EE?ANUeEEE OIIAA?NEOAO IIAII OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

IAEAUAIEI IEAENAIAe? EINOssIOEIIAE*

OAeE 002.7:681.3

EIII’THOA?I? I OAEAEIIOI?EAOe?EI? OAOIIEIA??

ssE AA?AIO ?IOAA?AOe?? AEO?IAE?NOEEE OE?A?IE

A NA?OIAEE ?IOI?IAOe?EIEE I?INO??

10.01.08 — aeo?iae?noeea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien “Eiii’thoa?i? ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? oaoiieia??
ye aa?aio ?ioaa?aoe?? aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee
i?ino??”

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iineaeaiei
Aiaoie?e Caoa?iae/, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?aai/aiei ?iiai A?eai?iae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
“Iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”,

aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe Aaaee Aaea??e Ieoaeeiae/, aee?aeoi? Ee?anueeiai
?inoeoooo iaiaaeaeiaioo oa I?ae?aa?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy
ia?niiaeii,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iao?ia A’y/aneaa Aaneeueiae/, aee?aeoi?
?inoeoooo i?iaeai ?a?no?aoe?? ?ioi?iaoe??, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI
Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y – Euea?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.01.01.08 Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: i.Ee?a, aoe.Iaeueieeiaa, 36/1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea: i.Ee?a, aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “27” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,i?ioani?
A.I.Ie?eiee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue. O ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO noi??//y ?ioi?iaoe?y, oi?aae?iiy
oa i?aai?caoe?y, ia/a iiooaei? «eieiiioeae» i?ia?ano, iaaeaee iiai?
yeino? ethaenuee?e oeea?e?caoe??. Aeey i?ia?aeieo e?a?i na?oo oeae
ia?ao?ae a?aeaoany o 60-o — na?aaeei? 80-o ?ie?a. Oaeoe/ii ?icii/aeany
iiaa aiioa — oaoiieia?/ia, a ye?e aeii?ioth/o ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue
?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??. ?? iniiaiee nain — ci?ia niiniao ae?iaieoeoaa,
ca yeiai aeaioiaeaiiy i?iaeoeoe?? aei?aaaeaii c aeiiii?/ii?,
nioe?aeueii? oa aeieia?/ii? oi/ie ci?o.

O aeo?iae?noeoe? iiae?ai? i?aeoiaee ?nioaaee caaaeaee, iacaaaeath/e ia
oa, ui naia iaoe ia oaac? — aeo?iae?noeeo ye eiiieaen eaiae?a ia?aaea/?
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aai aeo?iae?noeeo ye nenoaio ??cieo oai??a
(ia?aaaaeiith i??ith aeania aeo?iae?nonueeo oai?/?noue). Oae, ?noi?e/iee
?icaeoie oaoi?/ieo iiaeeeainoae ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? i?ae aieeaii IO?
i?ea?a iai?ee?ioe? OO noi??//y aei aaee/acii? “u?eueiino?” iioie?a
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. Ui noino?oueny aeo?iae?nonueei? iaenoa?iino? ?
ci?noiaiiai iaiiaiaiiy ae?yeueiino? cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? (CI?),
oi cae/aeia ?aaeaeoe?eia i?aeoeea ia?aaeaa/a? aei?iaoaaeueiee no?ie ia
noaaea?nuee?e iinaae? aeey eaiaeeaeao?a o i?ioan?ei? eiioi?eaoi?e. Aeey
aeo?iae?no?a, ye? i?aaiooue aai i?aeaeueoe naith eaae?o?eaoe?th aei
??aiy aeanieo ei?aniiiaeaio?a i?e ?aaeaeoi?ao, aai noaoe
aeo?iae?noaie-i?aeia?iaeieeaie, o aaeeeeo ?aaeaeoe?yo, ui iathoue
ca?oa?aei? ei?ioieoe, oa a na?oiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo aaaionoaao ?niothoue
?ic?iaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??. Ianiaa eiii’thoa?ecaoe?y
noni?euenoaa ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e o
aeo?iae?noeeo, a caniae ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? i?eaiaeeoue aei
?aaiethoe?eieo ci?i a ?nioth/eo oaoi?/ieo caniaao ? oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioeanao.

?noi??ia?ao?y oaie. I?ioean ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e o
aeo?iae?noeeo iaaeoi aeeiai?/iee, ciaoiaeeoueny a iino?eiiio ?on?, ui
iaoiiaeth?oueny i?ia?aeiei iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ? oaoiieia?/iei aieeaii.
*a?ac oea aeaia i?iaeaiaoeea aei inoaiiueiai /ano ciaeoea eeoa /anoeiaa
aiaeia?aaeaiiy a aeo?iaeinoeeiciaanoai. Aiane?aeie iino?eieo
?aaiethoe?eieo ci?i, yeeo caciathoue cia?yaeaey aeo?iae?nonueei? i?aoe?
oa ?aaeaeoe?eii-ae?iaie/ee i?ioean, ?nioth/? iaoeiai i?aoei aiae?cothoue
o?eueee ie?ai? aniaeoe eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? nenoaie CI? Oe?a?ie. A?aenooi?
iaoeia? ?iaioe, yei ocaaaeueiththoue cayaeaio oaio, aeathoue no/ania
oyaeaiiy i?i niaeo? eiii’thoa?ieo ? oaeaeiioiieaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e,
i?enoiniaaieo naia aeey ?aaeaeoe?e. Oai?aoe/ia i i?aeoe/ia aeo?iaeinoeea
ia? o nai?io ?icii?yaeaeaiii eeoa ie?aii ?icae?ee a aeena?oaoeieieo
aeineiaeaeaiiyo, iiiia?ao?yo, i?ae?o/ieeao, iin?aieeao, a oaeiae aeaye?
iaoeiai noaooi.

Aanue oeae aei?iaie iiaeia ?icaeieeoe ia eieueea a?oi, canoiniaoth/e
e?eueea eeaneo?eaoe?e.

Ia?oo a?oio noaiiaeoue niaoeiaeueia eioa?aoo?a, i?enay/aia ethaenuee?e
oeea?e?caoe??, ?? oaoiieia?/iei oa?aeoa?enoeeai, iniaeeainoyi ?
i?ioe??//yi, aea aiia eeoa iaaiith ii?ith noino?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei
oaie aeaii? aeena?oaoeieii? i?aoei.

Ae?oao a?oio noaiiaeyoue aeaeaiiy, ui ocaaaeueieee caeiaooee aeania
oaoiieia?/ii? iaoee, aea aeine?aeaeai? iaoiaee, niiniae oa i?eeiie
noinothoueny caeaa?eueoiai ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocae ethaenueeiai ciaiiy, a
ia aeo?iae?noeee eiie?aoii.

O?aoth a?oio noaiiaeoue eioa?aoo?a, i?enay/aia aenaioeaiith ?icieo
aniaeoia aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?ia. I?ioa aiia ?ice?eaa? a iniiaiiio aai
caaaeueii iiiyooy iioi?iaoeee, aai niaoeeoieo i?ia?aioaaiiy, aai
?ino?oeoe?? c ei?enooaaiiy eiie?aoieie ?ioi?iaoe?eieie oaoiieia?yie aac
o?aooaaiiy oaoiai? niaoe?ae?caoe?? ei?enooaa/?a.

*aoaa?oo a?oio neeaaeathoue aeena?oaoeieii aeineiaeaeaiiy
TH.E.Aoaianue?aa, I.N.Aaeaa?iai?, I.I.Ao?eiai?, A.A.Aaneeue?aa,
E.A.Aaaeiaaeiai?, A.I.Ae?eyinueeiai, I.I.?ao??ai?, E.I.Eoae?yaoeaai?,
A.ss.Eacaeeiy, I.O.Noaoiaa, E.I.Oo?oioa?aa. Oi/a aiie i aeathoue iaaii
iiiyooy i?i eiii’thoa?i? e oaeaeiioeaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, cie?aia, aace i
aaiee aeaieo, i?aaiicaoeith oaiaoe/iiai iiooeo iioi?iaoei?, i?ioa iaei
noinothoueny i?aeoeee ?aaeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe ? anaa?/ii ia ioiieththoue
oaio, ye?e i?enay/aia aeaia aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I’yoo a?oio noaiiaeyoue iaoeia? i?aoe? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, i?ioa
?acoeueoaoaie ?oiuei? ?iaioe ne?ae ei?enooaaoeny iaa?aaeii ye aiane?aeie
niaoeeo?ee aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia’?eo?a ia i?noeaaiio iaoa??ae? (yeee ia
iiaeia ne?ii ia?aiineoe ia oe?a?inueeee a?oio), oae ? a ca’yceo ?c
caaaeaieie ?aaiethoe?eieie ci?iaie o aeo?iae?noeoe?, ui aeiaaathoue
ia?ainieneaiiy aaaaoueio iieiaeaiue oeeo ?ia?o.

Ua iaeio a?oio noaiiaeyoue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a iaoeiaeo
aeenoeeie?i, ye?, ye ? aeo?iae?noeea, iathoue iaeio e oo ae iaoo —
iioei?caoe?th oi?aae?iiy a ??cieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoaiao. Eaeaoueny,
cie?aia, i?i e?aa?iaoeeo, ineoieia?th, nioe?ieia?th, o?einio?th,
iaaeaaia?eo. Aea oe? iaoee iathoue na?e i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ae?iaeee na?e ?ino?oiaioa??e, ? aaea oi/a a oeei i?aoe? i?aaenoaaiee?a
iacaaieo aeenoeeie?i eeoa /anoeiai noinothoueny cayaeaii? a aeai?e
aeena?oaoe?? oaie.

Ianooiio a?oio noaiiaeyoue iaoeia? i?aoe? a/aieo aeecueeiai ca?oa?aeaey,
ianaiia?aae ?in??, aea aeae?eythoueny aeo?iae?nonuee? i?ae?icae?ee a
Iineianueeiio, Ai?iiacueeiio oa ?ioeo oi?aa?neoaoao. Aanue oeae aei?iaie
oi/a e i?enay/aiee aea/aiith i?iaeai no/aniiai noaio aeo?iae?noeee, ??
eiii’thoa?ecaoe??, i?ioa oae ? ia ?ice?eaa? oaio, ye?e i?enay/aia aeaia
aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ie?aio a?oio noaiiaeyoue iiiia?aoi?, i?ae?o/ieee, iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee,
eiiniaeoe eaeoe?e, noaooi, oace aeiiiaiaeae ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo,
ioaeieaoei? a i?ani i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? oeiee aeo?iae?noeee. Ooo
aa?oi iacaaoe iaoeia? i?aoe? A.C.Iineaeaiea, A.?.Oeey?a oa
A.A.*?/aiianueeiai, i?enay/ai? aea/aiith
ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??, i?aeia?iaeiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
iai?io, na?oiaiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o, iaoeiaee aei?iaie
A.A.??coia, A.O.?aaiiaa oa I.E.Iaeauaiea,
A.?.*a?iyeiaa,
A.ss.Ie?ii/aiea, I.Ae.Iiiiia??aa, A.A.Ii/aioeiaa,
?.TH.Ne?na?aiea, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai oaea?aae?ii?inoi?o, aacaoii-aeo?iaeueiiai ?eieo
Oe?a?ie a iaoeiaeo ?iaioao A.I.Ie?eieea,
A.A.Aoa?eia oa ?.A.Iauaiea,

A.E.Caei?iaaae, A.A.Eecai/oea, A.?.Iaiaeeae.

I, ia?aooi, Caeiie Oe?a?ie a iioi?iaoeiei?e noa??, iioi caeiiiaeaa/i
aeoe neeaee ua iaeio, ie?aio a?oio. Aiie noaee iaoiaeieiai/iith i
oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeey iaienaiiy aeaii? aeena?oaoei?. E??i oeueiai,
aaoi? nie?aany a nai?e ?iaio? ia nenoaiiee, ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiee
iaoiaee, a oaeiae iaoiae iiaeaethaaiiy.

