1

I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??

NO?AOOI Na?a?e Naiaiiae/

OAeE- 616.833.34-001.35/.36:616-089-059

EIIIEAENIA I?OIIAAeE*IA E?EOAAIIss OAI?EO ?C CANOA??EEIE OOEIAeAEAIIssIE
IEA*IAIAI NIEAOAIIss OA IA?EOA?E*IEO IA?A?A AA?OIUeI? E?IOe?AEE

14.01.21 – o?aaiaoieia?y ? i?oiiaae?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo?
o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio —

Oeeiaaethe A.?. — aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieueieoeueeee I.A.- aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, Eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai??
Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey;

Ae?the I.O. – aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Eao?aao Aea?aeaaii?
i?ai?? N?N?, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii ?inoeoooo ee?i?/ii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii? o??o?a??? AII Oe?a?ie;

Noe?e I.I. – aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, Eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eaiiyi ?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a?? ?i.aeaae.
A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa –

Oa?uee?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo i?oiiaae?? ? o?aaiaoieia??
?i.i?ioani?a I.?.Neoaiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 8 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.606.01 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe i?e
Oe?a?inueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? o?aaiaoieia?? oa
i?oiiaae?? IIC Oe?a?ie (252601, i.Ee?a, aoe.Ai?ianueeiai, 27).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? IIC Oe?a?ie
(252601, i.Ee?a, aoe.Ai?ianueeiai, 27).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 28 » ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe
Oeauaiei A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Ooeiaeaeaiiy noiaao??a iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy neeaaeathoue aei 20% an?o o?aai ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a ? iathoue
oaiaeaioe?th aei ?inoo. Aiie ? iaea?eueo /anoith i?e/eiith
?iaae?aeecaoe?? oai?eo ?, a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao, iio?aaothoue aoaiiiai
iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy. Ine?eueee no?aaeaeathoue ethaee iieiaeiai a?eo,
o?aaia i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo iaoa??aeueieo oa ii?aeueieo caeoe?a,
aeiaaino?ieiai? ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino? oa ?iaae?aeiino? o 75-81%
iaoe??io?a [A?eai?iae/ E.A., 1981; Aa?niaa A.I. n niaao., 1988, 1991;
Iaeaciaa E.ss., 1989; Oaaaeaa E.I., 1990, 1994; Millesi H., 1987, 1997].
Cia/i? ao?aoe ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee ia caaaeaee aaea?oueny
a?aeiiaeoe oeyoii iaa?ie?co, oaa, ieanoeee /e iaa?ioecaoe?? iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy. Ca aeaieie ??cieo aaoi??a caaeia?euei? ?acoeueoaoe
a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee eieeaathoueny a iaaeao a?ae 53
aei 88% [Noe?e I.I., 1997, Kanaya F. at al., 1990, Gousheh J. 1995,
Ochiai N. at al., 1996], a ca aeaieie Berger A. [1991, 1995, 1997],
25-30% iia?iaaieo c oeueiai i?eaiaeo iaoe??io?a iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoi?
iia?aoeaii? i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe??.

?icaeoie i?e?io??o?a?? a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y aeicaieea cia/ii
iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c o?aaiaie ia?eoa?e/ieo
ia?a?a oa iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy. Iaeiae caeeoa?oueny cia/iee a?aenioie
oai?eo, o yeeo ia aaea?oueny a?aeiiaeoe ooieoe?th e?ioe?aee. Ia aeoieo
?yaeo aaoi??a, oea iia’ycaii ianaiia?aae c oyaee?noth ia?aeiii? o?aaie,
iiieeeaie a ae?aaiinoeoe? oa e?eoaaii? oaeeo ooeiaeaeaiue [Ae?the I.O.n
niaao.,1981; A?eoei E.A., 1986; Naiioeei A.A., Nieiiei A.I., 1989;
Aa?niaa A.I., 1991; Eo??iiee ?.I., 1991; Aaeionia A.A., 1988, 1998;
Oeeiaaethe A.? c? ni?aaao., 1996; Ooooei A.A., 1998].

?iaae?aei?noue ca iane?aeeaie iioeiaeaeaiiy ia?a?a noaiiaeoue
1,5-3,5% a?ae on?o aeiaaee?a ?iaae?aeiino? ? ca aeaiieie ??cieo aaoi??a
nyaa? 38-60% a?ae e?eueeino? o?aaiiaaieo [Aa?niaa A.I., 1986; Aieeiaa
A.I., 1991]. Iaa?oue o niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a?aeae?eaiiyo i?ney iiaoi?iiai
oaa ia?aa 29,4% oai?eo caeeoaeenue ?iaae?aeaie ? aoee ciooai? ci?ieoe
?iaioo [Aiaaiueei O.N., 1984]. Aenieee nooi?iue ?iaae?aeiino?
iia’ycaiee c oei, ui ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ia ?nio? no?oiei?
eiioeaioe?? e?eoaaiiy oe??? oyaeei? eaoaai??? oai?eo, nioe?aeueia oa
o?oaeiaa ?aaa?e?oaoe?y iaeaea iiai?noth a?aenooiy, ui i?ecaiaeeoue
aei cia/ieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ao?ao noni?euenoaa [Noe?e I.I.,
1997; Merle M. et al.,1989; Berger A. et al.,1991; 1997; Katsarov J.,
1992; Millesi I., 1997].

Caeeoa?oueny iaae??oaiith i?iaeaia ieanoeee aaeeeeo aeaoaeo?a
ia?a?a, ui iaoiiaeth? aaeeeo e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo
iiooeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo niinia?a a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? e?ioe?aee
[Aeieueieoeeee I.A., Aeieueieoeeee TH.I., 1991; E?nae/oe TH.N., 1998,
1999; Einoeinueeee A.A., 1997, 1999; Buck-Gramcko D. et al., 1991; Chen
Zhong-Wei et al.,1982; Millesi H.,1991; Jupiter J., 1991; Berger A. et
al.,1990, 1991, 1994; Sparmann M., 1998].

Iiee ui a?aenooi?e ?aeeiee iiaeyae uiaei iieacaiue, no?ie?a
i?iaaaeaiiy ? aeai?o iaoiaeo iia?aoe?? i?e ??ciiiai?oieo iae?iaaiieo
aeaoi?iaoe?yo eeno?. Iaaeinoaoiuei aea/ai? iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?e ? a?iiaoai?ea eeno? oa aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee i?e iae?iaaiieo
eiio?aeoo?ao. Ia ?ic?iaeai? niiniae aoaeoeaii? eiiiainaoe??
a?iiaoai?/ieo ii?ooaiue [Aieeiaa A.I., 1991; Law C.L. et al., 1989].

Oa?i?ie aeeiiaiiy i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
ia iathoue i?ae niaith ia’?eoeaiiai i?aea?oioy ? eieeaathoueny a?ae 5-6
i?n aei 5 ?ie?a i?e o?aai? ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee
[A?eoei E.A., 1986; Aa?niaa A.I., 1991; Aaeionia A.A., 1998] aei 12-18
i?n – 3 ?ie?a i?e ooeiaeaeaii? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy [Millesi H., 1997;
Bentolila V., 1999].

Ua a?eueo neeaaei?oa neooaoe?y aeieea? o iaoe??io?a c iiaiei
a?ae?eaii ei??ioe?a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy. O oeeo oai?eo i?oiiaaee/ia
ei?aeoe?y iaeaea ia i?iaiaeeoueny, aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo
ia?a?a-iaa?ioecaoi??a ia aea? iiaeeeaino? ?noioii iie?ioeoe /ooeeao oa
?ooiao ooieoe?th [Oaaaeaa E.I., 1990; Oaaaeaa E.I., Nao?iiia A.A.,
1991,1995; Neaei?iae/ ?.?., 1995; Yoshihisa A. et al.,1991].
?aaa?e?oaoe?y oa i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy oaeeo oai?eo neeaaei? oa
aaaaoiaoaii? ? iio?aaothoue iiaiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo [Aiaia
A.A., 1993; Akasaka Y.et al.,1991; Schaller E., Mailander P.,1991;
Berger A.,1997].

Ona aeuacaaaeaia iaoiiaeth? c?inoaiiy ?ioa?ano aei i?iieanoe/ii?
oa ?aeiino?oeoeaii? o??o?a??. Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue cai?iiiiiaai?
aeanyoee niinia?a i?oiiaaee/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? i?ney o?aai ia?a?a
[Aieeiaa A.I., 1991; Niayiiae/ A.O. n niaao., 1995; Aa?niaa A.I., 1998;
Aaeionia A.A., 1998; Palande D.D., 1983; Hirayama T. et al.,1986;
Buck-Gramcko D.,1991, Tubiana R., 1991; Omer G., 1992; Hovius S.,
1993]. Iaeiae i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy oaeeo oai?eo a a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a i?iaiaeeoueny aac o?aooaaiiy oyaeeino? o?aaie, eieae?caoe??
ooeiaeaeaiiy oa aac ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio
i’yc?a ia iiiaio i?oiiaaee/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe??. *anoi oa /e ?ioa
iia?aoe?y aeeiio?oueny aac aiae?co a?iiaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
i’yc?a-aeaeaoi?a oa noaa?e?caoi??a, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i,
ui noaeeny aiane?aeie aeaia?aaoe??, /?oeeo iae?iaeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ieo
e?eoa???a iaaoaeoeaiino? ?a?ia?aaoe??, oi/a aecia/aiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a ? i?eaeaoiino? i’yc?a i?e o?ainiiceoe?? ?
neeaaeiith i?ioeaaeo?ith ? iio?aao? cia/iiai aeina?aeo oa na?eiciiai
iiia?aaeiueiai ianoaaeaiiy [Aiaeyiia I.I., ?iiaoeeia E.A., 1989;
Buck-Gramcko D., 1991; Hovius S., 1993; Revol I., 1993; Millesi H.,
1997].

Oai?? c o?aaiaie ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a oa iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
io?eiothoue aeiiiiiao o ??cieo niaoe?ae?no?a: o?aaiaoieia?a,
iae?io??o?a?a, o??o?a?a, i?oiiaae?a. A?aenooi?noue ia’?eoeaii
iaa?oioiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei e?eoaaiiy oa ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oaeeo oai?eo, a
oaeiae iaocaiaeaeai?noue oa?i?i?a i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? cia/ii
iia??oothoue ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy. ?ic?iaea no?oiei? nenoaie
e?eoaaiiy aeacaieo oai?eo a?ae iiiaioo o?aaie aei e?ioeaai? nioe?aeueii?
oa o?oaeiai? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? c canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo ae?aaiinoe/ieo
oa e?eoaaeueieo iaoiae?a aeanoue ciiao ?noioii iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoaoe
e?eoaaiiy oe??? eaoaai??? oai?eo, a?eueo?noue c yeeo noa?
?iaae?aeaie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie o?aaiaioaie
ieaiiaeo oai, ui aeeiioaaeenue a Oe?a?inueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio
?inoeooo? o?aaiaoieia?? ? i?oiiaae?? IIC Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii 1994-98
?ie?a, cie?aia ca ? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0194 UOA 447;
0196U0017966.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ic?iaeoe oa iaa?oiooaaoe nenoaio
eiiieaeniiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee ia iniia?
ii?aoethaaiiy oa oaeineiiaeaiiy no/anieo iaoiae?a ioe?iee
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i’yc?a, i?oiiaaee/ii? oa i?e?io??o?a?/ii?
?aeiino?oeoe?? aeey iie?auaiiy ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy oa ciaioaiiy
nooiaiy ?iaae?aeecaoe??.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— aea/eoe aeeiai?eo oa oa?aeoa? a?noiii?oieia?/ieo ci?i a
aeaia?aiaaieo i’ycao;

— aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? ci?i i’yciai? oa a?eo?ioeeoa?ii?
aoeaoeeoie?ianoa?ace a ??ci? oa?i?ie aeaia?aaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo;

— aea/eoe iniaeeaino? aeeiai?ee aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo ci?i o
oai?eo c ooeiaeaeaiiyi ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a oa iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy a
caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy aoaeoeaiino? ?a?ia?aaoe??;

— aea/eoe aeeiai?eo ci?i a?iiaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae i’yc?a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae noaae?? aeaia?aaoe?eii-?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano
oa ?o ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio;

— aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? oa aeeiai?eo iinoaeaia?aaoe?eieo ci?i o
i’ycao ca aeaieie oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy;

— aea/eoe ci?ie iaooa?io aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ii? aeoeaiino? a caeaaeiino?
a?ae neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ?a?ia?aiaaieo i’yc?a;

-iaa?oiooaaoe iioeiaeuei? no?iee i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo
c ooeiaeaeaiiyie ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a oa iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy;

— iaa?oiooaaoe oa ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio cania?a aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii?
iia?aoeaii? i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? o oai?eo c ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a;

— ?ic?iaeoe oa iaa?oiooaaoe nenoaio ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oai?eo ?c
canoa??eei ooeiaeaeaiiyi ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a oa iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
ia iniia? ia’?eoeaieo e?eoa???a ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio
i’yc?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

— aia?oa i?iaaaeaia eiiieaenia a?noiii?oieia?/ia oa a?io?i?/ia
ioe?iea ci?i a aeaia?aiaaieo i’ycao oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee a ??ci?
oa?i?ie aeaia?aaoe??;

— aia?oa aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? aeeiai?ee aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo
ci?i o i’ycao oai?eo c iioeiaeaeaiiyi ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a oa
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee i’yc?a oa
nooiaiy aoaeoeaiino? ?o ?a?ia?aaoe??;

— aia?oa aea/aia aeeiai?ea i?ioiiiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a i’yc?a
ia ??cieo aoaiao aeaia?aaoe?eii-?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano;

— aia?oa aecia/aii oa?aeoa? ci?i iaooa?io aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ii? aeoeaiino?
i’yc?a o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa
a?aenioeia? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ao?aoe neee i’yc?a iea/a a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aoaeoeaiino? ?o ?a?ia?aaoe??;

— aia?oa aecia/ai? aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/i? e?eoa??? iieacaiue ?
i?ioeiieacaiue aei aeei?enoaiiy i’yc?a-aeiii??a i?e
nooiaeeeueii-i’yciaeo o?ainiiceoe?yo;

— ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i’yc?a ia iniia?
aeeiai?ee aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo oa i?ioiiiiao?e/ieo ci?i, oa?aeoa?enoeee
oeueo?acaoeiai? ea?oeie i’yc?a ? ci?ie iaooa?io ?o aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ii?
oa neeiai? aeoeaiino?;

— ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe??
iea/iaiai, e?eoueiaiai noaeia?a oa iaeueoe?a eeno? i?ney i?oiiaaee/iiai
e?eoaaiiy o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy;

— oaeineiiaeaia nenoaia ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? a?aeiiaeaiiy ?icaeiaiiy
iaeueoe?a oa eeno? i?ney nooiaeeeueii-i’yciaeo o?ainiiceoe?e o oai?eo ?c
canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa;

— cai?iiiiiaaia ?iai/a eeaneo?eaoe?y nooiai?a oyaeeino? canoa??eeo
ooeiaeaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy;

— iaa?oioiaaia ? aaeineiiaeaia nenoaia cania?a iia?aoeaii?
i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? o oai?eo c ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a;

— ?ic?iaeai? iia? niiniae iia?aoeaiiai i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy o oai?eo
c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a oa iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
(iaoaioe Oe?a?ie ? 24793A, ? 24794A, ? 151UA).

— oaeineiiaeaia nenoaia ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oai?eo ic canoa??eei
ooeiaeaeaiiyi ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a oa iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ia iniia?
ia’?eoeaieo e?eoa???a ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i’yc?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aecia/aiiy
aeeiai?ee no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i a aeaia?aiaaieo i’ycao a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee, oa?i?i?a oa aoaeoeaiino?
?a?ia?aaoe?? o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aeicaieeei iinoaaeoe ia ia’?eoeaia i?aea?oioy
nenoaio ?o ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oa e?eoaaiiy.

Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaie nenoaie ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
noaio i’yc?a aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy,
nei?ioeoe oa?i?ie ?aaa?e?oaoe??.

Aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo oa oaeineiiaeaieo niinia?a i?oiiaaee/ieo ?
i?e?io??o?a?/ieo iia?aoe?e oa nenoaie aeai?eoi?a oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy aeaei
iiaeeea?noue aecia/aoe ?iaeea?aeoaeueio i?ia?aio aoaiiiai i?oiiaaee/iiai
e?eoaaiiy o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? a ee?i?oe? i?e?io??o?a??
oa ?aeiino?oeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueii? o??o?a?? eeno? Oe?a?inueeiai IAe?
o?aaiaoieia?? ? i?oiiaae?? IIC Oe?a?ie, ee?i?oe? a?aeiiaethaaeueii?
iae?io??o?a?? ?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a?? ?i.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie,
ee?i?oe? i?e?inoaeeiii? oa ieanoe/ii? o??o?a?? ?inoeoooo ee?i?/ii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii? o??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?eaii? i?e?io??o?a?? oa
ieanoe/ii? o??o?a?? Aeiiaoeueeiai ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa
i?oiiaae??.

