia a i?eaeiaea e ia?aaiaea.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.16 – ia?aaiaeiaaaeaiea.- Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth eiiioieeaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/aneeo
i?eciaeia o?aioeocneiai aeaeiaiai ienueia (AeI) a i?eaeiaea e ia?aaiaea.
I?aaeeiaeaii /eaiaiea oaenoa ienueia ia iyoue eiiioieeaoeaiuo aeieia.
Iienaia eioi?iaoeaiay no?oeoo?a oaenoa. Ioia/aia aa ii?aaeaeythuay ?ieue
aeey AENAe (eiaa?eaioa aeai?a). Auyaeaia oeiieiaey niaiaaeaiee e
?acee/ee a eniieueciaaiee ycueiauo n?aaenoa a oaenoao i?eaeiaea e
ia?aaiaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeaaeaioiinoue, aaeaeaaoiinoue, aeai?, aeaeiaia
ienueii, eioi?iaoeaiay no?oeoo?a, aeaiioaoeaiay eioi?iaoeey,
noeeenoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey, i?aaiaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey,
aeai?iai-noeeenoe/aneay aeiieiaioa.

Shargai I.Y.Communicative and pragmatic peculiarities of the French
business letters in the original and in translation.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate’s degree Speciality 10.02.16 – theory of
translation.- Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, 1998.

Dissertation is devoted to the research of the communicative and
pragmatic sings of the French business letters (BL) in the original and
in translation. Division of the text into five communicative blocks is
proposed. The information structure of the text is described. Special
role of this structure for the genre invariant is determined. The
typology of identical and divergent language means used in the text of
the original and translation was revealed.

Key word: equivalence, adequacy, genre, business letter, information
structure, denotative information, stylistic information, pragmatic
information, genre stylistic dominant.

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