Oa?e?aneee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.I. Ea?ac?ia

I?uaiei A?eoi??y sse?aia

?iaeaen OAeE 81’42. + 81’23.

Eiiie?iaio a iiaeaii?a?e iiaaae?ioe? i?aaenoaaiee?a
aiaeiiiaieo

(a?eoainueei? oa aia?eeainueei?) eoeueoo?

10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 2000

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

Oa?e?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.I. Ea?ac?ia

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

OA?ANIAA IEAIA AEAAeENEAA?AIA,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

Oa?e?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.I. Ea?ac?ia

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?CAOeUeEA A??A ss?INEAA?AIA,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?iicaiieo iia Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii?
aeaaeai??

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? AIAe?A?AA IEUeAA IAO??AIA,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?iicaiieo iia Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo

ienoaoeoa ?i. ?.I. Eioey?aanueeiai

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie /eaoaae?a oai???

aiae?enueei? iiae/, i. Caii??aeaey

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 21 ” ethoiai 2000 ?. i 14 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.051.16 a Oa?e?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. A.I. Ea?ac?ia I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith:

61077, i. Oa?e?a, ie. Naiaiaee, 4, aoae. 7-75

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.I. Ea?ac?ia
(61077, i. Oa?e?a, ie. Naiaiaee, 4)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 21 n?/iy 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaii? a/aii? ?aaee
E.A. Nieiuoe

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Oa?aeoa?ia ?ena no/aniiai iiaiciaanoaa — i?aaiaiiy aei i?ciaiiy
neeaaeii? i?e?iaee ethaenueeiai ni?eeoaaiiy, a yeiio iiaa, ao?eaia a
iiaeaii?, ? aaaeeeaei caniaii nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae??, ui aeicaiey?
ethaeyi aieeaaoe ia ?icoiiao oa i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue iaeei iaeiiai.

Oni?oia aea/aiiy iiaeaiiy ye iaei??? c oi?i nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee,
aeyaeaiiy caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?ioeano ?
iaiiaeeeaei aac aeeaieiai eiiieaeniiai aiae?co ie?aieo iiaeaii?aeo yaeu
o an?e iiaiio? ?oi?o /eneaieo aniaeo?a (iiaiiai,
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai, eiai?oeaiiai, aoiieoeueoo?iiai oiui).

Aeaia aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/aia aea/aiith eiiie?iaioo a
iiaeaii?a?e iiaaae?ioe? iin??a a?eoainueeiai oa aia?eeainueeiai
aa??aio?a aiae?enueei? iiae. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao ae?yeueiiniiai
i?aeoiaeo aei iiae.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia
caaaeueiith i???ioaoe??th no/anii? e?iaa?noeee ia aea/aiiy iiaeaiiy ye
aeeiai?/iiai i?ioeano, c?inoath/ei o anueiio na?o? ?ioa?anii aei
oai?aoe/ieo ? i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai ae?yeueiiniiai i?aeoiaeo aei iiae, a
oaeiae no??ieei iioe?aiiyi i?aeiiaieo oa i?aeeoeueoo?ieo eiioaeo?a, a
ca’yceo c /ei a?eueoi? cia/eiino? iaaoaathoue ieoaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
iiae oa eoeueoo?e, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? niaoeeo?ee iiaeaii?ai?
iiaaae?iee. Aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, e??i oiai,
aecia/a?oueny iaaeinoaoiueith aea/ai?noth oaei? neeaaeii?,
iaiaeiicia/ii? ? ?acii c oei aaeueie iioe?aii? a ethaenueeiio
ni?eeoaaii? eiioi?eaoeaii? iaeeieoe?, ye eiiie?iaio.

Iniiaia iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? oa oai?aoe/iiio
iaa?oiooaaii? no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ieo, i?aaiaoe/ieo oa aoiieoeueoo?ieo
iniaeeainoae eiiie?iaioo ye iaeeieoe? iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee a?eoaioe?a
? aia?eeaioe?a.

Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a? ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

-?ic?iaea iiiyoo?aiai aia?aoo, ui ?ioaa?o? oai??th iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a,
oai??th iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? oa eiioeaioe?th aa?/eeaino?;

-aecia/aiiy iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?eeieooeaiiai aeoo eiiie?iaioo;

-iien eiie?iaioo ye ia?eieooeaiiai aeoo;

-?ic?iaea eeaneo?eaoe?? eiie?iaio?a — nioe?aeueieo ae?e;

-ye?niee ? e?euee?niee aiae?c no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ieo, i?aaiaoe/ieo oa
aoiieoeueoo?ieo iniaeeainoae ??cieo eean?a ? oei?a eiiie?iaio?a —
nioe?aeueieo ae?e;

-aeyaeaiiy aoiiniaoeeo?/ieo ?en eiiie?iaioo a iiaeaii?a?e iiaaae?ioe?
i?aaenoaaiee?a aiaeiiiaieo (a?eoainueei? ? aia?eeainueei?) eoeueoo?, a
oaeiae oaeoi??a, ui ?o iaoiiaeththoue.

Iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiy neeaaea?oueny c 610 o?aaiaio?a ae?aeia?/ieo
oaeno?a oai??a no/anieo (ae?oaa iieiaeia OO noie?ooy) a?eoainueeeo oa
aia?eeainueeeo aaoi??a, ui i?noyoue 826 aeneiaethaaiue c ?eeieooeaiith
neeith eiiie?iaioo. Aeey c?noaaiiai aea/aiiy aoiieoeueoo?ieo
iniaeeainoae eiiie?iaioo ye iiaeaii?aiai a/eieo aoei aeei?enoaii oai?e
?in?enueeiiiaieo aaoi??a (350 o?aaiaio?a). Caaaeueiee ei?ion i?eeeaae?a
ianyaii 960 iaeeieoeue iaea?aeaii iaoiaeii nooe?eueii? aea??ee.
Caa?iaiiy aei ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e coiiaeaii oa?aeoa?ii
aeine?aeaeaiiy, yea aeiaaa? i?iieeiaiiy o aioo??oi?e na?o aiioe?e,
?ioaioe?e, oe?eae, iioea?a, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue iiaaae?ieo iiaoey.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
ae?yeueiiniee — i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co iiaeaii?aeo yaeu, iieiaeaiiy i?i
aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieie oa
aoiieoeueoo?ieie oaeoi?aie, ?ino?oiaioaeuei? eiioeaioe?? iiae.
Aaoi?nueea o?aeoiaea eiiie?iaioo ye iiaeaii?aiai a/eieo noi?ioaaeanue
i?ae aieeaii i?aoeue O.A. Aeiieo?, ?.I. Ceiiuei?, I.I. Eaiioue?aa, I.I.
Eaiioue?aa, I.A. Ii/aioeiaa, Aeae. ?. Na?ey, I.O. No?iniia, ?.O.
Oa?aniaa. Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui coiiaeaia ??ciiiai?oi?noth
?icaeyiooeo i?iaeai, aeeth/a? oaenoiaee iiooe, iiaeaii?aa
iiaeaethaaiiy, aeaiaioe e?euee?nii-ye?niiai aiae?co. A ?iaio? oaeiae
canoiniaothoueny iaoiaee naiaioe/ii? oa i?aaiaoe/ii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
aeeneo?no, eiioaenooaeueii-neooaoeaiee, ?ioaioe?eiee oa aeoiiiaeaii?aee
aiae?c.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny oei, ui a i?e
aia?oa cae?eniaii ni?iao eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiie?iaioo ia aac?
ae?yeueiiniiai i?aeoiaeo, eiee eiiie?iaioa?ia aeneiaethaaiiy
?icaeyaea?oueny ye iniaeeaee aeae iiaeaii?aeo a/eie?a, can?a aeinyaiaiiy
ye?nii ??cieo eiioi?eaoeaieo (?eeieooeaieo, ia?eieooeaieo, nioe?aeueieo)
oe?eae. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th eiiie?iaio?a — nioe?aeueieo
ae?e, iienaii ?oi? no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i? ? i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino?.
Aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e e?iaa?noeoe? iinoaaeaii i?iaeaio aoiieoeueoo?ii?
nai???aeiino? eiiie?iaioo, aeyaeaii oaeoi?e, ui coiiaeththoue aeaye?
eiai aoiiniaoeeo?/i? ?ene a aniaeo? naiaioeee ? i?aaiaoeee.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? aeanii? iiaeae?
iiaeaii?ai? ae??, ui ?ioaa?o? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oai??? iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a, oai??? iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? oa eiioeaioe?? aa?/eeaino?; a
ooi/iaii? iniaeeainoae eiiie?iaioo ye ?eeieooeaiiai aeoo, o aeyaeaii?
iciae, ui a?ae??ciythoue eiai a?ae noiaeeo ?eeieooeaieo aeo?a, a iien?
??cieo aeae?a iai?yieo ?eeieooeaieo aeo?a eiiie?iaioo, o aeae?eaii?
eean?a ? oei?a eiie?iaio?a — nioe?aeueieo ae?e oa iien? ?o
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ieo, i?aaiaoe/ieo oa aoiieoeueoo?ieo aeanoeainoae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1.Eiiie?iaio, ?icaeyiooee ye iaeeieoey iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee, ?
iniaeeaei aeaeii iiaeaii?aeo a/eie?a. Iiiyooy iiaeaii?aiai a/eieo
ii?aeio? a nia? oae? eaoaai???, ye iiaeaii?aa ae?y,
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia aca?iiae?y ? niin?a iiaii? ?aae?caoe??
iiaeaii?ai? ae??.

Iiaeaii?aa ae?y, a neeo ?? ni?yiiaaiino? ia ye?nii ??ci? (iiaeaii?a? ?
iaiiaeaii?a?) eiioi?eaoeai? oe?e?, yaey? niaith neeaaeio ?aei?noue
?eeieooeaiiai aeoo, ia?eieooeaiiai aeoo ? nioe?aeueii? ae??.
?eeieooeaiee aeo ? ae?aaeaiiyi iiai?noth a?aee?eoeo iai???a iiaoey, ui
ia? ?ici?ciaoe aae?anao. Nooue ia?eieooeaiiai aeoo iieyaa? o
caieaiiaai?e ci?i? ineo?/iiai noaio aae?anaoa. Nioe?aeueia ae?y a
iaoiio ?icoi?ii? — oea oe?eani?yiiaaiee i?ioean oi?aae?iiy iiaaae?ieith
aae?anaoa.

Niin?a ?aae?caoe?? iiaeaii?ai? ae?? aecia/a?oueny ye caeiiii??iinoyie
aaeeaaiiy iiae a iiaeaii?, oae ? iicaiiaieie oaeoi?aie —
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie (eieaeoeaieie oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieie) o/aniee?a aca?iiae??.

2.Eiiie?iaio ye ?eeieooeaiee aeo iaeaaeeoue aei eeano aeni?anea?a (ii
Na?eth) oa ia? oae? aeanoeaino?.

?eeieooeai? oe?e? eiiie?iaioo iieyaathoue o oiio, uia ae?aceoe (1)
?ioaioe?eiee noai iiaoey, ?ai?acaioaoeaiee ci?no yeiai neeaaea?
iiceoeaia ioe?iea, aenie?oeeoii /e ?iie?oeeoii ae?aaeaia a
i?iiiceoe?eiiio ci?no? aeneiaethaaiiy; (2) iai?? / i?aaiaiiy / aaaeaiiy
iiaoey aeinoaaeoe caaeiaieaiiy aae?anaoo; (3) iiceoeaia noaaeaiiy iiaoey
aei aae?anaoa.

