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I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

OE?A?INUeEA IAAeE*IA NOIIAOIEIA?*IA AEAAeAI?ss

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

I?ua?yeiaa Ieaia Aai?a??aia

OAeE616-08:616-036.12:616-001+616-006.34.03:616.716.4:534.833:550.38

Eiiieaenia e?eoaaiiy o?ii?/iiai o?aaiaoe/iiai oa iaeiioiaaiiiai
inoaii??e?oo ieaeiuei? uaeaie ?c canoinoaaiiyi iineaaeaiiai
aaiiaai?oiiai iiey

14.01.22 – noiiaoieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Iieoaaa – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a E?einueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.
N.?.Aai?a??anueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie ia eaoaae?? o??o?a?/ii? noiiaoieia??

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aac?oeia Na?a?e
A?eai?iae/. E?einueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
N.?.Aai?a??anueeiai, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o??o?a?/ii? noiiaoieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ieo/aiie A?eoi?
?aaiiae/. OINA, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?iiaaeaaoeee o??o?a?/ii?
noiiaoieia??

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?oc?i Aaiaae?e Iao?iae/.
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
o??o?a?/ii? noiiaoieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
IIC Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ _27__“ _ea?oiy 1999?. i __13:30__ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 44.601.01 i?e Oe?a?inuee?e
iaaee/i?e noiiaoieia?/i?e aeaaeai?? (314024, i.Iieoaaa, aoe.
Oaa/aiea, 23)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
iaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?/ii? aeaaeai??

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ __24__ “ __aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeioeaio ___________ Aieiaei I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?iaeaia e?eoaaiiy o?ii?/iiai o?aaiaoe/iiai oa
iaeiioiaaiiiai inoaii??e?oo uaeai caeeoa?oueny iaei??th c iaea?eueo
neeaaeieo (A.A.Oa?ai?iaenueeee,1984, 1995; I.ss.Iie?ee,1997). Ca inoaii?
aeanyoe??//y niinoa??aa?oueny no?eea c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ai?eieo
caiaeueieo caoai?thaaiue, ui aeieeathoue o uaeaiii-eeoeaa?e ae?eyioe?
(I.A.Aeieo???aa, A.A.Oacaiiaa, 1987; A.A.Oa?ai?iaenueeee,
N.I.Eaeocueea,1994; Andra et all.,1979). *anoioa ?icaeoeo o?aaiaoe/iiai
oa iaeiioiaaiiiai inoaii??e?oo oaeiae ia ia? oaiaeaioe?? aei cieaeaiiy
(I.I.Ai?ae?the,1988; A.A.Oeiio??a ?c ni?aaao.,1998).

Ia caaaeath/e ia canoinoaaiiy no/anieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy,
a??ia?aei?noue aeieeiaiiy inoaii??e?oo ieaeiuei? uaeaie caeeoa?oueny
aenieith, i?e/iio o?ii?/ia oi?ia oeueiai caoai?thaaiiy cono??/a?oueny o
13-25% oai?eo (Ae.?.Ua?aaothe,1987).

