AEAAeAI?ss IAAeE*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IAE?IO??O?A??

?iai? aeaaeai?ea A.I.?IIIAeAIIAA

*AAIOA?UeIAA E?Ae?ss EUeA?AIA

OAeE 616.833.34+616.833–001–07:616–003.93

EIIIEAENIA Ae?AAIINOEEA O?AAIAOE*IEO

O?AAEAIUe IEA*IAIAI NIEAOAIIss ? IA?EOA?E*IEO IA?A?A

OA EIIO?IEUe A?AeIIAEAIIss ?O OOIEOe?E

14.01.05 – Iae?io??o?a?y

14.01.15 – Ia?aia? oai?iae

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a?? ?iai? aeaaeai?ea
A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e AII Oe?a?ie

Cicoey TH??e Iaianiae/,

?inoeooo iae?io??o?a?? ?iai? aeaaeai?ea A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie,

aee?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie

Iie?uoe Ieeiea ?o?aiiae/, Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii?
ina?oe IIC Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iae?io??o?a??

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaaaaa Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/,
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao IIC Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e iaa?ieia?? oa iae?io??o?a??, Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe Ea?aaaiue ??eia Ieeiea?aia, ?inoeooo aa?iioieia??
AII Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eaiiy aeno?ai??ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue
ia?aiai? nenoaie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa –

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao IIC Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 15 ” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 12
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.557.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca oaoii
iae?io??o?a?y i?e ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a?? ?iai? aeaaeai?ea
A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie

(250050, i. Ee?a, aoe.Iaio?euenueeiai, 32).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iae?io??o?a??

?iai? aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a, aoe. Iaio?euenueeiai,
32).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “_9__”_eenoiiaaea_1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?eia TH.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O?aaiaoe/i? o?aaeaiiy ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a ?
iaei??th c aieiaieo i?e/ei oyaeeeo ii?ooaiue iae?iiioi?ii? ooieoe??
e?ioe?aie. A no?oeoo?? caaaeueiiai o?aaiaoecio ?o ieoiia aaaa noaiiaeoue
iaeaea 6%, aea na?aae i?e/ei ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino? aiie iin?aeathoue
ia?oa i?noea. I?e o?aai? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ?iaae?aeecaoe?y aeinyaa?
75%, o 20-30% oeeo oai?eo ?icaeaathoueny oyaee? ?iaae?aeecoth/? aie?.
Noaoenoe/i? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oaiaeaioe?th aei c?inoaiiy o?aaiaoecio
oa e?eueeino? oyaeeeo ooeiaeaeaiue ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a ? iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy, o oiio /ene? i?e aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?eaiaeao, iniaeeai
na?aae eiioeiaaioo oai?eo iieiaeiai a?eo (?iiiaeaiia A.I., 1971;
A?eai?iae/ E.A., 1981; Aa?niaa A.I., 1982,1989,1994; Iaeaciaa E.ss.,
1983; Oaaaeaa E.I., 1981,1990,1994;. Oeeiaaethe A.?. oa ni?aaao., 1997;
Noe?e I.I., 1987,1997; E?nae/oe TH.N., 1998; Ae?aaaeue I.I., 1991;
McAllister et al., 1996; Midha R., 1997). I/aaeaei? aeooaeuei?noue oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia cia/aiiy i?iaeaie e?eoaaiiy oe??? eaoaai???
oai?eo, iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?aaiinoeee o?aaeaiue
ia?eoa?e/ii? ia?aiai? nenoaie oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
iae?io??o?a?/iiai oa a?aeiiaiiai e?eoaaiiy. I?ioyaii inoaiiueiai
aeaaaeoeyoe??//y caaaeyee ai?iaaaeaeaiith ? ?icaeoeo i?e?io??o?a?/ii?
oaoi?ee, ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy ?aeiino?oeoeaia
iae?io??o?a?y c?iaeea cia/iee e?ie oia?aae (Iaeaciaa E.ss., 1983;
Aa?niaa A.I., 1982,1989,1994; Oaaaeaa E.I., 1981,1990,1994; Noe?e I.I.,
1987,1997; E?nae/oe TH.N., 1998; Millesi H., 1973,1979,1987; Kretschmer
H.,1981; Kline D.G., 1981; Kline D.G., Hudson A.R., 1995,1996; Jejeunne
G. et al., 1982; Mackinnon S.E., Dellon A.L., 1988; Nagano et al.,
1989). Iaeiae ae?aaiinoeea oa?aeoa?o, nooiaiy oa ??aiy o?aaeaiiy
ia?eoa?e/ii? ia?aiai? nenoaie, aecia/aiiy iieacaiue aei o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy oa iioeiaeueiiai oa?i?io eiai i?iaaaeaiiy, oa?i?i?a oa aeaeo
eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy, ioe?iea nooiaiy a?aeiiaeaiiy iae?iiioi?ii?
ooieoe?? o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?, i?iaiico, aenia?oeca nooiaiy
ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino? oiui – an? oe? aaaeeea? iaaeeei-nioe?aeuei?
ieoaiiy caeeoathoueny aeaeaeeie a?ae ?ica’ycaiiy.

sse aeiaiaeeoue aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ee?i?ei-?ino?oiaioaeueiiai
ianoaaeaiiy iiiaae 1000 oai?eo c o?aaeaiiyie ia?eoa?e/ii? ia?aiai?
nenoaie, ye? i?ioyaii 1991–1997 ??. io?eiaee e?eoaaiiy a ?inoeooo?
iae?io??o?a?? ?iai? aeaaeaieea A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie, a aaaaoueio
aeiaaeeao naia iaaecia/ai?noue ae?eniiai noaio ia?aiai-iyciaiai aia?aoo
coiiaethaaea iacaaeia?euei? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy, iaiaa?oioiaaia
caoyaoaaiiy eiina?aaoeaiiai /e ie?aieo aoai?a o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ?
aiane?aeie oeueiai oi?ioaaiiy iacai?ioi?o ci?i o ia?aiaeo no?oeoo?ao oa
oeaieiao, ye? aiie ?ia?aothoue. Iaaaoeaio ?ieue, aacoiiaii, a?ae?a?aaaea
e a?aenooi?noue a caeeaaeao ioi?iie caei?iay no/anii? aia?aoo?e aeey
iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee oa iaaeinoaoiy ia?ciai?noue oe?ieiai
eiea iae?io??o?a?a, o?aaiaoieia?a, o??o?a?a oa iaa?iiaoieia?a c ieoaiue
ee?i?/ii? iae?io?c?ieia??.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue oaie aecia/a?oueny, ianaiia?aae,
iaaeeei-nioe?aeueiei cia/aiiyi i?iaeaie o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiue
ia?eoa?e/ii? ia?aiai? nenoaie, a oaeiae noai?aiiyi ?aaeueieo
iiaeeeainoae caaaeyee no/aniei eiii’thoa?eciaaiei ae?aaiinoe/iei
aia?aoai ?ic?iaeoe ? cai?iaaaeeoe o ee?i?/io i?aeoeeo iia? iaoiaee ?
i?eioeeie ae?aaiinoeee, ui aacothoueny ia i?aeaaeeiao iaoeiaeo
caeiaooe?a iae?io?c?ieia??.

Aea?? iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoa coiiaeaiee aiae?cii e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae, ye? i?enay/ai? ??ciei aniaeoai i?iaeaie ae?aaiinoeee noaio
ia?aiaeo noiaao??a ia aoaiao o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy o?aaiaoe/iiai
o?aaeaiiy ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee oa iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, a oaeiae
?ia?o ?c noi?aeieo iaeanoae ee?i?/ii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii?
iae?io?c?ieia??. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie iaie aoee aeciai? oae?
iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iae?io?aaiaoieia?th ia?eoa?e/ii? ia?aiai?
nenoaie e?euee?nieo iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo e?eoa???a ae?aaiinoeee oa
a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiae?a oanooaaiiy ooieoe?e. I?aeoe/iee aeo?ae oaeiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy – oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiia?aoe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee: e?eueeino?
oa ??aiy caeo/aieo no?oeoo? (ni?iaeueieo ei??ioe?a, noiaao??a nieaoaiiy,
ia?a?a), oa?aeoa?o oa oyaeeino? o?aaeaiiy, aecia/aiiy /aniai? oa
ooieoe?iiaeueii? iaae? aeioe?eueiino? eiina?aaoeaiiai aaaeaiiy oai?iai,
iaiao?aeiino? iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy; a oaeiae ?ic?iaea
iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo e?eoa???a, ye? aeiiiiaaathoue o??o?aia? o aecia/aii?
ianyao oa aeaeo iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy. Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a
eiio?ieth i?ioean?a ?aaaia?aoe?? oa ?a?ia?aaoe?? o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae?, iiooe ?aii?o iciae ?aaaia?aoe??, aeinoia??ieo iciae aoaeoeaii?
?a?ia?aaoe??, ni?eyoeeaiai i?iaiico, aai iaaiaee, na?ae/aiue cao?eiee
?aaaia?aoe??, iaaoaeoeaii? ?a?ia?aaoe??, iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo e?eoa???a
aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaoi?iiai iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? e?euee?nii? ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy, oiaoi nooiaiy a?aeiiaeaiiy
iioi?ii?, naini?ii? ? aaaaoaoeaii? ooieoe?e, ioe?iee i?ioeaieueiaiai
aoaeoo.

Aeey cae?eniaiiy oaeeo ?ic?iaie i?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaei ? noai?aiiy aace
ee?i?/ieo oa iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a ooieoe?e ia?a?a, ei??ioe?a,
naaiaioa?iiai ia?aiai-i’yciaiai aia?aoo c aecia/aiiyi ?o a?aaeaoe?e aeey
iiaeaeueoiai eiii’thoa?iiai aiae?co ae?aaiinoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoeaiino?; o
ia?niaeoea? – noai?aiiy iiaiai iaoiaeo aeni?an-ae?aaiinoeee, iiaoaeiae
iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy, aeai?o
iioeiaeueieo ??oaiue a eiie?aoieo ee?i?/ieo aeiaaeeao.

A oai?aoe/iiio ieai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy
naaiaioa?iiai ia?aiai-i’yciaiai oa aaaaoaoeaiiai aia?ao?a i?e ??cieo
ee?i?/ieo aa??aioao o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiue ia?eoa?e/ii? ia?aiai?
nenoaie, o oiio /ene? i?e o?ii?/ieo aieueiaeo neiae?iiao ia?eoa?e/iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, iiaeii? ni?eyoe iiaeeaeaiith ?nioth/eo oyaeaiue i?i
iaoiaaiaoe/i? oa naiiaaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie oe??? iaoieia??, a oaeiae
?ic?iaoe? iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaoiiaeaieo i?eioeei?a ? iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue a caieaiiaaiiio ianyc? caeaoii
caaacia/eoe ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee
o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ? ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee
ia an?o aoaiao o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ? oei naiei ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith
eiai aoaeoeaiino?.

Caycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iniiai? iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie o?aaiaioaie ieaiiaeo oa iiooeiaeo oai,
ui aeeiioaaeeny a ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a?? ?iai? aeaaeai?ea
A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii 1993–1998 ??., cie?aia ca ??
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0196E006537, 0195E010358.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c o?aaiaoe/iei o?aaeaiiyi iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy ? ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee oeyoii ?ic?iaee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaaieo iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iaoiae?a ? e?eoa???a
ae?aaiinoeee ia an?o aoaiao o??o?a?/iiai oa a?aeiiaiiai e?eoaaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ae??ooaaee oae? caaea/?:

– ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo eiiieaenii? aeiiia?aoe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee
oa?aeoa?o, ??aiy oa nooiaiy o?aaeaiiy ia?aiai-iyciaiai aia?aoo aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee, a oaeiae noiooiueiai aieueiaiai neiae?iio a ??ci? oa?i?ie
i?ney o?aaie; i?iaanoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeaieo aeiiia?aoe?eii?
ae?aaiinoeee cae?eoeo o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ?
ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee c ?io?aiia?aoe?eieie aeaieie;

– ?ic?iaeoe ca iaoa??aeaie ee?i?/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee ?aaaia?aoe?? ia?aiaeo noiaao??a oa
?a?ia?aaoe?? iyc?a o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?, aecia/eoe i?eioeeie
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? a?aaeoaeueii? ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiue ia?a?a
aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee oa iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy;

– ?ic?iaeoe noaiaea?oeciaaio ea?oo ianoaaeaiiy oai?iai ? a?aaeaoe??
iniiaieo iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a i?e o?aaiaoe/ieo oa
eiii?an?eii-?oai?/ieo o?aaeaiiyo ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a ? iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy, noai?eoe aaco aeaieo iia?iaaieo oai?eo;

– i?iaanoe eiiithoa?iee aiae?c ae?aaiinoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoeaiino? ie?aieo
iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo oano?a ? iieaciee?a i?e ??cieo aeaeao o?aaiaoe/ieo
o?aaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ? ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee; aecia/eoe
iae?io?c?ieia?/i? e?eoa??? aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy iieacaiue oa
i?ioeiieacaiue aei iae?io??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy, i?iaiico eiai
aoaeoeaiino?;

– aecia/eoe i?eioeeie ? ?ic?iaeoe ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/i? oanoe aeey
aeai?o aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai a?aeiiaiiai e?eoaaiiy o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiue
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ? ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee a iaai? oa?i?ie i?ney
o?aaie ? iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy;

– ioe?ieoe ae?aaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo ei?aeyo?a
aieueiaiai neiae?iio o oai?eo c o?aaeaiiyi iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa
ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a;

– i?iaanoe aiae?c caeaaeiino? nooiaiy a?aeiiaeaiiy iae?iiioi?ii?
ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee a?ae aeeiai?ee no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ci?i o naaiaioa?iiio ia?aiai-i’yciaiio ? aaaaoaoeaiiio aia?aoao a
i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae, i?iaiae?coaaoe /eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia
aoaeoeai?noue o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy;

– aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano i?e oeiiaeo oi?iao
ii?ooaiiy ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? ia?aiai-i’yciaiai oa aaaaoaoeaiiai
aia?ao?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee a caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy o?aaiaoe/iiai
ooeiaeaeaiiy ia?aiaeo noiaao??a ? niiniao i?e?io??o?a?/iiai a?aeiiaeaiiy
?o oe?e?niino?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa ia iniia? aea/aiiy
caeiiii??iinoae no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? ia?aaoaeiae naaiaioa?iiai
ia?aiai-i’yciaiai aia?aoo i?ney o??o?a?/iiai a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?e?niino?
ia?aiaeo noiaao??a ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo e?eoa???a aeey
aecia/aiiy noaae?e ia??iaeo ?a?ia?aaoe??, iaa?oioiaaii ?o ae?aaiinoe/ia
oa i?iaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy ia aoaiao o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

Aia?oa aeae?eai? ee?i?/i? aa??aioe o?aaiaoe/ieo oa eiii?an?eii-?oai?/ieo
o?aaeaiue ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee ca ooieoe?iiaeueiei noaiii
naaiaioa?iiai iae?iiioi?iiai ? aaaaoaoeaiiai aia?ao?a, iaa?oioiaai?
i?eioeeie ? e?eoa??? ?o aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai e?eoaaiiy.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e o?aaiaoe/ieo iioeiaeaeaiiyo ia?eoa?e/ieo
ia?a?a aeeiai?ea ?aaaia?aoe?? ?ooiaeo, /ooeeaeo oa aaaaoaoeaieo aieieii
o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? iaoiiaeth? iayai?noue oa ae?aaeai?noue
aieueiaiai neiae?iio; oiia?eueiaiiy ?aaaia?aoe?? iinoaaiae?iia?ieo
neiiaoe/ieo aieieii ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith aieueiaiai neiae?iio oa aaeueio?
aoaeoeaia a?aeiiaeaiiy iae?iiioi?ii? ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee.