Iniaenoee aianie. Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iniaenoi
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c no/aniiai noaio i?iaeaie a?aeiiaiiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo
?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a oa iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy, ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio oa iaoiaeieia?th aeine?aeaeaiue,
cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee i?aeo?ae o ae??oaii? i?iaeaie, a naia nenoaio
iia?aoeaieo oa eiina?aaoeaieo caoiae?a ia iniia? ia’?eoeaii
iaa?oioiaaii? ioe?iee no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i o i’ycao a ??ci?
ia??iaee aeaia?aaoe?eii-?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano. ?ic?iaeai? iia?
niiniae i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? oa ia iniia? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a
e?eoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaai? aeai?eoie oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy oaeeo oai?eo.

Aiae?c a?noiii?oieia?/ieo aeaieo i?iaiaeeany ni?eueii c
ea??aieeii a?aeae?eo iaoiii?oieia?? Oe?a?inueeiai IAe? o?aaiaoieia?? ?
i?oiiaae?? i?ioani?ii A.O.A?oneii, aiae?c aeeiai?ee a?io?i?/ieo ci?i –
ni?eueii c ea??aieeii eaai?aoi??? a?io?i?? Oe?a?inueeiai IAe?
o?aaiaoieia?? ? i?oiiaae??, aeieo.a?ie.iaoe A.I.Iaaiiaaeiaei;
aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy – ni?eueii ?c caa?aeoth/ith
a?aeae?eii ooieoe?iiaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee ?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a?? AII
Oe?a?ie eaiae.iaae.iaoe E.E.*aaioa?ueiaith; aiae?c iaooa?io
aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ii? aeoeaiino? – c ea??aieeii eaai?aoi??? o?c?ieia??
?oo?a ?inoeoooo o?c?ieia?? ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IAI Oe?a?ie aeieo. a?ie.
iaoe I.?.Einotheiaei, aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee i?ioiiiiao?e/ieo ci?i –
ni?eueii c ea??aieeii eaoaae?e e?iac?ieia?? Oe?a?inueeiai Oi?aa?neoaoo
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy i?ioani?ii I.I.Eaioo?iei.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeeth/ai? aei aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia:
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “O?aaia eenoe, ia?aay iiiiuue e
?aaaeeeoaoeey aieueiuo” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1992); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani? i?aeoiaee a?aeiiaiiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c o?aaiith
iea/a, ia?aaeie?//y oa eeno?” (Oa?iii?eue, 1993), ia?oiio
Oe?a?ii-Aano??enueeiio neiiic?oi? c i?iaeai i?e?io??o?a?? oa o??o?a??
eeno? (Ee?a, 1993), ia can?aeaiiyo oiaa?enoaa i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a
i.Ee?aa oa Ee?anueei? iaeano? (1994, 1995, 1996), V??? oeie?
“Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy a?ieia?? iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo” (Ee?a, 1996);
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “A?ieia?y oa noai caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy a
no/anieo oiiaao” (Oaeai?iae, 1996); O?? c’?cae?
i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1996); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 90-??//th Oa?e?anueeiai IAe? i?oiiaae?? ?
o?aaiaoieia?? ?i.I.?.N?oaiea (Oa?e?a, 1997); ?? c’?cae? iae?io??o?a?a
Oe?a?ie (Iaeana, 1998); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani? aniaeoe
e?eoaaiiy o?aai eeno? ? ?o iane?aee?a” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998), ia
Ieaioi? i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie (Iaeana, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o 15 noaooyo a
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao (6 – aac ni?aaaoi??a), a 9 iaoa??aeao ? oacao
c’?cae?a oa eiioa?aioe?e, io?eiaii 3 iaoaioe Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 317
noi??ieao iaoeiiieno ? neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 6-oe ?icae?e?a,
i?aenoieo oa aeniiae?a. ?ethno?iaaia 77 iaethieaie ? 18 oaaeeoeyie.
Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 356 iaeiaioaaiue,
?c yeeo 106 ee?eeeoeath, 250 — eaoeiith.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iniiao ?iaioe
iieeaaeaii aiae?c ee?i?/ieo, a?noiii?oieia?/ieo, a?io?i?/ieo,
aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ieo oa ?ioeo iieaciee?a o 367 oai?eo c ooeiaeaeaiiyie
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee, ye?
ia?aaoaaee ia iia?aoeaiiio e?eoaaii? a ee?i?oe? i?e?io??o?a?? oa
?aeiino?oeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueii? o??o?a?? eeno? Oe?a?inueeiai IAe?
o?aaiaoieia?? ? i?oiiaae?? IIC Oe?a?ie oa ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a??
?i.aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie ca ia??iae c 1982 ii 1998 ?iee.
Ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue ianoaaeaieo neeaaeaee /ieia?ee a?eii a?ae 21
aei 44 ?ie?a (255 in?a — 69,2%). Iia?aoeaia i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy
i?iaiaeeee 235 iaoe??ioai, yeei aoei aeeiiaii 360 iia?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue. Oai?? ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
neeaaeaee 40,9% (96 iaoe??io?a), c iane?aeeaie o?aaie e?eoueiaiai oa
na?aaeeiiiai ia?a?a- 37,8% (89 in?a), ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie
i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa — 21,3% (50 iaoe??io?a).

Oa?i?i cao?eiee iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ia noiaao?ao iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy neeaaeaa o na?aaeiueiio 6,9 i?nyoey c iiiaioo o?aaie ?
eieeaaany a?ae 1 aeiae aei 24 i?nyoe?a. Iia?aoeaio i?oiiaaee/io
ei?aeoe?th i?iaiaeeee a no?iee a?ae 1 i?n aei 14 ?ie?a i?ney o?aaie
(na?aaei?e oa?i?i 37,2 i?n). Ia iiiaio aeeiiaiiy i?oiiaaee/ieo iia?aoe?e
o oai?eo ?c canoa??eei ooeiaeaeaiiyi iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ee?i?/ia
ea?oeia a?aaeaea nai?th ??ciiiai?oi?noth, ? ia caaaeaee aeeaaeaeany a
?aiee eeane/iiai ?iciiae?eo ia aa?oi?e, ieaei?e ? oioaeueiee oei
ooeiaeaeaiiy. C iaoith ia’?eoea?caoe?? aaaeeino? ooeiaeaeaiiy oa
iaa?oiooaaiiy oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy iaie cai?iiiiiaaia ?iai/a eeaneo?eaoe?y
iane?aee?a o?aaie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy. A iniiao eeaneo?eaoe?? iieeaaeaii
i?eioeei aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy (neea i’yc?a > I3) ??cieo i’yciaeo
a?oi, ui ea?othoue ?ooaie iea/iaiai, e?eoueiaiai noaeia?a oa iaeueoe?a
eeno?. I’yciaith a?oiith aaaaeaeanue noeoii?noue i’yc?a, yea aeeiio?
iaeii??aeio ooieoe?th oa io?eio? ?ia?aaoe?th ia?aaaaeii a?ae iaeiiai aai
aeaio non?aei?o ei??ioea? (iai?eeeaae, ciai?oi? ?ioaoi?e iea/a,
caeia/? iaeueoe?a eeno?). Ia naaiaio? ia?aaeie?//y-eenoue aeae?eyee
o?e iniiai? i’ycia? a?oie: caeia/? iaeueoe?a oa eeno?, aeani? i’yce
eeno? ? ?icaeia/? iaeueoe?a oa eeno?; ia iea/? – aea? iniiai? i’ycia?
a?oie: caeia/? oa ?icaeia/? ia?aaeie?//y; ia naaiaio? iaaeie?//y – o?e
a?oie: ?ioaoi?e iea/a, a?aea?aei? i’yce, caeia/? iea/a oa i?ea?aei?
i’yce. Oaeee ooieoe?iiaeueii-aiaoii?/iee i?aeo?ae, ia iaoo aeoieo, aea?
iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe ia o?eueee aaaee?noue ?ooiaeo ii?ooaiue ia
e?ioeaaiio aoai? iae?io??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy, aea e aecia/eoe
ia?niaeoeae a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a a oiio /e ?ioiio naaiaio?.

?iai/a eeaneo?eaoe?y oyaeeino? iane?aee?a o?aai iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy

Eaaeee nooi?iue :

A – ao?aoa ooieoe?? iaei??? i’yciai? a?oie ia iaeiiio naaiaio?
aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee;

A – ao?aoa ooieoe?? iaei??? i’yciai? a?oie ia aeaio naaiaioao
e?ioe?aee.

Na?aaei?e nooi?iue:

A – ao?aoa aeaio i’yciaeo a?oi ia iaeiiio naaiaio? e?ioe?aee;

A – ao?aoa aeaio i’yciaeo a?oi ia aeaio naaiaioao e?ioe?aie.

Oyaeeee nooi?iue:

A – iayai?noue iaei??? ooieoe?iioth/i? i’yciai? a?oie ia
eiaeiiio naaiaio? e?ioe?aee;

A — iayai?noue iaei??? ooieoe?iioth/i? a?oie i’yc?a ia anth
aa?oith e?ioe?aeo.

Aeoaea oyaeeee nooi?iue:

A – iayai?noue iaeiiai ooieoe?iioth/iai i’yca ia anth aa?oith
e?ioe?aeo;

A – oioaeueiee ia?ae?/ an?o i’yc?a.

C iaoith e?euee?niiai aei??thaaiiy ao?aoe ooieoe?? aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee aeei?enoiaoaaee nenoaio ioe?iee ooieoe?? Aia?eeainueei?
iaaee/ii? anioe?aoe?? a iiaeeo?eaoe?? ?.I.Eo??iiiai [1991]. Nenoaia
iiaoaeiaaia ia aei??thaaii? aeoeaieo ?oo?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee oa
/ooeeaino? iaeueoe?a eeno?. Ioe?iea ?oo?a aeeth/aea aei??e a?aenioea
ao?aoe ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee ca aeoeaieie ?ooaie a iea/iaiio,
e?eoueiaiio noaeiaao oa noaeiaao iaeueoe?a eeno?, caoaaoaie eeno? oa
eii?aeeiaoe??th ?oo?a. A?aenioie ao?aoe aeoeaieo ?oo?a a noaeiaao
aecia/aee ii caeiaiith ? ?icaeiaiith a eiaeiiio noaeia? aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee oa ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca niaoe?aeueieie oaaeeoeyie ? oi?ioeaie.
?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? i?e eiaeiiio aeae? aei???a, aeiaeaaaeenue aeey
io?eiaiiy iieaciee?a, ui a?aeia?aaeaee ??ci? aniaeoe ooieoe?? eeno? oa
aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee, ? ?ic?aoiaoaaeenue ia ia?niiaeueiiio eiii’thoa?? c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaii? aaoi?ii i?ia?aie. Ioe?iea ooieoe?iiaeueieo
?acoeueoao?a o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
i?iaiaeeeanue oaeiae iinaaiaioii ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaie iaoiaeeeith, a o
oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa – ca
oaeineiiaeaiith nenoaiith Haas [1991].

C iaoith aea/aiiy aeeaeie oa cai?ioiino? aeaia?aaoe?eieo ci?i a
i’ycao i?iaiaeeee a?noiii?oieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy o 57 oai?eo ?c
canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a.
I?ae /an iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy aeaeaeyee oiaoi/ie aeaia?aiaaiiai
i’yca ? o?enoaaee eiai a 10% -io ?ic/ei? oi?iae?io. Iio?i i’yc
?icoeiaee ia oiaoi/ee, ye? ciaaee?thaaee, ciaaiaeithaaee o nie?oao
ia?inoath/i? i?oeiino? oa i?ney ia?iaee nie?o-ao??ii caeeaaee a
oeaei?aeei. Aeaioiaethaaee iiia?a/i? oa iicaeiaaei? a?noieia?/i? c??ce,
ye? caaa?aethaaee aaiaoieneeeiii oa aiceiii, a oaeiae i?e?iooeneiii ca
Aai A?ciiii. A?noieia?/i? c??ce aea/aee i?e na?oeia?e oa iiey?ecaoe?ei?e
i?e?ineii??.

Aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee i’yciai? oa a?eo?ioeeoa?ii?
aoeaoeeoie?ianoa?ace (AOA) i?iaiaeeee o 58 iaoe??io?a a?eii 21-60
?ie?a c ae?aaiicii o?aaiaoe/ia ooeiaeaeaiiy iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy, i?iiaiaaiai, na?aaeeiiiai oa e?eoueiaiai ia?a?a. Eiio?ieueio
a?oio neeaee 9 iaoe??io?a c oiiaii ii?iaeueiith ?iia?aaoe??th
iioeiaeaeaii? e?ioe?aee. Aeoeai?noue aoeaoeeoie?ianoa?ace a i’ycia?e
oeaiei? oa a?eo?ioeeoao aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii Aeiaia. C?acee
i’yciai? oeaieie, io?eiai? i?ae /an o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue,
o?enoaaee a na?aaeiaeu? ioieiaeaeaiiai aei 4°N 0,25 I ?ic/eio
naoa?ice o ianiaiio ni?aa?aeiioai? 1:9. Aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae
aiae?cii oeaieio caii?iaeoaaee a ??aeeiio acio?,
aiiiaai?coaaee oa oeaio?eooaoaaee. Cae?aee iaaeinaaeiao ??aeeio ?
aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?iaioaoeaii? aeoeaiino?.

Ee?i?/io aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?th (AIA) aeeiioaaee o 105 iaoe??io?a ca
eeane/ieie iaoiaeeeaie i?e aeiiiiic? eiii’thoa?eciaaiiai aiae?caoi?a
a?iiioaioe?ae?a “BASIS A?I” (“I.O.A. A?iiaaeeea” ?oae?y) oa
aeaeo?ii?iiae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie «AIANO-01». AIA-aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeee aei iia?aoe??, /a?ac 3,6,9,12,15, 18 oa 24 i?n ? a?eueoa
i?ney iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy. Iaeneiaeueiee oa?i?i ianoaaeaiiy – 7 ?ie?a
i?ney iia?aoe??. AIA-aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/aei aieeiao
aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?th i’yc?a aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie oa iea/iaiai iiyno,
?ia?aiaaieo o?aaeaieie ia?aaie (ia?aaaaeii c aieo o?aaeaiiy) oa
aeaeo?iiae?ia?ao?th ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee ? iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy neiao?e/ii c iaio aie?a.

C iaoith ioe?iee no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i i?e
ooeiaeaeaii? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee o 51 iaoe??ioa i?iaiaeeee oeueo?acaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy
(OCAe) i’yc?a o?aaiiaaii? e?ioe?aee a ii??aiyii? c? caei?iaith:
aeei?enoiaoaaee aia?ao o??ie Siemens «Sonoline -SL 1», aeao/ee aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy c /anoioith 7,5 iAoe, Siemens “Versa” — 7,5 ? 5 iAoe,
Ultramakk -9 ? 10 iAoe, ATL-1000 — 5 ? 7,5 iAoe c eieuei?iaei
aeiiea?ianueeei ii?ioaaiiyi. Ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo i?iaiaeeee o aeaio
ieiueiao — iicaeiaaei?e oa iiia?a/i?e ca oiia noaiaea?oiiai i?noey
?icoaooaaiiy aeao/eea ia caei?ia?e ? o?aaiiaai?e e?ioe?aoe? a?aeiinii
o?eniaaieo i???ioe??a. I?e iiia?a/iiio neaioaaii? aeao/ee ?icaa?oaee
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei eiai iiacaeiaaeiuei? iiceoe?? oaeei /eiii, uia
oeaio? eiai iaa?oaiiy ciaoiaeeany iina?aaeei? aeao/eea.
Aei??thaaeanue oiaueia i’yca, i?ae?aoiaoaaeanue e?euee?noue “+”
aoineaiae?a ia 1 ea.ni i’yca, aeei?enoiaoth/e “A” ?aaeei
ci?iaeanue a?noia?aia, ca aaee/eiith i?e?a a ii ioe?ithaaeanue
nooi?iue o?a?ioecaoe?? /e iae?ico i’yca a ii??aiyii? c
eiio?eaoa?aeueiith noi?iiith.

