4

IAOeIIIAEUeIA AEAAeAIIss AIOO?IOIIO NI?AA OE?A?IE

ONAOEE A?eai??e Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 343.34

EIII?II?N ssE CAN?A AE??OAIIss E?EI?IAEUeII-I?AAIAIAI EIIOE?EOO

Niaoeiaeueiinoue: 12.00.08 -e?eiiiaeueia i?aai oa e?eiiiieiaiy;

e?eiiiaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a -1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?i e?eiiiaeueiiai i?aaa Iaoeiiiaeueii?
aeaaeaii? aioo?ioiio ni?aa Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee  — aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ni?o??iei A?eoi?
Ieeieaeiae/, Iaoeiiiaeueia aeaaeaiiy aioo?ioiio ni?aa Oe?a?ie,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e e?eiiiaeueiiai i?aaa.

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ei?aeainueeee Ieeiea Eineiiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
?ice?eooy cei/ei?a;

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oai/aiei Na?a?e Aeieo?iae/,
Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa.

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa -?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a).

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny “ 20 » aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeeii ia
caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.007.03 i?e
Iaoeiiiaeueiie aeaaeaii? aioo?ioiio ni?aa Oe?a?ie (252035, i. Ee?a —
35, Nieii’yinueea ie., 1).

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a aiaeiioaoei Iaoeiiiaeueii?
aeaaeaii? aioo?ioiio ni?aa Oe?a?ie (252035, i. Ee?a — 35, Nieii’yinueea
ie., 1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee “ 17 aa?aniy “ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoeiaeiciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe A.A Iuaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A Oe?a?i? iiaeaeueoa ?icaoaeiaa
aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae cia/ii iaoyaeaia neeaaeiith
e?ei?iiaaiiith neooaoe??th oa c?inoaiiyi cei/eiiino?. Ca a?aeiinii
ei?ioeee /an cei/eii?noue aeeoea ia i?eioeeiiai iia?, ua a?eueo
iaaacia/i? ??ai?, ioiiethth/e ??ci? noa?e noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Aiia
ia?aoai?eeanue o ?aaeueio caa?ico iaoiio ?ooo ia oeyoo aei noai?aiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, ai iaeiei o?eueee oaeoii naiai ?nioaaiiy
ii?ooo? iniiai? i?aaa ethaeeie, noaaeoue i?ae noii?a naio ?aeath
oe?a?inueei? i?aaiai? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae, i?ae?eaa? aaoi?eoao
Iniiaiiai Caeiio — Eiinoeoooe?? oa cia/ii cieaeo? iiaaao a?iiaaeyi aei
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a.

Iaei??th c aieiaieo i?e/ei iiaeaeueoiai caaino?aiiy e?ei?iiaaiii?
ianoaiiaee ? ci?ia ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? ?aeaieia?? ? caiia/oaaiiy aai
oaeoe/ia a?aeiiaa a?ae ?aeaieia?/ieo aeiai, o na?e /an aaeueioaaaoeo
ae?enio ai?ioueao c? cei/eii?noth. sse i?eeeaae iiaeia iacaaoe
?aeaieia?/iee iinooeao, ca?aeii c yeei aea?aeaaa iieeeeaia aanoe
aaceiii?ii?nio ai?ioueao c on?ia aeaeaie cei/ei?a ia aeani?e oa?eoi???.
Io?oe?eia e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa aeieo?eia i?iaieioo? i?eioeeie
iaa?aeai?ioiino? e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aea o oie aea /an
/eiiee E?ei?iaeueiee eiaeaen Oe?a?ie ai?uo? iaai? iieiaeaiiy, ye?
ca?eueiythoue ii?ooiee?a caeiio a?ae e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? (o ii?yaeeo aii?no?? oa iiieeoaaiiy, aiane?aeie
ci?ie ianoaiiaee, eiee a/eiaia iniaith ae?yiiy ao?aoeei oa?aeoa?
noni?eueii-iaaacia/iiai aai oey iniaa ia?anoaea aooe
noni?eueii-iaaacia/iith oa aaaaoi ?ioeo).

Aiae?c noaeiai-ne?ae/i? i?aeoeee oa th?eaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue
i?i oa, ui i?aoe?aieee i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a a?ae/oaathoue na?eici?
neeaaeiiu? o ai?iouea? ?c no/aniith cei/eii?noth, iia’ycai? c
iaaeineiiae?noth /eiiiai e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa i?ioe??//yie o
oeoia/aii? caeiio, yea aeeeeea? iaaeie?ee uiaei ?icoi?iiy ie?aieo eiai
iiiyoue, a oaeiae c a?aenooi?noth aeayeeo iaiao?aeieo aeey aoaeoeaii?
ai?ioueae ii?i, iaei??th c yeeo i?a ae aooe ?inoeooo
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no, iaeaaeiei /eiii cae??ieaiee o caeii?.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui, ia aeeaey/enue ia iaaaeueio iio?aao iaoi? aea?aeaae
o aoiai?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa (ianaiia?aae,
e?ei?iaeueiiai), i?iaeaia eiii?ii?no ia i?aeaeaaaeany ie?aiiio
eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaiith. Aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano th?eaee/ia iaoea
a?aeaeaaaea ia?aaaao ?icaeyaeo ? ?ic?iaoe? ea?aeueii-?ai?aneaieo i??.
?ioa?an aei i?iaeaie e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no i?eiee ia caanaa,
a iaaeinoaoi? aea/aiiy oa neaaea ?ic?iaea eiii?ii?nieo ii?i a?aeaoaaeeny
/a?ac oa, ui cai?iiiiiaaiee iao?aaeeoe?eiee ?inoeooo aeoaea /anoi
ioioiaeithaaany c aaee/aciei ?icia?ooyi caioi/oaaeueieo ii?i. Aai
«?icieaaany» noi?aeieie e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeie ?inoeoooaie, ye?
ca?eueiythoue aeiio iniao a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? /e
iii’yeoothoue ?e iiea?aiiy (iai?eeeaae, aeia?ia?eueia a?aeiiaa,
ae?yeueia eayooy, aeaai?noue i?eoyaiaiiy aei e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa aaaaoi ?ioeo), /e iaceaaany niaoe?aeueiei aeaeii
ca?eueiaiiy a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui an? oe? ieoaiiy i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii noinothoueny
i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaoi? caa?oaany aei i?aoeue aaaaoueio a?aeiieo
a/aieo e?ei?iae?no?a oa e?ei?iieia?a, ye? a ??ciee /an ?icaeyaeaee iaai?
aniaeoe cai?iiiiiaaii? oaie, na?aae ieo: O.Ae. Ae?eia?ia, A.I. Aa?aiia,
?.A. Caa/a?ianueeee, A.O. Cae?inueeee, N.A. E?e?ia, A.A. Eeeiaiei,
I.E. Ei?aeainueeee, I.I. E?aneeia, A.I. Eoae?yaoeaa, I.O. Eociaoeiaa,
I.?. Ia?oeaa, I.?. Iaeueiee, A.A. Iaoiia, N.?. I?eoe?i,
A.A. I?iioeianueeee, A.I. ?ya/oe, ?.I. Naa?oia, A.A. Neeaeoeueeee,
A.I. Ni?o??iei, I.I. Oa?-Aeiiia, I.N. Oaaaioeaa, A.?. Oaeoi oa ?io?.