Iciaeaie, ui a?ae??ciythoue eiiie?iaio a?ae noiaeeo c iei ?ioeo aeae?a
aeni?anea?a (cie?aia, iioaaee, noaaeaiiy, caoiieaiiy), ?: (1)
aeiaeaoeia? ?eeieooeai? oe?e?; (2) eiiiiiaio ?eeieooeaii? neee
“aaciina?aei?e ca’ycie ia’?eoa iiceoeaii? ioe?iee, ui neeaaea?
i?iiiceoe?eiee ci?no aeneiaethaaiiy, c aae?anaoii”, (3) oe?oee niaeo?
?ioaioe?eieo noai?a iiaoey (ia o?eueee noaaeaiiy ? caoiieaiiy, aea
oaeiae iiaaaa, neiiao?y, ethaia, i?eoeeuei?noue, oiiaeiaaiiy, ianieiaea,
caaeiaieaiiy oiui).

Ca niiniaii ?aae?caoe?? ?eeieooeai? aeoe eiiie?iaioo iiae?eythoueny ia
i?yi? ? iai?yi?. Aei i?yieo iaeaaeaoue eiiie?iaioe, a yeeo ioe?iia
noaeaeaiiy, ui neeaaea? ?o i?iiiceoe?eiee ci?no, ae?aaeaii aenie?oeeoii
ca aeiiiiiaith eiiaaioe?iiae?ciaaieo oi?ioe. Na?aae iai?yieo
aeae?eythoueny nooi iai?yi? (einaaiiua) oa ?iie?oeeoi? ?eeieooeai? aeoe
eiiie?iaioo. Aei nooi iai?yieo iaeaaeaoue eiiie?iaioe, ui ?aae?cothoueny
/a?ac aeneiaethaaiiy, a yeeo ? ia’?eo iiceoeaii? ioe?iee, ? ioe?iiee
i?aaeeeao ae?aaeai? aenie?oeeoii, aea i?e oeueiio (a) aeneiaethaaiiy ia?
oi?io ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy, (a) ioe?iia noaeaeaiy ia ae/a?io?
i?iiiceoe?eiiai ci?noo aeneiaethaaiiy. Aei ?iie?oeeoieo iaeaaeaoue: (a)
?eeieooeai? aeoe eiiie?iaioo, i?iiiceoe?eiee ci?no yeeo ?iie?oeeoii
ae?aaea? oi/a a iaeio c neeaaeiaeo iiceoeaii-ioe?iiiai noaeaeaiiy
(ia’?eo iiceoeaii? ioe?iee aai ioe?iiee i?aaeeeao) /e ioe?iia noaeaeaiiy
ye oaea; (a) aeneiaethaaiiy, a yeeo ca’ycie i?ae ia’?eoii ioe?iee oa
ioe?iiei i?aaeeeaoii ia ? i?aaeeeaoeaiei; (a) aeneiaethaaiiy, a yeeo
ia’?eo iiceoeaii? ioe?iee a?aeiineoueny ia ( aai ia o?eueee) aei
“aaciina?aaeiueiai”, aea e aei “iia?/iiai” aae?anaoa; (a)
aeneiaethaaiiy, a yeeo iiaaoeue ia ? aaoi?ii iiceoeaii-ioe?iiiai
noaeaeaiiy, ui neeaaea? i?iiiceoe?eiee ci?no.

?eeieooeai? aeoe eiiie?iaioo iiaeooue aooe ue?eie e iaue?eie. Iaue?ei
eiiie?iaio aaaaea?oueny o oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee oi/a a iaeei c ae?aaeaieo
?ioaioe?eieo noai?a ia a?aeiia?aea? ae?eniiio, a oaeiae eiee
iiceoeaii-ioe?iia noaeaeaiiy, ui neeaaea? i?iiiceoe?eiee ci?no, ia
a?aeiia?aea? ?aaeuei?e ioe?ioe?.

3. Eiiie?iaio ye ia?eieooeaiee aeo iaoe?eaiee ia oa, uia aeeeeeaoe o
aae?anaoa iiceoeaio aiioe?eio ?aaeoe?th, c?iaeoe eiio i?e?iia. A iniia?
ia?eieooeaiiai aeoo eiiie?iaioo — caaeiaieaiiy aeeoo?ai aaaeeeai?
iio?aae aae?anaoa aooe aeciaiei ? aeniei ioe?iaiei oeie, ooi eiai
ioi/oth?. Ia?eieooeai? aeoe eiiie?iaioo iiaeooue aooe oni?oieie /e
iaoni?oieie, iaaienieie /e iaiaaienieie.

Iaea?eueo nooo?aeie oaeoi?aie, ui aieeaathoue ia ye?noue ia?eieooeaiiai
aoaeoo, a a?aeiia?aeii e ia oni?oi?noue ia?eieooeaiiai aeoo, ? ia’?eo
iiceoeaii? ioe?iee, nioe?aeueii-?ieueia? noaoone eiioi?eaio?a ?
oa?aeoa? aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ieie, ianoaaeie, ca yeeo ?aae?co?oueny
iiaeaii?aa ae?y.

Iaiaaieni? ia?eieooeai? aeoe eiiie?iaioo iathoue i?noea a neooaoe?yo,
eiee iiceoeaia ?aaeoe?y aae?anaoa, aeeeeeaia aeneiaethaaiiyi, ia
aoiaeeea aei oe?eae iiaoey.

4. Eiiie?iaioe — nioe?aeuei? ae?? i?ae?icae?eythoueny ia aeaa iniiaieo
eeana: aoeeaoi? oa ?ino?oiaioaeuei?. Eeaneo?eaoe?eiei e?eoa???i aenooia?
oa?aeoa? nioe?aeueii? oe?e?.

Aoeeaoi? eiiie?iaioe i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ni?euei?e nioe?aeuei?e iao? —
i?aeo?eiaiith iaaioaaii?noe/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae eiioi?eaioaie,
iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith /iai ? aeio?eiaiiy i?aaee iiaaae?iee,
i?eienoaaieo aoeeaoii. Aieiaiith iciaeith, ui eaaeeoue a iniia?
eaoaai?ecaoe?? aoeeaoieo eiiie?iaio?a, aenooia? ?o no?eea cae??ieai?noue
ca iaaieie aeaeaie noaiaea?oieo neooaoe?e.

Iaoa ?ino?oiaioaeueieo eiiie?iaio?a iieyaa? o ci?i? iiaaae?iee ia?oia?a
ii ni?eeoaaiith. Eiie?aoiee ci?no iaoe ? e?eoa???i aeae?eaiiy iniiaieo
oei?a ?ino?oiaioaeueieo eiiie?iaio?a.

5. Eiiie?iaioo ye aeaeo iiaeaii?aeo a/eie?a o iiaeaii?a?e iiaaae?ioe?
a?eoaioe?a ? aia?eeaioe?a a oe?eiio i?eoaiaii? oae?
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i? oa i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino?: ia?aaaaeathoue
iaeeieoe?, (a) ye? yaeythoue niaith oae caai? “ianaiino?ei?” eiiie?iaioe
— nioe?aeuei? ae?? (54,9%), (a) ye? ?aae?cothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith
iaeiiai ?eeieooeaiiai aeoo eiiie?iaioo (74,1%), (a) a yeeo ?eeieooe?y
eiiie?iaioo ae?aaeaia i?yii (75,7%); na?aae iai?yieo ?eeieooeaieo aeo?a
eiiie?iaioo ?iie?oeeoi? cia/ii ia?aaa?oothoue ca /enaeuei?noth nooi
iai?yi? (91,5% oa 8,5% a?aeiia?aeii).

6. ?niothoue a?aei?iiino? o niiniaao ?aae?caoe?? aoeeaoieo oa
?ino?oiaioaeueieo eiiie?iaio?a — nioe?aeueieo ae?e: a eean? aoeeaoieo
ia?aaaaeathoue “naiino?ei?” eiiie?iaioe — nioe?aeuei? ae?? (58,6%), a
eean? ?ino?oiaioaeueieo — “ianaiino?ei?” (59,5%); ia?o? ??aeoa, i?ae
inoaii?, cae?eniththoueny /a?ac iai?yi? ?eeieooeai? aeoe eiiie?iaioo
(ii?.: 13% ? 27%); aoeeaoi? eiiie?iaioe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?eueo
aei?noeei cae??ieaiiyi iaaiiai aeaeo ia’?eo?a ae?aaeaiiai ?ioaioe?eiiai
noaio ca eiaeiei c oei?a ?, aiane?aeie oeueai, a?eueo iaiaaeaiei iaai?ii
oi?ioe, ui i?yii ae?aaeathoue ?eeieooe?th eiiie?iaioo.

7. Aoiieoeueoo?i? iniaeeaino? eiiie?iaioo ye iaeeieoe? iiaeaii?ai?
iiaaae?iee aiaeiiiaieo eiioi?eaio?a iieyaathoue o oiio, ui i?aaenoaaieee
a?eoainueei? oa aia?eeainueei? eoeueoo? /ano?oa, i?ae i?aaenoaaieee
?in?enueeiiiaii? eoeueoo?e, aiai?youe (a) iaue?? eiiie?iaioe; (a)
aoeeaoi? eiiie?iaioe ? eiiie?iaioe i?ii?aeieo oei?a.

Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ui coiiaeththoue iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i?
a?aei?iiino? o aaeeaaii? eiiie?iaioo, ? (a) iaoioiaei?noue ???a?o?/ieo
nenoai oe?iiinoae; (a) ??cia nooi?iue noaa?eueiino? nioe?aeueieo
no?oeoo? ? nenoai oe?iiinoae o e?iaaieoeueoo?ao, ui ii??aiththoueny.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe. Eiiieaenia oa?aeoa?enoeea eiiie?iaioo ye
neeaaeii? ?aeiino? ?eeieooeaiiai aeoo, ia?eieooeaiiai aeoo ?
nioe?aeueii? ae??, aecia/aiiy iciae ?eeieooeaii? neee eiiie?iaioo, iien
niinia?a ?aae?caoe?? iai?yieo ?eeieooeaieo aeo?a eiiie?iaioo,
eeaneo?eaoe?y eiiie?iaio?a — nioe?aeueieo ae?e ? iaaiei aianeii o
?icaeoie e?iaaii?aaiaoeee, oai??? iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?, oai???
aeeneo?no, ?eoi?eee. Oai?aoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? oaeiae
a iaea?aeaii? iiaeo ciaiue i?i aoiieoeueoo?i? iniaeeaino? eiiie?iaioo ye
iaeeieoe? iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee iin??a ??cieo (aiae?enueei? oa
?in?enueei?) iia, ye? iiaeeaeththoue oyaeaiiy i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiae
oa eoeueoo?e ? ni?eythoue ae??oaiith i?iaeai i?aeeoeueoo?iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? oa ??
eiie?aoi? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy o eo?n? oai?aoe/ii?
a?aiaoeee aiae?enueei? iiae (?icae?e “oai??y iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a”), a
niaoeeo?nao c oai??? iiaeaii?aiai aieeao, aiaeiiiaiiai aoeeaoo, aoeee
i?aeeoeueoo?iiai ni?eeoaaiiy; aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o iaa/aii?
ae?aeia?/iiio iiaeaiith ia i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo c aiae?enueei? iiae, a
oaeiae i?e aeeiiaii? aeeieiiieo oa eo?niaeo ?ia?o.