C iaoith ioe?iee aeeiai?ee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio neaeaoieo
i’yc?a oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa
ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aoee aea/ai? ?o a?iiaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Aeey
oeueiai 52 iaoe??ioai (/ieia?eai o a?oe? a?ae 18 aei 54 ?ie?a) aoee
i?iaaaeai? i?ioiiiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeeiai?oe?. Aea/aeenue
??ci? i’ycia? a?oie. Aeine?aeaeoaaeenue oae? i’yce: ?icaeia/?
iaeueoe?a oa eeno?, aeaiaieiaee i’yc iea/a, caeia/? iaeueoe?a oa eeno?,
aeaeueoiiiae?aiee oa o?eaieiaee i’yce iea/a. I?ioiiiiao?e/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aacoaaeenue ia aiae?c? caoooath/eo i’yciaeo eieeaaiue,
aeeeeeaieo aeiciaaiei (eae?a?iaaiei) oaea?ii. i?iaiaeeee aiae?c ci?i
a i’ycao a i?ioean? ?a?ia?aaoe??, cie?aia, ?a?no?oaaee oae?
a?iiaoai?/i? ia?aiao?e neaeaoii? ioneoeaoo?e: aiie?ooaea ? noai
?cioii?/ii? oa ?ciiao?e/ii? iai?oae i’yc?a (ii), /anoioo eieeaaiue
i’yc?a (Aoe), aia?aaoeeo i’yca a ?cioii?/i?e oa ?ciiao?e/i?e
iai?oc? (Aeae), ?iaeaen aei?noeino? i’yca (Aoe) oa ?iaeaen
aeaiioa?iino? (oi.iae.). Aeey aei??o a?iiaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
neaeaoieo i’yc?a aeei?enoiaoaaee aaoiiaoeciaaiee eiii’thoa?iee
eiiieaen, yeee aeeth/aa a naaa i’?ciaeaeo?e/iee ?ia?oe?eiee
aenaea?iiao? NIA-30S, i?aeneethaa/ aeaeo?e/ieo neaiae?a, oi?aa?naeueio
ieaoo ia?aoai?thaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo neaiae?a, eiii’thoa? c i?ia?aiiei
caaacia/aiiyi oa i?eioa?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee a c?o/iiio
iieiaeaii? oai?iai, yeee eaaeaa ia niei? c iaeneiaeueii ?icneaaeaieie
aa?oi?ie e?ioe?aeaie. I’?ciaeaeo?e/iee aenaea?iiao? anoaiiaethaaee a
na?aaei?e o?aoei? i’yciaiai /a?aaoey ia 2,5-3 ni aeenoaeuei?oa a?ae
iueiai, ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii iiaa?oi? i’yca iaiineee aeiciaaiee eae?a?iaaiee
oaea? ii i’yco. Eiaeia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaoi?thaaee 3-4 ?ace.

O 26 iaoe??io?a ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy /aniaiai ia?aa?ao aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ii?
aeoeaiino? aeaiaieiaiai oa o?eaieiaiai i’yc?a i?ae /an iia?eueieo
e?i?eieo caeiaeueieo oa ?icaeiaeueieo ?oo?a o e?eoueiaiio noaeia?.
Oanoia? ?ooe cae?enithaaeenue i?ae ci?iaei eiio?ieai a ?acoeueoao?
noi?uaiiy ia ae?ai? iii?oi?o eiiaiaee oa neaiaeo a?ae aeao/eea
noaeiaiaiai eooa. ?ooe aeeiioaaeenue ia oii? ae?? iino?eiiai
ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, yea i?eeeaaeaee a iai?yieo caeiaiiy /e
?icaeiaiiy noaeiao.

Ia?aaeie?//y iaoe??ioa i?ae /an aenia?eiaioo ciaoiaeeeinue ia
eaae?e ?ooeea?e ieaooi?i? eiinieueiiai oeio, a?nue iaa?oaiiy noaeiao
ciaoiaeeeanue iaeneiaeueii aeecueei aei in? iaa?oaiiy ieaooi?ie. *a?ac
nenoaio oe?a?a oa oiieeo noaeueieo o?in?a ieaooi?ia c ia?aaeie?//yi
aei?noei c’?aeioaaeenue c ?ooiiith /anoeiith na?aiea?iaaiiai
iaoaiinoeioeyoi?a, eio?ee ooieoe?iioaaa a ?aaeei? na?aieiio?iey iiiaioo
ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. AIA-aeoeai?noue ?a?no?oaaeanue a?iiiey?ieie
iiaa?oiaaeie aeaeo?iaeaie (ae?aiao? eiaeiiai 7,5 ii, a?aenoaiue i?ae
oeaio?aie aeaeo?iae?a – 20 ii). Aeaeo?iaee o?enoaaee ia oe??? iaae
i’ycaie – ?icaeia/aie e?eoueiaiai noaeiao. I?ia?aia ?oo?a iaaeaaaeanue
iaoe??ioo o aeaeyae? neaiaeo ii iaeiiio c i?iiai?a iii?oi?o, ae?oaee
i?ii?iue a?aeia?aaeaa ?aaeueio o?aaeoi??th ?ooo.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

Aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee a?noiii?oieia?/ieo ci?i i’yc?a aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee 57 oai?eo i?ney ooeiaeaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aai
ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aeyaeei ieceo iia?eueii i?ia?anoth/eo iaoieia?/ieo
ci?i, ye? e?iaoeue e?ioeai i?ecaiaeeee aei iiaii? ao?io?? oa cai?uaiiy
i’yca o?a?iciith oa aee?iaith oeaieiaie.

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui aaea /a?ac 1,5-2 i?n i?ney aeaia?aaoe?? o
i’ycao a?aeaoaa?oueny caaaeueia, i?ioa ia??aiii??ia, iioiioaiiy oa
caeaeno?noue i’yciaeo aieieii, ?icaeaathoueny aeaaaia?aoeai? i?ioeane,
ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ia??aiii??iei iaaooaiiyi, aiiiaai?caoe??th
i’yciaeo aieieii, i?eiicii oa a?iio?ii??th ?o yaea?, aeeneiiiae?aiei
?iciaaeii ae?eyiie i’yciaeo aieieii oa cia/iei ?icaeoeii niieo/ii?
oeaieie aiaei- oa ia?ei?c?th. I?ie?oa?aoeai? i?ioeane niieo/iioeaieiieo
aeaiaio?a oa, i?noeyie, e?ioi- ? eaeeioeeoa?ia ?io?eueo?aoe?y cia/ii
ca?eueoothoue e?euee?noue yaea? o ciiao aeaaaia?aoe?? oa ?iciaaeo
i’yciaeo aieieii. Cia/ii no?aaeaea? ?o nei?i/oth/ee aia?ao. Iiia?a/ia
iie?aneaii?noue ia aaeeeeo ae?eyieao i’yc?a a?aenooiy aai cia/ii
iineaaeaia. A iiey?ecaoe?eiiio na?oe? aeyaeythoueny /eneaii? aocee,
??aeoa nioae nei?i/aiiy. Oe? iaoieia?/i? i?ioeane c aieo i’yciaeo
aieieii ?icaeaaeenue ia oe? cia/ieo ci?i oeaieiiiai e?iaiiinoa/aiiy, ye?
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue iioiauaiiyi no?iie i’yciaeo noaeei, ciaioaiiyi ?o
i?ina?oo ? iiaiie?ia’yi oa ?aaeoeoe??th i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
i’yca.