?aeay eiii?ii?no iai?inoa oa ni??ia i?iaeaia. Aiia aeeeeea? oe?eee ?yae
aeeneon?e, ia?aaeon?i oiio, ui ia? ye i?i?ioi aeaa e?eoa???: th?eaee/iee
? ii?aeueiee. ?icaeyaeath/e eiiieaen ieoaiue, ye? iia’ycai? c iath,
caeaee ?ac ia?aeiio?ony, ui ia iathoue ?aoe?? o?, ooi noaa?aeaeo?, ui o
e?ei?iaeueiiio i?aa? iaia iaaeine?aeaeaieo i?iaeai. Ia?ae?aneeaoe an?
noii?ae noiniaii «ca?caeaiino?» oa ?ic?iaeaiino? oaie, cacia/eii, ui
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaee eiii?ii?n iiaei caea?oueny eeoa ia ia?oee iiaeyae,
iani?aaae? oea noaa?aeaeaiiy ni?aaaaeeeaa eeoa noiniaii oai???
th?eaee/ii? iaoee. Ai i?aeoeea iino?eii noeea?oueny c aeaieie ieoaiiyie
? ii-nai?io ae??oo? ?o. ? oi/a oaea i?aeoeea iaoiiaeaia ia’?eoeaieie
ianoaaeiaie, aiia aaaaoi a /iio noia?a/eoue caeiio, ai /anoi aeoiaeeoue
ca eiai iaae?. I?aeoe/ia aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieyaa? ua e o oiio, ui e??i nooi e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai cia/aiiy, aiia
ia? aeaye? i?ioeanoaeuei? aniaeoe, a oaeiae a?ae?a?a? iaaio
i?io?eaeoe/io ?ieue o ai?iouea? c? cei/eii?noth. E??i oiai, ca oiiae
?aoi?ioaaiiy /eiiiai e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, eiii?ii?n ye niin?a
ae??oaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiioe?eoo, iiaeiai ciaeoe nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iiaeo i?aaiaeo ii?iao, noaaoe iaeiei c i?ei?eoaoieo
iai?yie?a ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie.

Aeoiaey/e c iaaaaeaiiai, aaoi? aaaaea?, ui aea?? aeaii? oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeinoaoiuei aeooaeueiei o oai?aoe/iiio
? i?aeoe/iiio cia/aii?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo eiiieaenii? oe?eueiai?
i?ia?aie ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth ia 1996 — 2000 ?iee, caoaa?aeaeaii?
Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 17.09.1996 ?ieo, ieaiao iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie oa ??
eaoaae?e e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
? eiiieaenia ?ic?iaea ? eiie?aoecaoe?y caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue
uiaei nooiino? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no oa iaa?oiooaaiiy eiai
i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy ? oi?ioethaaiiy ia oe?e iniia? i?iiiceoe?e,
ni?yiiaaieo ia oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ?
i?aaicanoinia/i? i?aeoeee.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaia ni?iaa
ae??oeoe ianooii? aoceia? caaaeaiiy:

— aena?oeeoe ?noi?e/iee aniaeo iiyae oa ?icaeoeo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe noai iaoeiaiai ?ic?iaeaiiy i?iaeaie a oai???
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa oa e?ei?iieia??;

— aecia/eoe iiiyooy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no oa eiii?ii?nii?
ii?ie a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?aa?;

— aeine?aeeoe nooi?noue ?inoeoooo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no
(ci?no,neeaae,no?oeoo?o) oa ?io? eiai aeanoeaino? ? oa?aeoa?enoeee;

— ?icaeyiooe nioe?aeueii-i?aaia? iane?aeee canoinoaaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no oa oiiae eiai ?aae?caoe??;

— ?ice?eoe ieoaiiy i?i a?aeie?aieaiiy eiii?ii?no a?ae noi?aeieo
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a;

— noi?ioethaaoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ao?eaiiy o i?aaicanoinia/o i?aeoeeo
?inoeoooo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no oa ?icoe?aiiy iaae eiai
aeei?enoaiiy, onoiaiiy aeayeeo ia?aoeiae ia oeyoo ?aae?caoe??
eiii?ii?nieo ii?i;

— ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ? i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ii ai?iouea? c?
cei/eii?noth ca aeiiiiiaith eiii?ii?nieo ii?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny ianaiia?aae
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia?e
iaooe? ia iiiia?ao?/iiio ??ai? c o?aooaaiiyi ?? iia?oi?o aeinyaiaiue
?icaeyaea?oueny iao?aaeeoe?eiee ?inoeooo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no. A aeena?oaoe?? ii iiaiio a?aoiaioothoueny ianooii?
iieiaeaiiy:

— aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? i?iiiio?oueny aecia/aiiy
iiiyooy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no;

— iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee ? iiaeaeueoiai
i?aeoe/iiai aaeineiiaeaiiy eiii?ii?nieo ii?i;

— io?eiaee nai?? eiie?aoecaoe?? ? iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee ieoaiiy ci?noo,
no?oeoo?e, naino, iiaeeeainoae oa ?ioeo aniaeo?a ?inoeoooo
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no;

— ?ice?eaa?oueny nooi?noue a?aeie?aieaiiy eiii?ii?no a?ae noi?aeieo
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a;

— a?oioiaii ?icaeyaea?oueny i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no aeey ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ia no/aniiio aoai?;

— aeathoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy a?o/eciyiiai e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa i?aeoeee
eiai canoinoaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee eiii?ii?nieo ii?i.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.
Noi?ioeueiaai? oa aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? iieiaeaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy,
aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe?? iathoue ye caaaeueiioai?aoe/ia, oae ?
niaoe?aeueii — aaeocaaa cia/aiiy aeey iaoee e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa,
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano oa e?ei?iieia??, ine?eueee ?icoe?ththoue ?
iiaeeaeththoue oyaeaiiy i?i nooi?noue ? cia/aiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no oa canoinoaaiiy eiii?ii?nieo ii?i a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ? noaeo.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
c?iaeai? a iueiio ocaaaeueiaiiy, aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe?? iiaeooue
aaaaeaoeny iaaiei aianeii a oai??th e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ? e?ei?iieia??,
iniaeeai oea noino?oueny oaeeo aaaeeeaeo ?inoeooo?a ye ca?eueiaiiy a?ae
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, i?ecia/aiiy iiea?aiiy, iane?aeee
cei/eio, iniaa cei/eioey oiui.

Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee, i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, a oiio /ene? caeiiioai?/?
?i?oe?aoeae, ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ii ai?iouea? c? cei/eii?noth.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe oaeiae
aeei?enoai?:

? aeey iaienaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?e?a i?ae?o/iee?a ? iaa/aeueieo
iin?aiee?a c e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa, e?ei?iieia?? oa niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a
c oeeo aeenoeeie?i;

? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? oa /eoaii? eaeoe?e ca oaiith «Noa’?eoeaia noi?iia
neeaaeo cei/eio» c e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ? ca oaiith «I?e/eie oa oiiae
a/eiaiiy eiie?aoiiai cei/eio» c e?ei?iieia??, a oaeiae noi?aeieo c ieie
oai;

? o iaoeiai — aeine?aei?e ?iaio? neooa/?a ? eo?naio?a iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a nenoaie IAN Oe?a?ie;

? i?e aeiii?aoethaaii? oa i?eeiyoo? i?iaeoo iiaiai E?ei?iaeueiiai
eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie e ?ioeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ye? ?aaoeththoue noa?o
ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth;

? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie uiaei
ieoaiue i?ecia/aiiy iiea?aiiy oa ca?eueiaiiy iniae a?ae e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?;

? c iaoith iiaeaeueoiai oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? ne?ae/eo ? noaeiaeo
i?aai?a;