Iaoeiaa aeinoia??i?noue ? ia’?eoeai?noue ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny oei, ui ca
iniiaiee iaoiaeieia?/iee i?eioeei aoei i?eeiyoi
eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeai iiae e iiaeaiiy,
iii?ith ia oe?e?nio oai?aoe/io eiioeaioe?th, ui aeicaiey? ei?aeoii
iienoaaoe oa a??ia?aeii ?ioa?i?aooaaoe eiioi?eaoeai? oa eoeueoo?i?
yaeua.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
oaeoeueoaoo ?iicaiieo iia Oa?e?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
A.I.Ea?ac?ia (1993-1999 ?.?.), ia i?aeia?iaei?e e?iaai-iaoiaee/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? English Language Teaching (ELT) in Ukraine: Past-Imperfect,
Present Indefinite, Future-? /i?aai?caoi?e: I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
Euea?anueeee aea?ae. oi-o, I?aeia?iaeiee oiiae “A?ae?iaeaeaiiy”,
A?eoainueea ?aaea, IATEFL/ (Euea?a, 1995), a oiae? Ae?oaeo i?aeia?iaeieo
ineoieia?/ieo /eoaiue “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii? ineoieia??”
/i?aai?caoi?e: Aeaaeai?y iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?anueeee
aea?ae. oi-o, I?i?noa?noai aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?anueeee oi-o
aioo??oi?o ni?aa/ (Oa?e?a, 1995), ia ainuei?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iiaa ? eoeueoo?a” /i?aai?caoi?e: ?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
Ee?anueeiai oi-oo, Oiiae aoiai?oa?iiai ?icaeoeo “Collegium”/ (Ee?a,
1999).

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeai? o 8 ioae?eaoe?yo.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, nieneo ?ethno?aoeaiiai
iaoa??aeo, aeiaeaoeo.

Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 192 noi??iee; nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae i?noeoue 263 iaeiaioaaiiy, a nieneo ?ethno?aoeaiiai iaoa??aeo —
49 iiceoe?e. Ianya aeiaeaoeo — 9 noi??iie.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai aeooaeuei?noue,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, aecia/aii iaoa??ae oa
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai oai?aoe/io cia/ei?noue oa i?aeoe/io
oe?ii?noue, iiaeaii ia?ae?e iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Ae?yeueiiniee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy eiiie?iaioo”
cae?enith?oueny iaeyae iniiaieo iai?yie?a a no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
eiiie?iaioo a aiae?enuee?e iia?; iaa?oioiaothoueny ia?aaaae
ae?yeueiiniiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy eiie?iaioo, aeeeaaeathoueny
iaea?eueo aaaeeea? aeey aeaii? ?iaioe iieiaeaiiy oai??? iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a ? oai??? iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?; aecia/a?oueny iiiyoo?aee aia?ao
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aiae?c i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo iiaiciaaoe?a, i?enay/aieo
aeine?aeaeaiith eiiie?iaioo a aiae?enuee?e iia?, iieacaa, ui ?ai?oa
i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy aoee oae? eiai aniaeoe: no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i?
iniaeeaino? eiiie?iaioo ye aeaeo ?eeieooeaieo aeo?a /I. Aoeonii,
Aeae. Iaeic, E.I. Eieieei/; ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiiie?iaioo ye
nioe?aeueii? no?aoaa?? /I. Aoeonii, Aeae. Iaeic/; nioe?ii?aaiaoe/ia
oa aoiieoeueoo?ia aa??aoeai?noue aaeeaaiiy eiiie?iaioo
/A. Eaaaiaeianueea — Oiiauee, ?.E. Aa?aa?o, I. Ei?aeaeea, I. Aoeonii,
Aeae. Iaeic/; eiiie?iaio ye a?aeia?aaeaiiy aia?eeainueeeo eoeueoo?ieo
oe?iiinoae /Aeae. Iaeic/; ?aaeoe?y ia eiiie?iaio /A.
Iiia?aioe, ?.E. Aa?aa?o A. Eaaaiaeianueea — Oiiauee/; eaeneei-a?aiaoe/i?
iiaeae? ??cieo oei?a eiiie?iaioo ye ioe?iiiai aeneiaethaaiiy /E.I.
Eieieei/.

Noa? i/aaeaeiei, ui e?iaa?noe, i?aaio/e aeine?aeeoe eiiie?iaio a
oe?ieiio iicaiiaiiio eiioaeno?, ?icaeyaeathoue eiai ia?aaaaeii a nenoai?
“ciai?oi?o” eii?aeeiao (oa?i?i Neaia-Eacaeo), oiaoi ia
iae?ii?aaiaoe/iiio ??ai?, aa?o/e aei oaaae nioe?i-eoeueoo?i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ni?eeoaaiiy. Oaeoi?e ae iniaenoiai ii?yaeeo: iio?aae,
iioeae, oe?e?, aiioe?? eiioi?eaio?a, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei iaeano?
i?e?ii?aaiaoeee eiiie?iaioa?ieo aeneiaethaaiue, — caeeoaeenue iica
oaaaith aeine?aeiee?a.

Oey ianoaaeia aecia/eea iaoo e caaaeaiiy aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oeaio?aeueio i?iaeaio yeiai a iaea?eueo caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? iiaeia
noi?ioethaaoe ye ?icaeyae eiiie?iaioo /a?ac i?ecio eaoaai??e
“oe?eue-can?a”.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiiie?iaioo ye caniao aeinyaiaiiy iaaieo oe?eae
ia?aaeaa/a? ae?yeueiiniee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy oeueiai yaeua, ine?eueee
aeciaiiy oe?eueiai? aeaoa?i?iiaaiino? iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? ?
iniiaiiieiaeiei i?eioeeiii oeueiai i?aeoiaeo.

Aeii?ioth/eie oai??yie a ?aieao ae?yeueiinoiiai i?aeoiaeo ? oai??y
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a /Aeae. Ino?i, Aeae. Na?eue, I. No?inii, I.A.
Ii/aioeia oa ?io?/ ? oai??y iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? /I.I.
Eaiioue?a, ?. O. Oa?ania, TH.I. Ni?ie?i, A. Oa?ooia, A.Oaooiae?? oa
?io?/. Oi/a aiie aacothoueny ia ??cieo iinooeaoao e iaeaaeaoue aei
??cieo e?iaa?noe/ieo oe?e, aeine?aeieee /O.A. Aeiieo?,
A.?. Ea?aaai/ aaaaeathoue ?o aca?iii aeiiiaithth/eie e eia?/ii noi?nieie
? aeciathoue ca iiaeeeaa oa iaiao?aeia ?o aca?iiae?th oa ?ioaa?aoe?th.

Iniiaieie iiiyooyie, aeei?enoaieie a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?,
aenooiathoue: iiaeaii?aa iiaaae?iea, iiaeaii?aee a/eiie, iiaeaii?aa /
iaiiaeaii?aa oe?eue, ?eeieooeaiee aeo, ia?eieooeaiee aeo, nioe?aeueia
ae?y (aoeeaoia oa ?ino?oiaioaeueia), iiaeaeue iiaaae?iee, aa?/eea?noue
(iiceoeaia, iaaaoeaia, ?ino?oiaioaeueia, ii?iaoeaia).

Iiaeaii?aa iiaaae?iea — oea oi?ia nioe?aeueiiai aoooy ethaeeie (aai ??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a nioe?oi?) /Ceiiy/. Aiia ? i?iyaeaiiyi a iiaeaii?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae iiaoey ? aae?anaoa. Iiiyooy
iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee ii?aeio? a nia? e eiie?aoeco? iciaee oaeeo
eaoaai??e, ye iiaeaii?aa ae?yeuei?noue, iiaeaii?aa ni?eeoaaiiy,
eiioi?eaoe?y. Caeaaeii a?ae oiai, yea c eaoaai??e aenooia? ia’?eoii
aiae?co, e?iaa?no iia?o? a?aeiia?aeieie iaeeieoeyie: “iiaeaii?aee
a/eiie”, “iiaeaii?aa ae?y”, “eiioi?eaoeaiee aeo (?ioa?aeoe?y)”.
Caa?iaiiy aei oa?i?io “iiaeaii?aee a/eiie” aeicaiey? aeeth/eoe a iien
??ci? aniaeoe eiiie?iaioo, oiaoi ?icaeyiooe eiai ? ye ie?aio iiaeaii?ao
ae?th, ? ye neeaaeiao /anoeio eiioi?eaoeaiiai aeoo, a?aoiaoth/e
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aeanoeaino? eiioi?eaio?a ? ?oi?e aieea ia
a?aea?? iiaieo cania?a. E??i oiai, o?aeoiaea eiiie?iaioo ye
iiaeaii?aiai a/eieo iaeneiaeueii a?aeiia?aea? oe?iei aeei?enoiaaiiio
aiaeiiiaieie aaoi?aie /Aoeonii, Aa?aa?o, Ei?aeaeea, Iaeic/ iiiyooth, ui
aecia/a?oueny oa?i?iii “compliment(ing) behaviour”.

Ie?aia aeneiaethaaiiy, yeui eiai aiae?coaaoe c iiceoe?e ae?yeueiiniiai
i?aeoiaeo, ? caniaii ?aae?caoe?? iiaeaii?ai? ae??, yea ni?yiiaaia ia
aeinyaiaiiy e?eueeio ye?nii ??cieo (iiaeaii?aeo e iaiiaeaii?aeo) oe?eae.
Iaaaaea?ii, ui a ae?yeuei?ni?e ia?aaeeai? iiiyooy “oe?eue” ? “ae?y”
aca?iiiia’ycai?. Ae?y — oea “i?ioean, i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee oyaeaiith i?i
oie ?acoeueoao, yeee iaeaaeeoue aeinyaiooe, oiaoi i?ioean,
i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee na?aeii?e oe?e?” /Eaiioue?a/ (ia?. iao: A.I.).

Iiaeaii?aeie ie iaceaa?ii oe?e?, ci?no yeeo iieyaa? o ia?aaea/?
iia?aeiieaiiy, oiaoi aeayeiai cia/aiiy, a?ae iiaoey aei aae?anaoa.
Aoaeue-ye? ?io? oe?e? eaae?o?eothoueny ye iaiiaeaii?a?. Iiaeaii?aa
oe?eue — oea ?eeieooeaia oe?eue aeneiaethaaiiy. Iaiiaeaii?a? oe?e?
iaeaaeaoue aei oaeeo noa?, ye ineoieia?/iee aieea ia ia?oia?a ii
ni?eeoaaiith (ia?eieooeai? oe?e?), i?aai?caoe?y oa eii?aeeiaoe?y
aca?iiae?? eiioi?eaio?a (nioe?aeuei? oe?e?), i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue
ethaeeie (i?aeoe/i? oe?e?). Aei eiioi?eaoeaieo ie a?aeiineii ye
iiaeaii?a? (?eeieooeai?), oae ? o? iaiiaeaii?a? oe?e?, ci?no yeeo ia?
aaciina?aaei? a?aeiioaiiy aei aae?anaoa, aei i?ioeano nioe?aeueii —
ineoieia?/ii? aca?iiae??, oiaoi ia?eieooeai? oa nioe?aeuei? oe?e?.

Cai?iiiiiaaio iaie iiaeaeue ???a?o?/ii? nenoaie ye?nii ??cieo oe?eae, ui
aeaoa?i?iothoue Ia noai? iieacaii, ui ?eeieooeai? oe?e? iiaeooue
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaoenue nioe?aeueiei ia o?eueee iiina?aaeiaii /a?ac
ia?eieooeai? oe?e? aea e aaciina?aaeiuei.