*a?ac 5 i?n i?ney aeaia?aaoe?? na?aaeiy oiaueia i’yciaeo aieieii
aeinyaaea 57,3±6,2 iei. Aeaaaia?aoeai? ci?ie, i?ioeane aiiiaai?caoe??,
aeeneiiiae?aiiai oa ca?ienoiai ?iciaaeo i’yciaeo aieieii, ?ic?inoaiiy
niieo/ii? oeaieie ia?inoaee a?eueo aeoeaii, a?eueo ae?aaeaieie aoee
ii?ooaiiy nei?i/oth/eo no?oeoo? i’yciaeo aieieii. *a?ac 3-6 i?n i?ney
ooeiaeaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa eiai ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a
iaoieia?/i? ci?ie o aeaia?aiaaieo i’ycao ca?eueooaaeenue. A?eueoa
no?aaeaeaee i?io?eaiaioe, ye? aaea /a?ac 3 i?n i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth
ao?a/aee iiia?a/io iie?aneaii?noue, a ia ae?eyieao, aea aiia
caa??aaeanue, a iiey?eciaaiiio na?oe? ciaoiaeeee /eneaii? aocee
nei?i/aiiy. Aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/i? i?ioeane ia ao?a/aee naith
aeoeai?noue. Ao?io?y oa ?iciaae i’yciaeo aieieii ia?aaaaeaee i?e
ooeiaeaeaii? ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a. Na?aaeiy oiaueia i’yciaeo aieieii i?e
ooeiaeaeaii? ia?a?a aeinyaaea 48,1±5,3 iei (?< 0,05) /a?ac 3,5 i?n i?ney aeaia?aaoe??. A oa?i?ie 7-12 i?n i?ney aeaia?aaoe?? ao?io?/i? oa aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie a i’ycao c?inoaee. E?euee?noue oa oiaueia i’yciaeo aieieii ciaiooaaeenue. Inoaiiy /a?ac 8 i?n i?ney aeaia?aaoe?? aei??aithaaea 43,3±3,3 iei (?< 0,05). Cia/ii ca?eueooaaeeny ae?eyiee niieo/ii? oa aee?iai? oeaiei. *a?ac 13 oa a?eueoa i?n i?ney aeaia?aaoe?? i?ioeane ao?io?? oa aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/i? yaeua a i’yciaeo aieieiao i?ia?anoaaee, e?euee?noue i’yciaeo aieieii a oeeo io/eao cia/ii ciaiooaaeanue. Oiaueia i’yciaeo aieieii ye i?e iioeiaeaeaii? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, oae ? eiai ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a /a?ac 17-18 i?n aei??aithaaea a?aeiia?aeii 38,8±3,9 oa 35,4±5,1 iei, a /a?ac 5-8 ?ie?a aeinyaea 23,4±4,8 oa 22,1±1,6 iei (?< 0,05). A oe? ae oa?i?ie i?ney aeaia?aaoe?? i’ycia? aieieia cai?uoaaeeny o?a?iciith niieo/iith oa aee?iaith oeaieiaie ia a?eueoiio i?ioyc?. Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo ii?oieia?/ieo aeaieo iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeaia?aaoe?y i’yc?a aiane?aeie ooeiaeaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa eiai ia?a?a coiiaeth? i?ia?anoth/? ao?io?/i? oa aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie i’yciaeo aieieii, oyaee?noue yeeo caeaaeeoue ia eeoa a?ae oa?i?i?a aeaia?aaoe??, a, ye na?ae/aoue iao? aeaii?, ? a?ae i?neyo?aaiaoe/ieo ?iceaae?a e?iaiiinoa/aiiy, ui aeieeathoue ? caeaaeaoue a?ae oyaeeino?, oa?aeoa?o oa eieae?caoe?? o?aaie. A?aoiaoth/e, ui aieiaiith ooieoe??th i’yciaeo aieieii ? ?o nei?i/aiiy, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae noaio aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo no?oeoo? ?, a ia?oo /a?ao, a?ae noaio i?io?a?ee, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui ii?ooaiiy no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? i’yciaeo aieieii c ao?aoith iiia?a/ii? iie?aneaiino? oa ai?cio?iiieo yeinoae ? na?ae/aiiyi aeeaieeo iacai?ioieo aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/ieo ci?i o i’ycao. Ca iaoeie aeaieie oa?i?i, a yeee c’yaeythoueny oe? aiaieuaa? ci?ie o i’ycao, noaiiaeoue 3 i?n i?ney aeaia?aaoe??. Aeieeath/? iae?ioe/i? oa aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie ? iacai?ioieie ? a?aeiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? i’yciaeo aieieii oa i’yciaeo io/e?a noa? iaiiaeeeaei. Ooi/ithth/e oa?aeoa? ci?i a aeaia?aiaaieo i’ycao a ??ci? oa?i?ie aeaia?aaoe??, aea/aee aeeiai?eo ??aiy aoeaoeeoie?ianoa?ace (AOA) o 58 oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ??aiy i’yciai? AOA na?ae/aoue i?i oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy ?? aeoeaiino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?i?i?a oa eieae?caoe?? ooeiaeaeaiiy ia?aiaiai aieieia. Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao cia/ia aa??aaaeuei?noue ??ai?a AOA a aeaia?aiaaieo i’ycao. C iaoith nenoaiaoecaoe?? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oai?eo ?icae?eeee ia o?e a?oie. A ia?oo a?oio aa?eoee oai?? ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee, a ae?oao – iaoe??ioe ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aac AIA-i?aeoaa?aeaeaieo iciae ?a?ia?aaoe??, a o?aoth – oai?? ?c canoa??eei ooeiaeaeaiiyi iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, o yeeo ee?i?/ii aoaeue-yea aeoeaia ooieoe?y i’yc?a aoea a?aenooiy (I0), aea i?e AIA-aeine?aeaeaii? aeyaeyeenue ie?ai? iacia/i? iciaee /anoeiai? iaaoaeoeaii? ?a?ia?aaoe??. A ia?o? o?e i?nyoe? i?ney o?aaie ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a ??aaiue AOA o aeaia?aiaaieo i’ycao iaaeaa c 0,627 ±0,05 aei 0,355±0,08 ieiieue/ia.oa (?<0,001) ? eeoaany iaeaea ia iaci?iiiio ??ai? aei 6 i?n i?ney o?aaie. Ii/eiath/e c 6-8 i?n i?ney o?aaie niinoa??aaeinue iiaeaeueoa cia/ia iaae?iiy ??aiy AOA aei 0,215±0,07 ieiieue/ia.oa. (?<0,05). Oeae ??aaiue AOA caa??aaany o ianoaaeaieo oai?eo iaeaea iaci?iiei i?ioyaii e?eueeio ?ie?a i?ney aeaia?aaoe??. Cia/ia cieaeaiiy ??aiy i’yciai? AOA a?aei?/aii iaie o oai?eo ?c canoa??eei ooeiaeaeaiiyi iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy a a?eueo i?ci? no?iee – 12-18 i?n (i?ioyaii ae?oaiai ?ieo aeaia?aaoe??). A na?aaeiueiio ??aaiue i’yciai? AOA o aeaii? eaoaai??? ianoaaeaieo neeaa 0,205±0,08 ieiieue/ia.oa. (?<0,001). Iiaeaeueoa iinooiiaa iaae?iiy ??aiy aeine?aeaeoaaiiai oa?iaioo niinoa??aaeinue o oeeo oai?eo a oa?i?ie 24-36 i?n - 0,136±0,06 ieiieue/ia.oa oa i?ney o?ueio ?ie?a aeaia?aaoe?? – 0,164±0,07 ieiieue/ia.oa. (?<0,05). Ia a?aei?io a?ae ia?oeo aeaio ee?i?/ieo a?oi, aeeiai?ea ci?i i’yciai? AOA o oai?eo o?aouei? ee?i?/ii? a?oie aoea iaeaea a?aenooiy. ??aaiue AOA, ia aeeaey/enue ia cia/i? oa?i?ie aeaia?aaoe?? ? ee?i?/i? i?iyae iiaiiai ia?ae?/a ? ao?io?? aeaia?aiaaieo i’yc?a, ia cieaeoaaany ieae/a 0,400 ieiieue/ia.oa. Oaeei /eiii, aeineoue aenieee ??aaiue caa?aaeaiiy i’yciai? AOA o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy o a?aeaeaeai? no?iee i?ney o?aaie iiaeia iiynieoe caeeoeiaith iaaoaeoeaiith ?a?ia?aaoe??th, yea oi/ ? ia aeaaaea ee?i?/ieo i?iya?a ?a?ia?aaoe??, aea i?aeo?eioaaea iaaiee o?io?/iee iaoaaie?ci i’yca. ??cieoeth a aeeiai?oe? ci?i AOA ia?oi? oa ae?oai? ee?i?/ii? a?oi iiaeia iiynieoe a?eueo ieaaiei, iia?eueiei ia?aa?aii aeaia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano o oai?eo ?c canoa??eei ooeiaeaeaiiyi iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy. Oea ua ?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ee?i?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy i?i oa, ui /ei aeeae/a i?noea o?aaie ia?aa aei i’yca, oei a?eueo aeoeaii i?io?ea? a i’yc?, iicaaaeaiiio ia?aiaiai aieeao, aeaia?aaoe?eiee i?ioean. Aiaeii/an iaae?iiy ??aiy i’yciai? AOA i?ney 6 i?n aeaia?aaoe?? iiaea aooe iaeiith c i?e/ei cia/iiai iia??oaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue a oe? oa?i?ie. Oaeei /eiii, ci?ie ??aiy i’yciai? AOA a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a a?aeiia?aeathoue ee?i?/iei i?iyaai ?ioaineaiino? aeaia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a aeaia?aiaaieo i’ycao ? iiaeooue aooe iai?yiith iciaeith ii/aoeo i?ioeano ?a?ia?aaoe??, aea ia na?ae/aoue i?i iayaio aoaeoeaio /e iaaoaeoeaio ?a?ia?aaoe?th i’yc?a. I?iaaaeaiiy OC-aeine?aeaeaiue a aeeiai?oe? o 51 oai?iai aeicaieeei niinoa??aaoe ea?oeio cia/ieo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i a aeaia?aiaai?e e?ioe?aoe?, ae?aaeai?noue yeeo i?yii caeaaeaea a?ae nooiaiy iioeiaeaeaiiy ia?aiaeo noiaao??a, /ano i?ney o?aaie oa iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy. A ia?o? 3-5 i?n i?ney aeaia?aaoe?? i’yc iaa ??aiii??io a?iiaoiaaiio no?oeoo?o aac cae/ii? no?oeoo?iaaiino? i’yciaeo io/e?a oa aoiaaiii? iniiae o?a?icii-aee?iaiai ea?eano. A oa?i?ie 6-12 i?n niinoa??aaeinue caa?aaeaiiy iaeii??aeiino? (aeano?oeoo?iaaiino?) i’yciai? oeaieie c iaeii/aniei ?? ??aiii??iei ou?eueiaiiyi ? ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy aoiaaiiino? a ii??aiyii? c a?eueo ei?ioeeie no?ieaie aeaia?aaoe??. Caa?oaei ia naaa oaaao iioiauaiiy oa?o i?aeoe??ii-aee?iai? ee?oeiaeie c iineeaiiyi ?? /a?oieiai? no?oeoo?e, a?eueoee nooi?iue aoiaaiiino? oanoe?aeueieo oooey??a. A oa?i?ie, ui ia?aaeuoaaee 13-18 i?nyoe?a i?ney aeaia?aaoe??, niinoa??aaeinue iiaeaeueoa ciaioaiiy ia’?i?a i’yciai? oeaieie, iaeiae aac ca?eueoaiiy nooiaiy ?? ??aiii??iiai ou?eueiaiiy. A oeae ia??iae nooi?iue ao?io?? aeaia?aiaaieo i’yc?a ca aeaieie OC-aeine?aeaeaiiy a na?aaeiueiio neeaaeaa 42% ? eieeaaany a?ae 36 aei 61% a?ae aiaeia?/iiai i’yca caei?iai? e?ioe?aee. ssaeua ou?eueiaiiy aeaia?aiaaii? i’yciai? oeaieie iiaeia iiynieoe ciaioaiiyi c /anii a?aeiiniiai a?aenioea i’yciaeo aieieii, ? ye iane?aeie, ca?eueoaiiyi /anoee aoiiiceoeaieo no?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a. A ia??iae? ?a?ia?aaoe?? i’yce iaee a?eueo iie?ii?oio oeueo?acaoeiao ea?oeio, yea caeaaeaea a?ae aoaeoeaiino? ?a?ia?aaoe??, ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy o??? /e ?ioi? i’yciai? a?oie oa iayaieo noiooi?o ooeiaeaeaiue. Aeoaea aaaeeeaei, ia iaoo aeoieo, ? aeyaeaiiy ua a ia??iae? a?aenooiino? aeia?eueii? aeoeaiino? i’yca, cii ?oai?/iiai iae?ico oa ae?eyiie o?a?icoaaiiy, ui aeieeee aiane?aeie i?yii? o?aaie oa ?oai?? i’yca. A oa?i?ie 3-10 i?n i?ney o?aaie ae?eyiea iae?ico i’yca aeaeyaea? ye aaniethoii iaeii??aeia a?ae?io?eueia no?oeoo?a aac /?oei? iaae? ia?aoiaeo a?ae iae?ioeciaaiiai aei caei?iaiai i’yca ia oe? ou?eueiaieo oanoe?aeueieo iaieiiie i’yciaeo oooey??a. A i’ycao, ui aoee ?oai?/ii o?aaeai? aai o?aaiiaai?, aea ?oai?/iee i?ioean ia?aeoia o naith inoaiith noaae?th - o?a?icoaaiiy, aeyaeyeeny cia/i? ciie o?a?ico, ui aeaeyaeaee ye ina?aaeee a?ia?aoiaaiii? no?oeoo?e. sseui ciia o?a?ico caeiaea a?eueoo /anoeio i’yca, oi caei?ia? i’ycia? io/ee aeaeyaeaee ye a?iiaoiaaii? eieone. Ioaea, aeei?enoaiiy niiia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o oai?eo c o?aaiith iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe oa?aeoa?i? aeey aeaia?aaoe?? i’yc?a no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? iciaee, ioe?ieoe ia?aiao?e oa aeeiai?eo ?o a?iio?io?? aai a?aeiiaeaiiy. A?coae?caoe?y cii o?a?iciiai ooeiaeaeaiiy i’yc?a aeicaieeea ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a??ii aea?aoe oaeoeeo iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy, oiaoi i?e iayaiino? cia/ieo cii o?a?ico yeiiiaa ?ai?oa ?icii/eiaoe i?oiiaaee/i? ?aeiino?oeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeuei? iia?aoe??. I?e i?iaaaeaii? i?ioiiiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy (39 in?a) oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a (13 iaoe??io?a) aea/aee aeeiai?eo i?ioiiiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a o iiai?noth ia?ae?ciaaieo i’ycao a ia??iae aei a?aeiiaeaiiy aeia?eueii? i’yciai? aeoeaiino? oa a i’ycao ??cii? neeiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee c aoaeoeaiith ? iaaoaeoeaiith ?a?ia?aaoe??th. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? ia?ae?ciaaieo i’yc?a ie ?ao?iniaeoeaii ?icae?eeee on?o oai?eo ia aea? a?oie a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeeiai?ee ?iaeaeno aei?noeino? a aeine?aeaeoaaieo i’ycao. I?ioiiiiao?e/i? iieacieee iaee cia/io aa??aaaeuei?noue ? caeaaeaee a?ae no?ie?a, ui i?ieoee i?ney o?aaie, ? aeeiai?ee ?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano. Iaie aeae?eai? aea? ee?i?/i? a?oie oai?eo a caeaaeiino? a?ae AIA-ea?oeie oa oa?aeoa?o a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? ?icaeia/?a iaeueoe?a i?ney ?aa?c??, oaa /e aooiieanoeee noiaao??a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy. A ia?o?e a?oi? (iiceoeaia ee?i?ei-aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ia aeeiai?ea a?aeiiaeaiiy) eiao?oe??io aei?noeino? iaa no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th aei i?aeaeuaiiy (c 0,22±0,09 aei 0,62±0,12; ?<0,05), oi/ ? ia aeinyaaa aaee/eie ?iaeaeno a eiio?eaoa?aeuei?e e?ioe?aoe? (0,98±0,11). Ca?eueoaiiy ?iaeaeno aei?noeino? ciaoiaeeeinue o i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae c?inoaiiy neee ?a?ia?aiaaieo i’yc?a. Ii/aoie c?inoaiiy ?iaeaeno aei?noeino? a ?yae? aeiaaee?a a?aei?/aii ca 1,5-2 i?n aei iiyae ia?oeo ee?i?/ieo iciae a?aeiiaeaiiy. A ae?oa?e a?oi? (iaoe??ioe c i?ia?anoth/ith ao?io??th i’yc?a ? a?aenooi?noth iiceoeaii? AIA-aeeiai?ee oa a?aeiiaeaiiy) aeuaiacaaiee iieaciee iaaeeaeaany aei ioey ? a ?yae? aeiaaee?a iaa a?ae’?iia cia/aiiy, ui, ia iaoo aeoieo, iia’ycaii c oaoi?/ieie o?oaeiiuaie aea/aiiy i?ioiiiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a o oai?eo ?c cia/iith ao?io??th i’yc?a. Ie aaaaea?ii aeoaea aaaeeeaei oie oaeo, ui o oai?eo c iiaiei ia?ae?/ai i’yc?a a ia??iae?, eiee aoee a?aenooi? ia o?eueee ee?i?/i?, aea e aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/i? iciaee aeia?eueii? i’yciai? aeoeaiino?, niinoa??aaeanue no?eea noaa?e?caoe?y ?iaeaeno aei?noeino?. Iaaeae? o a?eueoino? c ieo ianoaaaei a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? i’yc?a, iaeiae noaa?e?caoe?y ?iaeaeno aei?noeino? a oeae ia??iae ia aoea e?eoa???i nooiaiy aoaeoeaiino? ?a?ia?aaoe?? (oiaoi, a e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? iiaeia aoei io?eiaoe ooieoe?th i’yc?a a ae?aiacii? I1-I5). I?iaiaey/e ?ao?iniaeoeaiee ?iciiae?e ia a?oie oa aiae?c iieaciee?a ?iaeaeno aei?noeino?, ie iii?oeee /?oeo oaiaeaioe?th aei ciaioaiiy oeueiai ?iaeaeno a a?oi? oai?eo c i?ia?anoth/ith i’yciaith ao?io??th oa a?aenooi?noth iiceoeaii? ee?i?ei-aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ii? ea?oeie a?aeiiaeaiiy. Ioe?ithth/e a?iiaoai?/i? iieacieee i’yc?a, ni?anoaaeyee ?o c ee?i?/ieie ia?aiao?aie, a naia - neeith i’yc?a ii i?aeia?iaei?e i’yoeaaeuei?e oeae?. Aoea a?aei?/aia no?eea aeeiai?ea ca?eueoaiiy /anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoee i’yc?a i?e nei?i/aii? oa ?iaeaeno aei?noeino? - i?e ca?eueoaii? neee i’yc?a. ?icaeyaeath/e io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui iii?oi?eia i?ioiiiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a aea? iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe iai?aaeai?noue aeaia?aaoe?eii-?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a i’ycao i?ney iia?aoeaiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy. Oea iniaeeai aaaeeeai a no?iee 6-8 i?n i?ney iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy, eiee aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aea? iiaii? ea?oeie ia?aa?ao a?aeiiaethaaeueiiai i?ioeano. Aeey ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i’yc?a-caeia/?a oa ?icaeia/?a ia?aaeie?//y i?iaiaeeeinue aea/aiiy ?o neeiaeo oa aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Aeei?enoaiiy iaie caaaeueiii?eeiyoi? i’yoeaaeueii? nenoaie ioe?iee neee i’yc?a aeicaieeei nenoaiaoecoaaoe oa?aeoa? ci?i iaooa?io AIA aeoeaiino?. c? ciaioaiiyi ??aiy aoaeoeaiino? ?a?ia?aaoe??, a, ioaea, ? neee aeaiaieiaiai i’yca, niinoa??aaeinue iinooiiaa i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy noaoe?iia?ii? aeoeaiino? i’yca. Oae, i?e nee? a?oeaina I2, ??aaiue noaoe?iia?ii? AIA aeoeaiino? i’yca anoaiiaethaaany aeoaea aeecueei aei iaeneioio aeeiai?/ii? oace, a a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao a?aeiia?aeaa ??aith inoaiiuei?. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? a?oeaina c neeith I4-I3 iaie aoei a?aei?/aii, ui e?eoueiaee noaeia iiiaaeaa o ??aiiaaao ia iaeneioi?, aai aeoaea aeecueei aei iaeneioio aeeiai?/ii? oace AIA aeoeaiino?, ui ?icoe?ithaaeinue iaie ye ciaioaiiy nooiaiy ea?iaaiino? i’ycii. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? i’yc?a-?icaeia/?a o?aaiiaaii? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee, ia a?aei?io a?ae caeia/?a, ia aoei aeyaeaii cia/ieo ci?i a AIA-aeoeaiino? c? ciaioaiiyi neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee i’yc?a. Canoinoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo ??ai?a ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aei i’yc?a-?icaeia/?a e?eoueiaiai noaeiao o?aaiiaaii? e?ioe?aee iieacaei, ui o iaoe??io?a ia?oa neeaaeiaa aeno?aeii? oace aeeiai?/iiai eiiiiiaioo aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aoiaeeea a ae?oao. I?e oeueiio i’yce iaeaea a?ae?aco ?icaeaaee iaeneiaeueio neeo, oiio ia aa?oei? aeeiai?/iiai eiiiiiaioo aaia?oaaeanue iaeaea iaeiaeiaa aeoeai?noue i?e ??ciiiai?oieo ??aiyo ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. C? ciaioaiiyi neee o??oeaina niinoa??aaeinue ciaioaiiy ??aiy aoa?aioii? aeoeaiino? ia e?ioeaa?e oac? oo?eioaaiiy noaeiaiaiai eooa, yea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue ciaioaiiyi inoaiiueiai, ui aoei iia’ycaii ye c iaeith i’yciaith neeith, oae ?, iiaeeeai, c? neaaeei aeei?enoaiiyi a?noa?acenieo aoaeo?a i’yciaiai nei?i/aiiy. C iaoith nenoaiaoecaoe?? aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ieo iciae ?a?ia?aaoe?? i’yc?a ia aoai? a?aeiiaeaiiy aeia?eueii? aeoeaiino? iaie [Oeeiaaethe A.?.,*aaioa?ueiaa E.E., No?aooi N.N.,1998] aeae?eai? /ioe?e noaae?? ?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ei?enooth/enue ee?i?