Ia?aiee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee c
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie ieaiaie ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, a oaeiae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee
i?ae /an ei?aeoe?? aaeocaaeo ieai?a i?i?noa?noaa ?ioi?iaoe??, o?yaeiai?
i?ia?aie i?aeo?eiee aea?aeaaieo CI? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie
?ioi?iaoecaoe??.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, iinoaaeaii ca iaoo — aeineiaeeoe niaoeeoieo
?ioaa?aoe?? aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??.
Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiaoiaeii aeeiiaoe oaei caaaeaiiy: ia
iniia? iayaiiai a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo i?iaiae?coaaoe
neooaoe?th, ui neeaeany c ianiaith eiii’thoa?ecaoe??th iaoe?iiaeueii?
nenoaie CI? Oe?a?ie, aea/eoe aieea eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e ia ci?ie a
?aaeaeoe?eii-ae?iaie/iio i?ioean?, aeine?aeeoe no/aniee noai oa ?icaeoie
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio
i?inoi??, aecia/eoe ina?oi?, ineoieiai/ii oa ?io? i?iaeaie, ui
iinoathoue ia?aae aeo?iaeinoaie o oiae? ianooaaiiai inai?iiy
iioi?iaoeieieo ?ano?n?a ? aoiaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee a
na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??.

*aniai ?aiee aeineiaeaeaiiy aecia/athoueny ia?iiaeii 1991-1998 ??., a?ae
i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? oa noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae,
?icaoaeiae nenoaie CI?, oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
i?inoi?o, ianiai? eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee oa ni?ia
?ioaa?aoe?? a na?aaeiaeua ?ioi?iaoe?eii ?icaeiaieo aea?aeaa oeyoii
noai?aiiy aeaniiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?iaeoeoo oa caeo/aiiy aei na?oiaeo
aeo?iae?nonueeeo noaiaea?o?a.

I?aaeiao aeineiaeaeaiiy — i?ioeane eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? oe?a?inueei?
aeo?iae?noeee, a oaeiae oaiaeaioei?, i?iaeaiaoeea ioae?eaoe?e oa ao??ieo
iaoa??ae?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. I?iiiiiaaia aeena?oaoeiy aia?oa ocaaaeueith? i?ioeane
eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie c aoiaeaeaiiyi ?? o na?oiaee
?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??. E?ii oiai, iiaei ? nenoaiia aeineiaeaeaiiy
aieeao ?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoiieia?? ye ia ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/ee i?ioean,
oae ? ia aeo?iae?nonuee? iaoiaee ?iaioe c ?ioi?iaoe??th. Ii??aiyii c
i?aoeyie i?aaenoaaiee?a iaoeiaeo oe?e A.C.Iineaeaiea (cie?aia,
A.A.??coia, A.O.?aaiiaa11), A.E.Caei?iaaae (cie?aia, A.C.Ia?oeea),
?.I.I?ioi?iaa (cie?aia, E.?.Aa?oaiiai?, E.A.Eioaiiai?,
E.I.Eoae?yaoeaai?, ?.A.Eaa?aioue?ai?, E.I.Iaei?yeiai?, I.O.Noaoiaa), a
yeeo aiae?cothoueny a iniiaiiio eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia?? ye ?ino?oiaio
o?enaoe?? oa eiina?aaoe?? ?ioi?iaoe??, o aeaiiio aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?ic?iaeai? ia?aiao?e
oe?aaeoaaiiy e o?aineyoe?? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui ciaoiaeyoue nai? ae?aaeaiiy
o aeaeyae? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e o aeo?iae?noeoe?. Oaeiae
a?aeooiaooth/enue a?ae ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo A.C.Iineaeaieii9,
A.?.Oeey?ai, A.A.*?/aiianueeei10 i?ae /an aiae?co i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy
na?oiaiai oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o Oe?a?ie, o aeaiiio
aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ieoaiiy
ioi?ieaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoei? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia ni?eyoeia
?icoe?aiith oyaeaiue uiaei eiii’thoa?ecaoei? aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie,
aeiiiiiaea inieneeoe oaoiieia?/i? ci?ie a ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/iio
i?ioean? i /a?ac ii?iaiyeueiee aiaeic ?c na?oiaeie aeo?iae?nonueeeie
noaiaea?oaie iaaeanoue iiaeeeainoue aeeoe ia no/anio i?aeoeeo
?aaeaeoeieieo eieaeoeaia, yei iaiieaaeeai ooeathoue aeania oai?/a
iaee//y e aia?oi ciaaathoueny c eiieo?aioaie ca naith ?eieiao i?oo.
?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii ca iiaeaeueoi?
?ic?iaee iinoaaeaieo i ?icaeyiooeo o aeena?oaoei? i?iaeai. Aiie
iiaeooue ?ai?acaiooaaoe iioa?an ? aeey no/anii? oe?a?inueei?
aeo?iaeinoeee, yea a oiiaao iaoeiiiaeueiiai aiae?iaeaeaiiy ae?iaey? i
oi?io? ?icii nenoaie iioe?aiiy ianiai? iioi?iaoei?. ?acoeueoaoaie
aeineiaeaeaiiy a ina?oiueiio ieai?, a oaeiae i?ae /an i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? /e ia?aeaae?o?eaoe?? iiaeooue nei?enoaoeny i?aoeiaieee
?aaeaeoeie oa eieaeoeae aeo?iae?nonueeeo i?ae?icae?e?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeia.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe /anoeiai — o ia?aaaaeaii?
?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/eo i?ioean?a nenoaie CI? Oe?a?ie ia eiii’thoa?io
iniiao — ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy. Aace ? aaiee aeaieo oa aanue
niaeo? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e iiee ianiai ia aeei?enoiaothoueny
a oe?a?inuee?e aeo?iae?noeoe?. Ioaea, ?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei ?oiueiai aeei?enoaiiy ni?eyoeiooue iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo on???
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? Oe?a?ie oa ??
?ioaa?aoe?? a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??. I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie oe?eeii i?eaeaoi? aeey
iaaaeiiai aeei?enoaiiy a i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe ?aaeaeoe?e o ianooaaao on???
e?a?ie. Ine?eueee aaoi? ?yae i?aoeue iioae?eoaaa o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
A.A.??coiii ? A.O.?aaiiaei11, oi aeaye? ?aea? oa ?ic?iaee iio?aaothoue
iaia’yceiaiai cacia/aiiy eiie?aoiiai iniaenoiai aianeo. Eaeaoueny,
cie?aia, i?i ?aeath eiii’thoa?ii? aeo?iae?noeee oa ?ic?iaeo ??
neeaaeiaeo. Aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue aeaoaeueia ?ic?iaea neeaaeiaeo
eiii’thoa?ii? aeo?iae?noeee, iniaeeai a /anoei? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy i ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy
ii?eethaeiaii ia 13 i?aeia?iaeieo, anaoe?a?inueeeo ? aoc?anueeeo
eiioa?aioe?yo: ia ? ? ??? iiaeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo «Iiaa ?
eoeueoo?a» (E., 1992; E., 1994), Iiaeia?iaeiie iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie
eiioa?aioei? «Caniae ianiai? eiioiieaoei? ye oi?ia aiciano» (E., 1992),
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ?inoeoooo (oaeoeueoaoo) aeo?iaeinoeee Ee?anueeiai
oiiaa?neoaoo ii. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (E., 1992; E., 1993; E., 1994; E.,
1995; E., 1996; E., 1997), Iiaeia?iaeiie iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei?
«Eco/aiea enoi?ee e i?aeoeee ia/aoe a oneiaeyo aeaiie?aoecaoeee
iauanoaa» (Ai?iiaae, ?in?y, 1992), ia ? Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Oe?a?inueea ia??iaeeea: ?noi??y ?
no/ani?noue» (Euea?a, 1993), ia ?? Oe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Aeei?enoaiiy ia?niiaeueieo AII a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
aeuiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo» (Euea?a, 1993), ia I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «AEo?iae?noeea e i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
iiai? iie?oe/ii? ae?oe a iinoeiioi?noe/ieo aea?aeaaao» (E., 1996), ia
caniaeaiiyo eaoaae? ia??iaee/ii? i?ane, aeo?iaeinonueei? iaenoa?iinoi oa
i?aeia?iaeii? aeo?iae?noeee ?inoeoooo (oaeoeueoaoo) aeo?iaeinoeee
Ee?anueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo iiaii Oa?ana Oaa/aiea i?ioyaii 1991-1998 ??.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny ic anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiaeia oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 385 noi??iie, ianya aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae ?c 148 iaeiaioaaiue noaiiaeoue 21 noi??ieo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iiaecio, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
aecia/aii iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai /ania? ?aiee, iaoiaee
aea/aiiy i?aaeiaoo, aeeeaaeaii ?noi??ia?ao?th i?iaeaie.

Ia?oee ?icae?e «?icaeoie eiii’thoa?ieo ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
ye ia?aaeoiiaa ?ioaa?aoe?? aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie a na?oiaee
?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??» iineoue a oe?eiio iieniai-nenoaiaoecoth/ee
oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee iieno? ?icaeoie ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, ca
aeiiiiiaith yeeo no/ania ?aeeia nenoaia aeo?iae?noeee iioe?th? ianiao
?ioi?iaoe?th a na?oiaiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio i?inoi??.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1 «Aaiaca eiii’thoa?ieo ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e»
i?inoaaeo?oueny iinooi ethaenueei? oeea?e?caoe?? c oi/ee ci?o oai?aiiy
eoeueoo?e, iaeaeuith oi?iith i?iyao yei? noaee naia oaoiieia??. ?oi?e
?icaeoie a?aeaoaaany ii aeaio iai?yieao: o aeaeyae? oaoiieia?e
iaoa??aeueieo ae?ia?a ? o aeaeyae? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. I?eueeii
?ie?a ethaenoai aeaioiaeyei ?ino?oiaioe aeey ?iaioe c iaoa??aeueieie
ia’?eoaie, iiee ia aoei aeiaeaeaii ?ino?oiaioe aeey ?a?no?aoe??
?ioi?iaoe?eieo ia?ac?a. Ua iaeaea 5 oeny/ ?ie?a ia?iaea ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
ia?ac?a caeeoaeany iaci?iiith — ia ??ai? ?ao?aieoe?. ? eeoa aeiao?ae
ae?oea?nueeiai aa?noaoa — iaoeie aeey ianiaiai oe?aaeoaaiiy cao?eniaaieo
ia iaoa??aeueiiio iin?? ciaiue- noai?ea ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ia?aaeoiiae
i?enei?aiiai c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee. ?aeay iaae?eeoe iiae?ai?
?ino?oiaioe “?ioaeaeooaeuei?noth” iaoa??ae?coaaeany a 1940-o ?ieao o
aeaeyae? eiii’thoa?a, yeee aeei?enoiao? aeaeo?iiiee iin?e ?ioi?iaoe??,
caeeoath/e iai?? eeoa aeey i?aaenoaaeaiiy aeaieo o a?eueo c?o/iiio
aeaeyae?.

Naia ia?aianaiiy aeoeaio?a ca inoaii? 30 oeny/ ?ie?a c oaoiieia?e
iaoa??aeueieo ae?ia?a ia oaoiieia?? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? i?eaaei aei oiai, ui
aia?oa a ethaenuee?e ?noi??? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO noi??//y iniiaiei
i?aaeiaoii i?aoe? a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? noa? ?ioi?iaoe?y cai?noue
iaoa??aeueieo ia’?eo?a. I?i oea, cie?aia, na?ae/aoue aeai?, io?eiai?
aia?eeainueeei aeine?aeieeii I.Ii?aoii.

Iaeaaaeeeaioa cia/aiiy iioi?iaoeieieo oaoiieiaie iieyaa? naia a oiio, ui
aiie aiaee?eaathoue oeyoe IO?, cieaeoth/e ieoiia niiaeeaaiiy iane oa
aia?ai?. Oi/a ia?iaea eiaeii? iaeeieoei iioi?iaoei? aeiaaa? aia?ai?, a
caa?iaaiiy iioi?iaoei? aeiaaa? ?a/iaeie oa i?inoi?o, oei aeo?aoe
iacii?eii iaioi aeo?ao aia?ai?, ?a/iaeie, i?inoi?o, a ye i?aaeei, i
/ano, iiae iiaei? ?aaeueiiai naioo, ui aiaeia?aaeathoueny oeeie
iioi?iaoeieieie i?ioeanaie.