I?e/eie c?inoaiiy /enea iaoe??io?a oe??? eaoaai??? iiaeooue
?icaeyaeaoeny o?eueee o eiioaeno? c aiae?cii oe?ieiai eiiieaeno
aca?iicaeaaeieo, ia?aaaaeii i?ia?anoth/eo oaeoi??a. Nthaee aoiaeyoue
ci?ie aeaeiaiai neeaaeo i?e?ioei?e (A.I.Aoa?i ?c ni?aaao.,1998),
aeieeiaiiy aioea?ioeei-?acenoaioieo ooai?a aaeoa??e (E.N.Ciooei,
I.?.I?eiea?a, I.I.Niaauoe,1988; I.ss.Iie?ee,1997; E.O.Iiciye,1997;
O.Ao?aoaeaee?aa, 1986), cieaeaiiy caaaeueii? oa i?noeaai? ?aaeoeaiino?
(A.?.Eoe’yiaiei, 1986), ianai?/ania caa?oaiiy ca iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith
(TH.?.Aa?iaaenueeee, 1998), iaaeinoaoi?e e?eoaaeueiee aoaeo i?e
aeei?enoaii? o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy (A.A.Aoee?i,1987;
A.A.Eaaaiaoeue, A.A.Iieyeia, 1989). Ana oea iaoiiaeth? iayai?noue
o?oaeiiu?a, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue i?ioean e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia inoaii??e?o
ieaeiuei? uaeaie, iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeniiai
oa?aiaaoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo, aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia
oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oa iiooe iiaeo, a?eueo aoaeoeaieo niinia?a oa
oaoiieia?e e?eoaaiiy iaoe??io?a oe??? a?oie (TH.?.Aa?iaaenueeee,
TH.A.THnoaia,1988; A.A.Iaeai/oe, ?.TH.Aa?eyoneaeoa,1993).

A iniia? ?nioth/eo iaoiaeee e?eoaaiiy caoai?thaaiiy eaaeeoue
?aoe?iiaeueiee eiiieaen, yeee aeeth/a? aaeaeaaoia o??o?a?/ia ao?o/aiiy
oa eiina?aaoeaio oa?ai?th (A.A.Oeiio??a ?c ni?aaao.,1991; I.?.Iaeaae/,
A.A.Naaoeianueeee, 1995). Na?aae eiina?aaoeaieo iaoiae?a iii?oia i?noea
a?aeaiaeeoueny o?c?ioa?ai?? oa, ie?aii, iaai?oioa?ai?? (E.N.Oa?iiaee ?c
ni?aaao.,1985). A oeueiio iai?yieo ia?niaeoeaiei caea?oueny aeei?enoaiiy
iineaaeaiiai aaiiaai?oiiai iiey (IAII) a yeino? e?eoaaeueiiai oaeoi?o
(A.I.E?oa?iia,1992).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi canoinoaaiiy iineaaeaiiai
aaiiaai?oiiai iiey a e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee o?aaiaoe/iee oa
iaeiioiaaiiee inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie.

Ca‘ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ocaiaeaeo?oueny c ieaiaie iaei??? c
iaoeiaiaeine?aeieo ?ia?o E?einueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.N.?.Aai?a??aneiai “Iioei?caoe?y i?ioean?a caaithaaiiy
?ai uaeaiii-eeoeaai? ae?eyiee”, iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
01.95.V009969.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith iaoi? ?iaioe ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia
o?ii?/iee o?aaiaoe/iee oa iaeiioiaaiiee inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie.

Aeey cae?eniaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe aieea iineaaeaiiai aaiiaai?oiiai iiey ia ina?aaeie o?aaeaiiy
? i?aai?ci oai?iai ia o?ii?/iee o?aaiaoe/iee oa iaeiioiaaiiee
inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie.

2. ?ic?iaeoe i?eno??e, ae?aioth/ee AII a iaeano? ieaeiuei? uaeaie.

3. Ae?iaeoe iieacaiiy ? ooi/ieoe i?ioeiieacaiiy aei aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo
ae?aioaaiiy AII.

4. I?iaanoe ii??aiyeueia aea/aiiy ? ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo ee?ii/ieo,
aaiaoieia?/ieo, a?io?i?/ieo, i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo oa oeeoieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeaoe ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? iaoiaeo eieaeueiiai
ae?aioaaiiy AII o e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee o?aaiaoe/iee oa
iaeiioiaaiiee inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Aia?oa o noiiaoieia?/i?e i?aeoeoe? iineaaeaia aaiiaai?oia iiea
aeei?enoaii ye e?eoaaeueiee oaeoi?.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo ee?i?/ieo, i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo, aaiaoieia?/ieo,
a?io?i?/ieo oa oeeoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
aeioe?euei?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy eieaeueiiai ae?aioaaiiy
AII o eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee o?aaiaoe/iee oa
iaeiioiaaiiee inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie.