/iith ioe?ieith neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee i’yc?a ca oeaeith I0-I5, aiae?cii ia?aiao??a I-a?aeiia?aeae, iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue ? iioaioe?ae?a i’ycoaeo aieieii c?iaeoe iaa?oioiaaiee aeniiaie oa i?iaiic uiaei aoaeoeaiino? ?a?ia?aaoe?? i’yca aeineoue neeaaeii. Oe? i?iaeaie cia/iith i??ith aeiiiiiaea iiaeieaoe ioe?iea a?noia?aie ?iciiae?eo ca o?eaae?noth oa aiie?ooaeith aeaaaeoeyoe iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue (ia ii/aoeo ?a?ia?aaoe?? –10) c ?o oeiieia?/iei aiae?cii o c?noaaeaii? c iiyaith oa iiaeaeueoith aeeiai?eith ia?aiao??a I-a?aeiia?ae? i?e noeioeyoe?? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aai a?aeiia?aeiiai ia?aa. ? noaae?y ?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano ee?i?/ii oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue neeiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i’yc?a I0-I1. I?e AIA-ianoaaeaii? o a?eueoino? oai?eo (73%) i?e noeioeyoe?? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy c’yaeyeenue iecueeiaiie?ooaei? I-a?aeiia?ae?, aiie?ooaea yeeo ia ia?aaeuoaaea 4-5% a?ae ii?ie. Iaiao?aeiei ? aeinoaoi?i iieacieeii oe??? noaae?? aoea iiyaa ?a?ia?aaoe?eieo iioaioe?ae?a, a oaeiae ?noioia ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? niiioaiii? aeoeaiino?. *a?ac 2-3 oeaei? AIA ea?oeia iiaea ?noioii ci?ieoeny ? i?aeiaaeaoe i?ae e?eoa??? ?? noaae??. Ee?i?/ia ioe?iea neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee i’yc?a a ?? noaae?? a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? ia ia?aaeuoaaea I2. Eeoa a aeaio aeiaaeeao iaaoaeoeaii? ?a?ia?aaoe?? c oa?i?iaie 6 ? 11 ?ie?a i?ney iia?aoe?? ia ia?aiaeo noiaao?ao niinoa??aaee a?eueoo neeo i’yca (I3). ?ioa?oa?aioe?eia AIA aoea iecueeiaiie?ooaeiith, aeene?aoiith, eieeaaeanue a iaaeao 5-10% a?ae ii?ie. Ia?aaaaeia e?euee?noue iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue iaea ca?eueoaio oa na?aaeith o?eaae?noue ii??aiyii c a?eiaith ii?iith oa eiio?eaoa?aeueiei i’ycii (o?eaae?noue 90-140%, aiie?ooaea 50-300% a?ae ii?ie). Caa?oaea ia naaa oaaao cia/ia iie?oac?y (90-100% i?e ii?i? 5%) iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue oa aa??aaaeuei?noue aaee/ei ?o aiie?ooaee oa o?eaaeino?. Ia iaoo aeoieo, o?eaae?noue ?? noaae??, yea a na?ae/eea i?i aoaeoeaio ?a?ia?aaoe?th, ia iiaeiia a 1,5 ?ace ia?aaeuoaaoe ii?iaeuei? o?c?ieia?/i? oa?i?ie ?a?ia?aaoe?? aeey eiaeii? c ianoaaeaieo i’yciaeo a?oi i?e oaeaeeino? i?i?inoaiiy aenii?a 1 ii ca aeiao. A e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo ?ioaineai?noue oa ye?noue ?a?ia?aaoe?? caeaaeaee a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aenii?a, ui ae?noaeeny aei aeaia?aiaaieo i’yc?a, oa e?eueeino? caa?aaeaieo i’yciaeo aieieii a ieo, ye? ua ia ao?aoeee caeaoiino? aooe ?a?ia?aiaaieie. Ana oea coiiaethaaei iiaeaeueoo ??ciiiai?aaeai?noue aoaeoeaii? oa iaaoaeoeaii? ?a?ia?aaoe??. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo a?aeaoaaany aeineoue ?ioaineaiee ia?ao?ae a ??? “iiceoeaio” noaae?th c a?aeiiaeaiiyi neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee i’yc?a a?eueoa I3, aai ae caoyaeia ?? noaae?y ia?aoiaeeea a ??? “iaaaoeaio”, ui i?eaiaeeei, e?iaoeue e?ioeai, aei ooieoe?iiaeueii iaiiaiioe?iii? ?a?ia?aaoe??. ??? “iiceoeaia” noaae?y ee?i?/ii oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue oaeaeeei ia?iuaiiyi neeiaeo iieaciee?a i’yc?a a?ae I3 aei I5. I?e AIA aeine?aeaeaii? niinoa??aaee c?inoaiiy aiie?ooaee aeia?eueiiai ? aeeeeeaiiai nei?i/aiiy i’yca, i?aeaeuaiiy /anoioe oa aiie?ooaee ?ioa?oa?aioe?eii? aeaeo?ii?ia?aie. Niinoa??aaeanue ii?iae?caoe?y aiie?ooaeieo iieaciee?a iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue, ?iiae? ?o ca?eueoaiiy o 1,5-2 ?ace – aei 250-300% a?ae ii?ie. Na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue aoea aac ?noioieo ci?i, ii??aiyii ?c ?? noaae??th, aea a?noia?aia ?o ?iciiae?eo ca o?eaae?noth iiai?noth ci?ithaaeanue – aiia ao?a/aea nieiuaiee aeaeyae, o aeayeeo aeiaaeeao iaaeeaeath/enue aei ii?iaeueii? a?noia?aie c /?oeei oeaio?ii. Oea na?ae/eei i?i ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a aaaaoueio iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue, a?aeiiaeaiiy aenii?a, a?eueo ye?nia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue. Niiioaiia aeoeai?noue i’yciaeo aieieii aoea a?aenooiy. ??? “iaaaoeaia” noaae?y. Neeia? oa?aeoa?enoeee i’yc?a a oe?e noaae?? a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? ia ia?aaeuoaaee I2. AIA iieacieee oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue cia/iith aa??aaaeuei?noth: na?aaeiy aiie?ooaea iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue eieeaaeanue a?ae 100 aei 500% a?ae ii?ie, ae?aiacii aiie?ooae aoa aeoaea oe?ieei, o?eaae?noue iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue aoea ca?eueoaia ? ciaoiaeeeanue a iaaeao a?ae 140 aei 200% a?ae ii?ie. ?a?no?oaaee niiioaiio aeoeai?noue o aeaeyae? iioaioe?ae?a o?a?eeyoe?e, oanoeeeoeyoe?e, iiceoeaieo aino?eo oaeeue. Iniaeeaino? ?ae?oooaaiiy ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue iieyaaee o ia??aiii??iino? oa ianoaa?eueiino? ?o caeo/aiiy ye i?e neaaeiio, oae ? i?e iaeneiaeueiiio coneee?. I’yc ao?a/aa naith caeaoi?noue aei aeene?aoiiai ieaaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? i?aoethaaa ca i?eioeeiii ”ana – aai i?/iai”. sseui o oai?eo c aoaeoeaiith ?a?ia?aaoe??th i’yc?a AIA iieacieee, ye i?aaeei, iine?aeiaii i?ioiaeeee ?,??, ??? “iiceoeaio” noaae??, oi o iaoe??io?a ?c niia?eueiaiith iaaoaeoeaiith ?a?ia?aaoe??th oeiiaeie aoee ?,??,??? “iaaaoeaia” noaae??, i?e/iio, ??cieoey i?ae ?? ? ??? “iaaaoeaiith” noaae?yie aei??thaaeanue ia o?eueee aaee/eiith iieaciee?a, a e /anii, ui ieioa c iiiaioo o?aaie /e inoaiiuei? iia?aoe?? ia ia?aiaeo noiaao?ao. Ia?ao?ae aei ??? “iaaaoeaii?” noaae?? na?ae/ea i?i iaiiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaii? eiiiainaoi?ii? ?ia?aaoe?? aeaia?aiaaieo i’yciaeo aieieii, ui aoei, i/aaeaeii, iia’ycaii ye c iaaaeeeith e?euee?noth aenii?a, ui i?i?inee o i’yc, oae ? c iacai?ioieie ci?iaie a nei?i/oaaeueiiio aia?ao? i’yca. ?iciiae?e ianoaaeaieo oai?eo ca ee?i?ei-aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ieie iieacieeaie ia noaae?? ?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano aeicaieea a?eueo /?oei aecia/eoenue c iaa?oiooaaiiyi iieacaiue aei iia?aoe?e i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe??. Ioe?ithth/e ee?i?ei-aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/io ea?oeio o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy a oa?i?ie a?ae iiiaioo iia?aoe?? ia ia?aao aei 7-10 ?ie?a i?ney oaei? iia?aoe??, ie i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo, ui a?aenooi?noue ee?i?ei-aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ieo iciae ?a?ia?aaoe?? a oa?i?ie, ui ia?aaeuothoue a 1,5 ?ace (i?e oaeaeeino? i?i?inoaiiy aenii?a 1 ii ca aeiao) ii?iaeuei? no?iee a?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aa, ? iieacaiiyi aei i?iaaaeaiiy i?oiiaaee/ieo iia?aoe?e. I?e aeeiiaii? AIA aeine?aeaeaiiy a oa?i?ie i?iaiiciaaiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? i’yc?a, iieacieee noeioeyoe?eii? oa aieeiai? AIA ni?anoaaeyee c aeaieie oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa i?ioiiiiao???, aa?o/e ca iniiao iayai?noue /e a?aenooi?noue iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue. A oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee a?aenooi?noue iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue noi?iaiaeaeoaaeanue cieaeaiiyi ?ina?oeoe?eii? aeoeaiino? i’yc?a i?e caa?aaeai?e niiioaii?e a?iaeaeo?e/i?e aeoeaiino?, oa oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue iaaaoeaieie a ieai? i?iaiico a?aeiiaeaiiy iieacieeaie oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa i?ioiiiiao???, noaaeee ieoaiiy i?i i?iaaaeaiiy i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy. Eiee iieacieee aeia?eueii? i’yciai? aeoeaiino? aoee a?aenooi? ia oii? caa?aaeaii? ?ina?oeoe?eii? aeoeaiino? ? ia iaee iaaaoeaieo oeueo?acaoeiaeo ? i?ioiiiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, i?iaeiaaeoaaee ?aaa?e?oaoe?eia e?eoaaiiy. A oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee ?a?no?oaaeenue iioaioe?aee ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue, i?iaiaeeee aiae?c ?o ia?aiao??a ? i?iaeiaaeoaaee iaaeeeaiaioicia oa o?c?ioa?aiaaoe/ia e?eoaaiiy. I?e aeeiiaii? AIA ianoaaeaiiy a oa?i?ie, ui a 1,5 ?ace ia?aaeuoaaee i?iaiiciaai? aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? i’yc?a, a?aenooi?noue aeia?eueii? i’yciai? aeoeaiino? ? cieaeaiiy ?ina?oeoe?eii? aeoeaiino? aaaaeaee i?yiei iieacaiiyi aeey i?iaaaeaiiy i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy. I?e iayaiino? aeia?eueii? i’yciai? aeoeaiino?, ui ia ia?aaeuoaaea neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee I1-I2, iiaeaeueoa AIA ianoaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee aeai?aciai /a?ac 3-3,5 i?n. sseui a oe? oa?i?ie ia niinoa??aaee 10% i?e?inoo aiie?ooaee I-a?aeiia?ae? oa oaeaeeino? i?iaaaeaiiy, a oaeiae ia?iuaiiy neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee i’yc?a, oi eiinoaooaaee ia?ao?ae ?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a ??? “iaaaoeaio” noaae?th ? ae??ooaaee ieoaiiy i?i i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy. Canoinoaaiiy oaeiai eiiieaeniiai eiio?ieth aoaeoeaiino? ?a?ia?aaoe?? i’yc?a aeicaiey? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii, iaa?oioiaaii, aeaaaeaii ? iaeneiaeueii oaeaeei i?aeoiaeeoe aei aecia/aiiy iieacaiue aei i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy oaeeo iaoe??io?a. O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a c iaoith ei?aeoe?? aai cai?uaiiy ooieoe?? iacai?ioiuei ao?a/aieo i’yc?a aeei?enoiaoaaee o?aaiiaai? aai ?a?ia?aiaai? i’yce. Oea noaaeei ?yae ieoaiue ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i’yc?a aeiii??a, ae??oaiiy eio?eo aoei iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiia canoinoaaiiy aaaaoieiiiiiaioii?, ia’?eoeaii iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie aiae?co no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a. Aeuaiaaaaeaia nenoaia o aeiaaeeo ioe?iee ooieoe?? i’yc?a caeia/?a oa ?icaeia/?a ia?aaeie?//y aeiiiaithaaeanue aeine?aeaeaiiyi iaooa?io AIA aeoeaiino? oa iiiaio?a nee, ui ?icaeaathoue oe? i’yce. Ni?anoaaeyth/e ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/iiai a?iiaoai?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy c ?acoeueoaoaie aecia/aiiy neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee i’yc?a, ie i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo, ui o aeiaaeeo, eiee i’yc-aeiii? ia? neeia? iieacieee, ui ia ia?aaeuothoue 50% eiio?eaoa?aeueiiai i’yca, aai ae ii/aoeiai ia a?aeiia?aea? ca nai?ie aiaoiii-ooieoe?iiaeueieie iniaeeainoyie neeiaei iaaaioaaeaiiyi, ui ia?aaeaa/athoueny, aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe “aeenoae?caoe?th” i?noey i?ee??ieaiiy aai ?ioei /eiii ciaiooaaoe nooi?iue iaaaioaaeaiiy. I?e ae??oaii? caaea/ naeaeoe?? i’yc?a-aeiii??a i?ae /an OC aeine?aeaeaiiy caa?oaee oaaao ia iayai?noue aai a?aenooi?noue ina?aaee?a o?a?icoaaiiy, a aeey caeia/?a oa ?icaeia/?a iaeueoe?a eeno? – ia i?i?iaeueiee ??aaiue aiie?ooaee ?oo?a (ia iaioa 2 ni). I?e AIA ianoaaeaii? ia?aaaao iaaeaaaee oei i’ycai, ia?aiao?e ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue eio?eo ia aeoiaeeee ca iaae? 200-300% a?ae ii?ie, ine?eueee oea caa?iaeoaaei ao?aoith a?eueoa, i?ae 20 i?iaiiciaaieo a?aenioe?a neee i’yca. I?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy i?iaiaeeee o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, o yeeo ia a?aeaoeinue a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee, aai ae noaeiny eeoa /anoeiaa a?aeiiaeaiiy ?? ?oo?a, a oaeiae a oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee iioeiaeuei? oa?i?ie aeey aeeiiaiiy ?aeiino?oeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueieo ao?o/aiue ia noiaao?ao iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aoee ae/a?iai?. I?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy ae??ooaaei aea? iniiai? caaea/?: ? – onoiaiiy oneeaaeiaiue c aieo iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo e?ioe?aee, ui aeieeee aiane?aeie ?? aacae?yeueiino? oa aeaia?aaoe??; ?? - eiiiainaoe?y (cai?uaiiy) ao?a/aii? ooieoe?? i’yc?a. Iieacaiiy aei iia?aoeaii? i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? aecia/aee c o?aooaaiiyi oa?i?i?a i?ney o?aaie oa iiia?aaeiueiai iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ia ia?aiaeo noiaao?ao, a oaeiae oyaeeino? oa oa?aeoa?o ?o ooeiaeaeaiiy. Iioeiaeueieie aaaaeaee oa?i?ie, ui a 1,5-2 ?ace ia?aaeuoaaee ii?iaeuei? o?c?ieia?/i? no?iee ?a?ia?aaoe?? (1 ii/aeiao) aeey eiaeii? c i’yciaeo a?oi aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee. Iaeiae a oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee ia iiia?aaeiueiio aoai? e?eoaaiiy aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui o oai?iai i?aaaiae?iia?ia ooeiaeaeaiiy ei??ioe?a, aai ae iioeiaeaeaiiy ia ??ai? ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a, a?aeiiai? iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy ?icii/eiaee i?ney 6 i?n a?ae iiiaioo o?aaie, a o aeiaaeeao, eiee a?e iaoe??ioa ia?aaeuoaaa 40 ?ie?a, /e c iaaieo i?e/ei oai?ee a?aeiiaeyany a?ae iia?aoe?? iaa?ioecaoe??, i?oiiaaee/io ei?aeoe?th i?iaiaeeee ua ?ai?oa. Aecia/aiiy oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy oa eiai aoaii?noue aacoaaeenue ia aeaoaeueiiio ee?i?/iiio ianoaaeaii? iaoe??ioa oa aeei?enoaii? cai?iiiiiaaii? iaie nenoaie ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i’yca. I?e oioaeueiiio ooeiaeaeaii? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aeae?eyee o?e iniiai? aoaie caaaeaiiy i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe??: 1 - a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a iea/a; 2 – aeoeaia caeiaiiy a e?eoueiaiio noaeia?; 3 – aeoeaia /e ianeaia noaa?e?caoe?y eenoueiaiai noaeiao oa a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a iaeueoe?a eeno?. Iine?aeiai?noue aeeiiaiiy aoai?a caeaaeaea a?ae oyaeeino? o?aaie oa a?ae no?ie?a aeeiiaiiy iiia?aaei?o iia?aoe?e ia ia?aiaeo noiaao?ao. Oae, o oai?eo c oioaeueiei ooeiaeaeaiiyi iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ia a?oio? aaoeuen?? ei??ioe?a iia?aoeaio i?oiiaaee/io ei?aeoe?th ?icii/eiaee c a?o?iaeaco iea/iaiai oa eenoueiaiai noaeia?a. O oai?eo c “iica?/iei” (/anoeiaei) a?aeiiaeaiiyi i’yciaeo a?oi aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee i?ney oioaeueiiai ooeiaeaeaiiy (na?aaei?e A ? A oa oyaeeee A ? A nooiai? ooeiaeaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy) ?aeiino?oeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeuei? iia?aoe?? ?icii/eiaee c a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a o e?eoueiaiio noaeia?. I?aaioee, uia /ania? i?ii?aeee i?ae aoaiaie i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy ia ia?aaeuoaaee 3-6 i?n. A?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? iea/a iio?aaoaaee 46 oai?eo. C oe??th iaoith o 16 iaoe??io?a aeeiioaaee a?o?iaeac iea/iaiai noaeiao, o 14 – o?ainiiceoe?y o?aiaoe??iiae?aiiai i’yca (7 aeiaaee?a ca Mayer ? 7 - ca Saha), i?e/iio o 2 oai?eo aiia aeiiiaithaaeanue iia?aoe??th L’Episcopo. O 2 iaoe??io?a aeoeaia a?aeaaaeaiiy oa caeiaiiy iea/a aaeaeinue iie?ioeoe ca ?aooiie iia?aoe?? Iber, o iaeiiai – i?ney o?ainiiceoe?? iaeoe?oiai i’yca nieie a iieiaeaiiy aeaeueoiiiae?aiiai. Iiiiaeaiiy ciai?oiuei? ?ioaoe?? i?iaiaeeee o 7 oai?eo ca aeiiiiiaith iia?aoe?? L’Episcopo. O 4 iaoe??io?a canoa??ea ooeiaeaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oneeaaeithaaeinue i?ea?aeiith oa aioo??oiuei-?ioaoe?eiith eiio?aeoo?ith iea/iaiai noaeiao, ui aeiaaaei i?iaaaeaiiy a?o?ie?co. A 6 aeiaaeeao ooeiaeaeaiiy ei?ioeeo a?eie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy (N5-N6) ii?aeioaaeiny c o?aaiith ?ioaoi?ii? iaiaeaoe ? iio?aaoaaei a?aeiiaeaiiy nooiaeeeea iaaeiniiai i’yca. I?e aeeiiaii? a?o?iaeaco iea/iaiai noaeiao eoo a?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a eieeaaany a?ae 30 aei 65° a caeaaeiino? a?ae neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aaeiueiai coa/anoiai i’yca (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 24794A). Oa?aeoa? iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy caeaaeaa a?ae oyaeeino? ooeiaeaeaiiy oa nooiaiy a?aeiiaeaiiy i’yc?a iea/a oa iaaeie?//y (oaae.1). Oaaeeoey 1 Oaeoeea e?eoaaiiy iane?aee?a ooeiaeaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aeey iea/iaiai noaeiao a caeaaeiino? a?ae oyaeeino? o?aaie Nooi?iue oyaeeino? Ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? E?eoaaiiy1a A?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a a?ae 60 aei 90; caeiaiiy a?eueoa 40; ? ciai?oiy ?ioaoe?y Eiina?aaoeaia (iaaeeeaiaioicia, o?c?ioa?aiaaoe/ia) 1aO? ae ?ooe (1a); ciai?oiy ?ioaoe?y a?aenooiyIia?aoe?y L’Episcopo2aA?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a a?ae 30 aei 60; caeiaiiy aei 30; ciai?oiy ?ioaoe?y 30Eiina?aaoeaia aai iia?aoe?y Ober2aOa ae, ui 2a; ciai?oiy ?ioaoe?y a?aenooiyIia?aoe?y L’Episcopo3A?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a a?ae 0 aei 30; Caeiaiiy 0; ciai?oiy ?ioaoe?y a?aenooiy; ?ooe eiiaoee ii aeoc? caa?aaeai? (m.serratus anterior M3)O?ainiiceoe?y m.trapezius ca Saha ia aie?aeo
iea/a