?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioe?y oiiaiino? ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii?
a?aeiia?aeiino?, yea aaco?oueny ia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiio aecia/aii?
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? naaiaioa?iiai ia?aiai-i’yciaiai
oa aaaaoaoeaiiai aia?ao?a c o?aooaaiiyi /eiiee?a: iniaeeainoae aoaeiae
ia?aa, ??aiy ? oyaeeino? ooeiaeaeaiiy ia?aiaeo noiaao??a, oa?i?io, ui
ieioa i?ney o?aaie oa iia?aoe??, aeicaiey? iaa?oiooaaoe i?eioeeie
ae?aaiinoeee, oaeoeeo ? i?iaiic o??o?a?/iiai oa a?aeiiaiiai e?eoaaiiy
i?e o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiiyo ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a oa ?o iane?aeeao.

Aia?oa i?e niieo/ieo o?aaeaiiyo iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa oeaio?aeueii?
ia?aiai? nenoaie aecia/aii ae?aaiinoe/io ?ioi?iaoeai?noue
iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a o?aaeaiiy naaiaioa?ieo no?oeoo? oa
i?ia?aeieeiaiai aia?aoo oeeiiai a?aeae?eo nieiiiai iiceo, iaa?oioiaaii
i?eioeeie aeeoa?aioe?aeueii? ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoa??? aeai?o oaeoeee
e?eoaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Oaeineiiaeaia eiiieaenia aeiiia?aoe?eia ae?aaiinoeea ??aiy, oa?aeoa?o oa
oyaeeino? o?aaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ? ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee,
cai?iiiiiaai? iae?io?c?ieia?/i? e?eoa??? aeey aeeoa?aioe?aeueii?
ae?aaiinoeee, aecia/aiiy iieac?a, oa?i?io oa aeaeo iia?aoeaiiai
e?eoaaiiy. ?ic?iaeai? e?eoa??? /?oeiai a?aeie?aieaiiy a?oi oai?eo: 1)
yeei ia iieacaia iae?io??o?a?/ia iia?aoe?y; 2) c aeai??aiaaeie,
iiiaeeiieie ? oyaeeeie o?aaeaiiyie ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee; 3) c
ii?aeiaiei o?aaiaoe/iei /e eiii?an?eii-?oai?/iei o?aaeaiiyi ia?aa ?
caoai?thaaiiyi /e o?aaiaoe/iei o?aaeaiiyi oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai?
nenoaie.

Oaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai eiio?ieth
?aaaia?aoi?ieo oa ?a?ia?aaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae?. Cai?iiiiiaai? iae?io?c?ieia?/i? e?eoa??? iaaoaeoeaii?
?a?ia?aaoe?? oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iieacaiue aei iiaoi?iiai iia?aoeaiiai
ao?o/aiiy. ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii iaoiaeeeo ia’?eoeaii?
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? a?aaeoaeueii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy. Cai?iaaaeaeai? oaeineiiaeaiiy ni?eyee i?aeaeuaiith
aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa
ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a, noiooi?o o?ii?/ieo aieueiaeo neiae?ii?a.

?ic?iaeai? ea?oa ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy iia?iaaiiai
oai?iai oa a?aaeaoe?? iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a aeicaieeee
i?iaiaeeoe eiii’thoa?iee aiae?c c aecia/aiiyi oa?aeoa?o, eieae?caoe?? oa
nooiaiy o?aaeaiiy ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a oa iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, aeeiioaaoe
noaoenoe/i? caaaeaiiy ca ??cieie iieacieeaie ? /eiieeaie, i?iaiicoaaoe
aoaeoeai?noue o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy. Noai?aia aaca aeaieo iiiaae 800
iia?iaaieo oai?eo iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia o e?eoaaeuei?e i?aeoeoe? oa
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo.

?ic?iaeaiee aaoi?ii ae?aaiinoe/iee eiiieaen ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo
?iaioe a?aeae?eo ooieoe?iiaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee, a?aeae?eaiue
a?aeiiaethaaeueii? iae?io??o?a??, i?neyiia?aoe?eii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??
?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie, ?anioae?eainueeiai oeaio?o
i?e?io??o?a?? oa o??o?a?? eeno? ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? ? i?oiiaae?? IIC
Oe?a?ie; iaoiaeeeo e?euee?nii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? a?aeiiaeaiiy
ooieoe?? ia?aiai-iyciaiai aia?aoo e?ioe?aee – i?e aenia?oi?e ioe?ioe?
nooiaiy ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? naiino?eiei
iaoeiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi aaoi?a. Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue ?aeay aea/aiiy
iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy naaiaioa?iiai iae?iiioi?iiai ?
ia?eoa?e/iiai aaaaoaoeaiiai aia?ao?a ia an?o aoaiao o??o?a?/iiai oa
a?aeiiaethaaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy o?aaiaoe/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy ? ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee, ?ic?iaea e?euee?nieo
iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo e?eoa???a aeey ioe?iee ?o noaio, a?aaeoaeueii?
ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? ioe?iee nooiaiy a?aeiiaeaiiy iae?iiioi?ii?
ooieoe?? ia aoaiao oa i?ney e?eoaaiiy. C oe??th iaoith aaoi?ii
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio ? iaoiaeieia?th ee?i?/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iniaenoi aeeiiaii aanue eiiieaen
iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o 810 iia?iaaieo oai?eo, a oaeiae on?
iae?io?c?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a aenia?eiaio?, i?iaaaeaii aiae?c
ia?aeiiiai iaoa??aeo, ?ic?iaeaii noaiaea?oeciaaio ea?oo oa a?aaeaoe??
iieaciee?a ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy aeey noai?aiiy aace
aeaieo iia?iaaieo oai?eo oa ?o iiaeaeueoiai eiiithoa?iiai aiae?co,
noai?aii aaie aeaieo aeey eiiithoa?ii? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ae?aaiinoe/ii? oe?iiino?
iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a ? oano?a i?e o?aaiaoe/ieo oa
eiii?an?eii-?oai?/ieo o?aaeaiiyo ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a ? iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii eiioeaioe?th oiiaiino?
ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? a?aeiia?aeiino?, iaa?oioiaaii iia? i?aeoiaee
aei aeai?o oaeoeee o??o?a?/iiai oa a?aeiiaiiai e?eoaaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai?
iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Aiae?c ?io?aiia?aoe?eieo aeaieo i?iaiaeeany ni?eueii c? ni?a?ia?oieeaie
a?aeae?eaiiy a?aeiiaethaaeueii? iae?io??o?a?? ?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a??
AII Oe?a?ie: caa?aeoth/ei, ae.i.i. I.I.Noe??i., e.i.i. ?.A.O?aoyeii,
e.i.i. I.A.Naiiiii, caa?aeoaa/ai ?anioae?eainueeiai oeaio?o
i?e?io??o?a?? oa o??o?a?? eeno? IAe? o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? IIC
Oe?a?ie, e.i.i. N.N.No?aooiii. Noaia ?iciiae?eo i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai
ia??iaeo ia aoaie oa noaae?? iaaiai?thaaeany c ea??aieeii ee?i?ee
a?aeiiaethaaeueii? iae?io??o?a?? ?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a??
/eaiii-ei?aniiiaeaioii AII Oe?a?ie A.?.Oeeiaaetheii. I?ia?aiiee eiieaen
aeey eiiithoa?ii? ia?iaee aeaieo iia?iaaieo oai?eo aoa ?ic?iaeaiee
aeena?oaioii noi?nii c ?iaeaia?ii-i?ia?ai?noii ?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a??
I.A.Aoaeianueeith i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aeaaeai?ea AII Oe?a?ie TH.I.Cicoe?.

Iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy a na??yo aenia?eiaio?a caaacia/oaaee iae?io??o?ae
?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a?? I.I.Noe?e, ?.A.O?aoye, I.A.Naiii, A.I.Eocai,
I.I.Aoaiania, aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iin?eiiai iaoa??aeo c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoiae?a na?oiai? oa aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? – iaoiii?oieiae (i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii i?ioani?a A.O.Iiniaa).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeeth/ai? aei aeena?oaoe??,
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia: ? c?cae? iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1993); II
c?cae? iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie (Iaeana, 1998); VIII c?cae? iaa?iiaoieia?a,
ineo?ao??a oa ia?eieia?a Oe?a?inueei? ?N? (Oa?e?a, 1990); ? c?cae?
iaa?iiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie (Oa?e?a, 1997); ?anioae?eainuee?e i?iaeaii?e
eii?n?? “Caoai?thaaiiy ia?aiai? nenoaie” (Oa?e?a, 1990); eiioa?aioe?yo
Oe?a?inueei? anioe?aoe?? iae?io??o?a?a (Ee?a, 1995,1996,1998; Oaeai?iae,
1996); Ee?anueeiai oiaa?enoaa iae?io??o?a?a oa Ee?anueeiai oiaa?enoaa
iaa?iiaoieia?a (Ee?a, 1996,1997,1998); eiioa?aioe?? ?anioae?eainueeiai
oeaio?o i?e?io??o?a?? oa o??o?a?? eeno? ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa
i?oiiaae?? IIC Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1997); Iaoeiaiio oiaa?enoa? aeeoy/eo
iaa?iiaoieia?a (Ee?a, 1997); nithcieo oeieao-nai?ia?ao oa i?aeia?iaeieo
neiiic?oiao c ieoaiue oai?aoe/ii? oa ee?i?/ii? aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?? (Iineaa,
1984,1986,1987; Ai?aeii?, 1988); ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaiaaeeeaiaioiciua iaoiaeu eoie?iaaiey o?iie/aneeo aieaauo neiae?iiia”
(Ee?a, 1989); i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo oa neiiic?oiao c aeoioieoo?e
(A?ao?neaaa, 1985, I?aaa, 1988); nithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo c
?aoeaenioa?ai?? oa o?aaeeoe?eii? iaaeeoeeie (Aieaia?aae, 1986;
Eai?ia?aae, 1988; Oa?e?n?, 1989).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a 2 iiiia?ao?yo, 14
noaooyo a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, o/aiaiio
iin?aieeo, 9 iaoa??aeao ? oacao c?cae?a, eiioa?aioe?e (onueiai – 25), c
ieo 6 noaoae oa 6 oac aeiiia?aeae aac ni?aaaoi??a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, 3 ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?aenoieo,
aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, 2 aeiaeaoe?a; ?ethno?iaaia 23 iaethieaie
oa 42 oaaeeoeyie. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 332 noi??iee,
?ethno?aoe??, oaaeeoe?, aeiaeaoee caeiathoue 30 noi??iie. Nienie
aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 360 iaeiaioaaiue, c ieo 152
ee?eeeoeath, 208 – eaoeiith.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??.

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaii
?acoeueoaoe ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy 810 oai?eo, ye?
e?eoaaeeny a ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a?? ?iai? aeaaeai?ea A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa
AII Oe?a?ie c 1991 ii 1998 ??.

A ee?i?/i?e a?oi? “O?aaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy” iiaeaii aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy 270 oai?eo c o?aaiaoe/iei ooeiaeaeaiiyi
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, c ieo /ieia?e?a – 250, ae?iie – 20, ui neeaaeaei,
a?aeiia?aeii: 92,3% oa 7,7%. A?e ianoaaeaieo a?ae 14 aei 71 ?ie?a,
ia?aaaaeia e?euee?noue oai?eo aoee o a?oe? a?ae 20 aei 50 ?ie?a (87,8%).
Cae?eoa o?aaeaiiy e?aiai iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aoei ae?aaiinoiaaia o 59%
oai?eo, i?aaiai – 41%. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith iaea?eueo oyaeeeo
ooeiaeaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy – o 86% aeiaaee?a aoea
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oia i?eaiaea, c ieo o 83% aeiaaee?a – iaae?iiy c
iioioeeeea. Ooeiaeaeaiiy aiane?aeie iaae?iiy c aenioe noaiiaeee 4,8%,
iiiaaeaiiy ?oee aei iaa?oiaiai iaoai?cio – 3,0%, oaea?o ii iaae- /e
i?aeeeth/e/i?e iaeano? – 3,7%, ii?aiaiiy ??aeo/eie i?aaeiaoaie – 2,6%.
I?e/eiith a?aee?eoeo ooeiaeaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aoee ii?aiaiiy
iaae- aai i?aeeeth/e/ii? iaeano? ??aeo/eie i?aaeiaoaie (iiaeai) a 7
niinoa?aaeaiiyo, aiaiaiaeuei? ii?aiaiiy – a 2.

Cae?eo? o?aaiaoe/i? ooeiaeaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy a a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a – 83,3% – noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith, a
57,8% – ia?aeiiii e?noie e?ioe?aie, ia?aaaaeii ia noi?ii? ooeiaeaeaiiy
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, 11,8% – ia?aeiiii eeth/eoe?, 6,7% – aeaeoii o
iea/iaiio noaeia?, 2,2% iioa?i?eeo iaee noiooi? o?aaeaiiy (?ic?ea,
o?iiaic) i?aeeeth/e/ii? aai iaoaiai? a?oa???.

Cae?eoa o?aaia eeoa a 14% aeiaaee?a i?ecaiaeeea aei ?cieueiaaiiai
iioeiaeaeaiiy ie?aiiai noiaao?a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, a on?o ?ioeo – iaea
i?noea ee?i?ea oioaeueiiai ooeiaeaeaiiy. 72% oai?eo iinooieee ia
e?eoaaiiy o a?aeaeaeaiiio ia??iae? o?aaie – i?ney 5 i?n oa a?eueoa (c
ieo /a?ac 5-12 i?n – 59%, 12-24 i?n – 9%, 2-3 ?iee – 4%). Eeoa 28%
iino?aaeaeaeeo caa?ioeeny ca niaoe?ae?ciaaiith aeiiiiiaith i?ioyaii
ia?oeo 4 i?n i?ney o?aaie. Ia?aaaaei?e e?eueeino? iino?aaeaeaeeo ia?oa
aeiiiiiaa aoea iaaeaia ca i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy aai i?eaiaee a iaeanieo,
i?nueeeo /e ?aeiiieo e?ea?iyo. Aaaaoi c oeeo oai?eo o?eaaeee /an
e?eoaaeeny i?ae iaaeyaeii iaa?iiaoieia?a c i?eaiaeo oae caaieo
“o?aaiaoe/ieo ieaeneo?a”. Iia?aoeaia e?eoaaiiy a ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a??
?iai? aeaaeai?ea A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa io?eiaee 81% oai?eo, a ?ioeo caeeaaeao
– 8%, eiina?aaoeaia e?eoaaiiy – 11%.