?ioi?iaoe?y acaaae?, ? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? aeai? a aeaeo?iiiiio aeaeyae?
cie?aia, ia?aoai?eeenue ia aeiaaeuei?, iaae/a?ii? ?ano?ne ethaenoaa,
aeey yeiai ?icii/aeany iiaa aiioa ?icaeoeo oeea?e?caoe?? — aiioa
?ioaineaiiai inai?iiy oeeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a. Oaeoe/ii ia ieaiao?
Caiey noi?ioaaeany ethaenueea ?ioi?iaoe?eia oeea?e?caoe?y, iniiaiith
iciaeith yei? ? aeiaaeueia oaoiieia?/i?noue. ?? a?aee?e ii/eia?oueny c
iiiaioo «aeaea/? a ao??» ?aae?ineaiae?a.

Iniiai? ?ene ethaenueei? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? oeea?e?caoe??: 1) ci?ia
iniiaiiai i?aaeiaoa i?aoe? a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? i?eaiaeeoue ia
aei niaaeo ae?iaieoeoaa, a aei c?inoaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino? ca ?aooiie
canoinoaaiiy ia?aaeiaeo oaoiieia?e, ?iaioecaoe?? e i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? i?aoethth/eo, ca?eueooth/e iaeii/anii iano a?eueiiai /ano
a?iiaaeyi — aeey aeica?eey, oo?ecio, i?aeaeuaiiy eoeueoo?e, aeey
naiiina?oe; 2) ?ioi?iaoe?y noa? iiaei ?ano?nii ethaenoaa, aeicaieyth/e
noai?thaaoe aenieiaoaeoeai? iaoa??aee /anoi «c i?/iai», c aeaoaaeo
eiiiiiaio?a; 3) iaoei?ii? ae?iaieoeoaa c i?i?iaeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi
ne?iaeie oa aia?a?? aeicaieythoue iaa?oue iaeei aea?aeaaai, ye? /anoi
ia iathoue aeanieo i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a, aeinyaaoe a?aaeath/eo oni?o?a a
aeiiii?oe? — i?eeeaae?a oiio aeinoaoiuei, iniaeeai a Ac??; 4) aea?aeaaa
a iia?e oeea?e?caoe?? aoaeoaa?oueny ca i?eioeeiii a?aeiieo /ioe?ueio
a?eie aeaaee — caeiiiaeaa/i?, aeeiiaa/i?, noaeiai? oa ?ioi?iaoe?eii?,
i?e/iio inoaiiy i?iieco? on? ?io? oa icia/a? naiaiaeo i?ane, aeani?noue,
aaee/acio e?euee?noue caaaeueiiaeinooiieo aaie?a aeaieo, a ?aae?co?oueny
/a?ac ?ioa?iao, aeiaaeuei? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ia?aae?, nenoaie noiooieeiaiai
oaeaaa/aiiy oa ?io? neeaaeia? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e; 5) iaaa/aii
c?inoa? aeeiai?ci aeiiii?ee, noai?ththoueny aeiaaeuei? ?eieia?
iaoai?cie, ye?, iai?ithth/enue ona c?inoath/eie iioieaie aeaieo,
?ioi?iaoe?? oa ciaiue, ia oeyoao aaciaia?iai? oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy
noai?ththoue iiaee, a?eueo aeeiai?/iee aacen aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano; 6)
caiaeyoueny iai?aaoeue a?aeii? nioe?aeuei? eaoaai??? (eeaniaa ai?ioueaa,
coaiae?iiy i?ieaoa??aoo ? o.?i.), a oaeiae iiae?e na?oo ia
eai?oae?noe/iee ? eiioi?noe/iee. Iaeiae aeieeathoue iia? aeenaaeaine —
i?ae “oaeaeeeie” ? “iia?eueieie” aeiiii?eaie c iaaaciaeith c?inoath/iai
a?ae?eao ia?oeo a?ae ae?oaeo; 7) o aeia?a iinoaaeai? nenoaie ina?oe e
ioi?iie caei?ia’y aeeaaeathoueny ana a?eueo? eai?oaee aeey ?o
oaeineiiaeaiiy; 8) oni?oe a ioi?ii? i?e?iaee.

O ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/?e noa?? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? yaeythoue
niaith oaoiieia?/io noaio cae?aiiy, caieno, caa?iaaiiy, iiooeo,
ia?aaeyaeo, aiaeico, ia?aaea/?, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? ia iniia?
aeaeo?iiii-ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee oa i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a.
A?aeiia?aeii aei iacaaieo aeua oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
oaoiieia?? iiaeooue aooe ?icae?eai? ia aea? aaeee? a?oie: eiii’thoa?i?
? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei?. Eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia?? aa?ooue ia naaa aeeiiaiiy
i?aeoe/ii an?o iia?aoe?e, ie??i aeeno?ea’thoe??. Inoaiith caaacia/othoue
oaoiieia?? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei?. O iaeaooiueiio, i/aaeaeii, iiae?aia
eeaneo?eaoe?y canoa???, ine?eueee iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iith oaiaeaioe??th
?icaeoeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ? oe?eani?yiiaaia ?ioaa?aoe?y nenoai
ia?iaee e ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Ia ?nioth/?e oaoiieia?/i?e iniia? aeieeathoue ?ioi?iaoe?eia ?iaeono??y,
?iaeono??y ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iineoa, ?iai/? oi?ioethaaiiy yeeo
i?iiiiothoueny aaoi?ii. ?ioi?iaoe?eia ?iaeono??y — oea iie?naiaioe/ia
ooai?aiiy, ui iiaea aeeth/aoe a naaa ye a oe?eiio, oae ? ie?aii 1)
eiii’thoa?iaoaeoaaiiy ye naiino?eio aaeocue i?iieneiaino? ?c
canoinoaaiiyi ?ioaeaeooaeueii? iaoeiii? oaoi?ee; 2) noai?aiiy
i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aeey eiii’thoa??a; 3) ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
oaoiieia?? ye oaoiieia?/i? iia?aoe?? ia iniia?
aeaeo?iiii-ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee oa i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a.
?ioi?iaoe?ei? iineoae — oaae iie?naiaioe/ia ooai?aiiy, ui iiaea
aeeth/aoe a naaa 1) noeoiia iicia/aiiy i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e, ui
aeeiiothoue ?iaioe ?c caaeiaieaiiy /e?oinue ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iio?aa, 2)
ie?aiee naaiaio ?eieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e.

O no/anieo oiiaao ethaenueei? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? oeea?e?caoe?? i?ioean
aeiaaeueii? naiii?aai?caoe?? nioe?oio aeyaey?oueny, cie?aia, a
?ioaa?aoe?? aea?aeaa, ?oi?o aeiiii?ee, eoeueoo?e, aeo?iae?noeee.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2 “Eiii’thoa?ia aeo?iae?noeea” ia?oiai ?icae?eo
i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ?icaeoie ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e iai?ee?ioe? OO
noi??//y i?ea?a aei ooai?aiiy ?aeeiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o, a yeiio
ae?? ?aeeia nenoaia aeo?iae?noeee, ui ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?iiieo cania?a
nioe?aeueiiai ni?eeoaaiiy oi?io? ianiao na?aeii?noue o na?oiaeo
ianooaaao aac iaeyaeo ia i?aeaea?aeaai? ei?aeiie. C’yaey?oueny
aeo?iae?noeea eiii’thoa?ia, yeo iiaeia aecia/eoe ye noa?o
aeo?iae?nonueei? ae?yeueiino?, a ye?e aeey cae?eniaiiy
?aaeaeoe?eii-ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a aeei?enoiaothoueny niaoe?aeuei?
caniae aeaeo?iiii-ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee, eiii’thoa?i? e
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? oaoiieia??. Aei niaoe?aeueieo cania?a iaeaaeaoue:
aia?aoia caaacia/aiiy o aeaeyae? ia?niiaeueieo eiii’thoa??a ? ia?eoa???
aei ieo ? ??ciiiai?oia i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy, ui aeicaiey? ae??ciyoe
neeaaeia? eiii’thoa?ii? aeo?iae?noeee.

No?iai eaaeo/e, oea ia ie?aiee iai?yiie o aeo?iae?noeoe? (oaae naia
iiaeia neacaoe i?i eiii’thoa?i? e?iaa?noeeo, nioe?ieia?th oiui),
ine?eueee ?aaiethoe?ei? ci?ie cae?eniththoueny ia a oai?/ino?, a a
?nioth/eo oaoi?/ieo caniaao. Inoaii? caeaoi? iaoa??ae?coaaoe
??ciiiai?oi? iia?aoe?? c ?ioi?iaoe??th. Aiane?aeie oeueiai ia iaaiiio
aoai? eiii’thoa?ia aeo?iae?noeea ? naiino?eiei iai?yieii, ine?eueee
a?aee?eaathoueny i?eioeeiiai iia? oeyoe ?iaioe c ?ioi?iaoe??th:
i?aaenoaaeaiiy oaenoiaeo, a?ao?/ieo, aoae?i- ? a?aeaiaeaieo, cae?aiiy,
caien, caa??aaiiy, aeinooi, iiooe, ia?aaeyae, aiae?c, a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?
iaa?oue a?aeiiaeaiiy ao?a/aii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ?? ia?aaea/a,
?iciianthaeaeaiiy, a a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo — aeaeaiiy aeo?iae?nonueei?
i?iaeoeoe??, yea ? iaeiei c ??ciiaeae?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
i?iaeoeoo. I?ioa a iaeaooiueiio, eiee ia ??aieo ?nioaaoeiooue aeaa
?ioaeaeoe: ethaenueeee ? iaoeiiee, — oa?i?i «eiii’thoa?ia aeo?iae?noeea»
iaaoaea cian?i ?ioiai ci?noo ? oe?eeii iiaea neeanoe ie?aiee iai?yiie o
aeo?iae?noeoe?.

Neeaaeia? eiii’thoa?ii? aeo?iae?noeee. O aeo?iae?noeoe? ?aaiethoe?ei?
ci?ie noinothoueny i?aeaioiaee e aeioneo ae?oeiaaieo aeaeaiue, ao??ieo
i?ia?ai. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai a ?aieao eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e ye
?oi? ??ciiaeaee iiaeia aeae?eeoe oaoiieia??: 1) ??ciiiai?oieo nenoaiieo
? i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai; 2) iaai?o, ei?aeoo?e oa ?aaeaaoaaiiy
?aaeaeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a; 3) iaoeiiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy aeiaaeeiai aai
iaaienii cieuaii? ?ioi?iaoe??; 4) aeaeo?iiiiai ia?aeeaaeo oaeno?a c
?iicaiii? iiae; 5) neaioaaiiy oaenoo e a?ao?ee; 6) iaeaooaaiiy e
aa?noee; 7) eiii’thoa?iiai ae?oeo; 8) aaaeaiiy eiii’thoa?iiai a?o?ao
oaeno?a; 9) oe?aaeoaaiiy a ae?oea?i?; 10) eii?thaaiiy iaae?oeiaaii?
i?iaeoeoe??; 11) aeaeo?iiii? i?ane; 12) iaoeiii? (aai eiii’thoa?ii?, aai
ua — o?eaei??ii?) a?ao?ee; 13) iaoeiiiai iiaeaethaaiiy; 14) ?ioia?ao??;
15) ai?iaoe?? (ioeueoeie?eaoe??); 16) eiii’thoa?ieo ?ai?; 17) caieno
nthaeao?a ia ?aae?i aai oaeaaa/aii?; 18) ?oiueiai ia?aaeyaeo e
i?ineooiaoaaiiy, i?ci?oa iiioaaeo ? o.ae.; 19) aaie?a (aac) aeaieo
oiui.

I?ioa aac ca’yceo, aac ia?aaea/? oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??
eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia?? i?e?a/ai? ia eieaeuei?noue, ui noia?a/eoue
na?oia?e oaiaeaioe?? uiaei aeiaae?caoe?? ?ioaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a.
*a?ac oea o ?aieao oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e aeae?eythoueny
oaoiieia??: 1) ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aae ia iniia? aaie?a aeaieo ?
aaoiiaoeciaaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iiooeiaeo nenoai; 2) ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
iineoa oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy; 3) ioeueoeiaae?a; 4) «anana?oiueiai
iaaooeiiy»; 5) a??ooaeueii? ?aaeueiino?; 6) iaeaoii? ia?aaea/?
?aae?iaeaieo; 7) eanaoiiai oaeaaa/aiiy; 8) eiiiaeo-aeene?a; 9)
a?aeaiaeene?a; 10) eaaaeueiiai oaeaaa/aiiy; 11) noiooieeiaiai
oaeaaa/aiiy; 12) oaeaaa/aiiy i?aeaeuaii? ? aeniei? /?oeino?; 13)
?ioa?aeoeaiiai oaeaaa/aiiy; 14) oeeo?iaiai oaeaaa/aiiy; 15)
aieia?ao?/iiai oaeaaa/aiiy; 16) a?a?eaeieo i?eno?i?a, /anoi aac iacae, —
iiaeo cania?a ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? («iueth iaae?a»); 17) aac ciaiue;
18) aenia?oieo nenoai oiui.