?ic?iaeaii oaeoeeo canoinoaaiiy IAII o eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii? oai?eo
cacia/aii? a?oie c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae aeeiai?ee caiaeueieo oa
a?aeiiaethaaeueieo i?ioean?a, ui i?io?eathoue o i‘yeeo oeaieiao ?ai oa
ii?eoeue i?ae /an aeei?enoaiiy i?eeaaeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai iaie i?eeaaeo aeey aieeao iineaaeaiei
aaiiaai?oiei iieai ia ina?aaeie o?aaeaiiy o oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee
o?aaiaoe/iee oa iaeiioiaaiiee inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie aea?
iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeueoe aoaeo eiiieaeniiai e?eoaaiiy.

Iaoiaeeea e?eoaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith IAII i?inoa ? c?o/ia: aeey ??
cae?eniaiiy ia iio??aia aeaeo?iaia?a?y, ui aeicaiey? e?eoaaoe oai?eo
aaoiiiiii, iaia? iaiao?aeiino? o i?eaeaaii? aia?aoo?e, ui aei?iai
eiooo?, ? aeae?eaii? ie?aieo i?ei?uaiue, ia iio??ai? niaoe?aeueia
i?aeaioiaea iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo oa ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy.
I?eeaae a?ae??ciy?oueny i?inoioith oa c?o/i?noth o ?iaio?.

I?ae /an aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe iaea?aeaii iina?ae/aiiy ia
?aoe?iiae?caoi?nueeo i?iiiceoe?th ?732 a?ae 28 ethoiai 1994?., aeaeaia
?anioae?eainueeith ee?i?/iith e?ea?iath ?i.I.I.Naiaoea.

?ic?iaeai? i?eeaae ? iaoiaeeea e?eoaaiiy oai?eo iiaeooue ciaeoe oe?iea
canoinoaaiiy o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? o??o?a?a-noiiaoieia?a
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo e?eoaaeueieo caeeaae?a aoaeue-yei? eaoaai???.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii i?eno??e aeey cae?eniaiiy iaoiaeeee eieaeueiiai
/anoeiaiai ae?aioaaiiy AII. I?eeiyoi o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? iaoe oa
caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeeiiaii ?iaioo ca aeia??eith oa
iaa?oiooaaiiyi iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ni?yiiaaiieo ia ae??oaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe. Iaa?aii i?e?ia?ieia?/iee oa oeeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae,
cae?eniaii e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee o?aaiaoe/iee oa iaeiioiaaiiee
inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie ?c canoinoaaiiy IAII ye e?eoaaeueiiai
oaeoi?o. Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue,
ioi?ieaii oaaeeoe?, iaienaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, 3 aeaae aeena?oaoe??,
caeeth/aiiy, aeniiaee, i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy

?ic?iaeai? i?eno??e ? iaoiaeeeo e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee
o?aaiaoe/iee oa iaeiioiaaiiee inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie ai?iaaaeaeaii
(ca oeiiaith i?aea?aeii/ith oi?i? ??-2, caoaa?aeaeaiith iaeacii OeNO
?681 a?ae 18 na?iiy 1976 ?.) a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe a?aeae?eaiiy
uaeaiii-eeoeaai? o??o?a?? ?anioae?eainueei? ee?ie/ii? e?ea?i?
?i.I.I.Naiaoea (i.N?ioa?iiieue), i?nueeeo noiiaoieia?/ieo iie?ee?i?e i.
sseoe ? i. ?aiaoi???, 3-? i?nueei? noiiaoieia?/ii? iie?ee?i?ee
i.Naaanoiiiey, oa?eoi??aeueiiai iaaee/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy “Noiiaoieia?y”
(i.Ea?/).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny a eo?n? eaeoe?e oa i?aeoe/ieo
caiyoue ia eaoaae?? o??o?a?/ii? noiiaoieia?? E?einueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.N.?.Aai?a??anueeiai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe

Iaoa??aee ?iaioe iia?aeiieaii ia can?aeaiiyo E?einueei?
?anioae?eainueei? ni?eee o?c?ioa?aiaao?a, i.N?ioa?iiieue (1994-1995??.),
ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie, aeinyaiaiiy oa ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo iaaeeeia?ieia?/ieo iaoe ? i?aeoe/ii? ioi?iie caei?ia’y”,
i.N?ioa?iiieue (1995?.), ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/ai?e 150-??//th c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa, i.Oa?e?a
(1995?.), ia eiioa?aioe?? o??o?a?a-noiiaoieia?a E?eio, i.N?ioa?iiieue
(1996?.).

Ioae?eaoe??

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 10 i?aoeue: o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo
aeo?iaeao – 4, ?anioae?eainueeeo ca??ieeao – 5, o iaoa??aeao
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?e – 1.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 188 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo. Aiia
neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio aeaa, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, yeee i?noeoue 222
aeaea?aea a?o/eciyieo oa ?iicaiieo aaoi??a oa aeiaeaoea. ?iaioa i?noeoue
28 oaaeeoeue oa ?ethno?iaaia 9 ?enoieaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ee?i?/iee ?icae?e ?iaioe aeeiiaii a
ee?i?oe? uaeaiii-eeoeaai? o??o?a?? E?einueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.N.?.Aai?a??anueeiai ia aac? ?anioae?eainueei? ee?ie/ii?
e?ea?i? ?i.I.I.Naiaoea.

Eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia eaoaae?? i?e?ia?ieia??
E?einueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.N.?.Aai?a??anueeiai
? ee?i?/ii? eaai?aoi??? ?anioae?eainueei? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ?i
I.I.Naiaoea.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo aeieoi?o iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?o
N.A.Aac?oeiao, aeieoi?o iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?o A.I.E?oa?iiao ca
aeiiiiiao o aeeiiaii? ?iaioe.

Iaoa??aeii ee?i?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca 119 oai?eie ia
o?ii?/iee o?aaiaoe/iee oa iaeiioiaaiiee inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie. 85
iaoe??io?a neeaee iniiaio a?oio, 34 – eiio?ieueio. Eiiieaenia e?eoaaiiy
ca iieacaiiyie neeaaeaeiny c o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy (?ice?eooy aanoeano,
oeaaiiie, naeaano?aeoii?y), iaaeeeaiaioicii? oa o?c?ioa?ai??, EOE oa
ae??oe a?aeiia?aeii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yi. ?aeeiith a?aei?oiith iniaeea?noth
e?eoaaiiy oai?eo iniiaii? a?oie ? canoinoaaiiy eieaeueiiai ae?aioaaiiy
cai?noue o?c?ii?ioeaaeo?.

Ee?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye ? i?e?ia?ieia?/i?, a?io?i?/i? oa
oeeoieia?/i?, i?iaiaeeeenue ca i?eioeeiii “ne?iiai aenia?eiaioo” c
ianooiiith ?icoeo?iaeith iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A iniia? oaeiai
i?eioeeio ?iaioe, iia`ycaiiai c aeyaeaiiyi aoaeo?a, iaea?aeaieo i?ae
aieeaii iaai?oieo iie?a ? iaiao?aei?noth aeinyaiaiiy ??aiy
aeinoia??iino?, iieyaathoue ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? I.A.Neiiiiaa (1985).
?i?oaoe?y IAII o eiio?iieuei?e a?oi? oai?eo ia cae?enithaaeany oiio,
ui ieaoeaai aei ianooiiiai /ano oeae iaoiae e?eoaaiiy ia ia?
(A.I.E?oa?iia, 1993).