O 43 oai?eo c iiaiei ii?ooaiiyi ooieoe?? caeiaiiy a e?eoueiaiio
noaeia? a ?acoeueoao? iacai?ioieo iioeiaeaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy i?iaiaeeee a no?iee a?ae 1 aei 5 ?ie?a i?ney
o?aaie. Aea?? oaeoeee iiiiaeaiiy aeoeaiiai caeiaiiy a e?eoueiaiio
noaeia? caeaaeaa a?ae nooiaiy iioeiaeaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy. Aeey cai?uaiiy ooieoe?? aeaiaieiaiai i’yca
i?iaiaeeee o?ainiiceoe?? o?eaieiaiai i’yca o 9 iaoe??io?a, iaeoe?oiai
i’yca nieie — o 8 oai?eo, eeaaeueiiai i’yca – o 18 oa ia?ai?uaiiy
aaeeeiai a?oaeiiai i’yca – o 7. O aeaio iaoe??io?a i?iaiaeeeanue
a?eueia i?e?io??o?a?/ia ia?anaaeea iaeoe?oiai i’yca nieie oa i?aeiiai
i’yca noaaia ia iea/a c ?a?ia?aaoe??th i?ae?aaa?ieie ia?aaie.

Oa?aeoa? aeai?o iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ii a?aeiiaeaiith
aeoeaiiai caeiaiiy ia?aaeie?//y caeaaeaa a?ae oiai, /e ia?aaeaa/aeinue
aeei?enoaiiy i?ieneiaeueieo i’yc?a (iaeoe?oiai, aaeeeiai a?oaeiiai ?
o.i.) aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a eeno? oa iaeueoe?a. Oaeee i?aeo?ae
aeaaaa iiaeeea?noue oieeiooe ia aoaiao iia?aoeaii? i?oiiaaee/ii?
ei?aeoe?? yaeu aeeiai?/ii? ianoaa?eueiino? i?ieneiaeueiiai noaeiao i?e
i’yciaeo o?ainiiceoe?yo, oa ciaioeoe nooi?iue oaoi?/ieo o?oaeiiu?a, ye?
aeieeathoue i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeenoaeueieo a?aeae?e?a aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee i?ney a?o?iaeaco iea/iaiai noaeiaa.

A?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? eeno? o 55 oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie
ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aoei iaei??th c iaea?eueo neeaaeieo
i?iaeai, ui aeeth/aea a naaa ae??oaiiy e?eueeio caaea/ a?aeiiaeaiiy:
aeoeaii? /e ianeaii? noaa?e?caoe?? eenoueiaiai noaeiaa; aeoeaiiai
?icaeiaiiy oa caeiaiiy iaeueoe?a; iiiceoe?? ? iaeueoey oa caeiaiiy
??-V iaeueoe?a ii aaeee?e aeoc?. Iiaiioa ae??oaiiy oeeo caaea/ caeaaeaea
a?ae oyaeeino? ooeiaeaeaiiy, iayaiino? aaeaeaaoieo i’yc?a-aeiii??a.
sseui o 32 oai?eo c eaaeei oa na?aaei?i nooiaiai oyaeeino? iaaeaaaee
ia?aaaao iia?e?coth/ei iia?aoe?yi oa nooiaeeeueii-i’yciaei
o?ainiiceoe?yi (40 c 43 iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue), oi o iaoe??io?a c
oyaeeei oa aeoaea oyaeeei nooiaiai o?aaeaiiy a?eueo?noue neeaee
noaa?e?coth/? iia?aoe?? (29 ?c 45).

Ine?eueee o?ainiiceoe?y i?iiaiaaiai aai e?eoueiaiai caeia/?a
eeno? ia ?icaeia/? iaeueoe?a o aeiaaeeao ?o ia?ae?/a oa ia?ae?/a
/a?aiiiae?aieo ? i?aee?noeiaeo i’yc?a i?eaiaeeea aei iiaeeaeaiiy
e?aoaiiae?aii? aeaoi?iaoe?? eeno?, iaie aoei cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a
o?ainiiceoe?? e?eoueiaiai caeia/a eeno? ia ?icaeia/? iaeueoe?a c
iiia?aaei?i i?iaaaeaiiyi ?o /a?ac i?aei’ynoeia? eaiaee ca oiaeii
ao?a/aieo aeanieo i’yc?a ??-V iaeueoe?a eeno?. Oea aeaaaei iiaeeea?noue
ca aeiiiiiaith iaeiiai i’yca iie?ioeoe ?icaeiaiiy a iaeueoeyo eeno? ?
/anoeiai eiiiainoaaoe ooieoe?th i?aee?noeiaeo oa /a?aiiiae?aieo i’yc?a
(iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 24793A).

Iaie cai?iiiiiaaia oaeoeea e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c oioaeueiei
i?aaaiae?iia?iei iioeiaeaeaiiyi iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, ui iieyaa? o
aeeiiaii? ia?oei aoaiii a?o?iaeacoaaiiy iea/iaiai oa eenoueiaiai
noaeia?a, a oaeiae iiiiaiiaeaca oa a?o?iaeaca ??-??? i?aeoaeaiaiaeo
noaeia?a; ae?oaei aoaiii — o?ainiiceoe?th eeaaeueiiai i’yca ia
i?ieneiaeueio /anoeio i?iiaiaai? e?noee c “aeenoae?caoe??th” oi/ee
i?ee??ieaiiy. I?e aeinyaiaii? eooa caeiaiiy a e?eoueiaiio noaeia? 90 ?
a?eueoa a?aaeon?a i?iaiaeeee iia?aoe?th “?o/ea eyeueee” a iao?e
iiaeeo?eaoe??.

Ioe?ithth/e ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy o 82 oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie
ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iaea?eueoa
e?euee?noue iacaaeia?eueieo ?acoeueoao?a a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a iea/a aoea
iia’ycaia c aeei?enoaiiyi o?ainiiceoe?? o?aiaoe??iiae?aiiai i’yca ia
iea/a ca iaoiaeeeith Iaoar. A?eueoo /anoeio caaeia?eueieo oa oi?ioeo
(caeiaiiy 30-90°, a?aeaaaeaiiy 45-90°, aeoeaia ciai?oiy ?ioaoe?y a?ae
30-40° aioo??oiuei? aei iaeo?aeueiiai iieiaeaiiy) ?acoeueoao?a ie
io?eiaee i?ney a?o?iaeacoaaiiy iea/iaiai noaeiao oa o?ainiiceoe??
o?aiaoe??iiae?aiiai i’yca ca iaoiaeeeith Saha. Iniiaio /anoeio a?oie c
a?aei?iieie ?acoeueoaoaie neeaee iaoe??ioe, yeei i?iaiaeeeinue
a?aeiiaeaiiy ciai?oiuei? ?ioaoe?? ca iaoiaeeeith L’Episcopo. Ioe?ithth/e
?acoeueoaoe a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a iea/a ca nenoaiith aia?eeainueei?
Anioe?aoe?? o??o?a?a eeno?, niinoa??aaee cia/io aa??aaaeuei?noue
iieaciee?a ?ioaa?aeueii? ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee (a?ae 7 aei 91%),
ui iiynithaaeinue ??ciei nooiaiai a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a ye a iea/iaiio,
e?eoueiaiio noaeiaao, oae ? a iaeueoeyo eeno?. Oiio aoaeoeai?noue
?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoe?e c a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a iea/a ioe?ithaaee ca
ci?iith a?aenioeo ao?aoe ooieoe?? iea/iaiai noaeiaa. O oai?eo c
iacaaeia?eueieie ?acoeueoaoaie a?aeiiaeaiiy i?e??no ?ooiai? ooieoe??
noaeiaa neeaa 0-26%, c caaeia?eueieie – 36-48%, c oi?ioeie – 45-70% ?
c a?aei?iieie – 22-31%. Iaea?eueoee a?aenioie i?e?inoo ooieoe?? iea/a
niinoa??aaany i?ney a?o?iaeacoaaiiy iea/iaiai noaeiaa o oai?eo c
aa?oi?i oeiii ooeiaeaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy i?e caa?aaeaii? neee
i’yc?a, ui ea?othoue ?ooaie eiiaoee. Iaaaeeeee i?e??no ooieoe??
iea/iaiai noaeiaa o a?oi? a?aei?iieo ?acoeueoao?a iiynithaaany oei, ui
iaeneiaeueii iiaia a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a iea/a iiaeia aoei io?eiaoe eeoa
i?e iayaiino? iaaii? caeeoeiai? (aeo?aeii?) ooieoe?? iea/a.

Ioe?ithth/e aoaeoeai?noue ?aeiino?oeoeaieo i?oiiaaee/ieo iia?aoe?e ia
e?eoueiaiio noaeia? aeei?enoiaoaaee aeanio nenoaio ioe?iee ooieoe??,
yea, ye ? nenoaia ioe?iee ooieoe?? aeey iea/iaiai noaeiaa, aacoaaeanue
ia canaaeao i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeieo ? aeinoaoi?o ?oo?a a e?eoueiaiio
noaeia? aeey aeeiiaiiy iaeiioe?ai?oeo ae?e o iiaoo? (a?aei?iii –
caeiaiiy a?eueoa eooa 130°, aeia?a – a?eueoa eooa 90°, caaeia?eueii –
a?eueoa 60°).

Iaea?eueo iiaia a?aeiiaeaiiy aeoeaiiai caeiaiiy a e?eoueiaiio
noaeia? niinoa??aaee o oai?eo c o?ainiiceoe??th iaeoe?oiai i’yca nieie.
Aeia?? oa caaeia?euei? ?acoeueoaoe aoee io?eiai? iaie i?e o?ainiiceoe??
o?eaieiaiai i’yca, iaeiae aiie?ooaea aeoeaieo ?oo?a eeoa a aeaio
aeiaaeeao aeinyaaea eooa 130°.

Ia?anaaeea nooiaeeeea aaeeeiai a?oaeiiai i’yca o iaoeo iaoe??io?a
ia i?eianea i/?eoaaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ui iiaeia iiynieoe ii/aoeiaith
neaae?noth oeueiai i’yca oa ianoaa?euei?noth iea/iaiai noaeiaa.

O?ainiiceoe?th eeaaeueiiai i’yca i?iaiaeeee o oai?eo c
aaoeuen??th ei??ioe?a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith
iacaaeia?eueieo ?acoeueoao?a, ia iaoo aeoieo, aoea iiaia
ianoaa?euei?noue aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee a iea/iaiio noaeia? oa ?ic?eae
nooiaeeeueiiai o?ainieaioaoo ii eiai aeiaaeei?.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a a?iiaoai?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy (aeeiiaiiy
a?o?iaeaco iea/iaiai noaeiaa, ci?uaiiy aeenoaeuei?oa oi/ee o?enaoe??
eeaaeueiiai i’yca ia aie?aoe? i?iiaiaai? e?noee ia 1-1,5 ni,
canoinoaaiiy eaanaiiai? no??/ee ye oeie nooiaeeeueiiai o?ainieaioaoo)
aeicaieeei io?eiaoe oi?io? oa caaeia?euei? ?acoeueoaoe caeiaiiy a
e?eoueiaiio noaeia? o a?eueoino? oai?eo.

I?e ioe?ioe? ?ooiai? ooieoe?? eeno? o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie
ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ca nenoaiith aia?eeainueei?
Anioe?aoe?? o??o?a?a eeno? a?aei?/aii, ui o a?oi? c eaaeei nooiaiai
aaaeeino? ?ioaa?aeueiee iieaciee ?ooiai? ooieoe?? c??n c 49,5 ± 9,3 %
aei 75,3 ± 5,2 %, a a?oi? c na?aaei?i nooiaiai aaaeeino? – c 35,4 ±
9,7 % aei 58,9 ± 8,8 %. O a?oi? oai?eo c oyaeeei nooiaiai ooeiaeaeaiiy
?ioaa?aeueiee iieaciee ?ooiai? ooieoe?? eeno? c??n a?ae 7,2 ± 3,5 % aei
e?eoaaiiy aei 22,1 ± 10,6 % i?ney, a o oai?eo c aeoaea oyaeeei nooiaiai
o?aaeaiiy, c ii/aoeiaith ?ooiaith ooieoe??th eeno? 0, aaeaeinue
aeinyaiooe ?ooiai? ooieoe??, ui neeaea 12,2 ± 7,3 % a?ae caei?iai?
eeno?.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?e??no ?ooiai? ooieoe?? aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee o a?oi? iaoe??io?a (29 in?a), yeei aeeiioaaeenue iia?aoe??
i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? a oa?i?ie, ui ia ia?aaeuoaaee 3 — 3,5 ?iee
i?ney o?aaie aai iia?aoe?? ia ia?aiaeo noiaao?ao, iaa oaiaeaioe?th aei
c?inoaiiy (39, 7 ± 12,5 %) a ii??aiyii? c i?e?inoii ?ooiai? ooieoe?? o
oai?eo (52 iaoe??ioe), eio?ei e?eoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue i?ci?oa
cacia/aiiai oa?i?io (30,4 ± 10,6 %). Caaaeii i?e??no ?ioaa?aeueiiai
iieacieea ?ooiai? ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee o oai?eo c iane?aeeaie
o?aai iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy neeaa 34,2 ± 11,3%.

C iaoith nenoaiaoecaoe?? aaeeei? e?eueeino? cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiaeee
i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy oa aacoth/enue ia ?ao?iniaeoeaiiio aiae?c?
aeanieo ?acoeueoao?a, ie aeae?eeee iioeiaeuei? oa aeueoa?iaoeai?
iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy ? ?ic?iaeee aeai?eoie oaeoeee i?oiiaaee/iiai
e?eoaaiiy aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a iea/a, aeoeaiiai caeiaiiy a
e?eoueiaiio noaeia? oa ?oo?a iaeueoe?a eeno?. Aei a?oie iioeiaeueieo
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue a?aeianee o?, ye?, ia iaoo aeoieo, aeathoue a?eueo
noaa?euei? ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe.

Io?eiai? aeai? c aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? a?aeiiaeaiiy i?iiaiaaiai
ia?aa ia ??cieo ??aiyo na?ae/aoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?eueo oe?ieeo ?
/?oeeo iieacaiue aei i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? o oai?eo c eieae?caoe??th
o?aaie a aa?oi?e o?aoei? ia?aaeie?//y.

I?e o?aai? i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa oe??? eieae?caoe??
aeioe?euei?noue aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?e i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? ae??oo?oueny
i?ae /an iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ia ia?aiaeo noiaao?ao. A oeo aeiaaeeao,
eiee ia?niaeoeae aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy oeeueiiai i?aee?noeiaiai aai aeeaiei?
a?eee i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa iaaecia/ai? aai a?aenooi? (aeaoaeo aai cia/ia
ooeiaeaeaiiy aeenoaeueii? /anoeie i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa, o?aaia i’yc?a),
aeioe?eueii i?enooiaoe aei nooiaeeeueii-i’yciaeo o?ainiiceoe?e aeey
cai?uaiiy ao?a/aiiai ?icaeiaiiy iaeueoe?a oa eeno?.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? o 50 oai?eo ?c
canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa iaea?eueo?e a?oi? (19
iaoe??io?a) aeeiioaaee iia?aoe?th Merle d’Aubigne, iia?aoe?th
Aeaeaiae?aeca i?iaiaeeee o 10 aeiaaeeao, nooiaeeeueii-i’yciao
o?ainiiceoe?th ca Aioas – o 6 in?a, o?ainiiceoe?th e?eoueiaiai caeia/a
oa aeiaaiai aeieiiiiai i’yca – o 11 oa o?ainiiceoe?th aai ia?anaaeeo
iaeoe?oiai i’yca nieie – o 5 iaoe??io?a.

Iaea?eueo iioeiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeoeaiiai ?icaeiaiiy a
i?iiaiaai-cai’ynoiiio noaeia? oa iaeueoeyo eeno? io?eiai? i?e
aeei?enoaii? iaoiaeeee Merle d’Aubigne, yea, ia iaoo aeoieo, aeicaiey? a
iiaiiio ianyc? a?aeiiaeoe ye aeoeaia ?icaeiaiiy eenoueiaiai noaeiaa, oae
? iaeueoe?a eeno?. ?acoeueoaoe i?ney iia?aoe?? Aeaeaiae?aeca, a
ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaei?i niiniaii a?aeiiaeaiiy, aeaaaee iaio iiaia
?icaeiaiiy a eenoueiaiio noaeia? i?e oi?ioiio ?icaeiaii? iaeueoe?a. Oey
iaoiaeeea aeei?enoiaoaaeanue o aeiaaeeao, eiee niin?a Merle d’Aubigne ia
iiaeia aoei canoinoaaoe.

O?ainiiceoe?th oa a?eueio ia?anaaeeo iaeoe?oiai i’yca nieie
aeei?enoiaoaaee a oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee o?aaiaoe/ia ooeiaeaeaiiy
i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue ?oaoeaaeie aeaoaeoaie oe??e oa
o?aaiith aai ?oai?/iei ooeiaeaeaiiyi i’yc?a-?icaeia/?a. Aoaeoeai?noue
oeeo iia?aoe?e aoea iaaenieith aiane?aeie aaaeeino? o?aaie oa
iaiiaeeeaino? ca aeiiiiiaith eeoa iaeiiai i’yca ??aiith i??ith
neiiiainoaaoe oae? o?e ie?ai? ooieoe??, ye ?icaeiaiiy eeno?, ??-V
iaeueoe?a oa ? iaeueoey. I?ioa ia?anaaeea aai ia?ai?uaiiy
oe??ii-i’yciaiai eeaioy noai?thaaee oiiae aeey iiaeaeueoeo
nooiaeeeueii-i’yciaeo o?ainiiceoe?e.