E??i oeueiai, iiaea aooe cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e caeaaeii a?ae aeaeo ca’yceo: 1) ae?ioiaiai (oaeaoiiiiai,
oaeaa?aoiiai, oaeaeniiai, oaeaoaeiiiai, a?aeaioaeaoiiiiai,
oaeneiieueiiai, iiaeaiiiai, oaen-iiaeaiiiai, eiaen?aeueiiai,
iioeei-aieieiiiiai); 2) aacae?ioiaiai (?aae?ica’yceo, i?e?ioaeeueiaiai,
noiooieeiaiai, iia?eueiiai ?aae?ica’yceo, nioiaiai, o?aie?iaiaiai,
iaeaeaeeiaiaiai).

Aeaoaeueiee aiae?c neeaaeiaeo eiii’thoa?ii? aeo?iae?noeee aoaeoeaiee
ianaiia?aae /a?ac a?aenoaaeaiiy ci?i, eio?? oe? neeaaeia? aiinyoue o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy CI?. Oaiiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e iieyaa? o oe?eeii
iia?e oaoiieia?? ni?eeoaaiiy AII ? ethaeeie: a oiiaao ae?aeiaiaiai
?aaeeio, ca aenieiai ??aiy ?ioa?aeoeaiino? (aca?iiae??). Ci?ia
oaoiieia?? oi?ea?oueny i?ane, aea ?aaeaeoe?ei? i?ioeane
i?aai?ciaothoueny ii-iiaiio, ia?a?iciiae?eythoueny iaia’ycee
i?aoe?aiee?a aacao ? aeo?iae?a, aeaeaaieoeoa ? ae?oea?aiue,
nei?i/othoueny ae?iaie/? iia?aoe??, oeeeee, ooao. Ia caeeoathoueny a
noi?ii? e ?aae?i c oaeaaa/aiiyi, ye? iniauothoueny oeeo?iaith oaoi?eith
oa i?eioeeiiai iiaith oaoiieia??th o?aineyoe?? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie iacaaieo neeaaeiaeo eiii’thoa?ii? aeo?iae?noeee
caaacia/o? ia?aaaao ?ioi?iaoe?eii ?icaeiaiei aea?aeaaai c oi/ee ci?o
eiio?ieth iaae na?oiaei eiiieaenii eaiae?a ia?aaea/? ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, ii yeeo ia?aaeathoueny aeo?iae?nonuee? oai?e, i?aeaioiaeai?
aaoi?aie, a iio?i neiiiiiiaai? ?aaeaeoe?eieie i?aoe?aieeaie a no??/ee
?ioi?iaoe?eieo aaaionoa, o iiia?e aacao ? aeo?iae?a, o i?ia?aie
oaeaaa/aiiy e ?aae?i. O NOA, a ssiii?? oa Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? ?ioi?iaoe?y
caaaeyee ?ioi?iaoe?eiei oaoiieia?yi iaeaea ieoo?ai ia?iaey?oueny oa
ia?aaea?oueny, aeo?iae?nonueea i?iaeoeoe?y iia?aoeaii aeionea?oueny e
aeaea?oueny. Oe?a?i? i?aeoyaoeny aei e?aea??a ethaenueei? ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
oeea?e?caoe?? ca nueiaiaei?oi?o ne?ooieo aeiiii?/ieo oiia aeoaea
aaaeei. ?aeeii iiaeeeaee aeo?ae oaeaeei aeiaanoe iaoe?iiaeueio nenoaio
CI? aei ??aiy na?oiaeo aeo?iae?nonueeeo noaiaea?o?a iieyaa? a
i??i?eoaoiiio ?icaeoeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e o iaoe?iiaeueiiio
ianooaa?, ? ia?aaeon?i o iaoe?iiaeuei?e nenoai? CI?. Aaeaea naia
aeo?iae?noeea oi?io? a i/ao i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa ?i?aeae
aea?aeaae. Eiii’thoa?i? ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? ? ia?aaeoiiaith
?ioaa?aoe?? aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie a ?aeeiee na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee
i?ino??.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Iaoai?ci ?ioaa?aoe?? aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie a na?oiaee
?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??” iineoue a iniiaiiio iiynithth/ee oa?aeoa?,
ine?eueee ca aeiiiiiaith ?iai/i? iiaeae? na?oiaiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
i?inoi?o ?ice?eaa?, ui niaith yaey? oea iie?naiaioe/ia ooai?aiiy, a
oaeiae iiynith? iaoai?ci ?ioaa?aoe?? a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??
oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee ye eiiieaeno eaiae?a ia?aaea/? ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? — c iaeiiai aieo, oa ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, nenoaie
CI?, nenoaie ??cieo oai??a — c ae?oaiai. I?e oeueiio aeae?eythoueny
neeaaeia? oaeiai iaoai?cio.

Ia?oee i?ae?icae?e “Na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??. Oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o Oe?a?ie” ae?oaiai ?icae?eo
noai?th? oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue na?oiaiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o, a yeiio
iayai? iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? i?inoi?e noaa?aiieo aea?aeaa,
?ioi?iaoe?ei? iiey nioe?aeueiiai i?aai?cio ye oaeoe/iiai a?ae??ceo
i?inoi?o, ooieoe?iiothoue ??ci? ??ai? ?ioi?iaoe??, yea ae?iaey?oueny ia
iniia? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? eoeueoo?e.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue na?oiaiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o aeiiiiaaa?
c?icoi?oe, ui eiaeiee nioe?aeueiee i?aai?ci noai?th? oa /e ?ioa
?ioi?iaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio caeaaeii a?ae aonoioe ca’yce?a
?ioi?iaoe?y oee?eoeth? c o??th aai ?ioith oaeaee?noth, oi?iothoueny
??ci? ??ai? ?? aeinooio. AEeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie a?aeaoaa?oueny (o
oiio /ene?) a ie?aii ooai?thaaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iieyo ye oaeoe/ieo
a?ae??ceao i?inoi?o, eiaeia oi/ea eio?eo ia?eia? ie?aieo ?iaeea?ae?a,
ye? cae?eniththoue o? /e ?io? iia?aoe?? c ?ioi?iaoe??th. Aeania
?ioi?iaoe?y, caniae ?? i?eaeaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy, caa??aaiiy e ia?aaea/?
— ona oea iaiia ne??ieth? ??ci? ae?eyiee nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua,
/a?ac yea io?eio?oueny ?noi?e/ii oniaaeeiaaia aeaiei noni?euenoaii
?ioi?iaoe?y, c iaeiiai aieo, ? ?ioi?iaoe?y, ae?iaeaia no/aniei ?e
iieie?iiyi, c ae?oaiai.

Iaoa nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua — aieeaaoe ia na?aeii?noue ?iaeea?aea,
uia a?i iaa ciiao iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii ae?yoe ?aaee aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae,
iinoaaeaieo nioe?aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai. Ony iayaia ?ioi?iaoe?y
eiie?aoiiai nioe?aeueiiai i?aai?cio noaiiaeoue ?ioi?iaoe?eiee oiiae,
?ino?oiaioii oi?ioaaiiy yeiai aenooia? ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iio?e.
?ioaineai?noue inoaiiueiai ia iiaea aooe e?euee?nii aei??aia ?nioth/eie
caniaaie, aea aacia?a?aia oaeineiiaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
eaoae?co? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane a nioe?oi? ai??i??.

Niaaeeia?noue iieie?iue, ui ia? i?noea ia i?aeoeoe?, ? i?/ei ?ioei, ye
i???ioiaaiith ia iaoe?iiaeueiee oa aeiaaeueiee ??ai? ?ioi?iaoe??th. Ca
oeei i?ioeanii noi?oue ?aae?caoe?y iaoe?iiaeueii? oa aeiaaeueii?
?ioi?iaoe?eieo iio?aa. ?oi? c?inoaiiy coiiaeaia ia?aoiaeii aei
i?enei?aiiai oeio noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, ui aeiaaa? canoinoaaiiy iiaeo
?ano?n?a, aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo oaeoi??a ?icaeoeo. Ca oaeeo ianoaaei
e?euee?noue ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaeiia ?inoe iaaaaaoi oaeaeoa, i?ae
iaoe?iiaeueiee i?eaooie, ? ?ioi?iaoe?y, oaeei /eiii, noa? aeey
i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo e?a?i iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ano?n?a. Aeei?enoiaoth/e inoaii?, aeo?iae?noe ia aac? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeythoue iaoe?iiaeueiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?iaeoeo. Oeae
i?ioean iaiiaeeeaee aac i?euaieaiiy ethaeyi ?ioi?iaoe?eii? eoeueoo?e.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui 1) i?ino??, yeee ?nio? ne??cue, aiane?aeie eiai
eiie?aoecaoe??, eieae?caoe?? o?nii iia’ycaiee c oa?eoi??aeueieie
?aieaie, ui aeeeoo? oa?eoi??aeueio iiaoaeiao aoaeue-yeiio nioe?aeueiiio
i?aai?cio, 2) aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae a?aeaoaa?oueny a ie?aii
ooai?thaaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iieyo ye oaeoe/ieo a?ae??ceao i?inoi?o, —
?iaeoueny aeniiaie: ?icaeoie ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e aea? ciiao
iioe?thaaoe eiii’thoa?i? ia?aae?, ye? a noeoiiino? ?c noiooieeiaei
ca’yceii aeieathoue a?aie/i?noue ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iie?a ? iaaeathoue
?ioi?iaoe?eiiio na?aaeiaeuo nooe?eueiiai, aeiaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.
Caaaeyee oe?e ianoaaei? ethaenueea ?ioi?iaoe?eia oeea?e?caoe?y,
ia’?aeioth/e a ieaiaoa?iiio ianooaa? CI? ? CIE, oi?io? na?oiaee
?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??, yeee o naith /a?ao ai?uo? iaoe?iiaeuei?
?ioi?iaoe?ei? i?inoi?e noaa?aiieo aea?aeaa. O na?oiaiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio
i?inoi?? ?oo ?ioi?iaoe?? iaaoaa? iaaa/aii? oaeaeeino? oa iioaioe?aeueii?
anaaeinooiiino?. Ethaenueea noni?euenoai a oe?eiio iaaoaa?
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o, a oea aecia/a?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?eiei
iioaioe?aeii e?a?i c ?icaeiooith nenoaiith CI?.

Io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? ? iaa?ae’?iiei i?aaii ethaenueei? iniaenoino?.
Aea, i?aee?aneth? c oeueiai i?eaiaeo A.?.Oeey?, io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? oa
?? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe o eiioaeno? a?eueiiai,
caaeainiaaiiai iioieo ?ioi?iaoe??. Iaoa — eii?aeeiaoe?y coneeue aeey
caaaeueiiai iie?auaiiy ni?aa o aea?aeaa?, i?aeaeuaiiy noaa?eueiino?
noni?eueiiai aeeooy. «Caaeainiaaiee» cian?i ia icia/a? «iaiaaeaiee».
I?ae iiiyooyi «a?eueiee, caaeainiaaiee iio?e ?ioi?iaoe??» ?icoi??oueny
iiaeeea?noue ?ioi?ioaaoe ?ioeo, a oaeiae naiei io?eioaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th,
iiaeeea?noue aca?iiae?? oa ae?aeiao, aeinooio oa o/ano?, ui iaeeaaea?
iaia’ycee ia an? caoe?eaaeai? noi?iie, — ?iaeea?aeooi?a, ni?eueiio,
aea?aeaa oa ?aa?ii?a.