O eiiieaeniiio ianoaaeaii? canoiniaoaaee caaaeueiii?eeiyo? iaoiaee
(iieooaaiiy, iaeyae, iaeueiaoe?y). Eiiieaen ianoaaeaiiy i?noea o nia?
caaaeueiee aiae?c e?ia?, na/?, oeoei? e?ia?, AEA, ?aioaaiia?ao?th
a?oaeii? ee?oee. C /anoeiaeo iaoiae?a ianoaaeaiiy canoiniaoaaeeny
?aioaaiia?ao?y ieaeiuei? uaeaie oa ae?aaiinoe/ia ciiaeoaaiiy ii??oeaaiai
oiaeo. ?c niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a – can?a ia i?e?ioei?o oa oeeoieia?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noo ?aie (ii?eoe?), a oaeiae a?io?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
e?ia?.

Aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o aieeao iineaaeaiiai aaiiaai?oiiai iiey
?iaeoeoe?? 0,125o10-4Oe ia ye?niee oa e?euee?niee neeaae iaoiaaiii?
i?e?ioei?e ?io?eiaaieo ?ai oa ii?eoeue oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee o?aaiaoe/iee
oa iaeiioiaaiiee inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie aoei ianoaaeaii a
aeeiai?oe? 17 oai?eo, yeei i?iaiaeeee a?iiaaiiaai?oioa?ai?th ? 17
iaoe??io?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie.

?aiueiaa aeae?eaiiy a?aee c aeeaieeo i?noeue ?aie aai ii?eoe? iaeiei
noa?eeueiei aaoiei oaiiiiii. Ca iaoiaeeeith A.A.Iaiueoeeiaa (1982)
aaeoa??ieia?/iee aeine?aeieoeueeee iaoa??ae ?icaiaeeee o 0,85% ?ic/ei?
iao??th oei?eaeo a?ae 10-1 aei 10-4. C iaea?aeaieo ?icoei?a, a oaeiae
oe?eueii? i?iae ?iaeeeee can?a ii 0,1ie ia iiaeeaiee aaa?, e?ia’yiee
aaa? aeey aeae?eaiiy eieiai? a?oie i?e?ia?a. Iaoa??ae ?iciiae?eyee ii
iiaa?oi? noa?eeueiei oiaoaeai. Ca iaoiaeeeith R.O.Becker (1963) iaoa??ae
?ieoa?thaaee i?e t=37oN i?ioyaii 18-24 aiaeei.

Aea/aee eoeueoo?aeuei?, ii?oieia?/i? oa oeieoi??aeuei? aeanoeaino?
aeae?eaieo aaeoa??e e aecia/aee e?euee?noue eieii??noai?thaaeueieo
iaeeieoeue (ENI) ia 1,0 iaoa??aeo, ui aeine?aeaeoaaany. I?ia?aeia ?ieue
a?aeaiaeeeany oei aeaeai, ui ia?aaaaeaee e?euee?nii (ENI>105 ie) e
aen?aaeeny i?e iiaoi?aii? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O noao?eieie?a aecia/aee oa?iaioe iaoiaaiiino?: i?iaeoeoe?th
aaiie?cei?a, ieaciieiaaoeace, eaoeeoeiace e /ooeea?noue ?o aei 11
aioea?ioee?a (N.I.Iaaaoei, ?.I.Oii?ia, 1968).

Iaoa??aeii aeey a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoea e?ia, ocyoa iaoua c aaie
42 oai?eo iaio e?eoaaeueieo a?oi (21+21). E?ia aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aee
aei ? a i?ioean? e?eoaaiiy ia 5-?e, 7-?e oa 14-?e aeia?. A?io?i?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?ia? oai?eo i?noeee aecia/aiiy ai?noo caaaeueiiai a?eeo,
aeueaoi?i?a, aeiaoe?i?a a1, a2, b, g, na/iaeie, aeai?iai?iio?ainoa?ace
(AEO), ania?oaoai?iio?ainoa?ace (ANO).