I?neyiia?aoe?eiee ae?aaiic ia i?aenoaa? aeyaeaieo iaoiii?oieia?/ieo
ci?i: ?oaoeaaa eiii?an?y noiaao??a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy (43,8%); a?ae?ea
N5–N8 ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a (21,2%); ?oaoeaaa ia?a?iaeaeaiiy N5–N6
ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a, aa?oiueiai noiaao?a, a?ae?ea N7–N8 ni?iaeueieo
ia?a?a (8,3%); ?oaoeaaa ia?a?iaeaeaiiy N5–N7 ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a oa
aa?oiueiai noiaao?a, a?ae?ea N8–O1 ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a (6,6%); a?ae?ea ?
?oaoeaaa ia?a?iaeaeaiiy N5–N6 ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a (5,8%); ?ic?ea N5–N6,
a?ae?ea N7–N8 ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a (4,8%); ?oaoeaaa ia?a?iaeaeaiiy N5–N6
ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a, aa?oiueiai noiaao?a (3,8%) oiui.

A ee?i?/i?e a?oi? “O?aaiaoe/i? oa eiii?an?eii-?oai?/i? o?aaeaiiy ia?a?a
aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee” iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue 420 oai?eo c
ooeiaeaeaiiyie 478 ia?a?a. Na?aaei?e a?e oai?eo noaiiaea 34 ?iee,
ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue oai?eo aoee o a?oe? a?ae 25 aei 45 ?ie?a – 86%,
oiaoi ia?aaaaeaee ethaee i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo. Na?aae iioa?i?eeo aoei
290 /ieia?e?a (69%), 130 ae?iie (31%). *anoioa ooeiaeaeaiiy ia?a?a
i?aai? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee aoea i?eaeecii oaeith ae, ye e?ai?.
Iae/ano?oa i?e/eiith o?aaie aoei ii?aiaiiy aino?ei i?aaeiaoii – o 65%
iioa?i?eeo (na?aae ieo neeii – 59%, iaoaeaaei i?aaeiaoii – 29%,
oee?eoey?iith ieeeith oa ?ioeie ?ino?oiaioaie – 8%). A ?iaio?
aiae?cothoueny 145 aeiaaee?a o?aaeaiiy i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa, 155 –
na?aaeeiiiai oa 178 – e?eoueiaiai, c ieo eiia?iiaaieo ooeiaeaeaiue
ia?a?a (aeaio, o?ueio) – 58.

Eiiieaenia aeiiia?aoe?eia ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ia ae?aaiinoeea
aacoaaeany ia oaeeo canaaeao: iiaia ee?i?/ia oa iaa?ieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy
oai?iai, ca iieacaiiyie – I?O, EO, ?aioaaiieia?/ia, ?ioiieia?/ia
ianoaaeaiiy oiui. Iae?io?c?ieia?/iee eiiieaen neeaaeaee iaoiaee:
aeaeo?iiae?ii?ia?ao?y (AIIA) c ioe?ieith ?ooiai?, /ooeeai? oa
aaaaoaoeaii? ooieoe?e ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a, ia?aiao??a F-oaee?,
?aoeaeoi?ii? caoaeeeaino? iioiiae?ii?a ca iieacieeaie I-?aoeaeno;
aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?y (AIA) aioo??oiueii’yciaa c ioe?ieith niiioaiii?
aeoeaiino? i’yciaeo aieieii ? ?ic?aooieii ia?aiao??a iioaioe?ae?a
?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue; ia?aiaa?aeueia ?a?no?aoe?y aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a
(AI) ia?aa; ?a?no?aoe?y niiaoinaini?ieo aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a ia
noeioeyoe?th ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a (NNAI), aea?iaoiiieo AI; aeine?aeaeaiiy
aieueiai? /ooeeaino? (iaoiaeeee iienai? a ?iaioao: Kimura J., 1974,1983;
Ludin H.-P., 1980, 1983; Oh S.J., 1984; Shahani B.T. et al., 1984; Bromm
B., 1984; Ia?nii I.A.,1985; Aaaeaeyi E.I., Neai?oeia E.A., 1984; Aaoo
A.I., 1990,1997; Caieia E.?., ?iieei I.A., 1991; iao? iiaeeo?eaoe?? –
*aaioa?ueiaa E.E., 1989, 1990,1993,1996,1997).

Eiiieaenio aeiiia?aoe?eio ae?aaiinoeeo ??aiy, oa?aeoa?o oa nooiaiy
o?aaeaiiy ia?aiai-iyciaiai aia?aoo aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee aeeiioaaee ia
eiiithoa?eciaaiiio aiae?caoi?? a?iiioaioe?ae?a “BASIS A?I“ (“I.O.A.
A?iiaaeeea”, ?oae?y) a iaai?e iine?aeiaiino?. Ia ia?oiio aoai?
i?iaiaeeee oanooaaiiy ooieoe?? i’yc?a iea/iaiai iiyno, iea/a,
ia?aaeie?//y, eeno? o a?aeiia?aeue ia aeaeo?e/io noeioeyoe?th (AIIA)
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy a iaaeeeth/e/i?e oi/oe? (A?aa). Aiie?ooaeo
iioaioe?aeo ae?? (IAe) i’yca ae?aaeaee o %, i?eeiyaoe ca 100% aiie?ooaeo
IAe eiio?aeaoa?aeueiiai (?ioaeoiiai) i’yca. Eaoaioiee ia??iae eiaeiiai c
oeeo iioaioe?ae?a, ae?aaeaiee a oiiaieo iaeeieoeyo a?aeiinii eaoaioiiai
ia??iaeo IAe eiio?aeaoa?aeueiiai i’yca, caiineee aei “eiao?oe??ioo
aiie?ooae ? eaoaioe?e” (o cai?iiiiiaai?e iaie oi?i? caieno). Oeae ia?oee
oano a?aeiinii oaeaeei ? iaaeyaeii a?aeiia?aeaa ia ieoaiiy i?i aeae
o?aaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy: oioaeueiee ia?ae?/, aa?oi?e ia?ae?/ (ca
oeiii Aethoaiia-A?aa), ieaei?e ia?ae?/ (ca oeiii Aeaaea??i-Eethiiea).
Ae?oaei iaia’yceiaei aoaiii aoei aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ooiai? ooieoe??
na?aaeeiiiai, e?eoueiaiai oa i?iiaiaaiai ia?a?a c iiaeaeueoei
?ic?aooieii nooiaiy ao?aoe ooieoe?e. I?e a?aenooiino? IAe i’yca (i’yc?a)
i?iaiaeeee aioo??oiueii’yciao aieeiao AIA c iaoith aeyaeaiiy iciae
iiaii? /e /anoeiai? aeaia?aaoe??. Oanooaaiiy ooieoe?? /ooeeaeo oa
iinoaaiae?iia?ieo neiiaoe/ieo aieieii o neeaae? ia?aa, ?a?no?aoe?th
NNAI, aea?iaoiiieo AI, I-?aoeaeno, aieueiaiai ii?iao cae?enithaaee ca
iayai?noth a?aeiia?aeieo iieacaiue.

C iaoith ioe?iee: 1) a??ia?aeiino? ci?i iieaciee?a o aeeiai?oe?
niinoa?aaeaiiy; 2) ae?aaiinoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoeaiino? iieacieea i?e ??cieo
ee?i?/ieo oi?iao ooeiaeaeaiiy; 3) ?ioi?iaoeaiino? iieacieea aeey
i?iaiicoaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy aoee aeei?enoai?
noaoenoe/i? iaoiaee aiae?co. Aoei ?ic?iaeaii: noaiaea?oeciaaio ea?oo
ianoaaeaiiy oai?iai, a?aaeaoe?? ee?i?/ieo oa iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo
iieaciee?a ia aoaiao aeiiia?aoe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee oa i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai
iii?oi?eiao, a?aaeoaeueio ioe?ieo nooiaiy a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?e
iia?iaaiiai ia?aa ? i’yc?a, ye? iei ?ia?aothoueny (noaae?y
?a?ia?aaoe??).

I?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeicaieyei aeeiiaoe noaoenoe/i? caaaeaiiy ca
ie?aieie iieacieeaie, cie?aia aeiiia?aoe?eii? iae?io?c?ieia?/ii?
ae?aaiinoeee, o aeaeyae? /anoioe oa a?aenioeo o?aiey?iino? a?aaeaoe?e
iieacieea. Aoee aeei?enoai? oae caai? “o?eueo?e” aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
noaoenoe/ieo caaaeaiue a caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy, aeaeo ? oyaeeino?
o?aaeaiiy ia?aa, niiniao ? iniaeeainoae iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy, eiai
aoaeoeaiino?, i?ioeaieueiaiai aoaeoo oiui.

I?e ioe?ioe? a??ia?aeiino? ??cieoe? i?ae io?eiaieie /anoioaie
aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae ?iciiae?eo ??cieoe? a?aeiinieo /anoio [Ieioea?
I.I. oa ni?aaao., 1991] c ?ic?aooieii na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ii? iiieeee;
i?e p0,05 ??cieoeth a?aeiinieo /anoio aaaaeaee ?noioiith. Ioe?ithaaee
?ioi?iaoeai?noue iieacieea ca ?yaeii a?aaeaoe?e iciaee [I?eia A.A.,
Oeeeiiia E.E., 1976]. Aeey iiaoaeiae iiaeae? i?iaiico aoaeoeaiino?
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy aeei?enoaee iaoiae iine?aeiaiiai noaoenoe/iiai
aiae?co [Aoaea? A.A., 1978] c ?ic?aooieii ae?aaiinoe/ieo eiao?oe??io?a
oa ioe?ieith ?ioi?iaoeaiino? iciaee ye noie ?ioi?iaoeaiinoae ae?aiacii?a
iciaee.

C iaoith aea/aiiy ae?aaiinoe/ii? oe?iiino? ie?aieo iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo
iieaciee?a ? oano?a oa ?ic?iaee aaeaeaaoieo e?eoa???a a?aaeoaeueii?
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy aoei i?iaaaeaii a
aenia?eiaio? iiaeaethaaiiy ooeiaeaeaiiy ia?eoa?e/iiai ia?aa oa
iia?aoeaia e?eoaaiiy. Eiaeiee aenia?eiaio neeaaeaany c aeaio aoai?a. Ia
ia?oiio aoai? 38 a?eei uo?ai, naioeyi, ianith a?ey 200 a (a?ae 160 aei
230 a) i?iaiaeeee ia?a??ceo oa ai?iaa?aeueiee oia n?aeie/iiai ia?aa (c
aeei?enoaiiyi iia?aoe?eiiai i?e?ineiia). I?ney iia?aoe?? iiaeaethaaee
??ci? oiiae a?aeiiaeaiiy. Ia ae?oaiio aoai? cae?enithaaee
iae?io?c?ieia?/ia oanooaaiiy ooieoe?? iia?iaaiiai ia?aa. Aeey aiae?co
?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo aoee aeei?enoai? a?noieia?/iee oa AIIA
iaoiaee, ine?eueee c?noaaeaiiy a?noiiaoieia?/ieo oa iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo
aeaieo aeicaieyei iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii ioe?ieoe iniaeeaino? a?aeiiaeaiiy
ooieoe?? ia?aiaeo noiaao??a a ??cieo a?oiao aeine?aeaeaiue.

I aenia?eiaioaeueio a?oio – eiio?ieue – neeaaeaee 10 ?ioaeoieo oaa?ei,
1–2 a eiaeiee c aei?a iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo. O II a?oi? (10
oaa?ei) i?iaiaeeee ia?aoei oa oia ia?aa, /a?ac 2 oa 8–10 oeaei?a
ioe?ithaaee noai ?aaaia?aoi?ieo i?ioean?a. O III a?oi? (10 oaa?ei)
ia?aoei oa coeaaiiy n?aeie/iiai ia?aa noi?iaiaeaeoaaee
noaai?iaa?aeueiith o?ainieaioaoe??th a ciio oaa oeaieie nieiiiai iiceo
(0,25 ii3) 8-aeiaiaeo aia??ii?a uo?a, iae?io?c?ieia?/ia oanooaaiiy
i?iaiaeeee /a?ac 2 oa 8–10 oeaei?a i?ney iia?aoe??. O IV a?oi? (8
oaa?ei) iiaeaethaaee ?i?eoe?eia o?aaeaiiy n?aeie/iiai ia?aa ei?ae?ai?iii
(0,025 ie) aai 10% ?ic/eiii oei?eaeo eaeueoe?th (0,025ie).
Iae?io?c?ieia?/ia oanooaaiiy ooieoe?e ia?aa i?iaiaeeee /a?ac 1, 3 oa 24
aiaeeie i?ney ?i?eoe??.

I?ae ia?eoiiaaeueiei ia?eicii (noi?ooth eae?inieo oa ?aeai?oio) ia
caaei?o e?ioe?aeao uo?a ia iaeneiaeueiiio i?ioyc? ca aeiiiiiaith
ieanoianiaiai oa neeyiiai ?ino?oiaioo ooii ?icoa?iaoaaee oeaieie
acaeiaae n?aeie/iiai ia?aa. E?eueeiia e?aaoo?aie o?enoaaee oe??o oa iye?
oeaieie ia iaoeaiiae?aiiio o?enaoi?? oaeei /eiii, uia ooai?eeany
ae?iniiiae?aia “aaiii/ea” c iyeeo oeaiei, yeo aeiiaithaaee i?ae?a??oei
aacae?iiaei ianeii. Ca oaeeo oiia oieeaee o?aeoe?? /e yeiainue ?ioiai
o?aaioaaiiy ia?aa, ia?a caeeoaany o nai?io i?e?iaeiueiio eiae? oa aoa
caoeuaiee a?ae aeneoaiiy /e eiioaeoo c ioi/oth/eie aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieie
oeaieiaie. Aeaeo?iae cacaieaiiy (oei?-n??aiee, /aoeiaee) i?aeoeaaee
i?aeoe??ii ia ia?aaeith iiaa?oith a?oaeii? ee?oeie. Aeaeo?iaee o
aeaeyae? aeaio ieaoeiiaeo aieie, ae?aiao?ii 0,22 ii, ?c caaiooeie
e?i/eeaie (ui aoee o?eniaai? o oaoeiiia?e eaithe? ia a?aenoaii? 2,5 ii
iaeia a?ae iaeii?), i?aeaiaeeee i?ae ia?a: noeioethth/? – yeiiiaa
i?ieneiaeuei?oa a?ae i?noey coeaaiiy ia?aa, ?a?no?oth/? – yeiiiaa
aeenoaeuei?oa, a?aenoaiue i?ae ieie neeaaeaea 20 ii. Aeey a?aeaaaeaiiy
IAe eeoeiaiai iyca eiioeaio?e/iee aieeiaee aeaeo?iae ae?aiao?ii 0,3 ii,
ieiuath a?aeaaaeaiiy 0,015 ii2, aeiaaeeiith 25 ii, caio?thaaee a ?ooiao
oi/eo i’yca.

Aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia aia?ao? “BASIS A?I“
(“I.O.A. A?iiaaeeea”, ?oae?y). Noeioeyoe?th cae?enithaaee c eaoiaea (o
?yae? aeiaaee?a c aiiaea) ?iioeuenaie o?eaae?noth 0,05 in (0,1in),
/anoioth 1/n (3/n), ?ioaineai?noue noeioeyoe?? i?aeae?aee
?iaeea?aeoaeueii, /ano?oa ia ??ai? 30-40 iA (15-35 iA), aeoiaey/e c oiai
??aiy, i?e yeiio aeinyaiooi iaeneiaeueii? aiie?ooaee IAe ia?aa oa IAe
i’yca. ?o ?a?no?oaaee ia?aeaeueii iaeii/anii ia eiaeiee noeioe,
aeei?enoiaoth/e aeaa eaiaee a?aeaaaeaiiy. Oaeaee?noue ?icai?oaiiy 10
in/iiae?e., /ooeea?noue i?aeneethaa/a – a?ae 100 aei 2000 ieA aeey IAe
ia?aa, a?ae 100 aei 10000 ieA – aeey IAe i’yca. Nioaa ia?aioneaiiy
/anoio a?ae 10 aei 10000 Aoe. Ona?aaeithaaee ii 4 a?aeiia?ae? aeey
?ic?aooieo eiaeiiai c IAe.