Ine?eueee aeiaeai c ?ioi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia iiaea aooe ?icaeyiooee
ye oaiiiai aeiyoeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, i/aaeaeia iio?aaa
i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa a i?aeia?iaeieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo oaiaeao o
aaeoc? ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. I?ney ?? Na?oiai? a?eie iiaeeeaino?
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e aeicaieeee NOA iaa’ycaoe na?oiaiio
ni?aoiaa?enoao aeanio iiaeaeue ianiaeo eiioi?eaoe?e, i?ioenoiyiiy ye?e
i?eaaei a?aoo?-?aoo aei ae?iaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? iiaiai i?aeia?iaeiiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo (II?I). I?e/aoiee aei oeueiai ? oe?a?inueeee
iaoeiaaoeue A.C.Iineaeaiei, yeee o o? ?iee i?aoethaaa o no?oeoo?ao III.
Iiaeaeueoa ?ic?iaea i?iaeai i?aaa ia eiioi?eaoe?th ?, ye iane?aeie,
ia?aiiy 1994 ?ieo A.C.Iineaeaiea ae?eniei /eaiii I?aeia?iaeii? aeaaeai??
?ioi?iaoecaoe?? — eieaeoeaiiai /eaio III — aeaei ciiao ia eeoa iniaenoi
aenooiaoe ca ni?aaaaeeeaee i?aeia?iaeiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iai?i, a e
i?aeeeth/eoe aei oe??? ai?ioueae i/iethaaiee aeaaeai?eii A.C.Iineaeaieii
eieaeoea ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee Oaa/aieiaiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i?aeiiny/e
aaoi?eoao ? aeia?a ?i’y oe?a?inueei? iaoee oa ina?oe.

Aiae?c neooaoe?? c II?I, iaaaaeaiee ia /eneaiieo eiioa?aioe?yo
aeo?iae?nonueeeo i?ae?icae?e?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie
i?ioyaii 1992-1998 ?ie?a, aaoi? oio?a ae ooi/ieoe. Ia iaae? 1980-90-o
?ie?a ?yae e?a?i, iniaeeai Ac??, ii/aee aanoe ii a?aeiioaiith aei
Caoiaeo eiio?aeniain?ii?nonueeo ae?yeuei?noue. Noaaea ia nooe?eueio
?ioi?iaoecaoe?th noni?euenoaa aeaaea I?aaeaiio Ei?ath, Oaeaaiue,
Neiaaio?, Iaeaec?th, ?iae?th, Aiieiia, Oa?eaiae oa ?ioeo ac?aonueeeo
“ae?aeii?a” a /enei i?ioea?oath/eo aea?aeaa — ? ana oea ca yeeenue
aeanyoie ?ie?a. Oei naiei iiaeeeaino? o ae?iaieoeoa? ?ioi?iaoe??
ii-??ciiio ?icaeiooeo e?a?i ii/aee ae??aithaaoeny.

Iaeoaeaeoee ia nueiaiaei? niin?a i?eeo/eoeny aei oeea?e?caoe?eieo aeaa —
i?aeeeth/aiiy a ?aaeei? ?aaeueiiai /ano aei aeiaaeueieo ia?aae, ii yeeo
iiaeia io?eiaoe i?aeoe/ii anth ?ioi?iaoe?th, iaeiie/aio ethaenoaii ca
/an eiai ?icaeoeo ia Caie?. No/ania ethaenueea oeea?e?caoe?y «io?oe?eii»
ioi?ieea nai? noaiiaeaiiy ia’?aeiaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ??cieo
aeiaaeueieo ia?aae a ?aeeia oe?ea — ia?aaeo ia?aae ?ioa?iao.

Ia aeaeue, a Oe?a?i? i?ney i?iaieioaiiy ?? iacaeaaeiino? ianiaa
?ioi?iaoecaoe?y noni?euenoaa, eiii’thoa?ecaoe?y iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
CI? caoyaeany. Oi/a oi?iaeiaae e?eueeio ?ie?a iine?aeiaii aoei i?eeiyoi
iniiai? caeiie o noa?? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, aiie oaeoe/ii ia
i?aoethaaee /a?ac i?aaiao ianoaa?euei?noue. Oaeei /eiii, i?ioeane
?ioaa?aoe?? a oeea?e?caoe?eia na?aaeiaeua oeyoii noai?aiiy aeaniiai
?ioi?ii?iaeoeoo oa caeo/aiiy aei na?oiaeo aeo?iae?nonueeeo noaiaea?o?a,
iaoai?cie ?ioaa?aoe?? oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee ye eiiieaeno eaiae?a
ia?aaea/? ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? ye nenoaie ??cieo oai??a o oeeo caeiiao
nei??oa aoee i?iaeaeea?iaai?. A i/ao i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa
Oe?a?ia aeaeyaeaea ?a?i aeey a?aeai-, aoae?i- ? eiii’thoa?ieo “i??ao?a”.
? ana oea ia oe? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aeniain??, “iaia?iai?” aeieaaee c aieo
?in?? a ia?o? ?iee oe?a?inueeiai noaa?ai?oaoo.

Aieiaiee ?acoeueoao oeueiai ia??iaeo — noi?ioaaiiy a caaaeueieo ?enao
oe?a?inueeiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o: 4 caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
eaiae?a — OO-1, OO-2, «?ioa?a» ? «ICTV», aaaaoueio ?aa?iiaeueieo
eaiae?a, ia?aae? eaaaeueiiai e noiooieeiaiai OA, aea?aeaaiiai ?
eiia?oe?eiiai ?aae?iiiaeaiiy, aeecueei 6 oeny/ aacaoii-aeo?iaeueieo
aeaeaiue oiui.

?ioaa?aoe?y a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino?? aeey aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie
iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny aeaiia oeyoaie: /a?ac ?ioaa?aoe?th aeo?iae?noeee 1)
ye eiiieaeno eaiae?a ia?aaea/? ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??; 2) ye
nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, ye nenoaie CI? ? ye nenoaie ??cieo oai??a.
I?ioa ia i?aeoeoe? oe? i?ioeane a?aeaoaathoueny iaa?oue ia o aca?iiae??,
a ye ?aeeia oe?ea. Aaeaea aaaeei oyaeoe, uia oe?a?inueea
aeo?iae?noeea, oaoiieia?/ii oaeineiiaeeaoe aeani? eaiaee ia?aaea/?
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa c?noeeoaaaoe ?o ?c na?oiaeie eaiaeaie, ia
ci?ieeany naia ye nenoaia CI? ? ye nenoaia ??cieo oai??a, ia ia?aaeyioea
nai? noaiiaeua a aea?aeaaiiio no?i? ye niaoeeo?/iiai nioe?aeueiiai
?inoeoooo — oiae? a aiia i?iaeiaaeoaaea caeeoaoeny aeo?iae?noeeith
oioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa, a oioae?oa?eci noia?a/ea ae ?icaeoeo
eaiae?a ia?aaea/? ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. ? iaaiaee, yeae aeo?iae?noeea
Oe?a?ie i?ney i?iaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino? ci?ieeany ye
nenoaia CI? ? ye nenoaia ??cieo oai??a, ci?ieeiny a ?? noaiiaeua a
e?a?i? ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, aea oe? ci?ie ia aoee a i?aee??ieai?
oaoiieia?/iei oaeineiiaeaiiyi eaiae?a ia?aaea/? ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa
noeeoaaiiyi ?o ?c na?oiaeie eaiaeaie, oi oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea a
?? iia?e yeino? caeeoeeany a “??//th a nia?” — aea iiae?aia
“naii?cieyoe?y” ooo aea iicia/eeany a ia ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio ianeoaiaoaaii?
noni?euenoaa, yea a ia ciiaei ii?iaeueii ooieoe?iioaaoe. ?aae?caoe?y ia
i?aeoeoe? neeaaeiaeo iaoai?cio ?ioaa?aoe?? aeicaiey? iaoe?iiaeuei?e
nenoai? CI? ?ioaa?oaaoeny a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e “Neeaaeia? iaoai?cio ?ioaa?aoe?? a na?oiaee
?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino?? oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee ye eiiieaeno eaiae?a
ia?aaea/? ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??” ae?oaiai ?icae?eo ii/eia?oueny c aea/aiiy
oiaeo noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo ?c canoinoaaiiyi nenoaiiiai iaoiaeo.
Anoaiiaeththoueny iniiai? neeaaeia? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a: 1) iaooeeueia c?inoaiiy oaeaeeino? ia?aaea/? iia?aeiieaiue;
2) ca?eueoaiiy ianyao ?ioi?iaoe??, ui ia?aaea?oueny; 3) i?enei?aiiy
ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??; 4) ona a?eueo iiaia aeei?enoaiiy cai?ioieo
ca’yce?a; 5) c?inoaiiy ianyao aeaeiaiaoaaii? iiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa
i?enei?aiiy ?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy; 6) iai/ia a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??
ethaeei? a i?ioeanao oi?aae?iiy; 7) ao?oeeaa c?inoaiiy oaoi?/ii?
iniauaiino? oi?aae?inueei? i?aoe?.

sseui ni?aa?aeianoe oaia? oe? neeaaeia? c? noaiith ocaaaeueiaii?
iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy, oi iaea?aeeii ?ioaa?aeueiee ?acoeueoao. A?i
iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae aieeaii ana
ia?inoath/i? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, a ?acoeueoao?
/iai o eiioo?? oi?aae?iiy ca iaeeieoeth /ano aeei?enoiao?oueny ana
a?eueoee ianya ei?enii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Ia’?eoeaiee i?ioean ?icaeoeo
oaoi?ee, ?? ni?yiiaai?noue oae?, ui ye o ia?aaea/? iia?aeiieaiue, oae ?
a ia/enethaaeueieo iia?aoe?yo — ne??cue aeinyaa?oueny aaaaoi?aciaa
nei?i/aiiy /aniaeo ?ioa?aae?a, ui aeo?a/athoueny ia aeeiiaiiy oeeo
iia?aoe?e o eiioo?? oi?aae?iiy. Oea e i?eaiaeeoue aei i?enei?aiiy
oaii?a ? ia?aeaeueii — aei c?inoaiiy iia?eueiino? ana a?eueoiai ianyao
iaoa??aeueieo ia’?eo?a, iiaeeeaino? ?oiueiai oaeaeeiai caeeaeaiiy,
eiiieaeoaoe?? a oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane, ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue iinoa/aiiy
oa aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy.