Ine?eueee iiaeaii?aa ae?y ni?yiiaaia ia ye?nii ??ci? (?eeieooeai?,
ia?eieooeai? e nioe?aeuei?) oe?e?, aiia aenooia? ye neeaaeia ii?aeiaiiy
??cieo ae?e, a naia ?eeieooeaiiai aeoo (i?ioeano ia?aaea/?
iia?aeiieaiiy, iai???a iiaoey, i?ecia/aieo aeey ?ici?ciaiiy aae?anaoii),
ia?eieooeaiiai aeoo (i?ioeano ci?ie ineo?/iiai noaio aae?anaoa) ?
nioe?aeueii? ae?? (i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy iiaaae?ieith aae?anaoa). Ne?ae
iaaieineoe ia oiio, ui ie /?oei ?ic??ciy?ii oae? iiiyooy e oa?i?ie, ye
ia?eieooeaia oe?eue ? nioe?aeueia oe?eue,- a oaeiae iiaeaii?aa ae?y oa
iiaeaii?aee aeo (ine?eueee a e?iaa?noe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iiaeaii?aee aeo
/anoi ioioiaeith?oueny c ?eeieooeaiei aeoii).

E?ioeaaa eiioi?eaoeaia oe?eue aeneiaethaaiiy — oea oe?eue nioe?aeueia.
Aiia ni?aa?aeiineoueny c oaeith iaeeieoeath aeeneo?no, ye iiaeaii?aee
o?ae. Caeaaeii a?ae oiai, ne?eueee ?eeieooeaieo ? ia?eieooeaieo oe?eae
i?aeii?yaeeiao? nioe?aeueia oe?eue, iiaeaii?aee o?ae iiaea neeaaeaoeny c
iaeiiai aai e?eueeio ?eeieooeaieo oa ia?eieooeaieo aeo?a. A?aeiia?aeii
aei oeueiai ?eeieooeaiee aeo iiaea aenooiaoe ye naiino?eia nioe?aeueia
ae?y aai ye ?? /anoeia.

Aeey aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aa?enoe/io oe?ii?noue ia? caiice/aia c
ineoieia?? oa aoiia?ao?? iiiyooy “iiaeaeue iiaaae?iee”, a oaeiae
i?eoyaiaiiy eiioeaioe?? aa?/eeaino? /I. A?aoi, N. Eaa?inii/. Ie
?icaeyaea?ii nioe?aeuei? ae?? ye neeaaeia? oeo /e ?ioeo iiaeaeae
iiaaae?iee, cie?aia oae caaieo “aoeeaoieo c?ace?a” ? “no?aoaa?e”, oa
ni?aa?aeiineii ?o c aeaiia aeaeaie aa?/eea?no? (ii?iaoeaiith oa
?ino?oiaioaeueiith). Ia oe?e iniia? aeae?eythoueny eean aoeeaoieo ? eean
?ino?oiaioaeueieo nioe?aeueieo ae?e.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Eiiie?iaio ye ?aei?noue ??cieo ae?e”
ca?aeii c ia?aiei i?aeoiaeii aiae?cothoueny ?eeieooeaiee aeo eiiie?iaioo
(?AE) (aecia/athoueny ?eeieooeai? oe?e? eiiie?iaioo, aeaee i?yieo e
iai?yieo ?AE, i?noea ?AE a nenoai? ?eeieooeaieo aeo?a, eiai a?aei?iiino?
a?ae noiaeeo ?eeieooeaieo aeo?a, aeaee iaue?eo ?AE), eiiie?iaio ye
ia?eieooeaiee aeo ? ye nioe?aeueia ae?y.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ?eeieooeaieo oe?eae eiiie?iaioo aoee canoiniaai?
naiaioe/iee aiae?c neiaieeiaeo aeao?i?oe?e aiae?enueeiai neiaa
“compliment”, iaoiae ni?iuaiiiai ia?ao?acoaaiiy, cai?iiiiiaaiee A.
Aaaeaeoeueeith, oa oai??y ?ioaioe?eieo noai?a Aeae. Na?ey. Eiee iiaaoeue
cae?enith? ?AE, eiai aieiaiith a?aee?eoith aeey ?ici?ciaiiy oe?eeth ?
ae?aaeaiiy iiceoeaiiai ?ioaioe?eiiai noaio, ?ai?acaioaoeaiee ci?no yeiai
neeaaea? iiceoeaia ioe?iea, a aeiaeaoeia? ?eeieooeai? oe?e? iieyaathoue
o ae?aaeaii? (a) iai??o / i?aaiaiiy / aaaeaiiy c?iaeoe i?e?iia
aae?anaoia? oa (a) iiceoeaiiai noaaeaiiy aei aae?anaoa.

Caeaaeii a?ae niiniao iiaii? ?aae?caoe?? ?AE iiae?eythoueny ia i?yi? e
iai?yi?.

I?yieie aaaaeathoueny ?AE, a yeeo ioe?iia noaeaeaiiy, ui neeaaea?
i?iiiceoe?eiee ci?no ?AE ? ? aieiaiei oi?iaeueiei ?iaeeeaoi?ii
?eeieooe?? eiiie?iaioo, ae?aaeaia aenie?oeeoii ca aeiiiiiaith
eiiaaioe?eieo eaeneei-neioaene/ieo iiaeaeae: (1) You + V be/look + Adj
complimentary /“You are lovely” (Updike); “You look well” (Pinter)/; (2)
You + V be + Adj complimentary + N /“You’re an exnellent seamstress”
(Shannon)/; (3) You + V be + N complimentary /“You’re a wonder”
(Updike)/; (4) NP + V be + Adj complimentary /“Your Italian’s pretty
good” (Pinter)/; (5) PRO demonstrative + V be + Adj complimentary + N
/“This is a very beautiful house” (Dunne)/; (6) You + V have + NP
complimentary /“You have a beautiful natural swing.” (Updike)/; (7) You
+ V + Adv complimentary /“You know, you really play extraordinarily
well, Miss Cutts” (Pinter)/; (8) I + V complimentary + NP /“I like the
stuff you’ve been doing on India” (J.Cooper)/; (9) Ieee/i? ?a/aiiy c
iineethth/eie ?io?iaeoeoi?aie what e how /“What a lovely apron!”
(Pinter); “How marvellous everything looks!” (Shannon)/ (10) iaiiai?
?a/aiiy, ui aeieeathoue /a?ac ?aaeoeoe?th i?aeiaoa ? ae??neiaa-ca’ycee:
Adj complimentary /“Very cozy” (Krantz)/; Adj complimentary + N /“Bright
boy” (Hemingway)/.

Na?aae i?yieo aeae?eythoueny ?AE, a yeeo ia’?eo iiceoeaii? ioe?iee oa
ia’?eo ae?aaeaiiai ?ioaioe?eiiai noaio ni?aiaaeathoue, oa ?AE (a), a
yeeo aiie ia ni?aiaaeathoue (a):

(a) “That’s a beautiful dress”, Pamela said to end the conversation
pleasantly. “Is it new?”

“Thank you, dear”, Mrs Nudd said. “Yes, it is new”.

“It’s a beautiful color”, Pamela said… (Cheever).

(a) Orish came in carrying the souffle and we all exclaimed.

“Trish, you’re marvellous,” said Mollie, watching her serve it out (W.
Cooper) /ioe?iiee i?aaeeeao a?aeiineoueny ia aei /anooaaiiy (oi/a naia
aiii ? ia’?eoii ae?aaeaiiai ?ioaioe?eiiai noaio), aea aei ainiiaeei?, ui
eiai i?eaiooaaea/.

Aecia/aiiy iai?yieo ?AE a aeai?e ?iaio? aaco?oueny ia aeineoue iioe?ai?e
aeao?ieoe??, ca?aeii c yeith iai?yiei ? ?eeieooeaiee aeo, ui a iueiio
aenie?oeeoii ae?aaeaia ?eeieooeaia neea ia a?aeiia?aea? ?aaeuei?e
?eeieooe??. Na?aae iai?yieo ?eeieooeaieo aeo?a ?ic??ciythoueny nooi
iai?yi? (eiee i?e iaa?aeiia?aeiino? oi?ie ?a/aiiy oeio ?eeieooeaiiai
aeoo caa??aa?oueny a?aeiia?aei?noue i?iiiceoe?e) oa ?iie?oeeoi? (eiee
i?iiiceoe?eiee ci?no iai?yiiai ?eeieooeaiiai aeoo ?ici?cia?oueny oeyoii
i?aaiaoe/iiai aeaiaeo c i?iiiceoe?? i?yiiai ?eeieooeaiiai aeoo). Aeey
?iciaaeoaaiiy aeae?a iai?yieo ?AE ie aaaaea?ii ?aeaaaioieie oae?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeneiaethaaiue, ui ?aae?cothoue i?yi? ?AE: (a) ia’?eo
iiceoeaii? ioe?iee oa ioe?iiee i?aaeeeao ae?aaeai? aenie?oeeoii ?
ooai?ththoue ioe?iia noaeaeaiiy, ui ia? oi?io aeaineeaaeiiai
noaa?aeaeoaaeueiiai (aai ieee/iiai) ?a/aiiy; (a) aaoi?ii ioe?iiiai
noaeaeaiiy ? iiaaoeue, a ia’?eo iiceoeaii? ioe?iee ia? aaciina?aaei?
a?aeiioaiiy aei aae?anaoa.

Ioaea, aei nooi iai?yieo ie a?aeiineii ?AE, ?aae?ciaai? /a?ac
aeneiaethaaiiy, a yeeo ? ia’?eo iiceoeaii? ioe?iee, ? ioe?iiee i?aaeeeao
ae?aaeai? aenie?oeeoii, aea i?e oeueiio (a) aeneiaethaaiiy ia? oi?io
ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy, (a) ioe?iia noaeaeaiy ia ae/a?io? i?iiiceoe?eiiai
ci?noo aeneiaethaaiiy:

(a) Your fiance, hasn’t he got a lovely smile? (J. Cooper);

(a) “Would you think,” I said, “it just another example of male
chauvinism if I tell you you look very youthful?” (W. Cooper).

Aei ?iie?oeeoieo iaeaaeaoue: (a) ?AE, i?iiiceoe?eiee ci?no yeeo
?iie?oeeoii ae?aaea? oi/a a iaeio c neeaaeiaeo iiceoeaii-ioe?iiiai
noaeaeaiiy (ia’?eo iiceoeaii? ioe?iee (a1) aai ioe?iiee i?aaeeeao (a2))
/e ioe?iia noaeaeaiiy ye oaea (a3); (a) aeneiaethaaiiy, a yeeo ca’ycie
i?ae ia’?eoii ioe?iee oa ioe?iiei i?aaeeeaoii ia ? i?aaeeeaoeaiei; (a)
aeneiaethaaiiy, a yeeo ia’?eo iiceoeaii? ioe?iee a?aeiineoueny ia (aai
ia o?eueee) aei “aaciina?aaeiueiai”, aea e aei “iia?/iiai” aae?anaoa;
(a) aeneiaethaaiiy, a yeeo iiaaoeue ia ? aaoi?ii iiceoeaii-ioe?iiiai
noaeaeaiiy, ui neeaaea? i?iiiceoe?eiee ci?no:

(a1) <...> Observe him carefully. There, there, I must not alarm you.
Writing, thinking, yes, action, no. Let him take his time. I’m glad he
has such a good friend (Murdoch) /aeaia aeneiaethaaiiy ?iie?eo?, ui
ia’?eoii, aei yeiai a?aeiineoueny ioe?iiee i?aaeeeao, ? aae?anao/;

(a2)“Do I look like a grandmother?” she repeated.

“You can never look like a grandmother,” Darcy replied (Krantz) /a
aeaiiio aeneiaethaaii? iiceoeaii-ioe?iiee i?aaeeeao ?iie?eo?oueny /a?ac
caia?a/aiiy iaaaoeaii? iciaee, yea a naith /a?ao ae?aaeaia ca
aeiiiiiaith ii??aiyiiy/;

(a3) “Where the hell’s your husband?”

“He got held up at the office. We had a row about my coming alone.”
Instantly she felt disloyal.