? i?ae /an ?ic?iaee eiiieaenieo caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo, ?aa?iiaeueieo oa
eieaeueieo niaoe?aeueieo i?ia?ai ? caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? o ??cieo oi?iao ?? i?iyao;

? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy i?aaiaeo ciaiue na?aae ianaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiiiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue: ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie;
o aenooiao ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? c iaaiaee 50 — ??//y
i?eeiyooy ? i?iaieioaiiy Aaia?aeueiith Anaiaea?th III Caaaeueii?
Aeaeea?aoe?? i?aa ethaeeie «I?aaiaee noaoon iniae: noai, i?iaeaie,
ia?niaeoeae» (a?oaeaiue, 1998 ??e), a oaeiae ia i’yo?e ui??/i?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Oe?a?ia: ethaeeia, noni?euenoai, i?e?iaea» (Aei? iaoee
IaOEIA) o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? «Ee?ai — Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeai?y»
(ethoee, 1999 ??e), ui ciaeoei nai? ao?eaiiy o i?aenoieiaeo aeniiaeao ?
i?iiiceoe?yo; i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Oe?a?ia ia ii?ic? o?aoueiai
oeny/ie?ooy: aeooiai?noue, iaoea, ina?oa, eoeueoo?a» (eenoiiaae, 1998
?.); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth
o noa?? aeiiii?ee (i. Eiiioii, eenoiiaae 1998 ?.); /aoaa?o?e
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai ai?ioueae c
ei?oioe??th oa i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth (/a?aaiue, 1998 ?.); i’yo?e
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Noae a Oe?a?i?: ai?ioueaa
c ei?oioe??th, i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth ? caoeno i?aa ethaeeie»,
(aa?acaiue, 1999 ?.).

Ieoaiiy, ui neeaaeathoue iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aoee
aena?oeai? aaoi?ii o aeaio aenooiao ii Iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?aae?i Oe?a?ie
(i?ia?aia Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie
«A?iiaaeyiei») o 1998 ?ioe?.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? o
ae?yeuei?noue Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie oa Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie.

Ie?ai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny:

— o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie oa Ee?anueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
nai?ia?nueeeo ? i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ?
e?ei?iieia??, a oaeiae i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e c oeeo eo?n?a («Ianoaaeie, ui
iii’yeoothoue e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue», «I?ecia/aiiy
iiea?aiiy» oa «Ca?eueiaiiy iniae a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
oa iiea?aiiy» c e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ? ca oaiith «Iiiyooy, iaoiaee oa
caniae iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino?, iniiai? iai?yiee ? oi?ie
iiia?aaeaeoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? IAN» c e?ei?iieia?? oiui);

— o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
«Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeai?y» i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy nai?ia?nueeeo ?
i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa, a oaeiae i?e /eoaii? ie?aieo
eaeoe?e c oeueiai eo?no («Ca?eueiaiiy iniae a?ae e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa iiea?aiiy»).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee, ui noi?ioeueiaai? a
aeena?oaoe??, iioae?eiaai? aaoi?ii o naie iaoeiaeo noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia ?? iaoith oa iinoaaeaieie caaaeaiiyie
? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, ye? i?noyoue a?n?i
i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae (153 iaeiaioaaiiy) ? iaeiiai aeiaeaoeo ia /ioe?ueio noi??ieao.
Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 167 noi??iie.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe.

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oa aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?? ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie ? oaiaie, nooi?iue ??
iaoeiaiai ?ic?iaeaiiy, aecia/aii iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, iieacaia
iaoeiaa iiaecia, yea iaoiiaeth? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno, ?ice?eaa?oueny oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a oa ?o ai?iaaoe?y.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Iiiyooy, ci?no oa iiaeeeaino? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no», yeee aeeth/a? o?e i?ae?icae?ee, aena?oeth?oueny ?noi??y
?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no c iaeaeaai?oeo
/an?a aei nueiaiaeaiiy, ?icaeyaea?oueny eiai nooi?noue oa iiaeeeaino?,
aea?oueny i?aaiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea eiii?ii?nii? ii?ie.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aaiacen iiyae oa ?icaeoeo eiii?ii?no»
?icaeyaea?oueny ?noi??y aeieeiaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ?inoeoooo
eiii?ii?no. Aaoi?, ca aeiiiiiaith ?noi?e/iiai aniaeoo aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie, ia?aeiio? o oiio, ui: ni?anoaaeaiiy oa aea/aiiy ?noi?e/ieo
oaeno?a aea? iiaeeea?noue aeeaoa c?icoi?oe ? o?ioe ?iaeoa inieneeoe
?inoeooo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no; ia?aaeaa/aia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeicaiey? oieeiooe caeiiiaeaa/eo i?i?aooie?a o iiaeaeueoiio, aaeaea
aiae?co?oueny ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae iiia?aaeiee?a.

Aeena?oaio, aeio?eioth/enue o?iiieia?/ii? iine?aeiaiino?, aea?
?icai?iooo oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no. O ?iaio? iaaiaeyoueny ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy oa i?eeeaaee c
A?ae?? (Noa?ee Caiia?o), c Aeiaiai?o ?on? c A?caio??th (911 ?.);
aiae?cothoueny aeaa aa??aioe ?onueei? I?aaaee (I?aaaea ss?ineaaa ?
I?aaaea ss?ineaae/?a), Noaeaaiee 1497 ?. (/ano i?aae?iiy ?aaia VII) oa
Nio?enueeee ia?oee e?oiien. Ia caeeoeeenue iica oaaaith oaeiae caeiie
i?ney?aaiethoe?eiiai ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo iaoi? aea?aeaae, /ane
Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? a?eie (1941-1945 ??.) ? iia?oi?e aoai a?o/eciyii?
?noi???.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co i?iiiio?oueny aeniiaie, ui iiceoe?y, yeo
caeia? aea?aeaaa, iiaiaeaeoth/enue ia eiii?ii?n c aeiiith iniaith,
iaoiiaeth?oueny ia o?eueee aoiaiieie niiioeaiiyie e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai?
iie?oeee, a e e?aeiueith iaiao?aei?noth, yea aeeeeeaia no/aniith
?aaeuei?noth ? iiaeaeueoei c?inoaiiyi cei/eiiino?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «Nooi?noue e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no oa
eiai iiaeeeaino?» iiaeathoueny aacia? iieiaeaiiy, ui ?ice?eaathoue
th?eaee/iee ci?no aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?inoeoooo, i?iiiio?oueny oeiieia?y
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo eiii?ii?n?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiaeeeaeo i?e/ei ?o
oeeaaeaiiy, aea?oueny aecia/aiiy eiii?ii?nieo ii?i.

Ine?eueee e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? eiioe?eoe (cei/eie) ? ia?aaeoiiaith
aeieeiaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? eiii?ii?nieo ii?i, aeena?oaio aena?oeth?
th?eaee/io nooi?noue ? aea? i?aaiaa aecia/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iiiyooy
/a?ac i?ecio e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiioe?eoo.