Aea ae eiioi?eaoe?? iiaeooue ?icoi?oeny ? c oi/ee ci?o eiioi?eaoeaiiai
i?ioeano — eiioi?eaoe??. Ianiaa eiioi?eaoe?y, yea cae?enith?oueny a
ianooaaao onueiai noni?euenoaa, ? oaiiiaiii OO noi??//y, a ?? caniae
(CIE), ui i?noyoue o nia? ? CI?, aenooiathoue iaeii/anii a aeaio
?iinoanyo: ? ye niin?a ni?eeoaaiiy ?c no/anieeaie, ? ye oi?ia
eiioi?eaoe?? c iauaaeeaie. Oaeei /eiii, uia aeinyaoe iinoaaeaii? iaoe —
?ioaa?oaaoeny a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??, — oe?a?inuee?e
aeo?iae?noeoe? ye eiiieaeno eaiae?a ia?aaea/? ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??
iio??aii “caionoeoe a ae?th” neeaaeiee noni?eueiee iaoai?ci.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “Neeaaeia? iaoai?cio ?ioaa?aoe?? a na?oiaee
?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino?? oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee ye nioe?aeueiiai
?inoeoooo, ye nenoaie CI?, ye nenoaie ??cieo oai??a” ae?oaiai ?icae?eo
aeoeaio ia?aiineoueny ia iie?oe/iee ? th?eaee/iee ??ai?. Noai?aiiy oiia
aeey aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo noni?eueieo ?inoeooo?a iaieio/a
ia?aoai?th?oueny ia neeaaeiee i?ioean, yeee aaea?oueny ae??oeoe i?ioyaii
ia iaeiiai iieie?iiy ethaeae. Nenoaio aeo?iae?nonueeeo oai??a
aecia/athoue aeo?iae?noeea ye nenoaia CI? ? ye nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo,
oae? yaeua aeeooy, ye nioe?aeueia iiceoe?y aeo?iae?noa oa ?aaeaeoe??,
naiaiaea i?ane ? aeo?iae?nonueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Aea/aiiy oiaeo noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo a nenoaiiiio ieai? iieaco?, ui
iniiaieie neeaaeiaeie iaoai?cio ?ioaa?aoe?? a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee
i?ino?? aoaeue-yei? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeo?iae?noeee, a oiio /ene? ?
oe?a?inueei?, ?: 1) cae??ieaiiy aea?aeaaith ca aeo?iae?noeeith ye
nioe?aeueiei ?inoeoooii “aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue”, ui aeanoue ciiao
nenoai? CI? a?ae?a?aaaoe ?ieue “/aoaa?oi? aeaaee” a noni?euenoa?; 2)
caeiiiaeaa/a cae??ieaiiy i?noey ? ?ie? a noni?euenoa? CI? ye oei?a
aeaeaiue aai i?ia?ai; 3) caaeiaieaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iio?aa aoaeeoi???
ca an?ia ?ioi?iaoe?eieie “i?oaie” — oaiaoeeith, nioe?aeueieie
iiceoe?yie, oi?iaie i?aaenoaaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??; 4) i?aaenoaaeaiiy a
aeo?iae?noeoe? on?o iiaeeeaeo ia aeaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa
nioe?aeueieo iiceoe?e; 5) oi?ioaaiiy i?eioeei?a aeo?iae?nonueei?
ae?yeueiino?; 6) ae?iaeaiiy eiie?aoieo i?aaee ? ii?i noai?aiiy
aeo?iae?nonueeiai oai?o; 7) th?eaee/ia oa aeiiii?/ia caaacia/aiiy
naiaiaee neiaa oa aeo?iae?nonueei? ae?yeueiino?; 8) iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
o?ueio aeae?a oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? a aeo?iae?noeoe?: ?aaeaeoi?nueei?,
i?aai?caoi?nueei? oa aaoi?nueei?; 9) ?ic?iaea ?ioi?iaoe?eii? iie?oeee ye
noeoiiino? i?iaeaiii-oaiaoe/ieo e?i?e, ye? iino?eii aaaeooueny; 10)
?iciiae?e CI? ia “ye?ni?” oa “iania?”; 11) aeio?eiaiiy ?yaeo
caaaeueiii?ioan?eieo aeiia, ui aecia/athoue yeino? ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??
(cie?aia, aeooaeuei?noue, iia?aoeai?noue, eiiieaeni?noue); 12)
i?iaeoeoaaiiy a aeo?iae?noeoe? on?o oei?a oai?/ino?, ae?iaeaieo
ethaenoaii, — iaoeiaiai, ooaeiaeiueiai oa iniaeeai ioae?oeenoe/iiai ye
oeaio?aeueiiai; 13) aeia?a aieiae?iiy iaoiaeieia?/iith eoeueoo?ith c
aieo aeo?iae?no?a (caaaeueiith iaoiaeieia??th nioe?aeueiiai i?ciaiiy;
caaaeueiith aeo?iae?nonueeith iaoiaeieia??th; iaoiaeaie io?eiaiiy
aii??e/ieo aeaieo, cae?aiiy oaeo?a; iaoiaeaie ?ioa?i?aoaoe??, ioe?iee oa
iiyniaiiy io?eiaieo oaeo?a, ae?iaeaiiy aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e,
oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueii? eiioeaioe?? oa ?aaeueiiai ci?noo iaeaooiueiai
oai?o); 14) ciaeiinoai c on?ia noiaeeieaie oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? —
oaoiieia?/ieie i?eeiiaie; ienoaoeoaii aeo?iae?nonueei? oai?/ino?;
aeo?iae?nonueeith iaenoa?i?noth ye ?ioaa?iaaiei ae?acii nioe?aeueii?
iiceoe??, oaoiai? i?aeaioiaeaiino? oa iaoiaeieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e oai?/i
iaaea?iaaii? iniaenoino?; 15) aeio?eiaiiy aeiia caeiiiaeaanoaa, aoe/ieo
eiaeaen?a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “?acoeueoaoe e ia?niaeoeae ?ioaa?aoe?? aeo?iae?noeee
Oe?a?ie a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??” iineoue a iniiaiiio i?aeoe/ii
i???ioiaaiee oa?aeoa?, yeee aeicaiey? ae??ooaaoe caaaeaiiy uiaei
iioei?caoe?? i?ioean?a ?ioaa?aoe?? a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??
aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie ye eiiieaeno eaiae?a ia?aaea/? ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, c iaeiiai aieo, ? ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, ye nenoaie
CI?, ye nenoaie ??cieo oai??a — c ae?oaiai.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a
oe?a?inueeeo caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??” o?aoueiai ?icae?eo
iaaieioo?oueny, ui i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai iie?oe/iiai,
aeiiii?/iiai, ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai, nioe?aeueiiai (? o.ae.) i?inoi?o oa eiai
caoenoo oi/a ? ? naiiaeinoaoi?i, i?ioa a?i ia iiaea aaoiiaoe/ii
ia?aianoe e?a?io aei /enea aea?aeaa, ui noaiiaeyoue ethaenueeo
?ioi?iaoe?eio oeea?e?caoe?th. Oe?a?ia iio?aao? iaae?eieo aa?aio?a
?ioaa?aoe??. Ia?acii eaaeo/e, oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoao iaiao?aeii ?c
cae/aeiiai e?oaea ia?an?noe a iaaeieicaiiee /iaiee aaaaoi?aciaiai
aeei?enoaiiy, yeee aeinoaaeoue nai?o ianaaee??a ia eini?/io i?a?oaeueio
noaioe?th. A oea iiaeia c?iaeoe ca iaia’yceiai? oiiae oioaeueiiai
canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e — eiii’thoa?ieo ?
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo — o aeo?iae?noeoe? Oe?a?ie. Cie?aia, aeei?enoaiiy
eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo CI?
i?eaiaeeoue aei ?aaiethoe?eieo ci?i ye o ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/iio
i?ioean? (oaeineiiaeththoueny oaoiieia?/i? iia?aoe?? aeioneo aeaeaiiy
aai i?ia?aie, iie?ioo?oueny ?o ye?noue, e?ea?aeothoueny caea? iia?aoe??,
ui a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo aea? cia/io aeiiii?th /ano, nei?i/o?oueny oa
?ano?oeoo?iao?oueny ooaoiee ?iceeaae), oae ? a aeo?iae?nonueeeo iaoiaeao
?iaioe c ?ioi?iaoe??th (i?eioeeiiai ci?iththoueny cae?aiiy, caa??aaiiy,
iiooe, a?aeia?aaeaiiy, aiae?c, ia?aaea/a oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
?ioi?iaoe??).

??ciee ??aaiue aeiiii?ee CI? oi?io? ia?aeine a eiii’thoa?i?e eoeueoo??
aeo?iae?nonueeiai ei?iono e?a?ie. Ii?yae ?c oeei ia’?eoeaiei oaeoi?ii
ia? i?noea ? oaeoi? noa’?eoeaiee — o aeaeyae? ineoieia?/ieo aa?’???a,
ye? naia ia?aae niaith “aeaoaeiao?” iaaia /anoeia ?aaeaeoe?eieo
i?aoe?aiee?a. E??i oeueiai, aeoaea aaaiieie ? ina?oi? i?iaeaie a
aeo?iae?noeoe? — ye ae?th/eo aai iaeaooi?o aeo?iae?no?a, oae ?
?oi?o iaa/eoae?a c i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
aeo?iae?nonueeeo i?ae?icae?e?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a e?a?ie.
Ni?aaa a oiio, ui ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? ?icaeaathoueny oaeeie
no??ieeie oaiiaie, cae?eniththoue oaeee aaee/aciee aieea ia eeoa ia
oiiae e iaoiaee ?iaioe, a e iaa?oue ia niin?a aeeooy ethaeae, ui /anoi
ethaee ia anoeaathoue inieneeoe oe? yaeua, aianoe a?aeiia?aei?
eiioeaiooaeuei? ci?ie a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ? anoeaaoe iaa/aoe
eiie?aoiei oaoiieia?yi, i?ia?aiai-noaiaea?oai o o?e /e ?io?e noaae??
?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/iai i?ioeano. Ca?aene — “ocaeiiai?noue” a Oe?a?i?
a?aeiieo ia Caoiae? eiioeaioe?e “ooieoe?iiaeueii? iaa?aiioiino?”. Oea
yaeua (icia/a? iacaeaoi?noue a?iiaaeyieia oeea?e?ciaaiiai noni?euenoaa
aeeiioaaoe nai? aeaiaioa?i? i?ioan?ei?, a?iiaaenuee? oa aeeoo?a?
iaia’ycee, ?aae?ciaoaaoe nai? iniiai? i?aaa) ca?aoiaaia aei iaeiiai c
oaeoi??a ?eceeo no/anii? oeea?e?caoe?? ? aeaiaeeoue ia i?iaeaio ina?oe,
i?aeaioiaee eaae??a. ??aaiue iaenoa?iino? aeo?iae?noa, caoaaaeo? c
oeueiai i?eaiaeo A.A.??coi, ii/aa ioe?ithaaoeny eiai oi?iiyi aieiae?oe
?ioi?iaoe?eieie oaoiieia?yie.

O nenoai? CI? Oe?a?ie on? neeaaeia? eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e (e??i aac
aeaieo) canoiniaothoueny ai??i??. Aace aeaieo ianiai ia
aeei?enoiaothoueny a ?aaeaeoe?yo, ine?eueee o?nii iia’ycai? c
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieie oaoiieia?yie. Inoaii? aeoaea iaiaaeaii
aeei?enoiaothoueny ?aaeaeoe?yie aiane?aeie neaaei? ?icaeiooino?
ae?ioiaiai oa aacae?ioiaiai ca’yceo a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?.
Aeinoaoiuei a?aecia/eoe ii?iaeia/o aaie?a aeaieo oe?a?inueeeo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo aaaionoa, ye? aaaeooue oeth ?iaioo c 1992-1993 ?ie?a. O
i?ia?aeieo aacaoao aaiee aeaieo caaaeothoueny eeoa a ca’yceo ?c
ia?aaeieaoieeaie. Iane?aeie oeueiai — iaiaaeai?noue oe?a?inueei?
aeo?iae?noeee o aeanieo iiaeeeainoyo.

Ia caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai? ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie iaiiaiaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo aaie?a aeaieo ci?noiaiith oa «i?eaooeiaith» ?ioi?iaoe??th
Iaoe?iiaeueiith i?ia?aiith c ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? iieeaaeaii ia ?inoeooo
i?iaeai ?a?no?aoe?? ?ioi?iaoe??, aea aei oiai ae c?iaeaii aeiao?ae
na?oiaiai ??aiy — nenoaia ianiaiai iioe?aiiy eiii’thoa?ii? iioi?iaoei?
eaiaeaie oaeaiiaeaiiy (500-700 noi?iiie ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo ca iaeio
oaeeeio), yea ioi?ieeany a eiii’thoa?io aacaoo «Ana-an?i». I?ioa
a?aenooi?noue o?iainoaaiiy c aieo aea?aeaae iiaea ionoeoe ia naiiieea
Iaoe?iiaeueio i?ia?aio c ?ioi?iaoecaoe??.