Aeei?enoiaoth/e oi?o?eiaai? iaoiaee – a?o?aoiaee oa aeaeo?ioi?ac ia
o?iiaoia?ao?/iiio iaia?? – aecia/aee caaaeueiee a?eie ? a?eeia? o?aeoe??
a?aeiia?aeii (A.A.E?eeia ?c ni?aaao.,1981). O?ainai?iace (AEO, ANO)
aecia/aee ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo ?aeoiaia-O?aieaey, i?iaaaeaiiy
eieuei?iai? ?aaeoe?? c ae?aoeaoeeiiiieneiii cae?enithaaee aeey aea/aiiy
iieaciee?a na/iaeie (A.A.Iaiueoeeia,1987).

Aeey eiio?ieth ca caaithaaiiyi ?io?eiaaieo ?ai o oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee
o?aaiaoe/iee oa iaeiioiaaiiee inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie aoei
i?iaaaeaii oeeoieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeeiai?oe? e?eoaaiiy. ?noeiia
oyaeaiiy i?i oa?aeoa? ?aiueiaiai i?ioeano iiaeeeaa o?eueee i?e
iine?aeiaiiio c?noaaeaii? oeeoieia?/ieo aeaieo (I.N.Na?aaeue,
C.I.Aii/a?iaa,1990). Aeina?ae oeeoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiai?ee
caaithaaiiy ?ai a uaeaiii-eeoeaa?e ae?eyioe? iieaco?, ui a on?o oai?eo
?aiueiaee i?ioean ia? /?oei ae?aaeaiee oaciaee oa?aeoa?
(A.A.Oeiio??a,1997). O ca’yceo c aeuacacia/aiei, iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeeny c a?aooaaiiyi oace caiaeaiiy ? oace ?aaaia?aoe??. Aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeoia?ai ee?oeiiee neeaae a?aeia?aaeaee a %.

Caiaeueiee oei oeeoia?ai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?enooi?noth aaeeei?
e?eueeino? iaeo?io?e?a (85-90%). Inoaii? 10-15% i?eiaaeathoue ia
e?ioioeeoe, iiiioeeoe, iae?ioaae. O oac? ?aaaia?aoe?? ai?no iaeo?io?e?a
noaiiaeoe 40-50%, a o?a?iaeanoe, iae?ioaae, oo/i? ee?oeie e aiaeioae?e
ii/eiathoue ??cei ia?aaaaeaoe, iin?aeath/e cia/ia i?noea a ee?oeiiiio
neeaae?. I?enooi?noue aiceiio?e?a aeaco? ia aea?a?/io ni?yiiaai?noue
i?ioeano, a i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy e?ioioeeo?a ? ieaciaoe/ieo ee?oei
oa?aeoa?ii aeey ?icaeoeo aooi?ioiiai eiiiiiaioo (I.N.Na?aaeue,
C.I.Aii/a?iaa,1990; A.A.Oeiio??a,1997).

Acyooy iaoa??aeo cae?enithaaee 12 iaoe??ioai iniiaii? oa 12 –
eiio?ieueii? a?oi. Aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiaeeeo “iiaa?oiaai? a?iin?? ?aie”
(I.O.Eaia?a, 1970) – ca aeiiiiiaith eaaeiai c?neiao iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o
?o/eith o??o?a?/iiai neaeueiaey. Iaea?aeaiee iaoa??ae iaiineee ia /eno?
ciaaee?ai? i?aaeiaoi? noaeea, ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eyth/e oiieei oa?ii.
Na?ae? iacee o?enoaaee a iaoaiie? ? i?ioa?aiaoaaee ca niiniaii
?iiaiianueeiai (A.A.Iaiueoeeia,1982).

Oai?ei, ye? iaee iniiaio iaoieia?th, i?iaiaeeee eiinoeueoaoe?? ni?aeieo
oao?aoe?a, aeiaeaoeiaa ianoaaeaiiy ? e?eoaaiiy.