I?ioe??//y i?ae iniaith oa noni?euenoaii, a oi/i?oa i?ae ?oi?ie
?ioa?anaie, aeine?aeaeoaaee a?aeii? a/ai?-i?aaieee, na?aae yeeo
I.O. Eoci?oeiaa, ?.?. Ea?iaoeue, A.I. Eoae?yaoeaa, I.?. Ia?oeaa.
Iiaiaeaeoth/enue c oei, ui nooi?noue e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo eiioe?eo?a —
c?oeiaiiy c ocaeiiaieie noni?euenoaii ?aeaieia?/ii-ii?aeueieie i?eienaie
? iaaieie i?aaiaeie ii?iaie, aaoi? iaaieioo? ia oiio, ui aea?aeaaa (o
inia? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a) ia caaaeaee iae?a? iioeiaeueiee aa??aio ?o
?ica’ycaiiy. Iath/e aaee/aciee a?naiae i?eeii?a ? cania?a aeey oeueiai,
aiia /ano?oa iaiaaeo?oueny eeoa i?eoyaiaiiyi aei e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, caaoaath/e i?i ?io? iao?aaeeoe?ei? oeyoe
a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eo?a, ye? ?ieiee iiaeooue aai iiaee a aooe a?eueo
aoaeoeaieie, i?ae eeane/i?. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi neacaiiio ? iaiaa?oioiaaii
iaiaaeaiee ia?ae?e noaoae E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, yeee
ia?aaeaa/a? eiii?ii?nia ??oaiiy (iai?eeeaae, /.2 no.56; /.3 no.57; /.3
no.170; /.5 no.1876; /.2 no.222; no.229-10 EE Oe?a?ie).

Aaaaeath/e, ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaee eiii?ii?n — oea aca?iia aeiiiaeai?noue, yea
anoaiiaeth? iaai? oiiae ca?eueiaiiy a?ae e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aeey in?a, ye? ciaia’ycothoueny aeeiiaoe
ia?aaeaa/ai? e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? ianoaiiae,
aeena?oaio a?aoiaioiaaii aeiaiaeeoue, ui eiii?ii?n — ia i?eie?aiiy i?ae
i?aaiioi?iioeyie ? cei/eioeyie, a iaaia oaiaea ia i?aenoaa?
aca?iiaea?aeieo iinooiie.

Aaoi?, iiaiaeaeoth/enue c A.A. Oie/einueeei, i?iiiio? nenoaiaoeciaaio
oeiieia?th e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo eiii?ii?n?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?e/ei
oa oiia ?o oeeaaeaiiy: 1) ?yo?aia aeueoa?iaoeaa; 2) iioeiaeueia ??oaiiy;
3) iiaeeeaa aeueoa?iaoeaa (aa??aio ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie); 4) oaeoe/iee
i?eeii; 5) can?a oei/aniaiai i?ecoieiaiiy i?ioe??/; 6) ?io? eiia?iiaai?
aa??aioe.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iaea?eueo aaeaeei ? oaea oai?aoe/ia aecia/aiiy
aeo?aeiiai iiiyooy:

Eiii?ii?ni? ii?ie — oea ii?ie, ui aa?aioothoue inia?, yea a/eieea
cei/ei, ca?eueiaiiy a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aai
iii’yeoaiiy iiea?aiiy ca oiiae aeeiiaiiy iath aecia/aieo caeiiii
iiceoeaieo iinoe?ei?iaeueieo a/eie?a, ye? ni?eythoue ?aae?caoe??
iniiaieo caaaeaiue e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «I?aaiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no» aiae?co?oueny ? eiie?aoeco?oueny no?oeoo?a eiii?ii?nii?
ii?ie, aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’?eoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaieo iciae
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no.

Aaoi? noaa?aeaeo?, ui aoaeue-yea eiii?ii?nia ii?ia iiaeiia ai?uoaaoe o?e
iaia’yceiaeo aeaiaioe: 1) oiiae ?aae?caoe?? (a?iioaca); 2) iiceoeaio
iinoe?ei?iaeueio iiaaae?ieo, caaaeyee ye?e oeeaaea?oueny eiii?ii?nia
oaiaea (aeeniiceoe?y); 3) ni?eyoeea? iane?aeee aeey iniae, yea nei?ea
cei/ei, o ?ac? aeeiiaiiy iath oiia, ia?aaeaa/aieo aeeniiceoe??th
(iinooiee). Naieoe?y ia ? no?oeoo?iei aeaiaioii eiii?ii?nii? ii?ie, aea
aoaeue-yea eiii?ii?nia ii?ia caaacia/o?oueny naieoe?eiei caoenoii —
i??aie aea?aeaaiiai i?eiono, ye? i?noyoueny o ?ioeo ii?iao i?aaa.

Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co aeine?aeaeo?oueny
ia’?eo, ia’?eoeaia noi?iia, noa’?eo ? noa’?eoeaia noi?iia
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no.

Ia’?eo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no — oea oa, ia ui ni?yiiaai? ae??
aeiii? iniae, o? noni?euei? a?aeiineie, yeei aiia ni?e/eiy? oeiaeo ?
eio?? a iiaeaeueoiio iath a?aeiiaeththoueny.

Ia’?eoeaia noi?iia e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no — oea noeoii?noue
ae?e, ye? neith? iniaa , ui a/eieea cei/ei, ni?yiiaaieo ia
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ni?e/eiaii? oeiaee (o?ce/ii?, iaoa??aeueii? oa
ii?aeueii?), iiia?aaeaeaiiy oe?aeeeaeo iane?aee?a cei/eio, ye? ua ia
ianoaee, a oaeiae aeoeaia ni?eyiiy ?ice?eooth cei/eio (iia?aeiieaiiy
a?aeiiinoae i?i i?aeaioiaethaai? cei/eie, iaaeaiiy oe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??
i?i e?aea??a i?aai?ciaaieo cei/eiieo a?oi oa ?i.).

Noa’?eo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no — oea iniaa, yea a/eieea
ea?aia ae?yiiy, yea ?iceayeany (a a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao ? ia ?iceayeanue)
o nai?e i?ioei?aai?e iiaaae?ioe? ? iaiaaa?oueny aeoeaiith ae?yeuei?noth
iiia?aaeeoe, a?aeoeiaeoaaoe /e onoiooe ianoaiiy oeiaee a?ae cei/eio.

Noa’?eoeaia noi?iia e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
o?eueee oaeei ineo?/iei a?aeiioaiiyi ?iaeea?aea aei nai?o ae?e, i?e
yeiio a?i ona?aeiieth? oa?aeoa? neithaaieo ae?e ? aaaea?, uia aiie
i?ecaaee aei aeeiiaiiy aeiia, ia?aaeaa/aieo o iaai?e eiii?ii?ni?e ii?i?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? Nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaa i?e?iaea ?inoeoooo eiii?ii?no oa
eiai i?noea o iaoe?iiaeuei?e e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia?e iie?oeoe?, yeee
aeeth/a? aeaa i?ae?icae?ee, aeena?oaio ?icaeyaea? i?noea ? ?ieue
eiii?ii?no o e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia?e iie?oeoe? aea?aeaae oa aeine?aeaeo?
nioe?aeueii-i?aaia? iane?aeee canoinoaaiiy eiii?ii?nieo ii?i aeey noi??i
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiioe?eoo.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Eiii?ii?n ? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa iie?oeea
Oe?a?ie” eaeaoueny i?i iniiai? iai?yiee ? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo no/anii?
cei/eiiino? oa ?iaeoueny ni?iaa a?aeooeaiiy aoaeoeaieo /eiiee?a
icaei?iaeaiiy e?ei?iiaaiii? ianoaiiaee.