Iae?oeaic?eia aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy no?eio? iioe?aiiy
eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e ? caaaaea? ?ioaa?aoe?? a na?oiaee
?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??, noai?th? Oe?a?i? iaaaoeaiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee
?i?aeae.

sse eiie?aoii aeei?enoiaothoueny oe?a?inueeith aeo?iae?noeeith
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? oaoiieia??? Aaeaea nueiaiaei? ?aaeaeoe?yi aeinooii?
?ioa?iao, iaoe?iiaeuei? oa aeiaaeuei? ia?aae?, aeaeo?iiia iiooa,
?ioi?iaoe?ei? iineoae oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy. Ia aeaeue, iiae?aii? noaoenoeee
ia ia? iaa?oue Ni?eea aeo?iae?no?a Oe?a?ie. Iaeei c iaaaaaoueio, ooi
iaiaaa?oueny a?aenoaaeeoe oe? i?ioeane, — aee?aeoi? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
i?an-oeaio?o IREX I?iIaae?a Oe?a?ia A.I.Ii/oa?. C 1700 aeine?aeaeaieo
iei aacaoieo ? aeo?iaeueieo aeaeaiue (?c 6 oeny/ ca?a?no?iaaieo
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue) eeoa 170 iathoue aeaeo?iiio iiooo (oaeoe/ii eeoa
10% a?ae oe??? e?eueeino? ei?enoothoueny ?ioi?iaoe?eieie ia?aaeaie oa
a?aeiia?aeieie ?ioi?iaoe?eieie iineoaaie. — Aao.), o?eueee 10-12
i?aaenoaaeai? a ?ioa?iao? nai?ie Web-noi??ieaie. ?c nenoai oaeaiaoeee
a?aecia/eii «oaeaoaeno», ui aea? ciiao oaeaaeyaea/ai i?eeiaoe ia ae?ai
oaenoiao iioi?iaoeith — aeiaeaoeia? a?aeiiino? i?i iae?iciiiaiioiioa
eiei i?iaeai, i?e/iio ca aeai?eiaith iciaeith. Ia aeaeue, a Oe?a?ii
oaeaoaeno aeei?enoiao?oueny aeo?iaeinoaie eeua aeey caaacia/aiiy
aeieiaith iioi?iaoei?th aicianiaiia.

Oaoiieia?y ioeueoeiaae?a iia’ycaia c aeaeo?iiiith i?anith. O Ee?a?
yne?aaeie i?aaenoaaieeaie caaiio aeaeo?iiii? i?ane ? aacaoa “Ana-an?i”,
aeo?iae “IEI-Libra”, o Aeiiaoeueeo — ?ioi?iaoe?eiee atheaoaiue
“II?IA-i?an” ? o.ae. Ni?aaa aeaui oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui ?iaeyoue
aeaeo?iii? aacaoe ? aeo?iaee ia i?ioan?iiaee-aeo?iae?noe, a oao?aoe?
?ioeo aaeocae, ye? i?iaothoue i?ioan?eii caeiaoeny aeo?iae?noeeith. Ia
aeaeue, ia ana o ieo aeoiaeeoue, a ci?no iiae?aieo aeaeaiue noaiiaeyoue
a iniiaiiio oaenoe caeii?a ? eiia?oe?eia ?ioi?iaoe?y.

Ianooii? o?e oaoiieia?? — “anana?oiueiai iaaooeiiy”, a??ooaeueii?
?aaeueiino? oa iaeaoii? ia?aaea/? ?aae?iaeaieo — iia’ycai? c ia?aaeath
?ioa?iao, aea iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui ?? iineoaaie ei?enoo?oueny aeoaea
iaiaaeaia e?euee?noue ?aaeaeoe?e oe?a?inueeeo CI?. Oaeaeoa aeiiii?aeio
?ieue a ao??iiio oaeaaa/aii? Oe?a?ie a?ae?a?a? oaoiieia?y eanaoiiai
oaeaaa/aiiy. Eieaeueia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iathoue oaoiieia??
eiiiaeo-aeene?a ? a?aeaiaeene?a. O noa?? eaaaeueiiai oa noiooieeiaiai
oaeaaa/aiiy a Oe?a?i? a iniiaiiio caeiathoueny e?aae?aeeith ca?oa?aeieo
i?ia?ai, a na?aaeiy /anoea eaaaeueiiai oa noiooieeiaiai oaeaaa/aiiy ia
oaeaa?c?eiiio ?eieo Oe?a?ie noaiiaeoue i?eaeecii 8%.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?aeoe/i? caeiaooee e i?iaeaie oe?a?inueei?
aeo?iae?noeee ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, ye nenoaie CI?, ye nenoaie
??cieo oai??a” i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iiee iiaeia eacaoe i?i oai?aoe/i?
iniiae aeey caaacia/aiiy naiaiaee neiaa a iao?e aea?aeaa?. Aino?ioa
neooaoe?? ana?aaeei? iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie oe?a?inueeeo CI? ia
cieaeo?oueny ? aiane?aeie aaaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae ia ??ai? i?ane,
?aae?i, oaeaaa/aiiy. Aei oe??? ae eaoaai??? iaeaaeeoue ? i?iaeaia
«?ioi?iaoe?eii? i?aeaiaeiaaiino?» ??cieo aeaeaiue c aieo iie?oe/ieo
oa?oiiaaiue. ?aeeiee oeyo aei noai?aiiy ae?enii a?eueii? i?ane — oea ??
?icaea?aeaaeaiiy. Ia?niaeoeae ?ioaa?aoe?? a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee
i?ino?? oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee i/aaeaei?: aiein Oe?a?ie cao/eoaia a
na?oiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioieao ona neeuei?oa ? aiaaiai?oa, a naia
aeo?iae?noeea iicaaaeoueny iaioiaa?oino? ? i?ia?ioe?eiino?.

O aeniiaeao i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui i?iiiiiaai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aiinyoue o ?ic?iaeo cayaeaii? a aeena?oaoe?? oaie aeaiaioe iiaiai.

1. Ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie — oeyoii io?eiaiiy iiaeo aii??e/ieo
aeaieo c ?oi?i ianooiiei nenoaiiei aiae?cii ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi — ieoaiiy
ioi?ieaiiy ia iniia? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o Oe?a?ie. Aiie ia noia?a/aoue aiaeia?/iei
?acoeueoaoai, aeinyaiooei i?ae /an aiae?co i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o Oe?a?ie a i?aoeyo aeine?aeiee?a
aeo?iae?noeee A.C.Iineaeaiea9, A.?.Oeey?a10 (Oe?a?ia),
A.A.*?/aiianueeiai10 (?in?y). Iiaiioa ae??oaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy
caeaaeeoue a?ae inoaoi/iiai noi?ioaaiiy ye iaoe?iiaeueiiai, oae ?
na?oiaiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o, a oe? i?ioeane iiee ciaoiaeyoueny
a noaae?? noaiiaeaiiy. Uiaei ioe?iee aeinoia??iino? iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, oi aiie i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny aeaieie ni?a?ia?oiee?a
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?an-oeaio?o oa eiii’thoa?ii? a?ae?ioaee iaaea?aeaaii?
iai?eaooeiai? i?aai?caoe?? IREX I?iIaae?a Oe?a?ia, ye? iino?eii
a?aene?aeeiaothoue aeecueei 200 iai?yie?a ?aeaeii-oaiaoe/ieo e?i?e a
oe?a?inueeeo CI?.

Ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?ic?iaeai? a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ia?aiao?e
oe?aaeoaaiiy e o?aineyoe?? ?ioi?iaoe??, ye? ciaoiaeyoue nai? ae?aaeaiiy
o aeaeyae? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e o aeo?iae?noeoe?.
Cai?iiiiiaaii ooi/iaio eeaneo?eaoe?th ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aae ca
oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/iith, oa?eoi??aeueiith (aaia?ao?/iith), oaoiaith
iciaeaie, ca aeieath aeaniino?, ca i?eioeeiii ?iaioe, ca oa?aeoa?ii
?ioi?iaoe??, ui ia?aaea?oueny. Oeyoii io?eiaiiy iiaeo aii??e/ieo aeaieo
c ?oi?i ianooiiei nenoaiiei aiae?cii ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi ooi/iaii ae?th
oe?ei? iecee oaoiieia?e, ui aaia?e?othoueny ia?aaeath ?ioa?iao.
Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe ia noia?a/aoue iayaiiio iaoeiaiio
iaoa??aeo9-21,23-24.

O aeaiiio aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy ae??oai?
iiai?noth, iaeiae caaaeii ia iiaiioo ?oiueiai ae??oaiiy iino?eii
aieeaathoue na?eici? ci?ie o ooieoe?iioaaii? CI?. Uiaei ioe?iee
aeinoia??iino? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, oi aiie i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny
aeaieie oe?a?inueeeo aenia?o?a o aaeoc? ca’yceo — A.Aiiaea?,
A.?eue/eoeia, N.ssoeaiea c oe?a?inueeiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa o??ie
“Iioi?iea”, N.Oii?o?y c aea?aeaaii? eiiiai?? “?a?eoao” I?i?noa?noaa
ca’yceo Oe?a?ie (noiniaii noaiiaeua

oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee ye eiiieaeno eaiae?a ia?aaea/? ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??), ? aeaieie A.Ii/oa?y c i?aai?caoe?? IREX I?iIaae?a Oe?a?ia
(noiniaii noaiiaeua oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee ye nioe?aeueiiai
?inoeoooo, ye nenoaie CI? ? ye nenoaie ??cieo oai??a).

Iinoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? iaoeia? i?iaeaie iiaeeeai ae??oeoe ca
aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a iiaeaethaaiiy, nenoaiiiai oa
?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiiai, ye? e aoee canoiniaai? — i?ae /an noai?aiiy
iiaeae? na?oiaiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o, i?ae /an aiae?co io?eiaieo
aii??e/ieo aeaieo oa ?oiueiai iiaeaeueoiai ocaaaeueiaiiy, i?ae /an
aea/aiiy ?icaeoeo eiii’thoa?ieo ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ye
ia?aaeoiiae ?ioaa?aoe?? a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??
aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae ii??aiyiiy iaea?aeaieo o aeai?e ?iaio?
?acoeueoao?a c aiaeia?/ieie ?acoeueoaoaie a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
i?aoeue, i?aeoe/ieo caeiaooe?a oe?a?inueei? oa na?oiai? aeo?iae?noeee.

A?aeooiaooth/enue a?ae i?aoeue A.C.Iineaeaiea, A.?.Oeey?a,
A.A.*?/aiianueeiai, ye? i?iaiae?coaaee i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o
Oe?a?ie, a aeaiiio aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeiaaeaii
aiae?c oeeo i?iaeai. I?e oeueiio ooi/iaii ?yae i?eioeeiiaeo
iiiaio?a. Cie?aia, i?iiiiothoueny ia?aiao?e oe?aaeoaaiiy e
o?aineyoe?? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui ciaoiaeyoue nai? ae?aaeaiiy o
aeaeyae? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, a oaeiae
ocaaaeueiththoueny i?iaeaie nenoaie cania?a ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??
Oe?a?ie, yeei aeiaiaeeoueny iaeii/anii ? oi?ioaaoe iaoe?iiaeueiee
?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??, ? a?ae iueiai ae caciaaaoe aieeao.

sse?ni? iieacieee caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a noinothoueny ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, ye nenoaie
CI?, ye nenoaie ??cieo oai??a. Naiaiaea neiaa caaacia/o?
a?iiaaenueeee eiio?ieue ca ae?yeuei?noth aea?aeaaieo ?inoeooo?a, ?
aa?aioii aeaiie?ao??. ?icaeiooa nenoaia CI? caaacia/o? iiaiioe?iia
?ioi?ioaaiiy ??cieo i?ioa?e?a oa aa?noa ianaeaiiy. Nenoaia ??cieo
oai??a caaacia/o? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ?aaeaeoe?eio i?aeoeeo na?oiaeo
aeo?iae?nonueeeo noaiaea?o?a, cie?aia, /?oeee iiae?e CI? ia “ye?ni?” oa
“iania?”.

E?euee?ni? iieacieee caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaathoue o oiio, ui a
?ioi?iaoe?ei?e noa?? aeoaea iaea /anoea CI? Oe?a?ie i?aaenoaaeaia a
na?oiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioieao, ia? aeani? naeoe a ?ioa?iao?,
?ioaa?iaaia a aeiaaeuei? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ia?aae?, aeyaey? caoe?eaaeai?noue
o aaeeeeo aaieao caaaeueiiaeinooiieo aeaieo. Oi/ii? noaoenoeee ia
nueiaiaei? i?ooi ia ia? o e?a?i?. Eeoa ie?ai? aeine?aeieee,
ca?aeii ?c nai?ie ?ioa?anaie, aaaeooue aeaye? i?ae?aooiee.

Aac noai?aiiy aaie?a aeaieo, iaoe?iiaeueieo eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aae oa
aeeth/aiiy ?o aei na?oiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aae ni?aaaeiy ?ioaa?aoe?y
Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo aea?aeaa NIAe o ?a?iiaenueea oa na?oiaa ni?aoiaa?enoai
i?inoi iaiiaeeeaa. O oe?e ni?aa? noai?aiiyi eeoa iaei???
iaoe?iiaeueii? ia?aae? Oe?Iae iaa?yae /e iiaeia ia?eoeny.