Aiae?coth/e i?e/eie iacaaeia?eueieo ?acoeueoao?a a?aeiiaeaiiy
ooieoe?? e?eoueiaiai oa na?aaeeiiiai ia?a?a o oai?eo, yeei a
iiaeaeueoiio i?iaiaeeeanue iia?aoeaia i?oiiaaee/ia ei?aeoe?y, aoei
anoaiiaeaii, ui o 72% aeiaaee?a ia iiia?aaeiueiio aoai? aeeiioaaeanue
ieanoeea ia?a?a (aeaoaeo ia?aaeuoaaa 6 ni, a oa?i?ie aeeiiaiiy
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy — 8-10 i?n c iiiaioo o?aaie). Oiio, iaaeae?, o
oai?eo a?eii i?ney 40 ?ie?a i?e aeaoaeoao ia?a?a, ui ia?aaeuoaaee 6-8 ni
? oa?i?iao iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy 10-12 i?n i?ney o?aaie, ie niieo/aee
a?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aiaeo noiaao??a c iaeiei ?c aoai?a i?oiiaaee/ii?
ei?aeoe??.

A?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? eeno? o 85 oai?eo ?c
canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie e?eoueiaiai oa na?aaeeiiiai ia?a?a aeiaaaei a
nai?io ae??oaii? aeio?eiaiiy e?eueeio aaaeeeaeo iieiaeaiue, a naia:
aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?a?ia?aaoe?? oeo /e ?ioeo i’yciaeo a?oi;
ioe?ieo aoi?eiieo ci?i a eeno? oa iaeueoeyo, ye? aeieeee aiane?aeie
aeaia?aaoe?eieo i?ioean?a oa ii?aeiaii? o?aaie; aea?? iioeiaeueii?
oaeoeee iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue aeey iiiiaeaiiy ao?a/aii? ooieoe?? eeno?.
A oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee oiiae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ?aeiino?oeoeaieo
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue a?aenooi? (iayai?noue ?icaeiaeueieo eiio?aeoo?
i’ynoeiai-oaeaiaiaeo noaeia?a, i?neyo?aaiaoe/i? aeaoaeoe oe??e oa i’yc?a
? o.i.), e?eoaaiiy ?icii/eiaee c iia?e?caoe?? i’ynoeiai-oaeaiaiaeo
noaeia?a oa ?icaeiaeueiiai aia?aoo iaeueoe?a o 22 oai?eo, onoiaiiy
i?ea?aeii? eiio?aeoo?e ? iaeueoey oa a?aeiiaeaiiy ianeaieo ?oo?a o 7
iaoe??io?a. Iia?e?coth/o iia?aoe?th ia i’ynoeiai-oaeaiaiaeo noaeiaao
ii?aeioaaee c iia?e?caoe??th ?icaeiaeueiiai aia?aoo iaeueoey oa
aeieiiii? ieanoeiee eainoee noaeiaa (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 151 UA). Oa?aeoa?
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie
e?eoueiaiai oa na?aaeeiiiai ia?a?a caeaaeaa a?ae ??aiy (i?ieneiaeueiee
/e aeenoaeueiee) oa oyaeeino? ooeiaeaeaiiy ? a a?eueoino? nai?e aoa
iai?aaeaiee ia a?aeiiaeaiiy aeoeaii? iiiceoe?? ? iaeueoey (38
aeiaaee?a), cai?uaiiy ooieoe?? /a?aiiiae?aieo oa i?aee?noeiaeo i’yc?a
(15 niinoa?aaeaiue) oa i?iaaaeaiiy noaa?e?coth/eo iia?aoe?e ia
iaeueoeyo eeno? (10 oai?eo).

?acoeueoaoe ?aeiino?oeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueieo iia?aoe?e ?c
cai?uaiiy ooieoe?? ao?a/aieo i’yc?a i?e canoa??eeo ooeiaeaeaiiyo
e?eoueiaiai oa na?aaeeiiiai ia?a?a ioe?ithaaee o 67 oai?eo ca iaoiaeii
aia?eeainueei? Anioe?aoe?? o??o?a?a eeno? a iiaeeo?eaoe?? Eo??iiiai ?.I.
[1991]. Iaea?eueoee ??aaiue iaae?iiy ?ioaa?aeueiiai iieacieea ?ooiai?
ooieoe?? eeno? niinoa??aaany o iaoe??io?a ?c canoa??eeie
ooeiaeaeaiiyie e?eoueiaiai oa na?aaeeiiiai ia?a?a (48 in?a), ui aoei
iia’ycaia c iiaiei aeiaae?iiyi ooieoe?? aeanieo i’yc?a eeno? oa
iioeiaeaeaiiyi nooiaeeee?a-caeia/?a. Aei e?eoaaiiy a?i noaiiaea 16,5 ±
4,1 % ?ooiai? ooieoe?? caei?iai? eeno?, i?ney e?eoaaiiy c??n aei 51,7 ±
8,2 %. O 16 oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie na?aaeeiiiai ia?aa
?ioaa?aeueiee iieaciee ?oo?a eeno? c?inoaa c 31,5 ± 13,1 % aei 78,1 ±
14,4 %. O iaoe??io?a ?c canoa??eei ooeiaeaeaiiyi e?eoueiaiai ia?aa (3
ianoaaeaieo) oeae iieaciee aei iia?aoe?? aoa iaea?eueoei ? neeaaeaa 46,3
± 10,2 %, i?ney iia?aoe?? c?inoaa aei 81,2 ± 9,3 %.

Aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ?c cai?uaiiy ooieoe??
i?aee?noeiaeo oa /a?aiiiae?aieo i’yc?a aeei?enoiaoaaee nenoaio ioe?iee,
cai?iiiiiaaio Aieiai?iaeueeii N.A. [1987]. A?eueo?noue aeia?eo oa
caaeia?eueieo ?acoeueoao?a (4 aeia?eo ? 7 caaeia?eueieo) io?eiaia iaie
i?e aeei?enoaii? niinia?a Bunnell oa Zancolli o oai?eo c iiceoeaiith
iaoaoa?caeueiith i?iaith. Oe? iia?aoe?? iiaeooue aooe iaoiaeii aeai?o a
e?eoaaii? oaeeo iaoe??io?a.

Oaeei /eiii, aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaenii? i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? o
oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo
ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee aeicaieeei iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoaoe
a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee iaa?oue o aeiaaeeao oioaeueii?
aaoeuen?? ei??ioe?a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy. I?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoeaieo
caoiae?a a iioeiaeuei? no?iee c o?aooaaiiyi ia’?eoeaieo e?eoa???a
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i’yc?a aeiii??a oa ?aoeei??io?a, ia??iaeo
aeaia?aaoe?eii-?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano aeaei iiaeeea?noue nei?ioeoe
oa?i?ie e?eoaaiiy oa io?eiaoe iaiaae?eeea? ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe.
?iciiae?e iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia iioeiaeuei? oa aeueoa?iaoeai?
aeicaieea aecia/eoe i??i?eoaoi? iai?yiee e?eoaaiiy.

AENIIAEE

1. Cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia eiiieaeniiai i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy
canoa??eeo ooeiaeaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?a?a aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee aeicaiey? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii i?ae?eoe aei aecia/aiiy oa?i?i?a,
ianyao aeeiiaiiy oa oa?aeoa?o i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe??, ooi/ieoe
iae?io?c?ieia?/i? e?eoa??? aeey aeai?o oaeoeee o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

2. ??aaiue i’ycoai? aoeaoeeoie?ianoa?ace a?aeiia?aea? ee?i?/iei
i?iyaai oyaeeino? aeaia?aaoe?eieo ci?i o i’ycao ? iiaea aooe iai?yiith
iciaeith ii/aoeo i?ioeano ?a?ia?aaoe??, aea ia na?ae/eoue i?i nooi?iue
?? aoaeoeaiino?.

3. Ci?ie iaooa?io aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ii? aeoeaiino? i’yc?a-caeia/?a
ia?aaeie?//y caeaaeaoue a?ae aoaeoeaiino? ?a?ia?aaoe?? oa a?aeiiaeaiiy
neee i’yca, a ?o cieaeaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
noaoe?iia?ii? aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ii? aeoeaiino? i’yca, ui iiaea
?icoe?ithaaoeny ye ciaioaiiy nooiaiy ea?iaaiino? iaaoaeoeaii
?a?ia?aiaaiei i’ycii.

4. Aeaia?aaoe?y i’yc?a aiane?aeie iioeiaeaeaiiy iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee ni?e/eiy?
i?ia?anoth/? aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/i? oa ao?io?/i? ci?ie i’ycoaeo
aieieii, ?icaeoie o?a?icii? niieo/ii? oa aee?iai? oeaiei, ae?aaeai?noue
yeeo caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae oa?i?i?a aeaia?aaoe??, a ? a?ae
i?neyo?aaiaoe/ieo ?iceaae?a e?iaiiinoa/aiiy, ui aeieeathoue ?
caeaaeaoue a?ae oyaeeino?, oa?aeoa?o oa eieae?caoe?? o?aaie.

5. I?e a?aeiiaeaii? neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee i’yc?a a i?ioean?
?a?ia?aaoe?? niinoa??aa?oueny no?eea aeeiai?ea ca?eueoaiiy /anoioieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oa ?iaeaeno aei?noeino? i’yc?a, iaeiae iaa?oue i?e
iiaiiio a?aeiiaeaii? i’ycoai? neee (I5) a?iiaoai?/i? iieacieee
cia/ii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae oaeeo naieo ia caei?ia?e ?ooe?.

6. Oeueo?acaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? ia’?eoea?coaaoe
nooi?iue o?a?iciiai ia?a?iaeaeaiiy i’yc?a ia ?aii?o noaae?yo
aeaia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano oa ca iayaiino? cia/ieo cii o?a?ico
iaa?oiooaaoe iieacaiiy aei a?eueo ?aiiueiai i?iaaaeaiiy i?oiiaaee/ieo
?aeiino?oeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeueieo iia?aoe?e.

7. Aiae?c aeeiai?ee aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ieo iieaciee?a o oai?eo ?c
canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?i?i?a aeaia?aaoe?? oa neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee
?a?ia?aiaaieo i’yc?a aeicaiey? eeaneo?eoaaoe nooi?iue iaaoaeoeaiino?
?a?ia?aaoe?? ? i?iaiicoaaoe ye?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? i’yc?a a
oiae? aeaia?aaoe?eii-?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano.

8. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaie nenoaia eiiieaenii? ioe?iee
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i’yc?a aea? iiaeeea?noue ia o?eueee eiinoaooaaoe
aoaeoeai?noue /e iaaoaeoeai?noue ?a?ia?aaoe?? ia iniia?
iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeeiai?oe?, a e i?iaiaeeoe
ei?aeoe?th oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy, aeei?enoiaoth/e iieacieee oeueo?acaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?ioiiiiao??? oa neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee i’yc?a.

9. Iieacaiiy aei iia?aoeaii? i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe?? aeioe?eueii
aecia/aoe c o?aooaaiiyi oa?i?i?a i?ney o?aaie oa iiia?aaeiueiai
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ia ia?aiaeo noiaao?ao, a oaeiae oyaeeino?
oa oa?aeoa?o ?o ooeiaeaeaiiy; iioeiaeueieie ? oa?i?ie, ui a 1,5-2
?ace ia?aaeuothoue ii?iaeuei? o?c?ieia?/i? no?iee ?a?ia?aaoe?? (1
ii/aeiao) aeey eiaeii? c i’yciaeo a?oi.

10. I?iaeaia a?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a iea/a o
ooieoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeiiio naeoi?? i?e iayaiino? aeaeaoi?a eiiaoee
iaee?aua ae??oo?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith a?o?iaeaco iea/iaiai noaeiaa, ui
aeicaiey? iie?ioeoe ia o?eueee caeiaiiy ? a?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a, aea e
noaa?e?co? eiai a iioeiaeueiiio iieiaeaii? ?ioaoe??; nooi?iue
a?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a i?e a?o?iaeacoaaii? aecia/a?oueny i?ney ioe?iee
neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aaeiueiai coa/anoiai i’yca.

11. I?e a?aeiiaeaii? caeiaiiy a e?eoueiaiio noaeia? o oai?eo ?c
canoa??eei ooeiaeaeaiiyi iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, eiee neea iaeoe?oiai,
aaeeeiai a?oaeiiai oa o?eaieiaiai i’yca iea/a ia ia?aaeuo? 50% neee
caei?iaiai eiio?eaoa?aeueiiai i’yca (I 4A) ? caaaeaee i?e aeei?enoaii?
eeaaeueiiai i’yca, aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe ci?uaiiy oi/ee i?ee??ieaiiy
aeenoaeueii ia 1-1,5 ni a?ae i?noey i?ee??ieaiiy aeaiaieiaiai i’yca
iea/a.

12. I?e o?aai? i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa ? ?icaeia/?a iaeueoe?a oa eeno? a
aa?oi?e o?aoei? ia?aaeie?//y iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy i?oiiaaee/ii?
ei?aeoe?? aeioe?eueii ae??ooaaoe i?ae /an ?aa?c?? o?aaiiaaiiai ia?aa;
iioeiaeueiei niiniaii i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy iacai?ioieo ooeiaeaeaiue
i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa ? iia?aoe?y Merle d’Aubigne.

13. Aeei?enoaiiy nenoaie eiiieaeniiai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy o oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aeicaieeei io?eiaoe cia/iee i?e??no ?ioaa?aeueiiai
iieacieea ?ooiai? ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee (34,2 ± 11,3%).

14. Aeeiai?ea i?e?inoo ?ioaa?aeueiiai iieacieea ?ooiai? ooieoe??
eeno? a a?oiao oai?eo c ??cieie oa?i?iaie i?oiiaaee/ii? ei?aeoe??
na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?eueo ?aiiueiai ?? i?iaaaeaiiy, a
naia a oa?i?ie, ui ia ia?aaeuothoue 3 — 3,5 ?iee i?ney o?aaie.

NIENIE Ae?OEIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. No?aooi N.N. A?aeiiaeaiiy caeiaiiy a e?eoueiaiio noaeia? o oai?eo c
canoa??eei iioeiaeaeaiiyi iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy //Ee?i.o??. –1998.- ?2.-
N.29-31.

2. No?aooi N.N. ?aeiino?oeoeaii-a?aeiiaethaaeuei? iia?aoe?? o oai?eo c
canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie na?aaeeiiiai oa e?eoueiaiai ia?a?a //A?oea
eeei. e yenia?ei. iaaeeoeeiu.- 1998.- O.7.- ?1.- N.53-55.

3. No?aooi N.N. A?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? eeno? o oai?eo c canoa??eeie
iioeiaeaeaiiyie i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa //I?oii.,o?aaiao. e i?ioac.- 1998.-
?2.- N.79-82.

4. No?aooi N.N. Iniaeeaino? a?aeiiaethaaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy o?aaie
ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee, oneeaaeiaii? ?oai?/iei
ooeiaeaeaiiyi i’yc?a ia?aaeie?//y oa eeno? //Atheaoaiue Oe?.Anioe?aoe??
iae?io??o?a?a.- 1998.- ?4.- N.84-86.

5. No?aooi N.N. Eiiieaenia i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy o oai?eo c o?aaiith
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy //A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie.-
1999.- ?3.- N.93-96.

6. No?aooi N.N. Iiieeee a oaeoeoe? i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ?c
o?aaiith iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy //Atheaoaiue Oe?.Anioe?aoe??
iae?io??o?a?a.- 1998.- ?7.- N.76-77.

7. No?aooi N.N., Oeeiaaethe A.?. A?aeiiaeaiiy ?oo?a iea/a o oai?eo c
o?aaiith iea/iaiai nieao?iiy // Ee?i.o??.- 1997.- ?5-6.- N.14-15.

8. No?aooi N.N., *eaeia I.A. Ee?i?ei-a?iiaoai?/i? aniaeoe a?aeiiaeaiiy
aeoeaiiai caeiaiiy a e?eoueiaiio noaeia? o oai?eo c canoa??eeie
ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy //I?oiiaae., o?aaiao. e i?ioace?.-
1999.- ?1.- N.63-67.

9. Iaaiiaaeia N., Iaoaae I.A., No?aooi N.N. Aeeiaieea aeoeaiinoe
aoeaoeeoieeiynoa?acu o aieueiuo n canoa?aeuie iia?aaeaeaieyie
ia?eoa?e/aneeo ia?aia e iea/aaiai nieaoaiey //Eaai?.aeeaaiinoeea.-
1998.- ?3.- N.12-15.

10. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E., No?aooi N.N. Nenoaia ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo
e?eoa???a ioe?iee a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa
//Oe?.iaae./aniien.- 1998.- ? 4 (6).- N.53-58.

11. Aioiithe E.A., Aaeiae/ A.E., No?aooi N.N., Iia/ai A.N., Eo?eiiie
E.I., Eaneia A.A., Eyaao A.I. Neo/ae naiaiaeiie iee?iiae?ininoaeenoie
o?ainieaioaoeee eiaeii-iuoa/iiai eineooa oe?i/aeoae iuooeu nieiu
//I?oiiaae., o?aaiao. e i?ioac. – 1987.- ?2.- N.43-44.

12. Oeeiaaethe A.?., Aaeiae/ A.A., No?aooi N.N., Naiii I.A. E?eoaaiiy
canoa??eeo ooeiaeaeaiue e?eoueiaiai oa na?aaeeiiiai ia?a?a, oneeaaeiaieo
?icaeiaeueieie eiio?aeoo?aie i’ynoeiai-oaeaiaiaeo noaeia?a //Atheaoaiue
Oe?.Anioe?aoe?? iae?io??o?a?a.- 1998.- ?7.- N.67-69.