Ca noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a Oe?a?ie, e?euee?noue
ca?a?no?iaaieo cei/ei?a iinooiiai ciaioo?oueny, a ieoiia aaaa ?o
?ice?eooy iino?eii c?inoa? (aiia neeaaea? 74,1%, o oiio /ene? ii e?i??
ea?iiai ?icooeo — 70%). Ca?eueoo?oueny, cie?aia, iieaciee ?ice?eooy
?aciiainieo aaeanoa (yeui o 1995 ?ioe? a?i neeaaeaa 16%, 1996 ?ioe? —
26%, oi o 1997 ?ioe? — 50%). Aea, caaaeoth/e i?i oa, ui o e?a?i? ui??/ii
?a?no?o?oueny aeecueei 600 oen. cei/ei?a ? iaeaea 40% ?c ieo — oyaee?,
?iaeoueny iaa?oioiaaiee aeniiaie, ui caaaeueia e?ei?iiaaiia neooaoe?y,
ana ae oaee, caeeoa?oueny neeaaeiith.

Aaoi?ii ?icaeyaea?oueny Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? iniiae
ai?ioueae c i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth» a?ae 30 /a?aiy 1993 ?., yeee ?
iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a ii aecia/aiith aieiaieo
iai?yie?a caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? iie?oeee.
Cacia/a?oueny, ui oeei caeiiii i?aeoe/ii aia?oa ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny iiaeeea?noue ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ?c
cei/eioeyie. Aaaeeeaei iiiaioii ? oaeiae oa, ui aea?aeaai? i?aaie
eiioaeoothoue ia eeoa c oae caaieie «aeiaaeeiaeie» cei/eioeyie, a oaeiae
c iaea?eueo iaaacia/iith eaoaai???th i?aaenoaaiee?a cei/eiiiai na?oo —
o/anieeaie i?aai?ciaaieo cei/eiieo a?oi.

Aiae?co?oueny oaeiae Iinoaiiaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie «I?i Eiioeaioe?th
(iniiae aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee) iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie» a?ae 16
n?/iy 1997 ?. ? aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oiio, ui iaeiei c iniiaieo
i?eioeei?a caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, aei caaaeaiue yei?
aoiaeeoue oaeiae aoaeoeaia ai?ioueaa c no/aniith cei/eii?noth, ?
i??i?eoao aeiaia??ieo (ie?ieo) cania?a o ae??oaii? eiioe?eo?a oa
aeiaea?aeaiiy aaeaino ?ioa?an?a iniae, noni?euenoaa oa aea?aeaae ? ?o
aca?iia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue.

Iaeiei c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a ae?iaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai?
iie?oeee, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ? noai?aiiy eiioeaioe?? eiii?ii?no, i?aaiaa
?aaoethaaiiy oa ?icoe?aiiy iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy ?inoeoooo
eiii?ii?no o ai?iouea? c? cei/eii?noth (i?aai?ciaaiith, aeiiii?/iith ?
o.ae.). Aaeaea ca aeiiiiiaith eeoa ea?aeueii-?ai?aneaieo i?? ia caaaeaee
iiaeeeai iie?aueoe e?ei?iiaaiio neooaoe?th ? /a?ac oea oao?aoe?
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a (IAN, NAO, iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? i?e AeIA)
iaiaaathoueny a?aeooeoaaoe iia? eiii?ii?ni? oi?ie, i?eeiie oa caniae
?iaioe o i?ioenoiyii? e?ei?iae?oaoo, /anoi aeei?enoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio
i?ioe??//y, ye? aeieeathoue ia a?oio? eiai ae i?ioei?aaii? ae?yeueiino?.
E??i i?eeeaae?a c a?o/eciyii? i?aeoeee, aiae?co?oueny oaeiae aeina?ae
ca?oa?aeieo eieaa OA?, yeee a?aeia?aaea? iniiai? i?eioeeie oa iaoiaee ?o
?iaioe ii i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? ? aaaaoi o /iio iiynith? aenie?
?acoeueoaoe o ai?iouea? c oeei ceii.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «Nioe?aeueii-i?aaia? iane?aeee canoinoaaiiy
eiii?ii?nieo ii?i aeey noi??i e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiioe?eoo»
i?iaiaeeoueny /?oea a?aeiaaeoaaiiy noi??i, ye? i?eeiathoue o/anoue a
iueiio (aeiiee, iioa?i?eee, aea?aeaaa) oa i?eae?ey?oueny oaaaa aeayeei
iniaeeainoyi iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? eiii?ii?nieo ii?i.

Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui canoinoaaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no
iiaeiii aooe ia i?aaii, a iaia’yceii aeey i?aaicanoiniaoaa/a i?e
iayaiino? a?aeiia?aeieo ia oa i?aenoaa oa oiia. I?e/iio aeeiiaiiy
iieeaaeaiiai ia aea?aeaaiee i?aai iaia’yceo canoinoaaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no iiaeiii i?aeo?eioaaoenue iaaiith
nenoaiith i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e, i?i ye? a na?e /an caaaeoaaa A.Ae.
Aeaiinueeee.

O ?iaio? i?iaiaeeoueny ?iciiae?e eiii?ii?nieo ii?i ia aea? a?oie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai, eiio aoei ni?e/eiaii oeiaeo cei/eiii (a cia/eoue,
ooi iioa?i?eee): «cei/eiaoeue — iniaa» ? «cei/eiaoeue — aea?aeaaa».
?icaeyaeathoueny aeaoaeueii oaeiae ieoaiiy, ye? noinothoueny caiaee
iioa?i?eiai ia eiii?ii?n ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?eaaoieo oa ioae?/ieo
?ioa?an?a i?e eiai oeeaaeaii?.

I?aenoieii ae?oaiai i?ae?icae?eo ? i?iiiceoe?y i?i aeeth/aiiy aei
Caaaeueii? /anoeie E?ei?iaeueiiai Eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie ie?aii? noaoo?, yea
aeeeaaea?oueny o ianooii?e ?aaeaeoe??:

Noaooy __. «E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaee eiii?ii?n» aai «Eiii?ii?n i?ae
iioa?i?eei oa iniaith, yea a/eieea cei/ei».

E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaee eiii?ii?n ? aeia?ia?eueiith oaiaeith i?ae iniaith,
yea a/eieea cei/ei, ? iioa?i?eei (aea?aeaaith), ui aeaa caiaeo ia
a?aeiiao a?ae e?ei?iaeueiiai ia?ane?aeoaaiiy aeiii? iniae, ca oiiae, ui
aiia ciaia’yco?oueny o aecia/aiee oa?i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaoe caaaeai? ao?aoe
oa onoiooe caiiae?yio oeiaeo, a oaeiae aeeiiaoe ?io? aeiiae caeiio.

O?ao?e ?icae?e «I?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? ?inoeoooo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no o i?aaicanoinia/?e ae?yeueiino?» ia? i?aeoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue
? i?enay/aiee iaaeai /eiiino? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no,
??ciiiai?oiei ieoaiiyi, ye? iia’ycai? c a?aeie?aieaiiyi eiii?ii?no a?ae
noi?aeieo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a, a oaeiae
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiei oa e?ei?iieia?/iei aniaeoai eiii?ii?niiai
ae??oaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiioe?eoo.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Iaae? /eiiino? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no» ?icaeyaeathoueny o? iaae?, a yeeo aoaea iiaeeeaei caeiiia
canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iao?aaeeoe?eiiai ?inoeoooo, a oaeiae oiiae, ca yeeo
eiai ?aae?caoe?y ? iai?eionoeiith.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iniiai? e?eoa??? aeiionoeiino? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no aeeth/athoue:

1? ia?ae?e cei/ei?a, ia ye? a?i iioe?th?oueny;

2? eiei aeiieo in?a, ye? i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae eiai ae?th;

3? cae??ieai? a caeii? aeiiae, a iai?i ia aeeiiaiiy eio?eo iniaa
ca?eueiy?oueny a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? (aai ?e
iii’yeoo?oueny iiea?aiiy).