I?ney cae?i/aiiy iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo, eiee oaa?eia ua
ciaoiaeeeanue a noai? ia?eico, i?iaiaeeee caa?? iaoa??aeo aeey
a?noieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy – ae?eyieo n?aeie/iiai ia?aa aeiaaeeiith
i?eaeecii 5 ii c i?noey coeaaiiy ia?aa, iio?i oaa?eio aia?oaeyee
aacaie?niei niiniaii oeyoii aioo??oiueii/a?aaeiii? ?i’?eoe?? ?ic/eio
o?iiaioaeo iao??y. A?iin?eiee iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeoaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoiae?a na?oeiai? oa aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??.

Aiae?c AI ia?aa oa iyca cae?enithaaee ia i?aenoaa? ii??aiyiiy iieaciee?a
ia iia?iaai?e oa ?ioaeoi?e e?ioe?aeao oe??? ae oaa?eie. Ioe?ithaaee:
eaoaioiee ia??iae oa aiie?ooaeo IAe ia?aa; eaoaioiee ia??iae oa
aiie?ooaeo IAe i’yca. Iieacieee ooieoe?? iia?iaaiiai ia?aa ae?aaeaee o
%, a?aeiinii iieaciee?a ia eiio?aeaoa?aeuei?e e?ioe?aoe?. Aeey
noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee oeeo?iaeo aeaieo a iaaeao eiaeii? a?oie oa aeey
?ic?aooieo a??ia?aeiino? ??cieoe? iieaciee?a o a?oiao aeei?enoiaoaaee
e?eoa??e A?eeieniia, ?<0,05. Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaeaia caaaeueia iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue, ee?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c oe?ieei aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo ? a?io?ce/ieo (?io?aneii?/ieo) iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee, aenia?eiaioaeueia ?ic?iaea ia eaai?aoi?ieo oaa?eiao, iiaeaethaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?ii? oaoi?ee caaacia/eee: – no/aniee iaoiaee/iee ??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy; – iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe aeai? o aeaeyae? e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a ooieoe?e ia?aiaeo no?oeoo?, i?iaanoe ?o noaoenoe/iee aiae?c; – caeo/eoe aei c?noaaeaiiy aaaaoee oai?aoe/iee oa ee?i?/iee iaoa??ae c i?iaeaie o?aaiaoe/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue ia?eoa?e/ii? ia?aiai? nenoaie, yeee iaeiie/aii a ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie; – aeine?aeeoe iaoiaaiaoe/i? oa naiiaaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie ia no?oeoo?iiio oa ooieoe?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo c o?aooaaiiyi nenoaiieo a?aeiioaiue, iaa?oiooaaoe aeniiaee oai?aoe/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai ieaio. Aeey aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aoei aeei?enoaii aeciai? iiiyooy ? eaoaai??? no/anii? iaoio?c?ieia?? ia?aiai? nenoaie (E?uaeaiianeee A.I., 1997). Ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ia ae?aaiinoeea ooeiaeaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, iae?io?c?ieia?/i? e?eoa??? aeey aecia/aiiy oaeoeee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai o??o?a?/iiai oa eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi aeiiia?aoe?eii? iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee aoei aecia/aiiy ??aiy oa ianyao o?aaeaiiy: naaiaio?a nieiiiai iiceo, nieiiiiiceiaeo ei??ioe?a, ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a, noiaao??a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, ?o ia?aaei?o oa caaei?o ?iciiae?eaiue, io/e?a, aeiaaeo a?eie, ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a, a oaeiae oyaeeino? o?aaeaiiy ? nooiaiy ao?aoe ooieoe?e. Oaea aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia ioe?iea aacoaaeany ia noeoiiino? aeaieo ee?i?/ieo, ?aioaaiieia?/ieo, I?O oa iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aieeaaea ia aea?? oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy. ?ioei aaaeeeaei /eiieeii aoa caaaeueiee noai oai?iai c o?aooaaiiyi oa?aeoa?o ? oyaeeino? noiooi?o o?aaeaiue (cie?aia aieiaiiai oa nieiiiai iiceo, o?aaoa, e?noie, noaeei oiui). Aeey ee?i?/ii? ioe?iee caa?aaeaiino? ooieoe?e iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaee a?aaeaoe?? a?ae “0” aei “5” (ca noaiith Kline D.G., Hudson A.R., 1995) aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii: aeey oioaeueiiai ia?ae?/o, o?aaeaiiy N5-O1 ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a (ei??ioe?a); N5-N6 ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a (ei??ioe?a) /e aa?oiueiai noiaao?a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy; N5-N7 ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a (ei??ioe?a) /e aa?oiueiai oa na?aaeiueiai noiaao??a; N8-O1 ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a (ei??ioe?a) /e ieaeiueiai noiaao?a; eaoa?aeueiiai io/ea iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy; iaae?aeueiiai io/ea; caaeiueiai io/ea. Ca aeaieie i?iaaaeaiiai iaie noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co, a??ia?aei? a?aaeaoe?? (? < 0,05) iieacieea aiie?ooaee IAe i’yc?a a?aeiia?aeii oae?e ee?i?/i?e ioe?ioe? noaiiaeee: 0 – a?aenooi?noue IAe; 1 – 1-5% ii?ie; 2 – 6-15%; 3 – 15-35%; 4 – 36-55%; 5 – > 56%. A??ia?aei?noue a?aaeaoe?e aeey
ioe?iie “4” ? “5” caa??aaeany ca oiia: 1) oaeaeeino? i?iaaaeaiiy
caoaeaeaiiy aei i’yca ia ieae/a 45-50% ii?ie (ca eaoaioiei ia??iaeii IAe
i’yca); 2) caa?aaeaiino? ANOI (iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o aiie?ooaee oa
eaoaiiiai ia??iaeo).

Aoei aecia/aii oae? aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/i? e?eoa??? ooeiaeaeaiiy ca oeiii
iaa?ioiaceno no?oeoo? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy: a?aenooi?noue i?iaaaeaiiy
caoaeaeaiiy aei i’yca oa IAe i’yca i?e noeioeyoe?? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy,
a?aenooi?noue iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue i?e ni?ia? aeia?eueiiai
nei?i/aiiy i’yca, niiioaiia aeoeai?noue i’yciaeo aieieii o aeaeyae?
iioaioe?ae?a o?a??eyoe?e, iiceoeaieo aino?eo oaeeue – AIA iciaee
aeaia?aaoe??. Oeyoii c?noaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeiiia?aoe?eiiai
ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo c ?io?aiia?aoe?eieie aeaieie aoei i?iaaaeaii aiae?c
iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieo ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo e?eoa???a
ae?aaiinoeee o?aaeaiiy ie?aieo ei??ioe?a oeeiiai a?aeae?eo nieiiiai
iiceo oa ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a (oa?i?i c iiiaioo o?aaie ia iiiaio
ianoaaeaiiy –a?ae 1 i?n aei 5 ?ie?a).

?acoeueoaoe ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo c aa?eo?eiaaiei ooeiaeaeaiiyi ei??ioey
aai ni?iaeueiiai ia?aa aiae?coaaee ii a?oiao: N5 – 11 aeiaaee?a, N6 – 4,
N5–N6 – 88, N5–N7 – 10, N5–N8 – 132, ?cieueiaaia ooeiaeaeaiiy
na?aaeiueiai noiaao?a – 17, caaeiueiai io/ea – 9. Iai?eeeaae, i?e
o?aaeaii? N5 ni?iaeueiiai ia?aa iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie aoee oae?
e?eoa???: i?e i?ieneiaeueiiio ??ai? iioeiaeaeaiiy – ia?ae?/, ao?io?y,
AIA iciaee iiaii? aeaia?aaoe?? ? a?aenooi?noue IAe aaeeeiai ? iaeiai
?iiaiiiae?aieo, iaaeinoiiai, aeaeueoiiiae?aiiai i’yc?a, i?e a?eueo
aeenoaeueiiio ??ai? iioeiaeaeaiiy N5 – iaaeinoiiai ? aeaeueoiiiae?aiiai
i’yc?a.

Aieiai? e?eoa??? iiaiiai o?aaeaiiy N5-N6 ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a aai (oa)
aa?oiueiai noiaao?a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy: ia?ae?/, ao?io?y, AIA oa AIIA
iciaee aeaia?aaoe?? iaaeinoiiai, i?aeinoiiai, aeaeueoiiiae?aiiai,
aeaiaieiaiai, iea/iaiai, iea/i-i?iiaiaaiai, noi?ioth/iai iyc?a,
a?aenooi?noue NNAI ia noeioeyoe?th iiaa?oiaaeie aeaeo?iaeaie
a?aeiia?aeiiai aea?iaoiia iaae i?iaeoe??th aie?aee iea/iai? e?noee.
*anoeiaa ooeiaeaeaiiy N5-N6 /anoi noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny iciaeaie iiaiiai
aeiaae?iiy ooieoe?? aeaeueoiiiae?aiiai iyca ? /anoeiaiai aeiaae?iiy –
iea/iaiai oa aeaiaieiaiai i’yca iea/a. Ooeiaeaeaiiy nieaoaiiy ia ??ai?
aa?oiueiai noiaao?a ni?e/eiyee cia/ii iaioa ni?eueieo aa??aio?a
o?aaeaiiy aeaeueoiiiae?aiiai ? aeaiaieiaiai iyc?a, i?ae o?aaeaiiy ia
i?aeeeth/e/iiio ??ai?.

?ic?iaeai? iaie aieiai? iae?io?c?ieia?/i? e?eoa??? o?aaeaiiy ie?aieo
ei??ioe?a ? ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a oeeiiai a?aeae?eo nieiiiai iiceo aoee
i?aeoaa?aeaeai? i?e ae?aaiinoeoe? oioaeueiiai oa /anoeiaeo aa??aio?a
iaaeeeth/e/iiai o?aaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy. C 270 ianoaaeaieo oai?eo
oioaeueia o?aaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy niinoa??aaeiny o 165 (61%),
aa?oi?e ia?ae?/ – 85 (31,5%), ieaei?e ia?ae?/ – 9 (3,4%), o ?ioeo 11
oai?eo (4,1%) – ?cieueiaaia o?aaeaiiy ie?aieo ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a, io/e?a
aai aeiaaeo a?eie nieaoaiiy.

Aeey aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? i?a- /e iinoaaiae?iia?iiai ??aiy ooeiaeaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiaee: 1) ?a?no?aoe?? ei?ioeieaoaioieo NNAI ia o?ueio
??aiyo – a iaaeeeth/e/i?e iaeano? (nieaoaiiy), ni?iaeueieo, e??eiaeo oa
2) /ooeeaeo AI na?aaeeiiiai ? e?eoueiaiai ia?a?a. I?e i?aaaiae?iia?iiio
??ai? ooeiaeaeaiiy ei??ioe?a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, ye i?aaeei,
niinoa??aaeeny: a?aenooi?noue ni?iaeueiiai N 13 oa e??eiaiai N 19 NNAI;
caa?aaeai?noue NNAI N 9 a oi/oe? A?aa; iayai?noue /ooeeaiai IAe ia?aa
(ui na?ae/eei i?i caa?aaeaii?noue ca’yceo c ee?oeiaie nieiiiiiceiaeo
aoce?a) i?e aianoac?? o a?aeiia?aeiiio aea?iaoii?. Ia a?aei?io, i?e
iinoaaiae?iia?iiio ??ai? ooeiaeaeaiiy ei??ioey /ooeea? IAe o
a?aeiia?aeue ia noeioeyoe?th ia?aa ia ?a?no?oaaeeny. Ae?aaiinoe/ia
?ioi?iaoeai?noue oeeo iciae i?e iaeii??aiaaiio ooeiaeaeaii? aeinyaaea
80-85%, i?e aeai??aiaaiio – aoea cia/ii iaioith (aei 55-60%). Ca aeaieie
I?O, a?ae?ea ei??ioe?a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy a?ae nieiiiai iiceo aeyaeyany
o aeaeyae? o?aaiaoe/ieo iai?iaioeaea, iciae eieaeueii? ao?io?? nieiiiai
iiceo oa e?no ia noi?ii? ooeiaeaeaiiy (o 90-95% aeiaaee?a).

Aeiiia?aoe?eia iae?io?c?ieia?/ia ae?aaiinoeea caaacia/oaaea ia’?eoeai?
e?eoa??? aeey ae??oaiiy ieoaiue i?i iieacaiiy, oa?i?i ? aeae
o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy, ?o aoei aeei?enoaii aeey aecia/aiiy o?ueio
??ai?a cae?eoiai ooeiaeaeaiiy iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy (Noe?e I.I., 1997), c
o?aooaaiiyi yeeo ieaioaaee o??o?a?/io oaeoeeo, iine?aeiai?noue aoai?a oa
ianya iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ia aoai?. I-e ??aaiue: i?aaaiae?iia?i?
ooeiaeaeaiiy ei??ioe?a. Aeae iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue: iaa?ioecaoe?y;
?aeiino?oeoeai? i?oiiaaee/i? iia?aoe?? (?II); i?ioeaieueia? iia?aoe??.
II-e ??aaiue: ooeiaeaeaiiy ni?iaeueieo ia?a?a 1) c ae?aaeaieie
?ao?ia?aaeieie ci?iaie aai 2) c iacia/ieie ?ao?ia?aaeieie ci?iaie. Aeae
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue: i?e II 1) – aeaeiii?an?y, ?II, i?ioeaieueia?
iia?aoe??; i?e II 2) – aeaeiii?an?y, coeaaiiy, aooiieanoeea, ?II. III-e
??aaiue: ooeiaeaeaiiy noiaao??a, io/e?a, aeiaaeo a?eie. Aeae iia?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue: aeaeiii?an?y, coeaaiiy, aooiieanoeea, ?II. Ia’?eoeaia ioe?iea
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio aeaia?aiaaieo i’yc?a aeicaieyea ieaioaaoe ianya
?o aeei?enoaiiy i?e ?II (*aaioa?ueiaa E.E., No?aooi N.N., 1998).

C iaoith ?ic?iaee iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo e?eoa???a aeeoa?aioe?aeueii?
ae?aaiinoeee, ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee ??aiy ? oyaeeino? ooeiaeaeaiiy
naaiaioa?ieo no?oeoo? i?e niieo/ieo o?aaeaiiyo iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ?
nieiiiai iiceo, aai cae?eo?e o?aai? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ia oe?
o?ii?/iiai iaa?ieia?/iiai caoai?thaaiiy aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe
ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy 124 oai?eo. Ee?i?/ii oa (/e) ca
aeaieie I?O, EO, ooieoe?iiaeueii? niiiaeeeia?ao??, i??eia?ao?? o ieo
i?aeic?thaaee cae?eoo o?aaio iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa (/e) iinoo?aaiaoe/io
oeeio i??eiiao?th, aa?oaa?iaaiio i??eiiao?th, iooeeio nieiiiai iiceo
oiui, ae??ooaaee ieoaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy. A?e
oai?eo noaiiaea a?ae 14 aei 69 ?ie?a, ?iciiae?e ca noaooth – iaeaea
ii??aio: /ieia?e?a 51%, ae?iie 49%. Oa?i?i, ui ieioa c ii/aoeo
caoai?thaaiiy aei aeiy i?iaaaeaiiy iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy,
noaiiaea a?ae 2 oeaei?a aei 12 ?ie?a.