“He’s quite right. If I were married to you, I’d keep you locked up”
(J. Cooper) /aeaia aeneiaethaaiiy ?iie?eo? oaea ioe?iia noaeaeaiiy: You
are very pretty and sexy/;

(a) “I couldn’t possibly marry a glamour puss like you, I’d find you far
too distracting. I’d never get to work in the morning” (J.Cooper).

(a) He put his arms round both of them. “Sneaking out on me, huh? With
the prettiest girl in the room?”

“We’re just off to dine,” said Richard (J. Cooper);

(a) “I don’t think you lot need me all that much,” said Jenkin in a
tentative tone. “I’ve always felt like the odd man out.”

“What perfect nonsense!” said Gerard, regaining a little confidence.
“You’re central, you’re essential, even Crimond saw this. He said you
were the best” (Murdoch).

Oa?aeoa? ?eeieooeaieo oe?eae eiiie?iaioo, a oaeiae aeaye? ?io? eiai
?ene, cie?aia aaciina?aaei?e ca’ycie ia’?eoa iiceoeaii? ioe?iee c
aae?anaoii, a?aenooi?noue “iai?yieo i?enoinoaaiiy i?ae na?oii ? neiaaie”
/Na?eue/ aeacothoue ia oa, ui ?AE iaeaaeeoue aei eeano aeni?anea?a (ii
Na?eth).

Oa, ui i?iiiceoe?eiee ci?no ?AE yaey? niaith ioe?iia noaeaeaiiy, ?iaeoue
eiai ciai?oiuei noiaeei c aeaeaie aeni?anea?a, ye? iicia/athoueny
?eeieooeaieie ae??neiaaie “oaaeeoe”, “noaaethaaoe”, “caoiiethaaoeny”
oiui. Iaeiae eiiiiiaioe, c yeeo neeaaeathoueny a?aeiia?aei? ?eeieooeai?
neee, a?ae??ciythoueny. Ii-ia?oa, ?eeieooeai? aeoe (?A) iioaaee,
noaaeaiiy, caoiieaiiy ia iathoue oeo aeiaeaoeiaeo ?eeieooeaieo oe?eae,
ye? ia? eiiie?iaio. Oea coiiaeth? ua iaeio ?o a?aei?ii?noue a?ae ?AE:
a?aenooi?noue eiiiiiaioa “aaciina?aaei?e ca’ycie ia’?eoa iiceoeaii?
ioe?iee c aae?anaoii”. Aeaiee eiiiiiaio aeaco? ia oa, ui iiaeia oaaeeoe
eiai-iaaoaeue / ui-iaaoaeue, noaaethaaoe ui-iaaoaeue, caoiiethaaoenue
eei-iaaoaeue / /ei-iaaoaeue, ui ia ia? i?yeiai a?aeiioaiiy aei aae?anaoa
(iai?eeeaae, i?eioeanith Ae?aiith aai ?? ae?yeuei?noth), aea neacaoe
eiiie?iaio ethaeei? iai?enooi?e i?e ?iciia? iaiiaeeeai.

Nie?ath/enue ia oai??th ?ioaioe?eieo noai?a Na?ey, ie anoaiiaeee
iciaeo, ui a?ae??ciy? ?A iioaaee ? eiiie?iaioo, c iaeiiai aieo, oa ?A
noaaeaiiy ? caoiieaiiy, c ?ioiai. Eiee ie aiai?eii, ui aoa cae?eniaiee
?A noaaeaiiy aai ?A caoiieaiiy, ie iia?aeiiey?ii, yeee naia ?ioaioe?eiee
noai iiaaoeue ae?acea aa?aaeueii. Oae? ae iacae ?A, ye eiiie?iaio ?
iioaaea ia aeacothoue ia eiie?aoiee ?ioaioe?eiee noai, a
ni?aa?aeiinyoueny c oe?eei niaeo?ii ?ioaioe?eieo noai?a iiaoey, oiaoi
cae?enithth/e ?A eiiie?iaioo aai ?A iioaaee, iiaaoeue iiaea ae?aaeaoe ?
noaaeaiiy, ? caoiieaiiy, ? iiaaao, ? i?eoeeuei?noue, ? neiiao?th, ?
ethaia, ? ai?ae?noue , ? ianieiaeo, ? caaeiaieaiiy.

Ua iaei??th i?iaeaiith, yeo aeicaiey? iaaiith i??ith ae??oeoe oai??y
?ioaioe?eieo noai?a, ? i?iaeaia aecia/aiiy e?eoa???a ue?ino?
eiiie?iaioo, a oaeiae anoaiiaeaiiy aa??aio?a iaue?eo eiiie?iaio?a. sseui
i?ae ue??noth ?icoi?oe a?aeiia?aei?noue ae?aaeaiiai ?ioaioe?eiiai noaio
ae?eniiio, oi ?AE ne?ae aaaaeaoe iaue?ei oiae?, eiee oi/a a iaeei c
ae?aaeaieo ?ioaioe?eieo noai?a ia a?aeiia?aea? ae?eniiio, a oaeiae eiee
iiceoeaia ioe?iia noaeaeaiiy, ui neeaaea? i?iiiceoe?eiee ci?no, ia
a?aeiia?aea? ?aaeuei?e ioe?ioe?.

Eiie?iaio ye ia?eieooeaiee aeo ? ae??th, iaoa yei? iieyaa? o oiio, uia
aeeeeeaoe a aae?anaoa iiceoeaio aiioe?eio ?aaeoe?th, c?iaeoe eiio
i?e?iia. Aieea, yeee a?ae/oaa? aae?anao eiiie?iaioo, a?oioo?oueny ia
oiio, ui aeneiaeaia iiceoeaia ioe?iea, a oaeiae iiceoeaiee aiioe?eiee
noai iiaoey (ye iane?aeie oe??? ioe?iee), eiai iiceoeaia noaaeaiiy aei
aae?anaoa oa eiai aaaeaiiy c?iaeoe i?e?iia aae?anaoia? ni?eythoue
caaeiaieaiith oaei? iio?aae iiceoeaiiai eeoey eiioi?eaioa, ye iio?aaa
aooe aeciaiei ? a?aeii ioe?iaiei ?ioeie /eaiaie noni?euenoaa. sse?niee
oa?aeoa? ia?eieooeaiiai aoaeoa, a ioiae ? oni?oi?noue ia?eieooeaiiai
aeoo eiiie?iaioo iaoiiaeai? oei, yeith i??ith aoaea caaeiaieaia oey
iio?aaa, ui a naith /a?ao caeaaeeoue ia a?ae naiiai eiiie?iaioo ye aeaeo
?A, a a?ae eiai ie?aieo aniaeo?a, oiaoi a?ae oiai, ye a?i aoa neacaiee
(iiaia ioi?ieaiiy), eei (iathoueny ia oaac? ?ieueia? e i?aeiniaeno?
a?aeiioaiiy ia?oia??a ii ni?eeoaaiith), c yeiai i?eaiaeo (ia’?eo
iiceoeaii? ioe?iee), ca yeeo ianoaaei oiui. Ioaea ia?eieooeai? aeoe
eiiie?iaioo iiaeooue aooe oni?oieie (i?eeeaae (a)) e iaoni?oieie
(i?eeeaae (a)).

(a) As they had waffles after the movie Melvin said solemnly, “You are
the most beautiful girl in the world, Teddy Lunel”.

“I am?” she gasped.

“Without any doubt”. His glasses glittered at her. “I’m an acknowledged
connoisseur of feminine loveliness, ask anyone at Collegiate”.

“I don’t believe you”.

“It doesn’t matter what you believe. That has nothing to do with it.

Teddy blushed, her ears buzzed and she was afraid that tears were about
to come into her eyes. None of the compliments she had received in her
life from grown-ups had ever meant anything, but this! (Krantz) /iieiaea
ae?a/eia aia?oa a aeeoo? ii/oea a?ae aei?ineiai, ca ?? oyaeaiiyie,
/ieia?ea eiiie?iaio c i?eaiaeo ?? ciai?oiino?. Neeueiee iiceoeaiee
aiioe?eiee aieea (aa?i?iy /a?aii??, aiia eaaeaa oo?eio? neueice),
iiynith?oueny, aieiaiei /eiii, iniaeeaei noaaeaiiyi aae?anaoa aei
iiaoey, cia/eiinoth ia’?eoa ioe?iee ? aeoiee iiaoey aeey aae?anaoa /.

(a) Marti gave each of them her usual feathery kiss on the cheek without
smudging her lipstick or ruffling her short, lark hair.

“You always smell like flowers”, David said when he got his kiss.

“Why, thank you David”, Marti said.

Before she could invite them inside David turned to Mom and said, “Mom,
you always smell like spaghetti sauce”…

“What made you think of spaghetti sauce?”

“It’s ‘cuz Marti smells more like a garden, and you smell more like a
kitchen”.

“David, that is so rude!” Christy stopped his analogy, feeling bad for
Mom. In a low voice between her teeth, she said, “I can’t believe you’d
say that!”

“Why? David looked surprised. “I love spaghetti. It’s just different
from flowers, that’s all”.

Marti took the peculiar moment in her clever grasp and concluded, “I
believe we have both been given a genuine compliment…” (Gunn) /aieiaia
i?e/eia iaoni?oiino? ia?eieieooeaiiai aeoo eiiie?iaioo, cae?eniaiiai
neiii ii a?aeiioaiith aei iaoa??, iieyaa? a oiio, ui iiaaoeue ia ia?
aeinoaoiueiai nioe?aeueiiai aeina?aeo ? ia cia?, ui, yeui ae?iea iaoia
eooiath, oea ia ? ?? iiceoeaiith ye?noth/.

A ?iaio? oaeiae ?icaeyiooi o?e oeie iacaieaiiaaieo ia?eieooeaieo aeo?a
eiiie?iaioo (?aae?caoe?y yeeo ia aoiaeeea aei oe?eae iiaoey)
a?aeiia?aeii aei aeae?eaieo I.A. Ii/aioeiaei o?ueio oei?a neooaoe?e, a
yeeo niinoa??aathoueny iacaieaiiaai? ia?eieooeai? aeoe oa aoaeoe.