? yeui eiii?ii?nia oaiaea ia iioe?th?oueny ia in?a, ui iathoue
i?aeaeuaiee ??aaiue noni?eueii? iaaaciaee (iniaeeai iaaacia/ieo
?aoeeaeea?no?a, in?a, ui a/eieee cei/eie, ca ye? caeiiii ia?aaeaa/aii
aeeeth/io i??o iiea?aiiy nia?oio ea?o, ia oaeeo, ui iathoue aea? oa
a?eueoa noaeeiino? ca a/eiaiiy oyaeeeo cei/ei?a, i?aai?caoi??a aaiae,
aaeaoeue, ?ica?eiee?a, in?a, uiaei yeeo iioa?i?eee ia?aaoaa? o
iaoa??aeuei?e, neoaeaia?e /e ?io?e caeaaeiino?, a oaeiae in?a, aeiieo o
iinyaaii? ia aeeooy noaeae?a ? ni?a?ia?oiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a i?e
aeeiiaii? ieie neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a oiui) oi, ia iao iiaeyae, aoei a
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiii?ii?ni? ii?ie ii a?aeiioaiith aei oae
caaieo «aeiaaeeiaeo cei/eioe?a» ? iniaeeai oea noino?oueny
aaoio?ainii?oieo cei/ei?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae cacia/a?oueny, ui ?inoeooo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no iiaeiai ciaoiaeeoe nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ii?iao i?aaa eeoa
i?e a?aeiia?aeiino? eiai ii?aeueii-aoe/iei iiaeyaeai, ye? ?niothoue a
noni?euenoa?. Aac aca?iica’yceo ii?ae? oa caeiio ia iiaea aooe iiae i?i
?aaeueio ae??a?noue ?inoeoooo eiii?ii?no, ai i?e oeueiio a?oai
ii?ooo?oueny ?yae iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?eioeei?a e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa, na?aae
yeeo aoiaii?noue, ni?aaaaeeea?noue, aeioe?euei?noue oiui.

Aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui /?oea anoaiiaeaiiy iaae aeiionoeiino?
eiii?ii?nii? oaiaee o ai?iouea? c? cei/eii?noth noaia aaaeeeaith
aa?aio??th aeio?eiaiiy i?aa a?iiaaeyi oa aeanoue ciiao aeeeth/eoe
??ciiiai?oi? ceiaaeeaaiiy c aieo i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «A?aeie?aieaiiy eiii?ii?no a?ae noi?aeieo
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a» aecia/a?oueny, ui
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaee eiii?ii?n — naiino?eiee ?inoeooo a?o/eciyiiai
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa. A?i ia? aeanio iaiiaoi?io i?aaiao i?e?iaeo,
aeeiio? niaoeeo?/i? ooieoe?? ? caeia? iniaeeaa i?noea o i?aaicanoinia/?e
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a, iieeeeaieo aanoe ai?ioueao ?c cei/eii?noth.
I?aaia? ii?ie, ai?uoth/? ? i?eioneath/? eiii?ii?n, iiaeii? neeaaeaoe
?aeeio eia?/ii iiaoaeiaaio ca iaaieie /?oei aecia/aieie e?eoa??yie
nenoaio, yea a ioiiethaaea aaeeeee niaeo? aa??aio?a
nioe?aeueii-noaaethaaii? iiaaae?iee.

No/ania iaoea e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa, ye iaeia c ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aaeocae
i?aaa, iiae?ey? th?eaee/i? ii?ie ia /ioe?e ??ciiaeaee: caai?iiyth/?,
ciaia’ycoth/?, oiiaiiaaaeoth/? oa caioi/oaaeuei?. Iaeiae cai?iiiiiaaia
oai?aoeeaie eeaneo?eaoe?y i?aaiaeo ii?i ia ? ae/a?iiith (iiaiith), a
oiio ia iiaea aooe aeinoaoiuei ia’?eoeaiith. ? oiio aeiaiaeeoueny
eiinoaooaaoe oie oaeo, ui, ia aeeaey/enue ia iaaaeueio iio?aao iaoi?
aea?aeaae o aoiai?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa (ianaiia?aae,
e?ei?iaeueiiai), th?enoe-iaoeiaoe? ia aeae?eythoue o ie?aio a?oio
eiii?ii?ni? ii?ie. Inoaii? ae, a neeo i?eioeeiiaeo a?aeiaaeoaaeueieo
iciae, ia iiaeia ai?uoaaoe i? aei iaeiiai c ??ciiaeae?a o aeuacacia/ai?e
eeaneo?eaoe??, oi/a aiie ? iathoue aeayeo noiae?noue ?c caioi/oaaeueieie
ii?iaie. Oaiaeaioe?y, yea neeaeanue c eeaneo?eaoe??th i?aaiaeo ii?i,
a?aeaoaa?oueny ianaiia?aae oiio, ui cai?iiiiiaaiee e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaee
eiii?ii?n aeoaea /anoi ioioiaeith?oueny c aaee/aciei ?icia?ooyi
caioi/oaaeueieo ii?i. Aai «?icieaa?oueny» noi?aeieie
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeie ?inoeoooaie, ye? ca?eueiythoue aeiio iniao a?ae
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? /e iii’yeoothoue ?e iiea?aiiy
(iai?eeeaae, aeia?ia?eueia a?aeiiaa, ae?yeueia eayooy, aeaai?noue
i?eoyaiaiiy aei e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa aaaaoi ?i.), /e
iaceaa?oueny niaoe?aeueiei aeaeii ca?eueiaiiy a?ae e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Oiio, uia iaaeae? ia a?aeaoaaeiny i?aei?ie iiiyoue, aaoi?ii
?icaeyaea?oueny i?aaiaa i?e?iaea oa i?iaiaeeoueny a?aeiaaeoaaiiy
eiii?ii?no a?ae noiaeeo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i oa ?inoeooo?a, oeyoii
aeaoaeueiiai ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co eiai iniiaieo a?aeie?aiethth/eo
iciae.

Aeine?aeiee aeyaea, ui iniiai? ?ene e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no
oea:

1? aeani? niaoeeo?/i? oe?e? oa caaaeaiiy;

2? canoiniao?oueny aei oe?ieiai niaeo?o ye oienieo, oae ? iaiaa?aaeieo
cei/ei?a;

3? a?eueo?noue neeaae?a cei/ei?a, ia ye? iioe?th?oueny eiai ae?y — oea
cei/eie c oi?iaeueiei neeaaeii;

4? ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ca cae?i/ai? aeae?eoe;

5? aeiia iniaa, yea iiaiaeaeo?oueny ia eiii?ii?n, ia caaaeaee ao?a/a?
noni?eueio iaaacia/i?noue, oae ye ? cei/eiia ae?yiiy, nei?ia iath;

6? iao?aaeeoe?eia oi?ia th?eaee/ii? eiinoeoooe??;

7? canoiniao?oueny ia aoaeue-ye?e noaae?? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano, aea
ia i?ci?oa noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo;

8? ?aae?caoe?y e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no ? aeeeth/ii
eiiiaoaioe??th i?aaicanoinia/eo i?aai?a, a?eueo oiai oea ?o iaia’ycie
i?e iayaiino? aeinoaoi?o ia oa i?aenoaa;

9? canoinoaaiiy aei iniae eiii?ii?nii? ii?ie ? inoaoi/iei, a oiio ia
iiaea aooe ia?aaeyiooi ? a?aei?iaii i?e iaooeeueiiio aeio?eiaii?
noi?iiaie oiia e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no;