Iaaeeiiaiiy Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie c ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? nueiaiaei?
iaa?iaoueny na?aeiiei iiaeeaeaiiyi a?aenoaaaiiy Oe?a?ie a iaeaooiueiio.
A oeueiio ye?ac ? iieyaa? niaoeeo?ea ?ioaa?aoe?? a na?oiaee
?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino?? aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie: c iaeiiai aieo, ? an?
iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?, a c ae?oaiai — iecueea ?oiy ?aae?caoe?y.
I?e/iio oea a?aenoaaaiiy, ii/eiath/e c aeayeiai iiiaioo, iiaea noaoe
?noi?e/ii iaiai?ioiei.

Aiaea oe?a?inueeeo CI? iieyaa? o aiaenooiinoi a ?aaeaeoeieiie
aeiyeueiinoi iiaiiai niaeo?o eiii’thoa?ieo i oaeaeiioiieaoeieieo
oaoiieiaie, a aea?aeaaa oa o?yae ia aaaaeathoue aeo?iaeinoeeo
i?ii?eoaoiith aaeoccth, a yeo iaiaoiaeii aeeaaeaoe aeaoioeeoio aaethoo.
Oey iaaeaeaeiaeyaeia iiceoeiy anooia? a i?ioe?i//y ic naioiaith
i?aeoeeith, i?i?ioiaaiith ia caaacia/aiiy caaaeueiiethaenueeeo
oeiiiinoae, iaeii?th c yeeo ? i?aai eiaeii? ethaeeie ia iioi?iaoeith.
Iaeaoaeoeaiioa ?aaeicoaaoe oea i?aai caeaoia naia aeo?iaeinoeea,
ianaiia?aae aeo?iaeinoeea eiii’thoa?ia. ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? ?
aa?aioii aaaiiino? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?iaeoeoo Oe?a?ie a
na?oiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioieao.

Iaea?aeai? a aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoaoe ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe:
a oi?aae?ii? nioe?aeueiith noa?ith, a ina?oi?e ae?yeueiino?, aea
iaiao?aeii ia?aaeyiooe i?ia?aie e i?ae?o/ieee c oaoo, aeiiiaieaoe ?o
aeeeaaeaieie o aeai?e ?iaio? eiioeaioe?yie. ?icai?iooe ianiaa iaa/aiiy
?ioi?iaoeoe? ia oaeoeueoaoao oa a ?inoeoooao aeo?iae?noeee,
ia?aoai?eaoe oaea iaa/aiiy ia iino?eii ae?th/o ?iaeono??th ciaiue,
ui aacia?a?aii iiiaeth?oueny.

Aia?a?eii inaithaaoe e ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe o noni?eueia ae?iaieoeoai
oaoi?/i? caniae e?aa?iaoeee oa ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, aeei??ithaaoe
«iaoe?iiaeueio oai?iao» — ianai?/ani?noue canoinoaaiiy iiaeo ciaiue aeey
iio?aa noni?euenoaa.

O aeo?iae?noeoe? ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
?aoe?iiae?coaaoe an? aoaie ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/i? ae?yeueiino?,
aeoiaey/e c e?eoa??th i?i?ioio aeo?aoe /ano ia aeeiiaiiy eiaeii?
iia?aoe??. Iiaeeea? ?iaanoeoe?? ni?yiiaoaaoe ia noai?aiiy, aacia?a?aia
?icoe?aiiy oa oaeineiiaeaiiy caaaeueiiaeinooiieo aaie?a aeaieo.

?aoaeueii aea/eaoe ca?oa?aei? nenoaie aeo?iae?nonueei? ina?oe,
a?ae?a?aoe iaea?eueo oe?iia oa ai?iaaaeeoe a iaoo nenoaio ina?oe,
caa??aoe a i?e ona iiceoeaia. Ia?aaeyiooe ?iaanoeoe?eio iie?oeeo,
iai’yoath/e, ui iaea?eueo aea?aeia aeeaaeaiiy eai?oaeo — aeeaaeaiiy
a nenoaio ina?oe.

I?iaeoiaoe nenoaio caoiae?a, aae: 1) e?ea?aeoaaoe iiae?e CI? ia
aea?aeaai? ? iaaea?aeaai?; 2) e?ea?aeoaaoe iiae?e aeo?iae?noeee ia
i?ioan?eio oa aiaoi?nueeo; 3) caaacia/eoe o?iainiao iacaeaaei?noue on?o
?aaeaeoe?e c iaoith aeeeth/aiiy iaoa??ae?a «ia caiiaeaiiy»; ?ic?iaeoe
i?aoethth/? caeiie oa ocaiaeeoe ?o c i?ioan?eieie ni?eeaie ia
i?aaeiao ii?ooaiiy i?aoe?aieeaie cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??
aeo?iae?nonueei? oa neoaeaiai? aoeee.

27. Aeoeaii noai?thaaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? eiii’thoa?i? ia?aae? oa
aaiee aeaieo oa ?ioaa?oaaoe ?o o na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee
i?ino??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii:

Eiii’thoa?i? ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? ye aa?aio ?ioaa?aoe??
aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino?? / Iiiia?ao?y. —
E., 1998.

Iaia?ia? oa aeaeo?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? iiaeae?: iaa/. iin?aiee. — E.,
1995.

Aeenieaeeaiae. Noi??iee na?oiaiai iaeyaeo: iaa/. iin?aiee. — E., 1995.
— O 2-o /.

Iniiae eiii’thoa?ii? aeo?iae?noeee: iaa/. iin?aiee. — E., 1995. (o
ni?aaao.: aaoi?ii iaienai? — anooi, aeaae 2-4, 6-7, aeniiaee, aeiaeaoee
2-4).

No/ani? eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia?? ? caniae ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??: aniaeoe
canoinoaaiiy: iaa/. iin?aiee. — E., 1996. (o ni?aao.: aaoi?ii iaienai? —
anooi, aeaae 1, 3, i?neyiiaa),

Oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea: a/i?a, nueiaiaei?, caao?a”: iaoe. aeaeaiiy. —
E., 1996. (o ni?aaao.: aaoi?ii iaienaia ia?oa aeaaa o?aouei? /anoeie),

Iioi?iaoeieii ia?aaei a caniaao ianiai? iioi?iaoei?. Eaiae EIOI-OANN:
eiiniaeo eaeoe?e. — E., 1992. (o niiaaao.: aaoi?ii iaienaiee ia?aa?ao
“?iaioa c eaiaeii ?IOI-OA?N” ? aeiaeaoee 1-6),

Iaoiaee/i? canaaee naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a-aeo?iae?no?a: iaa/.
iin?aiee. — E., 1994. (o eieaeoea? aaoi??a: aaoi?ii iaienaia noaooy
“Iniaeeaino? aea/aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai eiii’thoa?iiai eaiaeo”).

o noaooyo aei cai?ieea «AEo?iaeinoeea. I?ana. Oaeaaa/aiiy. ?aaeii» (E.,
1990. — Aei. 22; E., 1992. — Aei. 24; E., 1993. — Aei. 25),

o noaooyo aei ca??ieea «A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y
«AEo?iae?noeea» (E., 1993. — Aei. 1; E., 1995. — Aei. 2; E., 1996. —
Aei.3; E., 1997. — Aei.4),

No/ania oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea: iiiyoo?aee aia?ao: iaa/. iin?aiee. —
E., 1997. (o eieaeoea? aaoi??a: aaoi?ii — o ni?aaao. — iaienaia noaooy
“Eiii’thoa?ia aeo?iae?noeea”, e??i inoaiiueiai aacaoea),

a i?aeaioiaeaieo aei ae?oeo iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??aeao (i?ia?aia
eaeoe?eii-i?aeoe/iiai eo?no “No/ani? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oa eiioi?eaoeai?
nenoaie», i?ia?aie niaoeeo?n?a «Iaoiaee ?iaioe c aeieoiaioaie oa
?ioi?iaoe?eieie aaieaie» ? «Eiii’thoa?ia eoeueoo?a aeo?iae?noa»).

Iaeauaiei I.E. Eiii’thoa?i? ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? ye aa?aio
?ioaa?aoe?? aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie a na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.08 — aeo?iae?noeea. — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii niaoeeo?oe? ?ioaa?aoe?? aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie a
na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??. O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa ocaaaeueiaii
i?ioeane eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie cania?a ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, aeine?aeaeaii aieea ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ye ia
?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/ee i?ioean, oae ? ia aeo?iae?nonuee? iaoiaee
?iaioe c ?ioi?iaoe??th, ooi/iaii ia?aiao?e oe?aaeoaaiiy e o?aineyoe??
?ioi?iaoe?? o aeaeyae? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ? iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o Oe?a?ie.
Cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe ia?aaaaeaiiy ?aaeaeoe?eieo i?ioean?a nenoaie CI?
Oe?a?ie ia eiii’thoa?io iniiao, ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a oe?a?inuee?e
aeo?iae?noeoe?. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? iiaeooue aooe iaaaeii
aeei?enoai? a ianooaa? aaeoc?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiii’thoa?i? ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, aa?aio
?ioaa?aoe??, aeo?iae?noeea Oe?a?ie, na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??,
iaoe?iiaeueiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??.

Iaeauaiei A.E. Eiiiuethoa?iua e oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee eae
aa?aio eioaa?aoeee aeo?iaeenoeee Oe?aeiu a ie?iaia eioi?iaoeeiiiia
i?ino?ainoai. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.08 — aeo?iaeenoeea. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia niaoeeoeea eioaa?aoeee aeo?iaeenoeee Oe?aeiu a
ie?iaia eioi?iaoeeiiiia i?ino?ainoai. A aeenna?oaoeee aia?aua iaiauaiu
i?ioeannu eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee iaoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu n?aaenoa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee, enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee eae ia
?aaeaeoeeiiii-ecaeaoaeueneee i?ioeann, oae e ia aeo?iaeenoneea iaoiaeu
?aaiou n eioi?iaoeeae, ooi/iaiu ia?aiao?u oe?aaee?iaaiey e o?aineyoeee
eioi?iaoeee a aeaea oaeaeiiioieeaoeueiiiuo oaoiieiaee e iniaaiiinoe
oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?ino?ainoaa Oe?aeiu.
I?aaeeiaeaiu iooe ia?aaiaea ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia nenoaiu NIE
Oe?aeiu ia eiiiuethoa?ioth iniiao, ?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ioiineoaeueii i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee a
oe?aeineie aeo?iaeenoeea. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou iiaoo auoue iaiaaeeaiii
eniieueciaaiu a ianooaaa io?anee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiiuethoa?iua e oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee,
aa?aio eioaa?aoeee, aeo?iaeenoeea Oe?aeiu, ie?iaia eioi?iaoeeiiiia
i?ino?ainoai, iaoeeiiaeueiia eioi?iaoeeiiiia i?ino?ainoai.

Meleshchenko O.K. Computer and telecommunicational technologies as a
garantee of Ukrainian journalistic integration into the world
information area. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 10.01.08 — journalisic. —
Kiev National University named after T.Shevchenko, Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to particularity of Ukrainian journalistic
integration into the world information area. For the first time, in this
dissertaion the prosesses of the computerization of the national system
mass media are generalized, the informational technologies’ influence on
the editing-publishing process and journalistical working methods are
investigated, the edition and broadcasting parameters of information as
telecommunicational technologies are precised, the formation of
Ukrainian national information area particularities are precised. The
roads of editing processes transformation for the Ukrainian system mass
media on the computer base are suggested, the recommendations for the
practical usage of the information technologies in Ukrainian
journalistic are elaborated. The results of the work may be used in the
journalistic area without any delay.

Key words: computer and telecommunicational technologies, garantee of
the integration, Ukrainian journalistic, world information area,
national information area.

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Oea caaaeueiii?eeiyoa a ?a?iiaenuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? oaoi?/iiai
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Aeea.: ?aaiia A.O., Iaeauaiei I.E., ??coi A.A. Iniiae eiii’thoa?ii?
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Aeea.: Oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea: a/i?a, nueiaiaei?, caao?a:
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Aeea.: ??coi A.A., Iaeauaiei I.E. ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ia?aae? a caniaao
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Aeea.: Oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea: a/i?a, nueiaiaei?, caao?a:
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