Cae?enithth/e ?eeieooeaiee ? ia?eieooeaiee aeoe eiiie?iaioo, iiaaoeue
aeei?enoiao? ?o ye can?a oi?aae?iiy iiaaae?ieith aae?anaoa, oiaoi ye
can?a ?aae?caoe?? iaaii? nioe?aeueii? ae??. Eiiie?iaioe — nioe?aeuei?
ae?? (ENAe) iiae?eythoueny ia aeaa iniiai? eeane — aoeeaoi? ENAe oa
?ino?oiaioaeuei? ENAe — caeaaeii a?ae oiai, aei neeaaeo yei?
nioe?aeueii? ae?? — aoeeaoii? /e ?ino?oiaioaeueii? — aoiaeeoue ?AE.
Iaea?eueo i/aaeaeiei e?eoa???i ie aaaaea?ii iaia’yceia?noue aaeeaaiiy
eiiie?iaioo, ui aeeeoo?oueny nioe?i-eoeueoo?ieie ii?iaie, i?aaeeaie
aoeeaoo. sseui iiaaoeue ia noaaeoue ia?aae niaith iaoo yeinue ci?ieoe
iiaaae?ieo aae?anaoa ? cae?enith? ?AE a iniiaiiio oiio, ui oeueiai
aeiaaa? neooaoe?y, yeui a?i cia?, ui aae?anao /aea? naia oaei?
iiaaae?iee c aieo iiaoey, ui iaaeeiiaiiy eiai aeniaeoaoe?e i?ecaaaea aei
iaaaoeaieo aeey ?o a?aeiinei iane?aee?a, oaeee eiiie?iaio ie iaceaa?ii
aoeeaoiei. O aeiaaeeo ae, eiee c oi/ee ci?o ii?i ? i?aaee ni?eeoaaiiy
aaeeaaiiy eiiie?iaioo ia ? iaia’yceiaei, ? aeaiee ?A ?aae?co?oueny c
aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae iiaoey aeey oiai, uia cae?enieoe iiceoeaiee
aiioe?eiee aieea ia aae?anaoa ? oei naiei aieeiooe ia eiai iiaaae?ieo,
ie a?aeiineii oeae eiiie?iaio aei eeano ?ino?oiaioaeueieo. Ioaea,
aieiaiith iciaeith i?e ?iciiae?e? ENAe ia eeane aenooia? oa?aeoa?
nioe?aeueii? oe?e?, ci?no yei? aeey ?ino?oiaioaeueieo ENAe iiaeia
ocaaaeueiaii noi?ioethaaoe ye ci?io iiaaae?iee aae?anaoa, a aeey
aoeeaoieo ENAe — ye i?aeo?eiaiiy iaaioaaii?noe/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae
eiioi?eaioaie. Iciaeith aeey eaoaai?ecaoe?? ?ino?oiaioaeueieo ENAe
aenooia? noa?aioeiiee aa??aio ci?ie iiaaae?iee ia?oia?a ii ni?eeoaaiith,
ui aecia/a? eiie?aoiee ci?no nioe?aeueii? oe?e?. Aeae?eaiiy ae oei?a
aoeeaoieo eiiie?iaio?a ia iiaea aacoaaoenue ia iiae?ai?e iciaoe?,
ine?eueee on? aiie, ye ? on? ?io? aoeeaoi? ae??, ni?yiiaai? ia oo ae
naio nioe?aeueio oe?eue. ?aeaaaioiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith aoeeaoieo
eiiie?iaio?a, ui aeicaiey? ?iciiae?eeoe oeae eean ia oeie, ? ?oiy
aei?noea cae??ieai?noue ca noaiaea?oieie neooaoe?yie ni?eeoaaiiy ?
aeeth/aii?noue aei neeaaeo iaaieo aoeeaoieo iiaeaii?aeo oiae?a. A
noaiaoe/iiio aeaeyae? eeaneo?eaoe?y ENAe i?aaenoaaeaia ia iae. 2 (n.13).
E??i oanoe oei?a aoeeaoieo ENAe ? oanoe oei?a ?ino?oiaioaeueieo ENAe, ie
oaeiae aeae?ey?ii o?e oae caai? i?ii?aei? oeie, ui ii?aeiothoue o nia?
iciaee iaio eean?a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “No?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i?, i?aaiaoe/i? oa aoiieoeueoo?i?
iniaeeaino? eiiie?iaio?a ye iiaeaii?aeo a/eie?a” i?enay/aii
ye?nii-e?euee?niiio aiae?co ??cieo oei?a ENAe a aniaeo? iiaii? nooeoo?e,
naiaioeee, i?aaiaoeee oa aoiieoeueoo?ii? niaoeeo?ee.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeicaieea io?eiaoe oae? aeai?. A oe?eiio “naiino?ei?”
ENAe iaio (iaeaea ia 10%) iioe?ai?, i?ae “ianaiino?ei?” (ii?.: 45,1% ?
54,9%). A a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a (74,1%) ENAe ?aae?cothoueny ca
aeiiiiiaith 1 ?AE. Na?aaei? ae cia/aiiy oeueiai iieacieea aei??aith?
1,4. ?eeieooe?y eiiie?iaioo /ano?oa (75,7%) ae?aaea?oueny i?yii.
?niothoue iaai? ei?aeyoe?? i?ae nioe?aeueiith oe?eeth ? iiaiith oi?iith
i?yiiai ?AE. Nioe?aeueia oe?eue — oea aieiaiee oaeoi?, ui aeaoa?i?io?
aea?? o??? /e ?ioi? oi?ioee, iaeiae a?i aenooia? aeoi? c oiiaaie, ca
yeeo oey oe?eue noaaeoueny. Eaieith, yea iiina?aaeith? oaeo
aeaoa?i?iaoe?th, ? ia?aiee iiaoeai ia’?eo, ii a?aeiioaiith aei yeiai a?i
ae?aaea? nai? iiceoeai? ioe?iee oa aiioe?? — ia’?eo ae?aaeaiiai
?ioaioe?eiiai noaio. ?ica?aei?noue ia’?eoo ae?aaeaiiai ?ioaioe?eiiai
noaio c ia’?eoii iiceoeaii? ioe?iee aoei cao?eniaaii a 11,6% aeiaaee?a.

Aeaee iai?yieo ?AE i?aaenoaaeai? ia??aiii??ii. ?iie?oeeoi? ?AE ?noioii
ia?aaeuothoue ca /enaeuei?noth nooi iai?yi? (ii?.: 91,5% ? 8,5%).
Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie (50,3%) ? ?AE c ?iie?oeeoii ae?aaeaiei ioe?iiei
noaeaeaiiyi. ?o iiaeia aaaaeaoe nai???aeiei ?iaeeeaoi?ii ue?ino? iiaoey,
yeee ? i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue eiai eeoeaai? ?iaioe.

Eean aoeeaoieo ? eean ?ino?oiaioaeueieo ENAe iathoue ?yae a?aei?iiinoae.

Aoeeaoi? ENAe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/ii ieae/ith /anoioi?noth a
ii??aiyii? c ?ino?oiaioaeueieie ENAe (14,8% ? 76,5% a?aeiia?aeii).
I/aaeaeii, ui a iiaeaii?a?e iiaaae?ioe? a?eoaioe?a oa aia?eeaioe?a
ia?aaaaeathoue eiiie?iaioe, ui iaeaaeaoue aei noa?e ia ii?iaoeaii?, a
?ino?oiaioaeueii? aa?/eeaino?.

Ana?aaeai? aeae?eaieo eean?a niinoa??aathoueny iaa?iai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
naiino?eieo ? ianaiino?eieo ENAe, a naia: yeui na?aae ?ino?oiaioaeueieo
ENAe naiino?eieo iaeaea a 1,5 ?ace iaioa, i?ae ianaiino?eieo (ii?.:
40,5% ? 59,5%), oi na?aae aoeeaoieo ia?oeo a 1,5 ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae

inoaii?o (ii?.: 58,6% ? 41,4%). Oea iaoiiaeaii, ia iao iiaeyae, oei, ui
aoeeaoiee oa?aeoa? neooaoe??, ?? noaiaea?oi?noue aeicaiey? iiaoeth /a?ac
eiiie?iaioa?ia aeneiaethaaiiy, e??i ?eeieooe?? eiiie?iaioo, ae?aceoe
?ioo, noiooith, ?eeieooeaio neeo (ye i?aaeei, i?ea?oaiiy aai iiaeyee), ?
oiio iiaaoeue cai?noue oiai, uia cae?enieoe oo /e ?ioo nioe?aeueio ae?th
aeaiia ??cieie ?A, iaeei c yeeo eiiie?iaio, cae?enith? ?? iaeiei
iie??eeieooeaiei aeoii c aeii?ioth/ith ?eeieooe??th eiiie?iaioo.

Aoeeaoi? ENAe a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ?ino?oiaioaeueieo aei?noeith
cae??ieai?noth iaaiiai ia’?eoa ae?aaeaiiai ?ioaioe?eiiai noaio ca
eiaeiei c oei?a ENAe. Oiio ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ino?oiaioaeueieo ENAe
eiaeiee oei aoeeaoieo ENAe ia? aeineoue iaiaaeaiee iaa?? oi?ioe, ui
i?yii ae?aaeathoue ?eeieooe?th eiiie?iaioo.

Aoeeaoi? ENAe ??aeoa, i?ae ?ino?oiaioaeuei? (13% ? 27,7% a?aeiia?aeii),
?aae?cothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith iai?yieo ?AE. Aea/aiiy eiiie?iaioo ye
iaeeieoe? iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee a?eoaioe?a oa aia?eeaioe?a a
aoiieoeueoo?iiio aniaeo? cae?enithaaeinue /a?ac ii??aiyiiy c
?in?enueeiiiaiith eoeueoo?ith. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c i?iaiaeeany ca
aeaiia ia?aiao?aie: 1) iioe?ai?noue (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy) aoeeaoieo oa
?ino?oiaioaeueieo ENAe ? 2) ue??noue iiaoey.

Iaeneiaeueio a?aeiinio e?euee?noue aoeeaoieo eiiie?iaio?a ? eiiie?iaio?a
i?ii?aeieo oei?a, oiaoi oaeeo, ui cae??ieai? ca noaiaea?oieie
eiioi?eaoeaieie neooaoe?yie, aoei cao?eniaaii a aia?eeainuee?e eoeueoo??
(25,5%), i?i?iaeueio (14,1%) — a ?in?enueeiiiai?e eoeueoo??. A?eoainueea
eoeueoo?a caeia? i?ii?aeia iieiaeaiiy — 21,6%.

Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue iaue?eo eiiie?iaio?a (25,1%) i?eiaaea? ia
aia?eeainueeo eoeueoo?o, iaeiaioa (17,1%) — ia ?in?enueeiiiaio. Aeey
a?eoainueei? eoeueoo?e oeae iieaciee aei??aith? 23,1%.

sseui ia oe? yaeua iiaeeaeoenue c oi/ee ci?o eoeueoo?ii? eia?ee
(Gumperz), aeey ieo iiaeia ciaeoe oae? iiyniaiiy.

Aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii, yeee ni?eya oi?ioaaiith a aiaeiiiaieo eoeueoo?ao
/?oeeo i?aaee aoeeaoo, aoea a?aeiinia noaa?euei?noue ?oi?o nioe?aeueieo
nenoai, ui ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith i?e?iaeiueiai aec??aaiiy aoeeaoieo
iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee. Ui ae aei ?in?enueeiiiaii? eoeueoo?e ?aaeyinueeiai
ia??iaeo, oi ne?ae caaaeaoe, ui oa?i?i “aoeeao” c’yaeany o iiaeaii?aiio
ia?ao eeoa a 60-o ?ieao. sse a?aeiii, a aiioo “i?ieaoa?nueei? eoeueoo?e”
iiaa iieie?iiy “iiaeo” ethaeae noaaeeiny aei aoeeaoo ye aei “ocaeiiaii?”
oi?ie iaeoaeii?, iaue?i? ooo/ii? iiaaae?iee. Oea, iiaeeeai, iiynith? oie
oaeo, ui i?aaenoaaieee ?in?enueeiiiaii? eoeueoo?e aiai?youe aoeeaoi?
eiiie?iaioe ??aeoa, i?ae i?aaenoaaieee aiaeiiiaieo eoeueoo?.

sseui ae caa?iooeny aei oaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee, ye
ue??noue iiaoey, oi o?aaa a?aecia/eoe, ui a ???a?o?yo oe?iiinoae
aiaeiiiaieo ? ?in?enueeiiiaii? eoeueoo? ue??noue caeia? ??cia
iieiaeaiiy.