Caeeth/iee ae?aaiic, ca aeaieie iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee,
aeiaeaoeiaeo ianoaaeaiue (I?O, oeueo?acaoeiai? aeiiiea?ia?ao?? noaeei
iiceo, ?ioiieia?/ieo) aoa: cae?eoa o?aaia iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, neiae?ii
iinoo?aaiaoe/ii? oeeii? i??eiiao?? (14), iane?aeee cae?eoi? o?aaie
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, oeeiee niiiaeeeueic (aai inoaioiiae?ic),
ei??ioeaaee neiae?ii (12), ooiaeueiee neiae?ii ia?a?a aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee, aoi?eiia aa?oaa?iaaiia i??eiiao?y (7), iie?ii??e?o aei?ineeo
(3), ee?uiaee aioeaoae?o (3), AAN aai neiae?ii AAN (12), ni?iaeueia
ai?io?io?y (7), aeno?a- /e ?io?aiaaeoey?ia iooeeia (16),
aeenoee?eoeyoi?ia i??eiiao?y (14), aeeneiaaiia i??eiiao?y (12),
iane?aeee yo?iaaiiiai ooeiaeaeaiiy oeeiiai a?aeae?eo nieiiiai iiceo (5),
a?ao?iieaeneo (iao?aaiaoe/iiai aaiaco) (16), aino?ee i??e?o (3),
?ioieneeaoe?eia i??ei-(?aaeeeoei)iaa?iiao?y (3), iinoaaeoeeiaeueia
(aea?a?/ia?) i??eiiao?y (4). 24 oai?eo io?eiaee o??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy c
i?eaiaeo: iooeeie oeeiiai a?aeae?eo nieiiiai iiceo – 16, o?aaie oeeiiai
a?aeae?eo o?aaoa – 1, eeee i?aeo?aaoeaaiai aeenea NV–VI, CVI–VII – 2,
o?aaie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy – 3, neiae?iio aeoiaeo a?oaeii? ee?oeie – 2.
?ica?aei?noue i?ae ii/aoeiaei (aei iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee) oa
caeeth/iei ae?aaiicii niinoa??aaeany a?eueoa, i?ae a 60% aeiaaee?a,
aaaaoi c oeeo oai?eo i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano io?eioaaee iaaaeaeaaoia
e?eoaaiiy.

Aoei aea/aii ae?aaiinoe/io ?ioi?iaoeai?noue iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iciae
naaiaioa?ieo oa i?ia?aeieeiaeo o?aaeaiue oeeiiai a?aeae?eo nieiiiai
iiceo. I?e aeeoa?aioe?aeuei?e ae?aaiinoeoe? niieo/iiai o?aaeaiiy
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aai ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee oa oeeiiai a?aeae?eo
nieiiiai iiceo iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie iae?io?c?ieia?/ieie iieacieeaie
caeo/aiiy i?ia?aeieeiaiai aia?aoo nieiiiai iiceo aoee: caaei?o noiai?a –
iayai?noue oa eaoaioiee ia??iae NNAI N 9,13,19; ei?oeei-ni?iaeueiiai
o?aeoo – iiyaa I-?aoeaeno oa aeiaaieaoaioieo iioi?ieo AI o i’ycao eeno?.
Aieiaiith ae?aaiinoe/iith iciaeith caeo/aiiy naaiaioa?ieo iioiiae?ii?a
aoa iae?iiaeueiee oei aeaia?aaoe?eieo ci?i i’yc?a (Aaoo A.I., 1990). Ia
a?aei?io a?ae oai?ia iioiiae?ii?a (AAN, ni?iaeueia ai?io?io?y,
iie?ii??e?o aei?ineeo) aoi?eiia caeo/aiiy aei iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano
ee?oei ia?aaei?o ?ia?a nieiiiai iiceo (iae?iiiiao??) i?e
iinoo?aaiaoe/ieo i??eiiao?yo, aa?oaa?iaaiieo eiii?an?yo, iooeeiao
o?aaoa, noaeeiieo aiiiae?yo, ne?eiaii??e?oe/ieo eenoao ? ae?iiaoic?
i?eiee ia noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny iaaecae/aeii ca?eueoaieie iieacieeaie
o?eaaeino? ? aiie?ooaee iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue (a?aeiia?aeii,
>120% ? >250%, ii??aiyii c ii?iith), oiaoi IV /e V AIA noaae??th
aeaia?aaoe?eii-?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano (Aaoo A.I., 1990). Cia/ii
iaioeie aoee oaeiae ae?aaeai?noue, /anoioa ? aiie?ooaea niiioaiieo
iioaioe?ae?a i’yciaeo aieieii, ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue. Oea iiynithaaeiny
?noioii iaioeie e?euee?noth oa nooiaiai oyaeeino? o?aaeaiiy iioiiae?ii?a
i?e aoi?eiieo iae?iiiiao?yo, i?ae i?e ia?aeiieo i?ia?anoth/eo oai?iaao
iioiiae?ii?a. Caa?oaa ia naaa oaaao oie oaeo, ui i?e eieaeuei?e o?aai?
oeeiiai a?aeae?eo nieiiiai iiceo ciia aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo iciae iiaiiai
oa /anoeiaiai aeiaae?iiy ooieoe?e iioiiae?ii?a ia?aaei?o ?ia?a aoea
cia/ii a?eueoith, i?ae ee?i?/ii anoaiiaeaiee ??aaiue iioeiaeaeaiiy.

Iae?io?c?ieia?/i? e?eoa??? ??aiy oa nooiaiy o?aaeaiiy naaiaioa?iiai
ia?aiai-i‘yciaiai aia?aoo aeyaeeeny aaeaeaaoieie aeey
aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai oa ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ae?aaiico aeiaaee?a: 1)
niieo/ii? o?aaie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa nieiiiai iiceo, 2) niieo/ii?
o?aaie iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa /a?aiiiiiceiai?, 3) o?aaie ia?aa aai
ooiaeueiiai neiae?iio ia oe? eaoaioiiai ia?aa?ao nenoaiiiai
iaa?ieia?/iiai caoai?thaaiiy, 4) o?aaie ia?aa aai ooiaeueiiai neiae?iio
ia oe? caeeoeiaeo yaeu ia?aianaiiai ?ioaeoe?eii-caiaeueiiai o?aaeaiiy;
5) aeiaaeeao iai?oanoaoe?? ?ioaeoe?eiiai, iooeeiiiai,
aeenoee?eoeyoi?iiai, niaaeeiai-aeaaaia?aoeaiiai i?ioean?a. Aeei?enoaiiy
iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai eiio?ieth o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? caaacia/eei
ia’?eoeai? e?euee?ni? e?eoa??? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy.

Noaae?? ?a?ia?aaoe?? oa ?o aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/i? e?eoa???

o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?

C iaoith nenoaiaoecaoe?? AIA e?eoa???a aoaeoeaii? ?a?ia?aaoe?? i’yc?a
iaie aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe ianoaaeaiiy 120 oai?eo c oyaeeei
o?aaiaoe/iei ooeiaeaeaiiyi iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, a?eii a?ae 14 aei 60
?ie?a, /ieia?e?a – 93%. 81 oai?iio (67,5%) aoei i?iaaaeaii iaa?ie?c
(aeaeiii?an?th) noiaao??a oa (/e) io/e?a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, 23(19,2%)
– aooiieanoeeo, 16(13,3%) – iaa?ioecaoe?th a?eie nieaoaiiy
i?ae?aaa?ieie, iaaeeiiaoeiaei, aaeeeei a?oaeiei oa ?ioeie ia?aaie.
Iaeaea 30% oai?eo aeeiiaii aeaa oa a?eueoa iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue. AIA
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee aei iia?aoe??, /a?ac 3–6, 9, 12–18 oa 24 i?n
i?ney ia?. Caeaaeii a?ae ee?i?/ieo i?iya?a oa oa?i?i?a ?a?ia?aaoe??
aeae?eaii aea? ee?i?/i? a?oie. Aei I a?oie aoei a?aeianaii oai?eo, o
yeeo ?a?ia?aaoe?y iyc?a a?aeaoaaeany o ia?aaeaa/ai? (ii?iaeuei?)
o?c?ieia?/i? oa?i?ie ? caaa?oeeany aoaeoeaiith ?a?ia?aaoe??th, ye
i?i?ioi, aei nooiaiy I3. Aei II ee?i?/ii? a?oie aoei a?aeianaii oai?eo,
o yeeo niinoa??aaeany niia?eueiaia (a?aeiinii ?ic?aoiaaieo oa?i?i?a)
?a?ia?aaoe?y c e?ioeaaei ?acoeueoaoii ia aeua nooiaiy a?aeiiaeaiiy I2.

Oa?i?i aei iiyae iciae aeia?eueii? iyciai? aeoeaiino? caeaaeaa a?ae
aaaaoueio /eiiee?a: ??aiy oa oyaeeino? ooeiaeaeaiiy ia?aiaiai noiaao?a,
oa?i?i?a oa aaeaeaaoiino? iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy, iayaiino? noiooiuei?
o?aaiaoecaoe?? iyc?a oa iaa?no?aeueieo noaeei, a?aenoai? a?ae i?noey
iioeiaeaeaiiy aei aeaia?aiaaiiai iyca. A?aoo?, on? oe? /eiieee aecia/aee
caaaeueio e?euee?noue aenii?a, ye? ae?noaeeny aei aeaia?aiaaieo iyc?a,
oa e?euee?noue caa?aaeaieo iyciaeo aieieii, ye? ua ia ao?aoeee
caeaoiino? aooe ?a?ia?aiaaieie. I?e AIA aeine?aeaeaii? aeyaeyee
niiioaiio aeoeai?noue iyciaeo aieieii: iioaioe?aee o?a??eyoe?e oa (/e)
iiceoeaieo aino?eo oaeeue; iioaioe?aee ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue ia
?a?no?oaaeeny.

Ii/aoeia? ?a?ia?aaoe?ei? iioaioe?aee cyaeyeeny i?eaeecii ca 2 i?n
(??aeoa 1–3) aei ia?oeo ee?i?/ieo iciae a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ia?aaoe?? iyc?a
(aeaeeiiai nei?i/aiiy), aaea i?eaeecii /a?ac 3–6 oeaei?a AIA ea?oeia
?a?ia?aaoe?? iiiiaithaaeany neeaaeieie aaaaoioacieie o?eaaeeie
iioaioe?aeaie ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue ca?eueoaii? aiie?ooaee, ye?
a?aeia?aaeaee no?oeoo?io ?ai?aai?caoe?th ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue. C iaoith
nenoaiaoecaoe?? AIA iciae ?a?ia?aaoe?? iyc?a ia aoai? a?aeiiaeaiiy
aeia?eueii? aeoeaiino? iaie aoee aeae?eai? /ioe?e noaae??
?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano oa aecia/ai? i?eoaiaii? ?i iniaeeaino?
(oaae.1).

I n o a ae ? y oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany: iiyaith “?a?ia?aaoe?eieo
iioaioe?ae?a”; ?noioiei ciaioaiiyi niiioaiii? aeoeaiino? iyciaeo
aieieii; a?aenooi?noth IAe i’yca oiui.

II n o a ae ? y. O?eaae?noue a?eueoino? iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue
aoea ca?eueoaiith; a?noia?aia ?o ?iciiae?eo ca o?eaae?noth ci?uoaaeany
i?aai?o/ a?aeiinii ii?ie, aoea ?icoyaiooa, nieiuaia; aiie?ooaea
noaiiaeea a?ae aeanyoe?a aei oeny/ ieA; e?euee?noue iie?oacieo
iioaioe?ae?a cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaea ii?io. Caa?oaa ia naaa oaaao cia/iee
?iceeae iieaciee?a. ?ioa?oa?aioe?eia AIA (aeene?aoiiai oeio) neeaaeaeany
c eieeaaiue iaei? aiie?ooaee ? /anoioe. Aiie?ooaea IAe i’yca noaiiaeea
iaioa 5–10% ii?ie. Ee?i?/ia ioe?iea a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ooiai? ooieoe?? ia
ia?aaeuoaaea I2. sse i?aaeei, oaiaeaioe?? a iiaeaeueo?e ci?i? AIA
iieaciee?a o I oa II a?oiao aoee i?eioeeiiai ??cieie: aai a?aeaoaaany
aeineoue ?ioaineaiee ia?ao?ae o “III iiceoeaio noaae?th” – c aoaeoeaiei
a?aeiiaeaiiyi neee nei?i/aiy iyca ia ieae/a ??aiy I3 (iaa?oue I4), aai
ae II noaae?y noaaaea caoyaeiith ?, ye i?aaeei, o e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao?
ooieoe?iiaeueii iaiiaiioe?iiith –“III iaaaoeaia noaae?y”. I?e
aeaoaeueiiio ?icaeyae? iniiaieo aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a iyc?a,
ye? aoee ia?eoii ?a?ia?aaoe??, /?oei aeiaeueiaoaaeany i?eioeeiiaa
??cieoey i?ae aeaiia iiaeeeaeie noaiaie iyca ia e?ioeaaiio aoai?
?a?ia?aaoe??: III(+) aai III(–) noaae?y (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1.

Ci?ie AIA iieaciee?a ia ??cieo noaae?yo ?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano

Aoaie oa noaae?? ?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeanoIieacieee1-e aoai2-e
aoaiIi?iaI noaae?yII noaae?yIII(+) no.III(–) no.Ioe?iea ooieoe??
i’ycaI0I1–I2I2–I3I3(I5)I1–I3I5Iioaioe?ae ae?? i’yca,
%––/+1-2540-6515-30100AIA iieacieee:Iioaioe?ae
o?a?eeyoe??+++++/––/+–/++–Iiceoeaia aino?a
oaeey+/+++–/+–/+–+/++–Iioaioe?ae

oanoeeeoeyoe??––––/+–/+–?aii?e ?a?ia?aaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae
–++––/+–Iioaioe?ae ?ooiai? iaeeieoe?:o?eaae?noue,
%––90–140100–140140–20010020aiie?ooaea,
%––50–300200–300100–50010040iie?oac?y, %––90–10070–9050–1005*I?ei?oea:
iioaioe?ae ae?? iyca + – iayai?noue, – – a?aenooi?noue; aeoeai?noue
iyciaeo aieieii: +++ ao?oeeaa, ++ iii??ia, + iiiaeeiie? iioaioe?aee, – –
a?aenooiy.

III(+) n o a ae ? y oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany: ii?iae?caoe??th aiie?ooaeieo
iieaciee?a aai (/ano?oa) ?o ca?eueoaiiyi o 1,5-2 ?ace (aei 300%);
na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue ii??aiyii ?c II
noaae??th ?noioii ia ci?ithaaeany, aea a?noia?aia ?o ?iciiae?eo ca
o?eaae?noth iaaoaaea cian?i ?ioiai aeaeyaeo – aiia ao?a/aea nieiuai?noue
oa ?icoyaioo?noue, eiioeaio?oaaeany a ii?iaeueieo iaaeao N+2(3), a
aeayeeo niinoa?aaeaiiyo noaaaea ii?iaeueiith c /?oeei oeaio?ii. Oae?
ci?ie na?ae/eee i?i a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? aenii?a, ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a
cia/ii? e?eueeino? ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue oa a?eueo “aeineiiaea” ?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Niinoa??aaeiny c?inoaiiy neee nei?i/aiiy iyca,
aeia?eueiiai oa aeeeeeaiiai, ca?aeii ioe?iee ca ca?eueoaiiyi aiie?ooaee
? /anoioe eieeaaiue ?ioa?oa?aioe?eii? AIA, iaeneiaeueii? aiie?ooaee IAe
i’yca, a?aeiia?aeii.