13. Oeeiaaethe A.?., *aaioa?ueiaa E.E., No?aooi N.N., Naiii I.A.
Aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/i? e?eoa??? aoaeoeaiino? ?a?ia?aaoe?? i?ney
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c o?aaiith iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
//Atheaoaiue Oe?.Anioe?aoe?? iae?io??o?a?a.- 1998.- ?4.- N.87-91.

14. Oaeueiia A.I., Na?aiei N.A., *a?eanneee A.E., No?aooi N.N.
Eii?aeeiaoeey aeeiaie/aneeo oac YIA-aeoeaiinoe naeaaoaeae eieoaaiai
nonoaaa /aeiaaea i?e inouanoaeaiee oi/iinoiuo neaaeyueo aeaeaeaiee
//Iae?ioeceie.- 1998.- O.30.- ?3.- N.212-225.

15. Tal’nov A.N., Serenko S.G., Strafun S.S., Kostyukov A.I. Analysis
of the electromyographic activity of human elbow joint muscles during
slow linear flexion movements in isotorque conditions
//Neuroscience.- 1999.- V.90.- No.3.- P.1123-1136.

16. Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 151 “UA”, A61 A17/58. I?eno??e aeey a?o?ie?co
i’ynii-oaeaiaiaeo noaeia?a eeno? /No?aooi N.N., Aaeiae/ A.A. (Oe?a?ia);
? 94021925; Cayae. 16.02.94; Iioae.30.04.98 ?.:”I?iieneiaa aeani?noue”,
1998, Athe. ?2.- N.3.2.1.

17. Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 24794A A61 A17/56, A17/58. Niin?a a?aeiiaeaiiy
?oo?a iea/a oa i?eno??e aeey eiai aeeiiaiiy /No?aooi N.N. (Oe?a?ia); ?
98052696; Cayae: 25.05.98; Iioae.: 25.12.98 ?.: “I?iieneiaa aeani?noue”,
1998, Athe. ?6. — 8 n.

18. Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 24793A A61 A17/56. Niin?a e?eoaaiiy iaa?iaaiii?
e?aoueiiiae?aii? aeaoi?iaoe?? eeno? /No?aooi N.N. (Oe?a?ia); ? 98020649;
Cayae: 06.02.98; Iioae.: 25.12.98 ?.: “I?iieneiaa aeani?noue”, 1998,
Athe. ?6. — 6 n.

19. No?aooi N.N., Nieiethe I.I., Aaeiae/ A.A. Aecia/aiiy oaeoeee
e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c o?aaiith iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith
aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?? //I?oii.,o?aaiao. e i?ioac.- 1997.- ?3.- N.103.

20. No?aooi N.N. A?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? eeno? o oai?eo c canoa??eeie
ooeiaeaeaiiyie na?aaeeiiiai oa e?eoueiaiai ia?a?a
//Iao.aeiee.iao/ii-i?aeo.eiio.”Nia?aiaiiua aniaeou ea/aiey o?aai eenoe e
eo iineaaenoaee”.- Aeiai?iiao?iane.- 1998.- N. 93-94.

21. No?aooi N.N., Aaeiae/ A.A. O??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy ?icaeiaeueieo
eiio?aeoo? i’ynoii-oaeaiaiaeo noaeia?a o oai?eo c iane?aeeaie o?aai
eeno? //Iao.aeiee.iao/ii-i?aeo.eiio.”Nia?aiaiiua aniaeou ea/aiey o?aai
eenoe e eo iineaaenoaee”.- Aeiai?iiao?iane.- 1998.- N. 95-96.

22. No?aooi N.N., Nieiethe I.I., Aaeiae/ A.A. Aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?y o
aecia/aii? oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c o?aaiith iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
//Iao.eiio. “Aeieia?y oa noai caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao”.-
Oaeai?iae.- 1996.- N.148-149.

23. No?aooi N.N., Aaeiae/ A.?., Eo??iiee ?.I. ?aaa?e?oaoe?y oai?eo c
canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy //Oac.aeii.eiio.”No/ani?
i?aeoiaee a?aeiiaethaaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c o?aaiith iea/a,
ia?aaeie?//y, eeno?”.- Ee?a-Oa?iii?eue.- 1993.- N.50-51.

24. No?aooi N.N. I?oiiaaee/ia ei?aeoe?y ooieoe?? eeno? o oai?eo c
canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy //Iao.O?? c’?caeo
o?aaiaoie.-i?oiiaae?a Oe?a?ie.- E., 1996.- N.326-327.

25. Eo??iiee ?.I., No?aooi N.N., Aaeiae/ A.A. O??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy
canoa??ei? ii?aeiaii? o?aaie ia?aiaeo noiaao??a ia ia?aaeie?//? oa
cai’ynoeo // Iao.O?? c’?caeo o?aaiaoie.-i?oiiaae?a Oe?a?ie.- E., 1996.-
N.321-323.

26. Eo??iiee ?.I., No?aooi N.N., Aieae A.?. O??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy
canoa??eeo niieo/ieo iioeiaeaeaiue i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa //
Oac.aeii.eiio.”No/ani? i?aeoiaee a?aeiiaethaaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
o?aaiith iea/a, ia?aaeie?//y, eeno?”.- Ee?a-Oa?iii?eue.- 1993.- N.29-31.

27. No?aooi N.N., Aaeiae/ A.E. Naiaiaeiay e ianaiaiaeiay ia?anaaeea
m.latissimus dorsi a ainnoaiiaeaiee ooieoeee aa?oiae eiia/iinoe
//Oac.aeiee. eiio.”O?aaia eenoe, ia?aay iiiiuue e ?aaaeeeoaoeey
aieueiuo”.- Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1992.- N.55-56.

AIIOAOe?ss

No?aooi N.N. Eiiieaenia i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ?c
canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a
aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.21 –
o?aaiaoieia?y ? i?oiiaae?y. Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo o?aaiaoieia?? ?
i?oiiaae?? IIC Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaii aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ianoaaeaiiy oa
e?eoaaiiy 367 oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy
oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaia
eiiieaenia a?noiii?oieia?/ia, a?io?i?/ia, i?ioiiiiao?e/ia oa
aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ia ioe?iea ci?i a aeaia?aiaaieo i’ycao oaeeo oai?eo o
??ci? oa?i?ie aeaia?aaoe??. ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
noaio i’yc?a ia iniia? aeeiai?ee aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo oa
i?ioiiiiao?e/ieo ci?i, oa?aeoa?enoeee oeueo?acaoeiai? ea?oeie i’yc?a ?
ci?ie iaooa?io ?o aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ii? oa neeiai? aeoeaiino?.
Iaa?oioiaaia ? aaeineiiaeaia nenoaia cania?a iia?aoeaii? i?oiiaaee/ii?
ei?aeoe?? o oaeeo oai?eo, ?ic?iaeai? iia? niiniae iia?aoeaiiai
i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy ? cai?iiiiiaaia ?iai/a eeaneo?eaoe?y nooiai?a
aaaeeino? canoa??eeo ooeiaeaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy. Aeei?enoaiiy
nenoaie eiiieaeniiai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy o
oai?eo ?c canoa??eeie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aeicaieeei
io?eiaoe cia/iee i?e??no ?ioaa?aeueiiai iieacieea ?ooiai? ooieoe??
aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee — a na?aaeiueiio ia 34,2%.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy, iea/iaa nieaoaiiy,
ia?eoa?e/i? ia?ae, aeaia?aiaai? i’yce, nooiaeeeueii- i’ycia?
o?ainiiceoe??, aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/i? e?eoa???.

ANNOTATION

S.S.Strafun. Complex orthopedic treatment of patients
withlong-standing lesions of brachial plexus and peripheral nerves of
the upper limb. Doctor of Medical Science Thesis, specialization
N14.01.21 — «traumatology and orthopedics». Research Institute of
Traumatology and Orthopedics, Ministry of Public Health of
Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The work is based on analysis of the observation and
treatment results of the 367 patiens with long-standing lesions of
branchial plexus and peripheral nerves of the upper limb. For the first
time the complex histomorphological, biochemical,
myotonometral and electrophysiological evaluation of alteration in
denervated muscles of such patiens was done. Evaluation of the
muscles functional state on the basis of electrophysiological and
myotonometrical changes dynamics, characteristics of muscles ultrasound
picture and pattern changes of their electromyographic and strength
activity was worked out. Operative orthopedic correction technique
for such patients was grounded and improved. New methods of
operative orthopedic treatment were worked out. Work classification
of long-standing brachial plexus lesions severity was proposed.
Usage of complex differentiated orthopedic treatment of patients with
brachial plexus lesions permitted to recieve significant increase
(an average 34,2%) of integral index of upper limb motor function.

Key words: orthopedic treatment, brachial plexus, peripheral
nerves, denervated muscles, tendo-muscular transpositions,
electromyographical criteria.

AIIIOAOeEss

No?aooi N.N. Eiiieaeniia i?oiiaaee/aneia ea/aiea aieueiuo n
canoa?aeuie iia?aaeaeaieyie iea/aaiai nieaoaiey e ia?eoa?e/aneeo ia?aia
aa?oiae eiia/iinoe. — ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie
noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.21 –
o?aaiaoieiaey e i?oiiaaeey. Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo
o?aaiaoieiaee e i?oiiaaeee IC Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A iniiao ?aaiou iieiaeai aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia ianeaaeiaaiey e
ea/aiey 367 aieueiuo n canoa?aeuie iia?aaeaeaieyie iea/aaiai nieaoaiey
e ia?eoa?e/aneeo ia?aia aa?oiae eiia/iinoe. I?oiiaaee/aneia ea/aiea
i?iaiaeeee o 235 iaoeeaioia, eioi?ui auei auiieiaii 360 iia?aoeaiuo
aiaoaoaeuenoa. Ec ieo 40,9% ninoaaeee aieueiua n canoa?aeuie
iia?aaeaeaieyie iea/aaiai nieaoaiey, 37,8% — n iineaaenoaeyie
iia?aaeaeaiee eieoaaiai e n?aaeeiiiai ia?aia e 21,3% — n iia?aaeaeaieyie
eo/aaiai ia?aa. Aia?aua i?iaaaeaia eiiieaeniay aenoiii?oieiae/aneay,
aeioeie/aneay, ieioiiiiao?e/aneay e yeaeo?ioeceieiae/aneay ioeaiea
eciaiaiee a aeaia?ae?iaaiiuo iuooeao oaeeo aieueiuo a ?acee/iua n?iee
aeaia?aaoeee.

I?e aenoiii?oieiae/aneii enneaaeiaaiee auyaeaii, /oi
aeaia?aaoeey iuooe a ?acoeueoaoa iia?aaeaeaiey iea/aaiai nieaoaiey e
ia?aia aa?oiae eiia/iinoe i?eaiaeeo e i?ia?anne?othuei
aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?ioe/aneei e ao?ioe/aneei eciaiaieyi a iuoa/iuo
aieieiao. Au?aaeaiiinoue ?acaeoey oea?iciie niaaeeieoaeueiie e aee?iaie
oeaiae caaeneo ia oieueei io n?ieia aeaia?aaoeee, ii e io oa?aeoa?a
iinoo?aaiaoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa e?iaiia?auaiey, oyaeanoe e eieaeecaoeee
o?aaiu. I?e enneaaeiaaiee aeaia?ae?iaaiiuo iuooe onoaiiaeaii, /oi
o?iaaiue iuoa/iie aoeaoeeoieeiynoa?acu ioaa/aao eeeie/aneei i?iyaeaieyi
oyaeanoe aeaia?aaoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee a iuooeao e iiaeao auoue iai?yiui
i?eciaeii ia/aea ?aeiia?aaoeee, iaeiaei ia io?aaeaao noaiaiue a?
yooaeoeaiinoe.

I?e ainnoaiiaeaiee neeiauo oa?aeoa?enoee iuooe a i?ioeanna
?aeiia?aaoeee iaaethaeaee noieeoth aeeiaieeo oaaee/aiey /anoioiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee e eiaeaena aeanoeinoe iuooe i?e ieioiiiiao?e/aneeo
enneaaeiaaieyo. Eco/ay eciaiaiey iaooa?ia yeaeo?iieia?aoe/aneie
aeoeaiinoe iuooe-naeaaoaeae i?aaeiea/uey o aieueiuo n canoa?aeuie
iia?aaeaeaieyie iea/aaiai nieaoaiey auyaeaii, /oi oa?aeoa? eciaiaiee
caaeneo io yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeiia?aaoeee e neeiauo oa?aeoa?enoee
?aeiia?ae?iaaiiuo iuooe. N oiaiueoaieai neeu enneaaeoaiuo iuooe –
naeaaoaeae i?aaeiea/uey, iaaethaeaee iiauoaiea o?iaiy noaoeeiia?iie
yeaeo?iieia?aoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe aeaoaeaaie iuooeu iea/a, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenaiaaei ia oiaiueoaiee noaiaie oi?aaeyaiinoe iayooaeoeaii
?aeiia?ae?iaaiiie iuooeae.

I?e oeueo?acaoeiauo enneaaeiaaieyo iuooe oaeaeinue
iauaeoeaece?iaaoue noaiaiue oea?iciuo e aeaia?aaoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee e ia
?aiieo noaaeeyo aeaia?aaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna iainiiaaoue iieacaiey e
i?iaaaeaieth i?oiiaaee/aneeo ?aeiino?oeoeaii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo
iia?aoeee. Ii?aaeaeaiu iieacaiey e iia?aoeaiie i?oiiaaee/aneie
ei??aeoeee n o/aoii n?ieia iinea o?aaiu e i?aaeuaeouaai iia?aoeaiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa ia ia?aiuo noaieao, a oaeaea oyaeanoe e oa?aeoa?a
iia?aaeaeaiey iineaaeieo. Iioeiaeueiuie yaeythony n?iee a iieoi?a-aeaa
?aca i?aauoathuea ii?iaeueiua oeceieiae/aneea n?iee ?aeiia?aaoeee (1
ii/noo) aeey eaaeaeie ec iuoa/iuo a?oii.

Aiaeec aeeiaieee yeaeo?iieia?aoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae o aieueiuo n
canoa?aeuie iia?aaeaeaieyie iea/aaiai nieaoaiey e ia?eoa?e/aneeo ia?aia
a caaeneiinoe io n?ieia aeaia?aaoeee e neeiauo oa?aeoa?enoee
?aeiia?ae?iaaiiuo iuooe iicaieee eeanneoeoee?iaaoue noaiaiue
iayooaeoeaiinoe ?aeiia?aaoeee e i?iaiice?iaaoue ea/anoai ainnoaiiaeaiey
ooieoeee iuooe a oiaea aeaia?aaoeeiiii-?aeiia?aaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna.

?ac?aaioaia nenoaia ioeaiee ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey iuooe ia
iniiaa aeeiaieee yeaeo?ioeceieiae/aneeo e ieioiiiiao?e/aneeo eciaiaiee,
oa?aeoa?enoeee oeueo?acaoeiaie ea?oeiu iuooe e eciaiaiee iaooa?ia eo
yeaeo?iieia?aoe/aneie e neeiaie aeoeaiinoe. Iainiiaaia e
oniaa?oainoaiaaia nenoaia niiniaia iia?aoeaiie i?oiiaaee/aneie
ei??aeoeee o oaeeo aieueiuo, ?ac?aaioaiu iiaua iaoiaeeee iia?aoeaiiai
i?oiiaaee/aneiai ea/aiey, i?aaeeiaeaia ?aai/ay eeanneoeeaoeey noaiaiae
oyaeanoe canoa?aeuo iia?aaeaeaiee iea/aaiai nieaoaiey.

?ac?aaioaiu aeai?eoiu oaeoeee ainnoaiiaeaiey aeoeaiuo aeaeaeaiee
a iea/aaii, eieoaaii nonoaaao e eenoe a caaeneiinoe io oyaeanoe o?aaiu
e iieiiou ainnoaiiaeaiey ooieoeee iuooe aa?oiae eiia/iinoe. I?e ioeaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeiino?oeoeaii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo iia?aoeee o aieueiuo n
canoa?aeuie iia?aaeaeaieyie eo/aaiai ia?aa eo/oea ?acoeueoaou auee
iieo/aiu iinea eniieueciaaiey iaoiaeeee Merle d’Aubigne. I?eiaiaiea
aeaiiiai niiniaa i?oiiaaee/aneie ei??aeoeee iicaieeei iaeaieaa iieii
ainnoaiiaeoue ?acaeaaiea eenoe e iaeueoeaa.

Eniieueciaaiea nenoaiu eiiieaeniiai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai
i?oiiaaee/aneiai ea/aiey aieueiuo n canoa?aeuie iia?aaeaeaieyie
iea/aaiai nieaoaiey iicaieeei iieo/eoue cia/eoaeueiue i?e?ino
eioaa?aeueiiai iieacaoaey aeaeaaoaeueiie ooieoeee aa?oiae eiia/iinoe —
a n?aaeiai ia 34,2%.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?oiiaaee/aneia ea/aiea, iea/aaia nieaoaiea,
ia?eoa?e/aneea ia?au, aeaia?ae?iaaiiua iuooeu, nooiaeeeueii-iuoa/iua
o?ainiiceoeee, yeaeo?iieia?aoe/aneea e?eoa?ee.

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