Iaei??th c i?eioeeiiaeo iniaeeainoae a?eoainueei? oa aia?eeainueei?
eoeueoo? ? aeii?ioaaiiy a ieo ?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ii? i???ioaoe??, yae?i
yei? neeaaea? i?eioeei ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? naiaiaee, cie?aia, naiaiaee
ethaeeie o noa?? aeiiii?ee, iie?oeee ? o?e noa??, ui iicia/a?oueny
iiiyooyi “privacy”. C oeei iiiyooyi o?nii iia’ycai? i?aai ethaeeie iaoe
aeanio aeoieo, iiaeyaee, niaee oa ?? iaia’ycie noaaeoenue aei ?ioi?
ethaeeie ye aei iniaenoino?, ui caneoaiao? ia iiaaao, caaaeaoe ia ??
i?aaa, ?ioa?ane, aeoiee, iiaeyaee e niaee. Iiaeae? iiaaae?iee, ui
neeaeeny ia iniia? oeueiai i?eioeeio, c iaeiiai aieo, neiaie?cothoue
iiaaao aeinoi?inoaa iniaenoino?, a c ?ioiai, aeicaieythoue ethaeei?
caa?aaoe iaaeioi?eaieie iaaee ?? iniaenoi? noa?e.

sseui aeey aiaei-aia?eeaioe?a cia/ii aaaeeea?oa i?iaeaiiino?oaaoe nai?
i?aaiaiiy i?iyaeoe etha’ycia, ae?oaeaethaia noaaeaiiy aei ia?oia?a ii
ni?eeoaaiith, i?ae ae?aceoe nai? ae?eni? ii/oooy, aiioe??, ioe?iee, oi
i?aaenoaaieee ?in?enueeiiiaii? eoeueoo?e (ye ? ?ioeo neia’yinueeeo
eoeueoo?, iai?eeeaae, iieuenueei?) o a?aeiioaiiyo i?ae ethaeueie
oe?iothoue ia?o ca ana ue??noue, aeeaeio ii/ooo?a, aeecuee?noue, aca?iio
aeia??o.

Ioaea oa ianoaaeia, ui a aiaeiiiai?e eoeueoo?? aa?iii?y aca?iia?aeiinei,
yea aaco?oueny ia iiiyoo? “privacy”, oe?io?oueny aeua, i?ae
aeecuee?noue ? ue??noue, iiaea aooe iaei??th c i?e/ei oiai, ui
aiaeiaia?eeaioe? /ano?oa, i?ae i?aaenoaaieee ?in?enueeiiiaii? eoeueoo?e
aiai?youe iaue?? eiiie?iaioe.

Iiaieie iane?aeeaie aieeao aoiieoeueoo?ieo oaeoi??a iiaeia aaaaeaoe
eiiiioaoeai? cia/aiiy ne?a “compliment” a aiae?enuee?e ? “eiiieeiaio” a
?in?enuee?e iiaao. sseui a aiae?enuee?e oea neiai anioe?th?oueny c
oaeeie iiiyooyie, ye iiaaaa, oaia, aeniea ioe?iea, oi a ?in?enuee?e iia?
neiai “eiiie?iaio” iiaea iaoe iaaaoeaio ioe?iio eiiiioaoe?th “iono?,
eaaeiaaaei?, i?/iai iaaa?o? neiaa” aai iaa?oue “eanoiu?”.

Ia?aeiieeaei aeieacii oeueiai ? ia?eo?anoe/ia iii?iaoey ?AE “neacaoue
eiiieeiaio” a ?in?enuee?e iia?. O ae??neiaa “aiai?eoue” a?aenooiy naia
“i?eeiyooy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?”, ? aiii neaiae?co? ia cian?i na?eicia
noaaeaiiy iiaoey aei nai?o ne?a. A aiae?enuee?e iia? ae?aco “neacaoue /
naeaeaoue eiiieeiaio” a?aeiia?aea? ae?ac “to pay a compliment”.
Ae??neiai “pay” iana iiceoeai? eiiiioaoe??. Ne?ae oaeiae caa?iooe oaaao
ia oa, ui, eiee iin?? aiae?enueei? iiae aiai?youe, ui aiie c?iaeee
eiionue eiiie?iaio /“I paid you a compliment, Alex, in assuming you
meant what you said. I would not have been as frank with everyone
(Hailey)/, aiie iathoue ia oaac?, ui iinoaaeeenue aei oe??? ethaeeie
iniaeeai, c aaeeeith iiaaaith aai i?eoeeuei?noth. ?, a?aeiia?aeii, a
neooaoe?yo, eiee ethaeeia ?icoe?ith? aeneiaethaaiiy aai ae?th ia?oia?a
ii ni?eeoaaiith ye i?iya iiaaae aei iueiai, ae?aaeaiiy aeniei? ioe?iee
eiai yeinoae, a/eie?a oiui, iin?? aiae?enueei? iiae aaeeaathoue ae?ac
“to take smth as a compliment” /I take it as a compliment to be asked to
speak/. Eiai aiaeiaii a ?in?enuee?e iia? aenooia? ae?ac “n/eoaoue ca
/anoue / auoue eanoiui: “ss n/eoath ca /anoue (aeey iaiy eanoii) auoue
i?eaeaoaiiui aunooieoue”. sseui ae ae?ac “to take smth as a compliment”
ia?aeeanoe aeine?aii ia ?in?enueeo iiao: “i?eieiaoue /oi-eeai ca
eiiieeiaio” oi aiii iiaea iaaooe cian?i ?ioiai nieneo, a naia
“noaaeoenue aei /iainue ye aei ionoeo, i?/iai iaaa?oeo ne?a” /Ia i?eieoa
yoi ca eiiieeiaio, Aeaenaiae? Iaoaaaae/, ii au /ooeee /aeiaae
(Eeiaoia)/.

Aeniiaee

Iinoaaeaia a aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iaoa iienaoe eiiie?iaio ye
iaeeieoeth iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee i?aaenoaaiee?a aiaeiiiaieo eoeueoo?,
ye iniaeeaee aeae iiaeaii?aeo a/eie?a aoea aeinyaiooa caaaeyee
ae?yeueiiniiio i?aeoiaeo aei yaeu iiae e iiaeaiiy, eiee aiie
?icaeyaeathoueny e??cue i?ecio ae?aaee “oe?eue -can?a”.

A oiae? ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy io?eiaa
iiaeaeueoo ?ic?iaeo oe?eee niaeo? ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny aeanoeainoae
eiiie?iaioo ye ?eeieooeaiiai aeoo ? ia?eieooeaiiai aeoo. Aia?oa aoei
aeaoaeueii ioa?aeoa?eciaaii eiiie?iaio ye nioe?aeueio ae?th, aeyaeaii
aeaye? aoiieoeueoo?i? a?aei?iiino? aaeeaaiiy eiiie?iaioo a
aiaei-aia?eeainuee?e eoeueoo?? o ii??aiyii? c ?in?enueeiiiaiith
eoeueoo?ith.

Iieiaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe??, ia ae/a?iothoue ii?ooaii?
i?iaeaiaoeee. Aiie a?aee?eaathoue ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Ine?eueee ?iaeea?aeoaeueia oe?eue iiaoey — oea eeoa
iaeia c aioo??oi?o aeaoa?i?iaio iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee, i?aaeiaoii
aea/aiiy iiaee a noaoe caeaaei?noue iiaii? oi?ie eiiie?iaioa?iiai
aeneiaethaaiiy a?ae ?ioeo ?aeaaaioieo ia?ai?iieo, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei
noa?e iniaenoino? iiaoey (aiioe?eiee noai, noaaeaiiy aei aae?anaoa
oiui). Ua iaeiei iai?yiii iiaeaeueoeo iiooe?a ie aaaaea?ii aecia/aiiy
iiiaieeaoo?e ?eeieooeaieo aeo?a, ye? iiaee a aooe caniaii aeinyaiaiiy
oeo aea oei?ciaaieo oe?eae, yeei i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny eiiie?iaio.
Caneoaiao? ia oaaao aea/aiiy aoiieoeueoo?ii? niaoeeo?ee eiiie?iaioo,
iniaeeai a ieai? aeyaeaiiy i?aeeoeueoo?ieo a?aei?iiinoae ii oaeei
iieacieeai, ye noaoue, a?e eiioi?eaio?a, ?oi? i?aeiniaeno? oa
eiiaaioe?ei? ?ie?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. E i?iaeaia eioaa?aoeee oai?ee ?a/aauo aeoia e oai?ee ?a/aaie
aeayoaeueiinoe // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo: ? 424.
— Oa?e?a: Eiinoaioa, 1999. — N. 101-105.

2. Eeanneoeeaoeey ?a/aauo aeoia eiiieeiaioa // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo: ?390. — Oa?e?a: Eiinoaioa, 1997. — N.
107-111.

3. Eiiieeiaio eae i?iyaeaiea aaaeeeainoe a aiaeiycu/iuo eoeueoo?ao //
A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo: ?390. — Oa?e?a:
Eiinoaioa, 1997. — N.111-113.

4. Eiiieeiaio eae yoiieeiaaenoe/aneay i?iaeaia // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo: ?384 (oii 2). — Oa?e?a: “Eiinoaioa”, 1995. —
N. 111-115.

5. Einaaiiua niiniau ?aaeecaoeee eeeieooeee eiiieeiaioa // A?niee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo: ?.430. — Oa?e?a: Eiinoaioa,
1999. — N. 101-107.

6. Eiiieeiaio eae ?a/aaie aeo // Aeaee iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?:
e?iaa?noe/i? oa aeeaeaeoe/i? aniaeoe. (Oace iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? oa
3-ai oe?a?inueei-i?iaoeueeiai neiiic?oio 18-21 aeiaoiy 1995).- Oa?e?a,
1995. — N.48-50.

7. Yoiiineoieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe eiiieeiaioa a ?a/aaii iiaaaeaiee
i?aaenoaaeoaeae aia?eeaineie, a?eoaineie e ?onneie eoeueoo? //
Iniaeno?noue oa noni?euenoai. / Iaoa??aee ae?oaeo i?aeia?iaeieo
ineoieia?/ieo /eoaiue. — Oa?e?a, 1995.- C. 48-50.

8. Giving and Receiving Compliments as Communicative Language Functions
// English Language Teaching (ELT) in Ukraine: Past-Imperfect, Present
indefinite, Future-? / IATEFL Second Ukraine conference — 1995. — L’viv,
1995.- P. 112-114.

I?uaiei A.ss. Eiiie?iaio a iiaeaii?a?e iiaaae?ioe? i?aaenoaaiee?a
aiaeiiiaieo (a?eoainueei? oa aia?eeainueei?) eoeueoo?. — ?oeiien.

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?eieia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae. —
Oa?e?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
A.I. Ea?ac?ia. — Oa?e?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? eiiie?iaio ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iniaeeaee aeae iiaeaii?aeo
a/eie?a o iiaaae?ioe? iin??a a?eoainueeiai oa aia?eeainueeiai aa??aio?a
aiae?enueei? iiae. Iien cae?enith?oueny c iiceoe?e ae?yeueiiniiai
i?aeoiaeo, a ?aieao ae?aaee “oe?eue — can?a”. Iiiyoo?aee aia?ao
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioaa?o? iieiaeaiiy oai??? iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, oai???
iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? ? eiioeaioe?? aa?/eeaino?. Oea aeicaiey?
?ioa?i?aooaaoe eiiie?iaioa?ia aeneiaethaaiiy ye iiaiee can?a aeinyaiaiiy
ye?nii ??cieo (iiaeaii?aeo ? iaiiaeaii?aeo) eiioi?eaoeaieo oe?eae,
oiaoi ye iiaio ?aae?caoe?th iiaeaii?ai? ae??, ui yaey? niaith neeaaeio
?aei?noue ?eeieooeaiiai aeoo, ia?eieooeaiiai aeoo ? nioe?aeueii? ae??.

Aeyaeythoueny ?eeieooeai? oe?e? eiiie?iaioo, e?eoa??? eiai ue?ino?,
a?aei?iiino? eiiie?iaioo a?ae noiaeeo ?eeieooeaieo aeo?a, iciaee i?yieo
? iai?yieo, nooi iai?yieo oa ?iie?oeeoieo ?eeieooeaieo aeo?a
eiiie?iaioo. Aecia/a?oueny iaoai?ci, ui eaaeeoue a iniia? ia?eieooeaiiai
aeoo eiiie?iaioo, oaeoi?e, a?ae yeeo caeaaeeoue eiai oni?oi?noue.
Aeae?eythoueny eeane e oeie eiiie?iaio?a — nioe?aeueieo ae?e.
Aiae?cothoueny ?o no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i?, i?aaiaoe/i? oa aoiieoeueoo?i?
iniaeeaino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiiie?iaio, iiaeaii?aee a/eiie, ?eeieooeaiee aeo,
ia?eieooeaiee aeo, nioe?aeueia ae?y, ?ioaioe?eiee noai.