III(–) n o a ae ? ? (iiae?aii II) aoa i?eoaiaiiee cia/iee ae?aiacii
iieaciee?a aiie?ooaee ? o?eaaeino? iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo iaeeieoeue.
A?noia?aia ?iciiae?eo iioaioe?ae?a ca o?eaae?noth aoea nieiuaiith,
?icoyaiooith, ci?uaiith i?aai?o/ a?ae ii?iaeueieo iaae, /ano?oa
aeene?aoiith. ?a?no?oaaee niiioaiio aeoeai?noue i’yciaeo aieieii.
Niinoa??aaee ia??aiii??i?noue oa ianoaa?euei?noue ?ae?oooaaiiy ?ooiaeo
iaeeieoeue ye i?ae /an neaaeiai, oae ? i?ae /an iaeneiaeueiiai coneeey.
Ioe?iea ?ooiai? ooieoe?? /ano?oa ia ia?aaeuoaaea I2. sseui o oai?eo I
ee?i?/ii? a?oie AIA iieacieee, ye i?aaeei, iine?aeiaii i?ioiaeeee ?, ??,
???(+) noaae??, oi o oai?eo c? niia?eueiaiith iaaoaeoeaiith
?a?ia?aaoe??th oeiiaeie aoee ?, ??, ???(–) noaae??. A?ae??ciyeeny i?ae
niaith ?? ? ???(–) noaae?? ia ca aaee/eiith iieaciee?a, a ca oa?i?iii,
yeee ieioa c iiiaioo o?aaie oa inoaiiuei? iia?aoe??.

Oaeei /eiii, ?iciiae?e ia??iaeo ?a?ia?aaoe?? iyc?a ia AIA noaae??
aeicaieea, iaaiith i??ith, nenoaiaoecoaaoe aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/i? iieacieee
?a?ia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano i?e o?aaiaoe/ieo ooeiaeaeaiiyo iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy ? ei?enooaaoeny a??ia?aeieie i?iaiinoe/ieie e?eoa??yie
aoaeoeaiino? a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? iyc?a. Ee?i?ei-aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/iee
iii?oi?eia ia ??cieo aoaiao i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo caaacia/oaaa
a??ia?aei? e?eoa??? ioe?iee i?ioean?a ?a?ia?aaoe??, aeicaieya o a?eueo
ei?ioe? oa?i?ie aecia/eoeny c i?iaiicii ? iiaeaeueoith oaeoeeith
e?eoaaiiy.

Aieueia? neiae?iie i?e o?aaeaiiyo iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy,
ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/i? ei?aeyoe?? a aeeiai?oe? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy

Aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? ci?ie iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a o c?noaaeaii? c
ae?aaeai?noth aieueiaiai neiae?iio i?e o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiiyo iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy oa eiai iane?aeeao (oaae. 2). C 270 ianoaaeaieo oai?eo
ae?aaeai?noue aieueiaiai neiae?iio ia ??ai? 1-4 nooiaiy (ca oeaeith
0–5), niinoa??aaeany o 162 (60%) oai?eo, c ieo 1-ai nooiaiy
(ei?ioei/aniee a?eue a ?ooe?, yeee ia iio?aaoaaa i?eeiio aiaeueaaoee?a)
– o 38(14%). Iaaaaiiaiee a?eue, yeee ?iaea iaiiaeeeaith ?ooiao
aeoeai?noue, ii?oooaaa nii, ia ci?iaany ciaaiethth/eie (4 nooi?iue)
/ano?oa noi?iaiaeaeoaaa aeiaaeee c i?aaaiae?iia?iei a?ae?eaii ei??ioe?a
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy (9 niinoa?aaeaiue, on? c oioaeueiei ooeiaeaeaiiyi
nieaoaiiy). Aeey iaeaea 25% oai?eo aieueiaee neiae?ii iiaeia aoei
aecia/eoe ye oaioiiii-aieueiaee o aeaaoa?aioiaai?e e?ioe?aoe?.

Oaaeeoey 2.

*anoioa aeyaeaiiy ci?i iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a o iia?iaaieo oai?eo

c o?aaiaoe/iei o?aaeaiiyi iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ? ae?aaeaiei

aieueiaei neiae?iiii

Ci?ie iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo??aaiue ooeiaeaeaiiyiieaciee?a ooieoe?eei??ioe?
nieiiiai
iiceonoiaao?eN5–N6N5–O1N7-O1aa?oi?eieaei?ena?aaei?eia?eoa?e/iiai
aaaaoaoeaiiai

aia?aoo (ANOI)12/1244/4932/3248/519/97/11oeaio?aeueiiai aaaaoaoeaiiai

aia?aoo (ANOI)4/1228/4924/3218/519/97/11i?ia?aeieeiaiai aia?aoo

nieiiiai iiceo (NNAI)6/1236/4927/325/7––/ooeeaeo aieieii ia?aa:

naini?iee iioaioe?ae (IAe)11/1236/4922/327/7––aea?iaoiiiee aeeeeeaiee
iioaioe?ae (AeAI)8/1244/4931/326/79/910/11aieueiaee ii??a

(AI)7/1225/4926/327/79/910/11*I?ei?oea: o /enaeueieeo e?euee?noue oai?eo
c aeyaeaiei ii?ooaiiyi, o ciaiaiieeo – e?euee?noue ianoaaeaieo oai?eo.

Eieae?caoe?y aieth ca aea?iaoiiaie aoea oaeith: ni?aiaaeaiiy c
a?ae??aaiei ei??ioeai – o 50% oai?eo, e?euee?noue caeo/aieo aea?iaoii?a
a?eueoa e?eueeino? iioeiaeaeaieo ei??ioe?a – o 45%, iaioa – o 5%.
Caeo/aiiy i?ia?aeieeiaeo aia?ao?a oeeiiai a?aeae?eo nieiiiai iiceo
aeyaeyeiny o 40% oai?eo c aa?eo?eiaaiei a?ae?eaii oeeieo ei??ioe?a,
ia?aaaaeaee ii?ooaiiy o aeaeyae? a?ia??aoeaen?? (32%). Aeyaeai? ci?ie
iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a, iaaiith i??ith, a?aeia?aaeaee ??aaiue
o?aaeaiiy no?oeoo? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy (oaae.2). A ia?aaaaei?e
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iaaaaiiaiiai oa neeueiiai aieth niinoa??aaeeny ANOI
c? cieaeaiith aiie?ooaeith oa ca?eueoaiith eaoaioi?noth, oiaoi iciaee
i?aai?/iiai o?aaeaiiy naaiaioa?ieo aaaaoaoeaieo no?oeoo? aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee. Ooieoe?iiaeuei? i?iae c aiioe?eiei aai i?oinoaoe/iei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia aieeaaee ia iieacieee ANOI, eeoa i?e o?ce/iiio
iaaaioaaeaii? (caei?iai? e?ioe?aee) aoee aeyaeai? a??ia?aei? iiceoeai?
ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee ?c eaoaioiei ia??iaeii ANOI (aiie?ooaea ia
ci?ithaaeany). O /anoeie oai?eo (4 c 9) a ao?io?/ieo aeaia?aiaaieo
i’ycao ?a?no?oaaee ia??iaee/i? niiioaii? ?ic?yaee ca oeiii
“inaaaeii?ioii?/ieo”. Ei?aeyoe?? i?ae aiie?ooaeith naini?iiai
iioaioe?aeo ia?aa oa ae?aaeai?noth aieueiaiai neiae?iio i?e
i?aaaiae?iia?iiio a?ae?ea? oeeieo ei??ioe?a ia aoei ciaeaeaii.

Ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ia ae?aaiinoeea ooeiaeaeaiiy ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a,

ioe?iea nooiaiy ao?aoe iae?iiioi?ii? ooieoe?? ye e?eoa??th

aeai?o oaeoeee o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy

Aeey aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? ioe?iee iieaciee?a ooieoe?? ie?aieo ia?a?a
aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee i?e iiaiiio oa /anoeiaiio o?aaeaii? ia ??cieo ??aiyo
?ic?aoiaoaaee, ii iiaeeeaino?, a?eueoa iieaciee?a, ui a?aeia?aaeothoue
ooieoe?th ?ooiaeo, /ooeeaeo oa aaaaoaoeaieo aieieii ye ia ??ai?
ooeiaeaeaiiy ia?aa, oae ? ia non?aei?o ee?i?/ii ?ioaeoieo ae?eyieao.
Aeai? a?aaeoaeueii? ioe?iee ee?i?/ieo neiioii?a (Oaaaeaa E.I., 1994;
Kline D.G., Hudson A.R.,1995) oa ?acoeueoaoe iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai
oanooaaiiy caiineee aei ea?oe ianoaaeaiiy iia?iaaiiai oai?iai. Aeey
eiaeiiai c ??aiae o?aaeaiiy ia?aa aoee io?eiai? noaoenoe/i? aeai?, ui
aeicaieeei aiae?coaaoe aoaeoeai?noue i?iaaaeaiiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy
ca nooiaiai a?aeiiaeaiiy iae?iiioi?ii? ooieoe?? oa i?ioeaieueiaei
aoaeoii.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo e?eoa???a iiaii? /e
/anoeiai? ao?aoe iae?iiioi?ii? ooieoe?? i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa aoei
ianoaaeaii 133 oai?eo, c ieo 120 iia?iaaieo. Aeae?eyee o?e ??ai?
iioeiaeaeaiiy ia?aa: i?ieneiaeueiee, na?aaei?e ? aeenoaeueiee. E?eoa???i
i?ieneiaeueiiai ??aiy aoei ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? o?eaieiaiai iyca iea/a o
ii?aeiaii? c ia?ae?/ai ?icaeia/?a eeno? ? iaeueoe?a; na?aaeiueiai ??aiy
– iea/i-i?iiaiaaiai iyca, ?icaeia/?a eeno? ? iaeueoe?a; aeenoaeueiiai
??aiy – ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? e?eoueiaiai ?icaeia/a eeno?, ni?eueiiai
?icaeia/a iaeueoe?a oa ?icaeia/a I iaeueoey. I?e oanooaaii? ooieoe??
?icaeia/?a eeno? oa iaeueoe?a aeei?enoiaoaaee oanoeaaeueio oeaeo
“I0-I5”. Caeaaeii a?ae ??aiy ooeiaeaeaiiy i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa noeioeyoe?th
cae?enithaaee: a iaaeeeth/e/i?e oi/oe?, ia ??ai? aa?oiuei? oa ieaeiuei?
o?aoeie iea/a. I?e iiooeo ?aii?o iciae ?aaaia?aoe?? ia?aiaeo noiaao??a
i?ney iia?aoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaee ia?aiaa?aeueio noeioeyoe?th oa
a?aeaaaeaiiy IAe ia?aa, aioo??oiueiiyciao AIA.

Ca aeaeii iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ?iciiae?eaiiy oai?eo aoei oaeei:
iaa?ie?c – 68(57%), oia ia?aa – 32(27%), aooiieanoeea ia?aa – 20(16%).
Nenoaio aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? ee?i?/ii? ioe?iee aoei aeiiiaiaii
ooieoe?iiaeueiith ioe?ieith ca oaeeie e?eoa??yie: oaeaee?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy caoaeaeaiiy aei eiio?ieueiiai i’yca, ae?aiacii oaeaeeinoae
i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aa (eaoaioiee ia??iae 20 F-oaeeue), aiie?ooaea
iaeneiaeueiiai IAe i’yca, AIA noaae?y ?a?ia?aaoe?? (iiae?aii aei
iienaii? aeua aeey ioe?iee ?a?ia?aaoe?? i?ney iia?aoe?e ia iea/iaiio
nieaoaii?).

?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ca noeoii?noth ee?i?/ieo oa
?ino?oiaioaeueieo aeaieo aiae?coaaee ca e?eoa??yie: ee?i?/iee nooi?iue
a?aeiiaeaiiy / nooi?iue a?aeiiaeaiiy iae?iiioi?ii? ooieoe??. O
a?aaeoaeuei?e ioe?ioe? oea aeaeyaeaei oae: 1) ei?eniee nooi?iue
a?aeiiaeaiiy I3 / noaae?y ?a?ia?aaoe?? ???(+); 2) aeia?a oa aeoaea
aeia?a a?aeiiaeaiiy I4(5) / noaae?y ?a?ia?aaoe?? ???(+); 3)
iacaaeia?eueia a?aeiiaeaiiy I2 oa ieae/a / noaae?y ?a?ia?aaoe?? ???(–)
?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ooeiaeaeaiue i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa
iiaeaii o oaae. 3. Aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iaie nenoaie ioe?iie
ooieoe?? ia?aiai-i’yciaiai aia?aoo o eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo
ooeiaeaeaiiy i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa aeicaieeei: ia’?eoeaii (e?euee?nii)
aecia/eoe ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ?icaeia/?a ia?aaeie?//y, eeno?,
iaeueoe?a; eiio?iethaaoe ia?aa?a i?ioean?a ?a?ia?aaoe?? ia a?aeiinii
?aii?o noaae?yo; i?iaiicoaaoe aoaeoeai?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy; nai?/anii
aecia/eoe oaeoeeo iiaeaeueoith e?eoaaiiy; ia?aoo?, ioe?ieoe e?ioeaaee
?acoeueoao e?eoaaiiy. Aeioe?euei?noue oaei? ioe?iee aacoiiaia ia eeoa
i?e iae?io??o?a?/iiio, aea e i?e i?oiiaaee/iiio oa ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiio
e?eoaaii?.

Oaaeeoey 3.

Ee?i?/ia oa iae?io?c?ieia?/ia ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy

o?aaiaoe/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa

Iacaa i’ycaIoe?iea aoaeoeaiino? o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiyIC/???(+)I4(5)/???(+)I2(1)/???(-)I?iiaiaaee ?icaeia/ eeno?
(n=84)10 (12%)57 (68%)17 (20%)Ni?eueiee ?icaeia/ iaeueoe?a (n=120)30
(25%)52 (43%)38 (32%)*I?ei?oea: n – e?euee?noue niinoa?aaeaiue, a
aeoaeeao a?aenioie iia?iaaieo oai?eo ?c a?aeiia?aeiei nooiaiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aoee i?enay/ai? aea/aiith iaoai?ci?a
a?aeiiaeaiiy iae?iiioi?ii? ooieoe?? i?ney i?e?iiae?io??o?a?/iiai
ao?o/aiiy, aeyaeeiny, ui aeeiai?ea iieaciee?a ANOI (ia aeieii? ?
ia?aaeie?//?) ei?aeth? c iieacieeaie a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? i’yc?a. A
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a caaeia?eueiiai ? aeia?iai a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe??
?icaeia/?a eeno? ? iaeueoe?a iieacieee i?iaaaeaiiy caoaeaeaiiy
iinoaaiae?iia?ieie neiiaoe/ieie aieieiaie oa aiie?ooaee ANOI
ciaoiaeeeeny a iaaeao ii?ie aai a?aeiia?aeaee iciaeai a?ia?ooieoe??
naaiaioa?iiai aaaaoaoeaiiai aia?aoo. Iaaiaee, i?e iacaaeia?eueiiio
a?aeiiaeaii? ooieoe?? i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa ? i’yc?a-?icaeia/?a, iniaeeai
i?e iayaiino? eiio?aeoo? ? ae?aaeaiiai aieueiaiai neiae?iio, iieacieee
ANOI, ye i?aaeei, aoee cieaeai?.