Iaea?aeai? a i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy oeeo?ia? aeai? ia?iaeyee iaoiaeii
iaia?aiao?e/ii? noaoenoeee ?c canoinoaaiiyi ia?iiai e?eoa??th A?eeieniia
(?.A.Aoaea?, A.A.Aaie?i,1973).

Aeey cae?eniaiiy eieaeueiiai ae?aioaaiiy AII iaie cai?iiiiiaaii oa
ai?iaiaaii iiaeeo?eaoe?th i?eeaaeo aeey e?eoaaiiy o?ii?/iiai
o?aaiaoe/iiai oa iaeiioiaaiiiai inoaii??e?oo ieaeiuei? uaeaie. I?eeaae
“Eii??-ae?ai-I”, yeee c?iaeaii ?c iaoa??aeo c aenieith iaai?oiith
i?iieei?noth (ia?iaeith), anoaiiaeth?oueny o aeaeyae? e?eueoey a iaeano?
ieaeiuei? uaeaie, c?ieiaiiai ii ia?eiao?o, ui ia? nia?aaeo aenooi aeey
oie?aiiy a a?oaeeio.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O AIAE?C

?acoeueoaoe ee?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Ca ia??iae c 1992 aei 1996 ?ieo a
ee?i?oe? uaeaiii-eeoeaai? o??o?a?? E?einueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.N.?.Aai?a??anueeiai ia aac? ?anioae?eainueei? ee?i?/ii?
e?ea?i? ?i.I.I.Naiaoea i?ae iaoei niinoa?aaeaiiyi ciaoiaeeeiny 119
oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee o?aaiaoe/iee oa iaeiioiaaiiee inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei?
uaeaie. Iniiaio a?oio neeaee 85 iaoe??io?a, o eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii?
yeeo aeei?enoiaoaaeiny IAII. 34 iaoe??ioai eiio?ieueii? a?oie e?eoaaiiy
cae?enithaaee ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoith iaoiaeeeith (A.?.Eoe’yiaiei,1986).
I?e ?iciiae?e? iaoe??io?a iniiaii? oa eiio?ieueii? a?oi a?aoiaoaaeenue
iniaeeaino? a?eo, noao?, ??ciiiai?oiino? ee?i?/ieo oi?i o?ii?/iiai
inoaii??e?oo, aeaaiino? oa eieae?caoe?? iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano.
O?eaae?noue eo?n?a e?eoaaiiy IAII ia caeaaeaea a?ae aeuaia?ae?/aieo
oaeoi??a, a oaeiae aeaeo oa oa?i?i?a o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy. Na?aaeiy
o?eaae?noue eo?no noaiiaeea 5 e?eoaaeueieo naain?a. ?acii c oei ne?ae
aeciaoe, ui ia aecia/aiiy e?eueeino? naain?a IAII i?e i?iaaaeaii?
a?iiaaiiaai?oioa?ai?? nooo?ai aieeaaea eeoa i?noeaaa ee?i?/ia ea?oeia
caoai?thaaiiy ?, oaeei /eiii, o?eaae?noue IAII aecia/aeany
?iaeea?aeoaeueii.

I?ae /an e?eoaaiiy aoei aea/aii aeeiai?eo caaaeueieo oa i?noeaaeo
ee?i?/ieo neiioii?a. I?e oeueiio oneeaaeiaiue, aeeeeeaieo canoinoaaiiyi
IAII, o oai?eo ia inoaii??e?o ieaeiuei? uaeaie aecia/aii ia aoei.

E??i oiai aoei i?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aaiaoieia?/-
ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, yea na?ae/eoue i?i aeinoia??io iiceoeaio aeeiai?eo
e?euee?nieo ci?i iieaciee?a e?ia? o oai?eo, ui iaea?aeoaaee IAII:
a?aecia/aii ca?eueoaiiy a?eo?ioeeo?a (?0-I0,05). A?aecia/aii aeinoia??ia ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? e?ioioeeo?a (p0-I=0,05, p0-II

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