Ieuaiei A.ss. Eiiieeiaio a ?a/aaii iiaaaeaiee i?aaenoaaeoaeae
aiaeiycu/iuo (a?eoaineie e aia?eeaineie) eoeueoo?. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 — aa?iaineea ycuee. — Oa?ueeianeee
iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao ei. A.I. Ea?aceia. — Oa?ueeia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth eiiieeiaioa eae aaeeieoeu ?a/aaiai
iiaaaeaiey iineoaeae a?eoaineiai e aia?eeaineiai aa?eaioia aiaeeeneiai
ycuea. Iienaiea inouanoaeyaony n iiceoeee aeayoaeueiinoiiai iiaeoiaea,
a ?aieao aeeaaeu “oeaeue — n?aaenoai”. A eiiieeiaioa, ?anniao?eaaaiii
eae ?a/aaie iinooiie, auaeaeythony o?e iniiaiuo aniaeoa: ?a/aaia
aeaenoaea, ineoieiae/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea e niinia ycueiaie ?aaeecaoeee
?a/aaiai aeaenoaey. Iiaeaeue ?a/aaiai aeaenoaey eioaa?e?oao a naaa
iieiaeaiey oai?ee ?a/aauo aeoia, oai?ee ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe e
eiioeaioeee aaaeeeainoe. Eiiieeiaioa?iia auneacuaaiea iiieiaaony eae
ycueiaia n?aaenoai aeinoeaeaiey ea/anoaaiii ?acee/iuo (?a/aauo e
ia?a/aauo) eiiioieeaoeaiuo oeaeae, eae ?aaeecaoeey ?a/aaiai aeaenoaey,
i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie neiaeiia aaeeinoai eeeieooeaiiai aeoa,
ia?eieooeaiiai aeoa e nioeeaeueiiai aeaenoaey.

Eeeieooeaiua oeaee eiiieeiaioa ninoiyo a oii, /oiau (1) au?aceoue
iiceoeaiia eioaioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea aiai?yuaai, ?ai?acaioaoeaiia
niaea?aeaiea eioi?iai ninoaaeyao yenieeoeeoiia eee eiieeoeeoiia
iiceoeaiia ioeaii/iia noaeaeaiea; (2) au?aceoue iaia?aiea / no?aieaiea /
aeaeaiea aiai?yuaai aeinoaaeoue oaeiaieuenoaea aae?anaoo; (3) au?aceoue
iiceoeaiia ioiioaiea aiai?yuaai e aae?anaoo. Eeeieooeaiue aeo
eiiieeiaioa ioiineony e eeanno yeni?anneaia. Iniaaiiinoyie, ioee/athueie
aai io noiaeiuo n iei ae?oaeie aeaeaie yeni?anneaia (a /anoiinoe
iioaaeu, iaeia?aiey, ainoeuaiey), yaeythony neaaeothuea: (1)
aeiiieieoaeueiua eeeieooeaiua oeaee “au?aceoue iaia?aiea / no?aieaiea /
aeaeaiea aiai?yuaai aeinoaaeoue oaeiaieuenoaea aae?anaoo” e “au?aceoue
iiceoeaiia ioiioaiea aiai?yuaai e aae?anaoo”; (2) eiiiiiaio eeeieooeaiie
neeu “iaiin?aaenoaaiiay naycue iauaeoa iieiaeeoaeueiie ioeaiee,
ninoaaeythuae i?iiiceoeeiiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea auneacuaaiey, n
aae?anaoii”; (3) aieaa oe?ieee niaeo? au?aaeaaiuo eioaioeeiiaeueiuo
ninoiyiee aiai?yuaai (ia oieueei iaeia?aiea e ainoeuaiea, ii oaeaea
oaaaeaiea, neiiaoey, ethaiaue, i?eaycaiiinoue, ianeaaeaeaiea,
oaeiaieuenoaea e ae?.). Ii niiniao ycueiaie ?aaeecaoeee eeeieooeaiua
aeou eiiieeiaioa iiae?acaeaeythony ia i?yiua e iai?yiua. E i?yiui
ioiinyony eeeieooeaiua aeou eiiieeiaioa, a eioi?uo ioeaii/iia
noaeaeaiea, ninoaaeythuaa eo i?iiiceoeeiiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea, au?aaeaii
yenieeoeeoii iin?aaenoaii eiiaaioeeiiaeece?iaaiiuo oi?ioe. N?aaee
iai?yiuo auaeaeythony einaaiiua e eiieeoeeoiua eeeieooeaiua aeou
eiiieeiaioa. Eeeieooeaiue aeo eiiieeiaioa n/eoaaony iaene?aiiei oiaaea,
eiaaea oioy au iaeii ec au?aaeaiiuo eioaioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee ia
niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiiio, a oaeaea oiaaea, eiaaea iieiaeeoaeueiia
ioeaii/iia noaeaeaiea, ninoaaeythuaa i?iiiceoeeiiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea,
ia niioaaonoaoao ?aaeueiie ioeaiea.

Ia?eieooeaiay oeaeue eiiieeiaioa ninoieo a oii, /oiau aucaaoue o
aae?anaoa iieiaeeoaeueioth yiioeeiiaeueioth ?aaeoeeth, aeinoaaeoue aio
oaeiaieuenoaea. Aicaeaenoaea, ieacuaaaiia ia aae?anaoa eiiieeiaioa,
iniiaaii ia oaeiaeaoai?aiee aeeciaiii aaaeiie aai iio?aaiinoe auoue
i?eciaiiui e ioeaiaiiui ii aeinoieinoao ie?oaeathueie. Ea/anoai
ia?eieooeaiiai yooaeoa, a niioaaonoaaiii e oniaoiinoue ia?eieooeaiiai
aeoa, iaoneiaeaiu oaeeie aniaeoaie eeeieooeaiiai aeoa eiiieeiaioa, eae
iauaeo iieiaeeoaeueiie ioeaiee, nioeeaeueii-?ieaaua noaoonu
eiiioieeaioia e oa?aeoa? acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo ieie, ianoiyoaeuenoaa
i?e eioi?uo inouanoaeyaony eeeieeooeaiue aeo eiiieeiaioa. Ia?eieooeaiua
aeou eiiieeiaioa iiaoo auoue ia oieueei eioaioeeiiaeueiuie
(i?aaeiaia?aiiuie), ii e iaeioaioeeiiaeueiuie. Iaeioaioeeiiaeueiua
ia?eieooeaiua aeou eiiieeiaioa eiatho ianoi a neooaoeeyo, eiaaea
iieiaeeoaeueiay ?aaeoeey aae?anaoa, aucaaiiay auneacuaaieai, ia aoiaeeea
a oeaee aiai?yuaai.

Eiiieeiaiou — nioeeaeueiua aeaenoaey iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa iniiaiuo
eeanna: yoeeaoiua e eino?oiaioaeueiua. Eeanneoeeaoeeiiiui e?eoa?eai
aunooiaao oa?aeoa? nioeeaeueiie oeaee eiiieeiaioa. Iauay nioeeaeueiay
oeaeue anao yoeeaoiuo eiiieeiaioia ninoieo a iiaeaea?aeaiee
iaaioaaiienoe/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo eiiioieeaioaie, oiaaea eae
eiaa?eaioiie oeaeueth eino?oiaioaeueiuo eiiieeiaioia yaeyaony eciaiaiea
iiaaaeaiey ia?oia?a ii iauaieth.

A ?a/aaii iiaaaeaiee a?eoaioeaa e aia?eeaioeaa oaeie aeae ?a/aauo
iinooieia, eae eiiieeiaio, eiaao neaaeothuea no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneea e
i?aaiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe. I?aiaeaaeathueie yaeythony oae iacuaaaiua
“ianaiinoiyoaeueiua” eiiieeiaiou — nioeeaeueiua aeaenoaey, oi anoue
oaeea nioeeaeueiua aeaenoaey, aeey ?aaeecaoeee eioi?uo eeeieooeaiue aeo
eiiieeiaioa inouanoaeyaony a ni/aoaiee n eeeieooeaiuie aeoaie ae?oaeo
aeaeia. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa eiiieeiaiou — nioeeaeueiua aeaenoaey
?aaeecothony iin?aaenoaii iaeiiai eeeieooeaiiai aeoa eiiieeiaioa.
N?aaeiaa aea cia/aiea aeaiiiai iieacaoaey ?aaii 1,4. Eeeieooeey
eiiieeiaioa /aua au?aaeaaony i?yii. Nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua
ei??aeyoeee iaaeaeo nioeeaeueiie oeaeueth e ycueiaie oi?iie i?yiiai
eeeieooeaiiai aeoa eiiieeiaioa. Aeaeu iai?yiuo eeeieooeaiuo aeoia
eiiieeiaioa i?aaenoaaeaiu ia?aaiiia?ii. Eiieeoeeoiua nouanoaaiii
i?aainoiaeyo ii /eneaiiinoe einaaiiua. Yoiieoeueoo?iua iniaaiiinoe
eiiieeiaioa eae aaeeieoeu ?a/aaiai iiaaaeaiey aiaeiaiai?yueo
eiiioieeaioia ninoiyo a oii, /oi i?aaenoaaeoaee a?eoaineie e
aia?eeaineie eoeueoo? /aua, /ai i?aaenoaaeoaee ?onneiycu/iie eoeueoo?u,
aiai?yo (a) iaene?aiiea eiiieeiaiou; (a) yoeeaoiua eiiieeiaiou e
eiiieeiaiou i?iiaaeooi/iuo oeiia. Iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie, iaoneiaeeaathueie
iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iua ?acee/ey a oiio?aaeaiee eiiieeiaioa,
yaeythony: (a) iaoiaeaeanoaaiiinoue ea?a?oe/aneeo nenoai oeaiiinoae, (a)
?acee/iay noaiaiue noaaeeueiinoe nioeeaeueiuo no?oeoo? e nenoai
oeaiiinoae a niiinoaaeyaiuo eeiaaieoeueoo?ao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiieeiaio, ?a/aaie iinooiie, eeeieooeaiue aeo,
ia?eieooeaiue aeo, nioeeaeueiia aeaenoaea, eioaioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea.

Mischenko V.Ya. Compliment in the speech behaviour of British and
American speakers of English. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for the Candidate of Philology degree, speciality 10.02.04
— Germanic languages.- Kharkiv National University named after V. N.
Karazin. — Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation examines complimenting as a variety of speech
behaviour of representatives of British and American cultures. The
analysis is accomplished within the framework of the activity-based
approach to language and speech with its emphasis on such categories as
“purpose” and “means”. The methodological basis of the research
integrates the theories of speech acts, speech activity and politeness.
Complimentary utterances are treated as means of achieving
qualitatively different communicative purposes, as language realizations
of speech actions combining an illocutionary act, a perlocutionary act
and a social action.

The main issues of the analysis are the illocutionary purposes of
compliment, the difference between compliment and similar illocutionary
acts, indirect and implicit compliments, mechanisms on which the
perlocutionary act of compliment is based and factors determining its
efficiency, classes and types of compliments — social actions as well as
their stuctural, semantic, pragmatic and ethno-cultural features.

Key words: compliment, speech behaviour, illocutionary act,
perlocutionary act, social action, intentional state.

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