Oaeee aca?iica’ycie aoei aeyaeaii a ?yae? aeiaaee?a iiaiiai oa
/anoeiaiai o?aaeaiiy na?aaeeiiiai ia?aa, e?eoueiaiai ia?aa, eiia?iiaaieo
o?aaeaiue e?eueeio ia?a?a, ia?a?a ? noaeei. Aeeiai?ea ?aaaia?aoe??
?ooiaeo, /ooeeaeo oa aaaaoaoeaieo aieieii o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?
i?e o?aaiaoe/ieo ooeiaeaeaiiyo ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a aieeaaea ia
iayai?noue oa ae?aaeai?noue aieueiaiai neiae?iio, a oaeiae aoaeoeai?noue
a?aeiiaeaiiy iae?iiioi?ii? ooieoe?? e?ioe?aee.

E?euee?nia ioe?iea a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? ia?eoa?e/iiai ia?aa a
aenia?eiaio?

I?e aeoeaoaaii? ?aia?aoeaiiai a?noiaaiaco iioeiaeaeaieo ia?a?a oeyoii
?iieaioaoe?? aia??iiaeueii? oeaieie iiceo (III aenia?eiaioaeueia a?oia)
iieacieee oaeaeeino? i?iaaaeaiiy caoaeaeaiiy ia?aii, IAe ia?aa, IAe
i’yca aoee aeueie, a ??cieoey i?ae ieie ia iia?iaai?e oa ?ioaeoi?e
e?ioe?aeao iaioith, i?ae a II aenia?eiaioaeuei?e a?oi? (ia?aoei oa
coeaaiiy ia?aa), iniaeeai /a?ac 8–10 oeaei?a. O IV aenia?eiaioaeuei?e
a?oi? – iiaeaethaaiiy ?i’?eoe?eiiai o?aaeaiiy ia?aa – a??ia?aeii a?eueo
oyaeeeie ca aeaieie iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai oanooaaiiy aoee o?aaeaiiy ia?aa
i?e ia?aiaa?aeueiiio aaaaeaii? ei?ae?ai?io /e oei?eaeo eaeueoe?th, i?ae
o aeiaaeeao c ?i’?eoe??th ?a/iaeie a ioi/oth/? oeaieie. I?e c?noaaeaii?
aeaieo iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?acoeueoao?a
a?noiiaoiii?oieia?/iiai aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ?aaaia?aoi?ieo i?ioean?a o
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei aoea aeyaeaia caeaaei?oue i?ae e?euee?noth
ia?aiaeo noiaao??a, ui ?aaaia?othoue, oa aiie?ooaeith noia?ieo IAe ia?aa
? i’yca.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea ?ic?iaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaeue
aeey aea/aiiy aieeao ia ?aaaia?aoe?th ia?aiaeo noiaao??a ii?aeiaiiy
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy c iaaeeeaiaioicieie, o?ce/ieie oa a?ieia?/ieie
caniaaie, cie?aia ?iieaioaoe??th aia??iiaeueii? ia?aiai? oeaieie;
io?eiai? aeai? i?i oa, ui aeei?enoaiiy aia??iiaeueii? ia?aiai? oeaieie
i?e o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii? ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith oaeaeeino? oa, iiaeeeai,
u?eueiino? i?i?anoaiiy io/e?a, i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? a?aeiiaeaiiy
ooieoe?? ooeiaeaeaiiai ia?aa.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo ee?i?/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aoee aeei?enoai? aeey noai?aiiy nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii?
ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? a?aaeoaeueii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy. Oai?aoe/iei i?aea?oioyi oaei? nenoaie ioe?iee ?
?ic?iaeaia iaie eiioeaioe?y oiiaiino? ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii?
a?aeiia?aeiino?, yea aaco?oueny ia i?eioeei? i?ia?aeii? ?ie?
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? naaiaioa?iiai ia?aiai-i’yciaiai
? aaaaoaoeaiiai aia?ao?a a ?icai?oaii? iaoiaaiaoe/ieo oa naiiaaiaoe/ieo
i?ioean?a o ia?eoa?e/iiio ia?a?. Naia no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia
i?aai?caoe?y naaiaioa?iiai aia?aoo a oeueiio aniaeo? ? neeaaeiaith
aaaaoueio /eiiee?a. Ia?oee c ieo – iniaeeaino? aoaeiae eiaeiiai c
ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a, ye? ? 1) aaiethoe?eii iaoiiaeaieie, 2)
?iaeea?aeoaeueieie. Iai?eeeaae, iiae?ai? ca nai?th oyaee?noth ? oa?i?iii
o?aaie i?iiaiaaiai, na?aaeeiiiai /e e?eoueiaiai ia?a?a ia iaeiaeiaiio
??ai?, i?e aeei?enoaii? iaeiiai niiniao iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy, ca
iaeiaeiaeo oiia ae?anoaco oa iaoyao aieieii (oiui) – a?ae??ciyeeny ia
eeoa ca na?aaei?i oa?i?iii ?aaaia?aoe?? aieieii ? ?a?ia?aaoe??? i’yc?a,
aea e ca e?ioeaaith aoaeoeai?noth a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ooiai? ooieoe?? a
oe?eiio. Aaaaoii?io?eueia (c oi/ee ci?o ee?i?/ii? iae?io?c?ieia??)
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei aeiaanoe oea noaoenoe/ii, a cai?iiiiiaai? iaie
i?ia?aie ia?iaee ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeaieo – a?aoiaoaaoe a
eiaeiiio ee?i?/iiio aeiaaeeo.

Ae?oaee /eiiee – nooi?iue (oyaee?noue) iioeiaeaeaiiy ia?aiaeo noiaao??a
(i?ney iia?aoe?? aecia/a?oueny aeaeii ? ianyaii iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy,
eiie?aoieie oiiaaie, a yeeo ia?aaoaathoue ioi/oth/? oeaieie). O?ao?e –
oa?i?i, ui ieioa c iiiaioo o?aaie aai iia?aoe??. *aoaa?oee – ??aaiue
ooeiaeaeaiiy. I’yoee – iayai?noue niieo/iiai o?aaeaiiy ae?oaiai /e aeaio
ia?a?a ?oee ia oeueiio ae ??ai?. Oinoee – niieo/i? o?aaeaiiy
ia?eoa?e/ii? oa (/e) oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie, aei oeueiai ae
ii?yaeeo iaeaaeeoue noai naaiaioa?ieo iioiiae?ii?a. Ne?ae iniaeeai
i?aee?aneeoe, ui ieoiia aaaa eiaeiiai c oeeo /eiiee?a ia ? aaniethoiith
aaee/eiith, ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeeiai?/ia ? ci?ith?oueny c ieeiii /ano.

Eiioeaioe?y oiiaiino? ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? a?aeiia?aeiino? ia? ia
oaac? iiaeeea?noue a?aeiiniiai ni?aiaaeaiiy ee?i?ei-iaa?ieia?/iiai oa
iae?i-o?c?ieia?/iiai (ooieoe?iiaeueiiai) ae?aaiic?a a ??ci? oa?i?ie
i?ney o?aaie ? iia?aoe??. Oaeei /eiii, oiiai?noue iieyaa? a oiio, ui
?ieue eiaeiiai c /eiiee?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia iioi/iee noai o?aaiiaaiiai
ia?aa, iiaea iaoe ??cia cia/aiiy ia aoaiao e?eoaaiiy. I?e aeinoaoiuei
aenieiio nooiai? ni?aiaaeaiiy ee?i?/ieo oa iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeaieo
aeiiia?aoe?eia ae?aaiinoeea (i?ney iia?aoe?? – ioe?iea ?aaaia?aoe??), ye
i?aaeei, ianeeaaeia. Aea oaeeo ?aeaaeueieo aa??aio?a a aeine?aeaeaiiio
iaoa??ae? aoei iaaaaaoi. Oiio, /ei a?eueoa ia’?eoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
ae?eniee noai naaiaioa?iiai ia?aiai-i’yciaiai ? aaaaoaoeaiiai aia?ao?a,
noaeei, oeaiei oiui iiaeia i?iaiae?coaaoe ia aeiiiai?aoe?eiiio aoai?,
oei a?eueoa a??ia?aei?noue aeai?o ae?enii iioeiaeueii? oaeoeee
e?eoaaiiy. Ia?niaeoeaa aeei?enoaiiy eiioeaioe?? oiiaiino?
ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? a?aeiia?aeiino? iieyaa?, ia iao iiaeyae, a
cae?eniaii? ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao, yeee aoaea iino?eii
oaeineiiaethaaoeny caaaeyee oe?ieiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith a iaaee/io i?aeoeeo
eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e, iaoiae?a aeni?an-ae?aaiinoeee oa
i?iaiicoaaiiy.

AENIIAEE

1. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea eiiieaenii? aeiiia?aoe?eii?
ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiue iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy ? ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee aeicaieeea oaeineiiaeeoe
aecia/aiiy ??aiy, oa?aeoa?o ? oyaeeino? o?aaeaiiy ei??ioe?a oeeiiai
a?aeae?eo nieiiiai iiceo, noiaao??a ? io/e?a nieaoaiiy, ?ooiaeo,
/ooeeaeo ? aaaaoaoeaieo aieieii o neeaae? ia?a?a, ooi/ieoe
iae?io?c?ieia?/i? e?eoa??? aeey aeai?o oaeoeee o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

2. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai eiiieaeno iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iaoiae?a ?
e?eoa???a eiio?ieth ?aaaia?aoi?ieo i?ioean?a ia an?o aoaiao o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy o?aaiaoe/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?a?a
aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee ni?eyei i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy.

3. Iaea?eueoo ae?aaiinoe/io ?ioi?iaoeai?noue i?e aecia/aii? nooiaiy
o?aaiaoe/iiai o?aaeaiiy ia?aaei?o ei??ioe?a oeeiiai a?aeae?eo nieiiiai
iiceo iathoue iieacieee aeaia?aaoe?eiiai i?ioeano o i?ioii?, F-oaee?,
eaoaioiiai ia?eiaeo oa iioaioe?aeo ae?? a?aeiia?aeiiai i’yca aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee; caaei?o ei??ioe?a – iayai?noue ? eaoaioiee ia??iae
niiaoinaini?ieo ? aea?iaoiiieo aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a.

4. I?e aeeoa?aioe?aeuei?e ae?aaiinoeoe? niieo/iiai o?aaeaiiy iea/iaiai
nieaoaiiy aai ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee oa oeeiiai a?aeae?eo nieiiiai
iiceo iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie iae?io?c?ieia?/ieie iieacieeaie caeo/aiiy
i?ia?aeieeiaiai aia?aoo nieiiiai iiceo ?: caaei?o noiai?a – iayai?noue
oa eaoaioiee ia??iae niiaoinaini?ieo aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a N9,N13,N19;
ei?oeei-ni?iaeueiiai o?aeoo – ?a?no?aoe?y I-?aoeaeno oa aeiaaieaoaioieo
iioi?ieo aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a o i’ycao eeno?; caeo/aiiy naaiaioa?ieo
iioiiae?ii?a – ci?ie aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ieo iieaciee?a iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo
iaeeieoeue ca iae?iiaeueiei oeiii.

5. A aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iniaeeainoae ?aaaia?aoi?ieo
i?ioean?a i?ney coeaaiiy ia?aa anoaiiaeaii ca’ycie i?ae ci?iaie
iieaciee?a eaoaioiiai ia??iaeo, aiie?ooaee oa ieiu? noia?iiai
iioaioe?aeo ae?? i’yca oa oaiiaie ?aaaia?aoe?? ia?aiaeo aieieii ?
aoaeoeaii? ?a?ia?aaoe?? i’yca.

6. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
ia?aaoaeiae naaiaioa?iiai ia?aiai-i’yciaiai aia?aoo i?ney o??o?a?/iiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?e?niino? ia?aiaeo noiaao??a iaa?oioiaaii aeae?eaiiy
/ioe?ueio noaae?e ia??iaeo ?a?ia?aaoe??: I, II, III(+), III(–) oa
a?aeiia?aeieo a?aaeaoe?e ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a,
aeiaaaeaia aeioe?euei?noue ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeey ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy (III(+) noaae?y), aai iaaoaeoeaiino?
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oa iani?eyoeeaiai i?iaiico – III(–) noaae?y.

7. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa ee?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
eiiithoa?iiai aiae?co ?ioi?iaoeaiino? iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a
aecia/aii, ui iaea?eueoo ae?aaiinoe/io oe?ii?noue o ?aiiueiio
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? iathoue ye?ni? iieacieee: iiyaa iioaioe?aeo
ae?? ia?aa aeenoaeuei?oa i?noey iia?aoe??, iioaioe?ae?a ?ooiaeo
iaeeieoeue, ?noioia ciaioaiiy iciae aeaia?aaoe??; o a?aeaeaeaiiio
ia??iae? – e?euee?ni? a?aaeaoe??: a?aeiiaeaiiy aiie?ooaee iioaioe?aeo
ae?? i’yca aei 45-55% ii?ie, oaeaeeino? i?iaaaeaiiy caoaeaeaiiy
aieieiaie ia?aa aei 30-50%, ?a?ia?aaoe?y i’yca aei o?aouei? iiceoeaii?
(III(+)) noaae??.

8. Iayai?noue oa ia?aa?a aieueiaiai neiae?iio i?e o?aaiaoe/ieo oa
eiii?an?eii-?oai?/ieo o?aaeaiiyo ia?a?a e?ioe?aee, cia/iith i??ith,
caeaaeaoue a?ae noaio iinoaaiae?iia?ieo neiiaoe/ieo aieieii, iniaeeai
i?e eiia?iiaaiiio o?aaeaii? e?eueeio ia?a?a, ia?a?a ? noaeei,
noiooiueiio caoai?thaaii? oeaio?aeueii? /e ia?eoa?e/ii? ia?aiai?
nenoaie, ? iiaeooue aooe ia?eoea?ciaai? ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a
?a?no?aoe?? aeeeeeaieo neiiaoe/ieo oe??ieo iioaioe?ae?a oa
aeaeo?iiae?ia?ao??; iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie ? iieacieee eaoaioiiai
ia??iaeo oa aiie?ooaee aeeeeeaieo neiiaoe/ieo iioaioe?ae?a, eaoaioiiai
ia??iaeo naini?iiai iioaioe?aeo ae?? ia?aa.

9. Aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio ?ooiaeo, /ooeeaeo oa iinoaaiae?iia?ieo
neiiaoe/ieo aieieii o neeaae? ooeiaeaeaiiai ia?aa aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee,
io/e?a ? noiaao??a iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy, aieueiai? /ooeeaino? o
a?aeiia?aeieo aea?iaoiiao, aeeeeeaieo niiaoinaini?ieo, aea?iaoiiieo oa
neiiaoe/ieo oe??ieo iioaioe?ae?a aeicaiey? io?eiaoe ia?eoeaio
iae?io?c?ieia?/io ioe?ieo aeey aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? aa??aio?a o?ii?/ieo
iaaaaiiaieo aieueiaeo neiae?ii?a ia?eoa?e/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ?o
oeaio?aeueiiai ineoiaaaaoaoeaiiai oa ia?eoa?e/iiai eiiiiiaio?a.