10? /?oei aecia/aiee ia’?i aeaa (ca?eueiaiiy a?ae e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aai iii’yeoaiiy iiea?aiiy; a?aenooi?noue noaeeiino?)
aeey iniae, yea nei?ea cei/ei;

11? i?aenoaaith aei ca?eueiaiiy aeiii? iniae a?ae e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? aeeiiaiiy iath aecia/aieo o caeii? iiceoeaieo
iinoe?ei?iaeueieo a/eie?a;

12? iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no o
eiiieaen? c ?ioeie ?inoeoooaie.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeuei? oa e?ei?iieia?/i?
aniaeoe eiii?ii?niiai ae??oaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiioe?eoo»
aiae?co?oueny /eiia e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai ia
i?aaeiao ?aaoethaaiiy iei ianeao aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue, ye? aeieeathoue o
ca’yceo c oeeaaeaiiyi aeia?ia?eueii? oaiaee i?ae iniaith, yea a/eieea
cei/eiia ae?yiiy oa iioa?i?eei. Aaoi?ii ?iaeyoueny i?eiaeii? aeaa
aeniiaee: ii-ia?oa, e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai ia? ?yae
nooo?aeo aaae oa iaaeie?e?a, ye? iio?aaothoue iaeoaeaeoiai onoiaiiy;
ii-ae?oaa, aeaye? eiai ii?ie ia a?aeiia?aeathoue ?aaeueiei aeiiaai /ano,
a oiio — oea oiaiiaeeeaeth? i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy eiii?ii?nieo ii?i,
aai cia/ii oneeaaeith? eiai.

Ia iiaeia iiaiaeeoenue oaeiae ? c /eiiith ?aaeaeoe??th /.2 no.27 EIE
Oe?a?ie, yea aeaco?, ui «ni?aae i?i cei/eie, ia?aaeaa/ai? /anoeiith 1
noaoo? 117 E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, ii?ooothoueny ia ?iaeoa ye
ca nea?aith iioa?i?ei?, aea cae?eaaoe ?o ca i?eie?aiiyi iioa?i?ei? c
iaaeioaa/aiei ia iiaeia». Inoaii?e aeaiaio aeaii? ii?ie aa/eoueny yaii
aeia?/iei, ai ia i?eeia?oueny aei oaaae iaaaaeaiiy iioa?i?ei?
i?iaeiaaeoaaoe e?ei?iaeueia ia?ane?aeoaaiiy aeiiiai. Oaea, aeaeaei ia
aacni??ia, iiceoe?y nenoaie e?ei?iaeueii? thnoeoe?? noai?th? ?yae
neeaaeiiu?a o ne?ae/i-noaeia?e i?aeoeoe?.

Aeine?aeaeothoueny oaeiae ieoaiiy i?i /an (iiiaio) oeeaaeaiiy
eiii?ii?nii? oaiaee; oiiae ?? ae?eniino? (caeiiiino?); iiaeeea?noue
?ic??aaiiy eiii?ii?nieo a?aeiinei; noa’?eo?a i?aaicanoinoaaiiy oa
ioi?ieaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no.

A e?ioe? i?ae?icae?eo aaoi?ii ?iaeyoueny a?aoiaioiaai? aeniiaee, ui
?inoeooo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no:

1? iieaaoo? aeyaeaiiy ? ?ice?eooy cei/eio oa ni?ey? a?eueo oaeaeeiio ?
iiaiiio eiai ?icne?aeoaaiith;

2? ni?ey? iiia?aaeaeaiith cei/ei?a, aaeaea i?e eiai canoinoaaii?
noai?th?oueny ?aaeueia iiaeeea?noue aeyaeaiiy oiia, ui iieaaoeee
a/eiaiiy aeaiiai ae?yiiy ? ?o onoiaiiy;

3? aeiiiiaaa? anoaiiaeoe ianoaaeie a/eiaiiy ?ioeo
nioe?aeueii-iaaacia/ieo ae?yiue, iia’ycaieo c ?ie?ei?iiaaiei aeiiiio,
iiia?aaeeoe aai i?enei?eoe ?o ?ice?eooy.

Oaeei /eiii, a?eueo oe?iea canoinoaaiiy ?inoeoooo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no ca a/eiai? cei/eie, o ca’yceo c iiceoeaiith
iinoe?ei?iaeueiith iiaaae?ieith iniae a?aeiia?aea? aoiaiiei canaaeai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ? aoaea, ia iao iiaeyae, ni?eyoe
i?aeaeuaiith ae??aino? i?io?eaeoe/ii? ?iaioe i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a,
ai?iouea? c oe?eei ?yaeii cei/ei?a ? iiia?aaeaeaiith ?o oe?aeeeaeo
iane?aee?a.

O aeniiaeao aeeeaaeai? iniiai? oai?aoe/i? i?aenoieia? iieiaeaiiy oa
i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui aeieeaathoue ?c ?acoeueoao?a
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
e?ei?iaeueiiai oa e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, cie?aia:

1? o niaoe?aeuei?e noaoo? Caaaeueii? /anoeie E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie aai eiai i?iaeoo iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe caaaeueia iiiyooy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no ? anoaiiaeoe, ui canoinoaaiiy
eiii?ii?nii? ii?ie, i?e iayaiino? aeinoaoi?o ia oa i?aenoaa, ? ia
i?aaii, a iaia’yceii i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a;

2? aeiiiaieoe /. 1 no. 27 E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie, a /. 2 oe??? ae ii?ie aeeeth/eoe.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1? Onaoee A.I. Eiii?ii?n c «i’yoith aeaaeith» ye can?a ai?ioueae c iath
// O?yaeo Oe?a?ie, I?aceaeaioo, caeiiiaeaa/?e, aeeiiaa/?e aeaae?. O.7.
I?iaeaie ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th oa i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth.
Aiae?oe/i? ?ic?iaee, i?iiiceoe?? iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a.
Ee?a; 1997. N. 355-362.

2? Ni?o??iei A.I., Onaoee A.I., Neeieiee I.?. Ai?ioueaa c i?aai?ciaaiith
cei/eii?noth ye /eiiee caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie //
O?yaeo Oe?a?ie, I?aceaeaioo, caeiiiaeaa/?e, aeeiiaa/?e aeaae?. O.7.
I?iaeaie ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th oa i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth.
Aiae?oe/i? ?ic?iaee, i?iiiceoe?? iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a.
Ee?a; 1997. N. 86-88.

3? Onaoee A.I. Ai?ioueaa c eiio?aaaiaeith: nooi?noue
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no oa eiai iiaeeeaino? // O?yaeo Oe?a?ie,
I?aceaeaioo, caeiiiaeaa/?e, aeeiiaa/?e aeaae?. O.10. Ai?ioueaa c
eiio?aaaiaeith: i?iaeaie oa oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy. Ee?a; 1998. N.
459-472.

4? Onaoee A.I. Eiii?ii?n ye can?a ae??oaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiioe?eoo // Iaoeiaee a?niee Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa.
1998. ? 1. N. 91-96.

5? Onaoee A.I. E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? ia?aaeoiiae iiyae oa ?nioaaiiy
eiii?ii?no // Iaoeiaee a?niee Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa.
1998. ? 2. N. 131-146.

6? Onaoee A.I. No?oeoo?a oa th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?ii?no // A?niee caii??cueeiai th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo. 1998. ? 3.
N. 148-156.

7? Onaoee A.I. Eiii?ii?n ? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa iie?oeea Oe?a?ie //
O?yaeo Oe?a?ie, I?aceaeaioo, caeiiiaeaa/?e, aeeiiaa/?e aeaae?. O.12.
Noae a Oe?a?i?: ai?ioueaa c ei?oioe??th, i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth ?
caoeno i?aa ethaeeie. Ee?a; 1999. N. 519-532.

Onaoee A.I. Eiii?ii?n ye can?a ae??oaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
eiioe?eoo. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.08 — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai oa e?ei?iieia?y;
e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai. — Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue eiiieaen oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue,
iia’ycaieo c aeine?aeaeaiiyi iiiyooy, ci?noo, nooiino? oa th?eaee/ii?
i?e?iaee ?inoeoooo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no. I?eae?ey?oueny
cia/ia oaaaa aena?oeaiith ?noi?e/ieo iiiaio?a iiyae oa ?icaeoeo
eiii?ii?no. ?icaeyaeathoueny nioe?aeueii-i?aaia? iane?aeee canoinoaaiiy
eiii?ii?nieo ii?i aeey noi??i e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiioe?eoo oa
cia/aiiy eiioeaioe?? eiii?ii?no aeey iaoe?iiaeueii?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny i?iaeaiai ?aae?caoe?? ?inoeoooo
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiii?ii?no o i?aaicanoinia/?e ae?yeueiino? oa
aiae?co e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo oa e?ei?iieia?/ieo aniaeo?a
eiii?ii?niiai ae??oaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai eiioe?eoo. Aiinyoueny
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai e?ei?iaeueiiai ?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa i?aeoeee eiai
canoinoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaee eiii?ii?n, e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaee
eiioe?eo, eiii?ii?nia oaiaea, eiii?ii?nia ii?ia.

Onaoue A.I. Eiii?iienn eae n?aaenoai ?ac?aoaiey oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai
eiioeeeoa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.08 — oaieiaiia i?aai e e?eieiieiaey;
oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiia i?aai. — Iaoeeiiaeueiay aeaaeaiey aioo?aiieo
aeae Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo eiiieaen aii?inia oai?aoe/aneiai e
i?aeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, iinayuaiiuo i?iaeaia oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?iienna.

Ia iniiaa eiiieaeniiai aiaeeca th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?u aeenna?oaioii
aeaaony ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoee oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai eiii?iienna e
eiii?iienniuo ii?i. Aaoi?ii enneaaeoaony niaea?aeaiea, nouiinoue,
aiciiaeiinoe, no?oeoo?a, oeiieiaey e ae?oaea aniaeou oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai
eiii?iienna. Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony enoi?e/aneiio aniaeoo
enneaaeoaiie i?iaeaiu. ?anniao?eaaaony i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea
oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai eiii?iienna, aai iineaaenoaey e cia/aiea aeey noi?ii
oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai eiioeeeoa, aiaeece?othony oneiaey eiii?iienna i?e
auiieiaiee eioi?uo eeoei inaiaiaeaeaaony io oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe
(eeai aio niya/aaony iaeacaiea).

Aeenna?oaio iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi ainoaea?noai (a eeoea i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo
i?aaiia) ?aniieaaaao aieueoei a?naiaeii i?eaiia e niiniaia aeey ai?ueau
n nia?aiaiiie i?anooiiinoueth, ii /aua anaai iii ia?aie/eaaaony
ea?aoaeueii-?ai?aneaiuie ia?aie, ia oaeaeyy aeinoaoi/iiai aieiaiey eiui
iao?aaeeoeeiiiui niiniaai ?ac?aoaiey oaieiaii-i?aaiauo eiioeeeoia
(n?aaee eioi?uo auaeaeyaony eiii?iienn). Oaeie iaeiinoi?iiiee iiaeoiae,
ii iiaieth aaoi?a, ia niinianoaoao yooaeoeaiie ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo
caaea/ oaieiaii-i?aaiaie ai?ueau n i?anooiiinoueth, /anoi
nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?ooaieai i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania a?aaeaeai.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee eiinoaoe?oaony, /oi oaieiaii-i?aaiaie
eiii?iienn — naiinoiyoaeueiue einoeooo oaieiaiiai i?aaa, eioi?ue eiaao
nianoaaiioth iaiiaoi?eioth i?aaiaoth i?e?iaeo, auiieiyao niaoeeoe/aneea
ooieoeee e caieiaao iniaia ianoi a i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiia, aaaeoueo ai?ueao n i?anooiiinoueth. Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi
i?aaiaua ii?iu, eioi?ua i?aaeoniao?eaatho oaieiaii-i?aaiaie eiii?iienn,
aeieaeiu ninoaaeyoue aaeeioth eiae/anee iino?iaiioth ii /aoei
ii?aaeaeaiiui e?eoa?eyi nenoaio, eioi?ay ioaaouaaea au aieueoie niaeo?
aa?eaioia nioeeaeueii-iaeia?yaiiai iiaaaeaiey. Aaoi? ia?a/eneyao
ioee/eoaeueiua i?eciaee oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai eiii?iienna, eioi?ua
iicaieytho ioa?aie/eoue aai io niaaeiuo einoeoooia.

A ?aaioa i?aaei?eieiaaony iiiuoea auaeaeeoue iniiaiua e?eoa?ee
aeiionoeiinoe oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai eiii?iienna, n?aaee ieo: 1) ia?a/aiue
i?anooieaiee, ia eioi?ua ii ?ani?ino?aiyaony; 2) e?oa aeiiaiuo eeoe,
eioi?ua iiaeiaaeatho iiae aai aeaenoaea; 3) o?aaiaaiey, cae?aieaiiua a
caeiia, a iaiai ia eniieiaiea eioi?uo eeoei inaiaiaeaeaaony io oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe (eeai aio niya/aaony iaeacaiea). A nayce n yoei
iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi, ianiio?y ia oieaa?naeueiinoue einoeoooa
oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai eiii?iienna, ia anaaaea aiciiaeia aai ?aaeecaoeey a
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiie i?aeoeea i?aaiia aaaeoueo ai?ueao n
i?anooiiinoueth.

Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony ?ane?uoeth i?aeoe/aneiai cia/aiey
oaieiaii-i?aaiaiai eiii?iienna, aai i?eiaiaieth a noaeaaii-neaaenoaaiiie
i?aeoeea e a aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae. A ?aaioa oaeaea
oi?ioee?othony iniiaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia
niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e oeo/oaiea
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiie i?aeoeee i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia e noaeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaieiaii-i?aaiaie eiii?iienn, oaieiaii-i?aaiaie
eiioeeeo, eiii?iienniia niaeaoaiea, eiii?iienniay ii?ia.

Usatyj G. I. Compromise as settlement method of criminal-legal
conflict. — Manuscript.

Candidate dissertation on juridical sciences, speciality 12.00.08 — a
criminal right and criminology; criminal-executive right. — National
Academy of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

Dissertation contains a complex of theoretical and practical problems,
associated with research of notion, maintenance, essence, juridical
institute nature of criminal-legal compromise. Considerable attention is
paid to the analyses and deskription of historycal facts of the
appearance and development of compromise as a criminal-legal fact. The
socially-legal application of compromise norms for sides of
criminal-legal conflict, and significances of compromise for national
Ukrainian criminal-legal policy are considered.

Special attention is paid the problems to realization of criminal-legal
compromise in low activity and the to analysis of criminal-judicial and
criminological aspects of compromise settlement of criminal-legal
conflict. The suggestions as to the improvement of legislation and
practical application are suggested.

Key words: criminal-legal compromise, criminal-legal conflict,
compromise agreement, compromise norm.

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