10. Aeeiai?ea ?aaaia?aoe?? ?ooiaeo, /ooeeaeo oa aaaaoaoeaieo aieieii o
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? i?e o?aaiaoe/ieo ooeiaeaeaiiyo ia?eoa?e/ieo
ia?a?a aieeaa? ia iayai?noue ? ae?aaeai?noue aieueiaiai neiae?iio oa
aoaeoeai?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy iae?iiioi?ii? ooieoe??; oiia?eueiaiiy
?aaaia?aoe?? iinoaaiae?iia?ieo neiiaoe/ieo aieieii noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
iineeaiiyi aieueiaiai neiae?iio, aaeueioaaiiyi a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ooiai?
ooieoe??.

11. ?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioe?y oiiaiino? ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii?
a?aeiia?aeiino?, yea a?aoiao? /eiieee: iniaeeaino? aoaeiae ia?aa, ??aiy
? oyaeeino? ooeiaeaeaiiy ia?aiaeo noiaao??a, oa?i?io, ui ieioa i?ney
o?aaie ? iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy, caaacia/o? iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaai?
i?eioeeie aeai?o oaeoeee o??o?a?/iiai oa a?aeiiaiiai e?eoaaiiy i?e
??cieo ee?i?/ieo aa??aioao o?aaiaoe/ieo oa eiii?an?eii-?oai?/ieo
o?aaeaiue ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E. Canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?iiae?ii?ia?ao?/ieo iaoiae?a o
aeeiai?/iiio eiio?ie? a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a //
Oe?a?inueeee aeo?iae iaaee/ii? oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia??. – 1997. – ?3-4. –
N. 17–22.

2. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E. Iae?io?c?ieia?/ia oanooaaiiy ooieoe?? ia?aiaeo
noiaao??a a aeeiai?oe? o??o?a?/iiai oa eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy
ooeiaeaeaiue ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a // A?niee iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.
–1997. –?4-5. – N. 34–38.

3. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E. Ia?aiaa?aeueia noeioeyoe?y oa ?a?no?aoe?y
aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a ye iaoiae eiio?ieth ca a?aeiiaeaiiyi ooieoe??
ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a o aeeiai?oe? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy // Atheaoaiue
OAI. –1998. – ? 4. – N. 76–80.

4. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E. Aiae?c ee?i?ei-aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo e?eoa???a
aoaeoeaiino? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iioeiaeaeaiue ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a ca
aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy // Oe?a?inueeee aeo?iae iaaee/ii?
oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia??. – 1998. – ?1–2. – N.54–58.

5. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E. Eiiieaenia ae?aaiinoeea oa
aeeoa?aioe?eii-ae?aaiinoe/i? oaaeeoe? aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o,
eieae?caoe?? oa nooiaiy ooeiaeaeaiiy ia?aiai-iyciaiai aia?aoo e?ioe?aee
// Oe?a?inueeee a?niee ineoiiaa?ieia??. –1996. – O.4, aei.3(10). –
N.471–472.

6. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E. Ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ia ioe?iea a?aeiiaeaiiy
ooieoe?? iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy oa ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a i?e o?aaiaoe/ieo oa
eiii?an?eii-?oai?/ieo o?aaeaiiyo // Atheaoaiue OAI. – 1998. – ? 6. – N.
17–18.

7. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E. Aiae?c aeeeeeaieo neiiaoe/ieo oe??ieo iioaioe?ae?a
// I?ney?aae?aoe?eia aioeaoaeiiao?y. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
ee?i?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy / Ca ?aae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa. – E. : OIAe?IO,
1993. – N 171–181.

8. Iaa?ieiae/aneea neiae?iiu inoaioiiae?ica / Eeiaineee TH.I., Ia/a?ao
A.E., Aauaiei A.A., *aaioa?aaa E.E., Naiinthe E.C. – E.: Caei?iay,1988.
– 160 n.

9. Eeiaineee TH.I., Aieaeaiei A.N., Aauaiei A.I., *aaioa?aaa E.E.
?aoeaenioa?aiey i?e aa?oaa?iaaiiuo ?aoeaeoi?iuo aieaauo neiae?iiao:
O/aaiia iiniaea. I.: OeIEEOA, 1986. – 37 n.

10. *aaioa?aaa E.E., Naiinthe E.C., Oaeeiiaa N.E. ?ai- e
yeaeo?iyioeaoaeia?aoe/aneee eiio?ieue i?e ea/aiee aieaaiai neiae?iia
inoaioiiae?ica oaeiiai ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea iaoiaeii ?aoeaenioa?aiee //
?aoeaenioa?aiey neiae?iiia inoaioiiae?ica iicaiii/ieea: Nai?iee iao/iuo
o?oaeia. — E.: Eaieia?. AIEEOA ei.N.I.Ee?iaa, 1984. – N. 48–50.

11. Iiiiae/aiei I.A., Aieaeaiei A.N., *aaioa?aaa E.E. Aeoioieoo?iay
aiaeueaacey (Iaci?) // AEo?i. Iaa?iiaoieiaee e ineoeao?ee ei.
N.N.Ei?naeiaa. — 1984. – Aui.5. – N. 774–780.

12. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E., No?aooi N.N. Nenoaia ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo
e?eoa???a ioe?iee a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa //
Oe?a?inueeee iaaee/iee /aniien. – 1998. – ? 4 (6). – N. 53–58.

13. Oeeiaaethe A.?., *aaioa?ueiaa E.E., No?aooi N.N., Naiii I.A.
Aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/i? e?eoa??? aoaeoeaiino? ?a?ia?aaoe?? i?ney o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ?c o?aaiith iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy // Atheaoaiue OAI. –
1998. – ? 4. – N. 87–91.

14. Oeeiaaethe A.?., Noe?e I.I., Eocai A.I., Iinia A.O., *aaioa?ueiaa
E.E., Aoaiania I.I. Aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy aieeao
o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??iiaeueii? ia?aiai? oeaieie ia ?aaaia?aoe?th
iioeiaeaeaieo ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a // A?niee iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.
–1997. –? 6-7. – N.41–43.

15. Oeeiaaethe A.?.,Noe?e I.I.,Eocai A.I.,Iinia A.O., *aaioa?ueiaa E.E.,
Aoaiania I.I. Iniaeeaino? ?aia?aoeaiiai a?noiaaiaco ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a
i?e o?ainieaioaoe?? aia??iiaeueii? ia?aiai? oeaieie // Iia? oaoiieia?? a
o??o?a??. – Oaeai?iae, 1997. – N.223–226.

16. Oeeiaaethe A.?., O?aoye ?.A., *aaioa?ueiaa E.E., Noe?e I.I.
?ino?oiaioaeuei? iaoiaee ae?aaiinoeee iaoieia?? ia?eoa??eieo ia?a?a //
Atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei? anioe?aoe?? iae?io??o?a?a (OAI). – 1996. – Aei.
2. – N. 52–53.

17. Oeeiaaethe A.?., O?aoye ?.A., Oiiaea I.I., *aaioa?ueiaa E.E.,
Eaaeaeoi A.I., Eiiaei E.I. Ae?aaiinoeea nooiaiy ii?ooaiiy ?ooiai?,
/ooeeai? oa aaaaoaoeaii? ooieoe?e i?e /anoeiaeo ooeiaeaeaiiyo
ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a // Oe?a?inueeee a?niee ineoiiaa?ieia??. – 1996. –
O.4, aei.3(10). – N.469–470.

18. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E. Aeei?enoaiiy ee?i?ei-aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ieo e?eoa???a
iae?iiaoaia?ii? ae?aaiinoeee aeey aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai e?eoaaiiy
?aaeeeoei- oa iaa?iiao?e aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee // VIII c?cae
iaa?iiaoieia?a, ineo?ao??a oa ia?eieia?a Oe?a?inueei? ?N?: Oace
aeiiia?aeae. – Oa?e?a, 1990. –O.1. –N.310–311.

19. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E. Eiiieaenia iae?io?c?ieia?/ia ae?aaiinoeea
o?aaiaoe/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue iea/iaiai nieao?iiy ia aei- oa
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio aoaiao e?eoaaiiy // 6-e Eiia?. Na?oiai? oaaea?aoe??
oe?a?inueeeo e?ea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa: Oace aeii. – Iaeana, 1996. – N.164.

20. *aaioa?aaa E.E. Eiiieaeniia yeaeo?iiae?iieia?aoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea
a aeeaaiinoeea ?aaeeeoei- e iaa?iiaoee aa?oiae eiia/iinoe // Oac. aeiee.
?anioae. iao/iie eiioa?aioeee “Aaciaaeeeaiaioiciua iaoiaeu eoie?iaaiey
o?iie/aneeo aieaauo neiae?iiia”. – E., 1989. – N. 28–29.

21. Chebotareva L.L. Differential reflexotherapy with regard to
electromyography criteria for lesions of segmental neuromuscular
apparatus // 3rd World Congr. on Sci. Acupuncture ICMART88. – Praha,
1988. – P.26.

22. *aaioa?aaa E.E. Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiia i?eiaiaiea ?aoeaenioa?aiee
?aaeeeoei- e iaa?iiaoee aa?oieo eiia/iinoae ia iniiaaiee
yeaeo?iiae?iieia?aoe/aneeo e?eoa?eaa // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu
?aoeaenioa?aiee e o?aaeeoeeiiiie iaaeeoeeiu: Oac. aeiee. VI Ananithci.
eiioa?aioeee ii ?aoeaenioa?aiee e o?aaeeoeeiiiie iaaeeoeeia. – I., 1990.
– *.1. – N. 113–114.

23. *aaioa?ueiaa E.E., Oiiaea I.I., O?aoye ?.A. Aeei?enoaiiy
aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?? aeey aeyaeaiiy ?aii?o iciae ?aaaia?aoe?? ia?aa //
Ia?oee c?cae iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie: Oace aeiiia?aeae. – E., 1993. – N.
185–186.

24. *aaioa?aaa E.E., Oenoaeue Y.ss., Nieioaiei A.A. Iniaaiiinoe
ii?aaeaiey ia?eoa?e/aneeo ia?aia i?e iaeiaao /aoaa?oie noaiaie:
eeeieei-iae?ioeceieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea // Atheaoaiue OAI. –1998. –?
6. –N. 22–23.

25. *aaioa?aaa E.E., Iiiiae/aiei I.A., *a?aiaoa N.E. Aeeyiea
yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai eceo/aiey ieeeeiao?iaiai aeeaiaciia ia ninoiyiea
neiiaoe/aneie eiia?aaoeee eiaee ii ?acoeueoaoai aiaeeca aucaaiiuo
eiaeiuo neiiaoe/aneeo iioaioeeaeia (ANEI) // Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua e
i?eeeaaeiua aniaeou i?eiaiaiey ieeeeiao?iaiai eceo/aiey a iaaeeoeeia:
Oac. aeiee. I Ananithci. neiiiceoia n iaaeaeoia?. o/anoeai. – E.:
Nia.Iei.ONN?, AIE “Ioeeee”, 1989. – N. 158–159.

AIIOAOe?ss

*aaioa?ueiaa E.E. Eiiieaenia ae?aaiinoeea o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiue
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ? ia?eoa?e/ieo ia?a?a oa eiio?ieue a?aeiiaeaiiy ?o
ooieoe?e. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.05 – iae?io??o?a?y, 14.01.15 – ia?aia? oai?iae. –
?inoeooo iae?io??o?a?? ?iai? aeaaeai?ea A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie,
Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeai? oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?aaiinoeee oa
e?eoaaiiy o?aaiaoe/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ? ia?a?a
aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee. Ia iniia? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a
ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?eaii ee?i?/i? aa??aioe
o?aaeaiue oa noaae?? ?a?ia?aaoe??, aecia/aii ae?aaiinoe/io
?ioi?iaoeai?noue aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ieo iieaciee?a ia aoaiao e?eoaaiiy.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? naaiaioa?iiai
ia?aiai-i’yciaiai oa aaaaoaoeaiiai aia?ao?a, aeeiai?ea ?aaaia?aoe??
?ooiaeo, /ooeeaeo ? aaaaoaoeaieo aieieii aieeaathoue ia iayai?noue oa
ae?aaeai?noue aieueiaiai neiae?iio, nooi?iue a?aeiiaeaiiy iae?iiioi?ii?
ooieoe??. ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th oiiaiico? ee?i?ei-iae?io?c?ieia?/ii?
a?aeiia?aeiino?, yea aeicaieeea iaa?oiooaaoe iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aeai?o
oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae eiiieaenii? aeiiia?aoe?eii?
ae?aaiinoeee oa nenoaio aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? a?aaeoaeueii? ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy o?aaiaoe/ieo o?aaeaiue iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy ?
ia?a?a aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iae?io??o?a?/i?e oa iaa?ieia?/i?e i?aeoeoe?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ooeiaeaeaiiy, iea/iaa nieaoaiiy, ia?eoa?e/i? ia?ae,
aieueiaee neiae?ii, ae?aaiinoeea, aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?y, ?aaaia?aoe?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

*aaioa??aa E.E. Eiiieaeniay aeeaaiinoeea o?aaiaoe/aneeo ii?aaeaiee
iea/aaiai nieaoaiey e ia?eoa?e/aneeo ia?aia, eiio?ieue ainnoaiiaeaiey eo
ooieoeee. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.05 – iae?ioe?o?aey, 14.01.15 – ia?aiua aieacie. –
Einoeooo iae?ioe?o?aee eiaie aeaaeaieea A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?aeiu,
Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia oniaa?oainoaiaaiey aeeaaiinoeee e
ea/aiey o?aaiaoe/aneeo ii?aaeaiee iea/aaiai nieaoaiey e ia?aia aa?oiae
eiia/iinoe. Ia iniiaa aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia eeeieei-iae?ioeceieiae/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee auaeaeaiu eeeie/aneea aa?eaiou ii?aaeaiee, noaaeee
?aeiia?aaoeee, ii?aaeaeaia aeeaaiinoe/aneay eioi?iaoeaiinoue
yeaeo?iieia?aoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae ia yoaiao ea/aiey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe naaiaioa?iiai ia?aii-iuoa/iiai e
aaaaoaoeaiiai aiia?aoia, aeeiaieea i?ioeannia ?aaaia?aoeee
aeaeaaoaeueiuo, /oanoaeoaeueiuo e aaaaoaoeaiuo aieieii aeeytho ia
iaee/ea e au?aaeaiiinoue aieaaiai neiae?iia, noaiaiue ainnoaiiaeaiey
iae?iiioi?iie ooieoeee. ?ac?aaioaia eiioeaioeey oneiaiinoe
eeeieei-iae?ioeceieiae/aneiai niioaaonoaey, eioi?ay iicaieeea
iainiiaaoue iiaue iiaeoiae e auai?o oaeoeee ea/aiey. I?aaeeiaeaiu iaoiae
aeiiia?aoeeiiiie eiiieaeniie aeeaaiinoeee e nenoaia aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie
a?aaeoaeueiie ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ea/aiey iia?aaeaeaiee iea/aaiai
nieaoaiey e ia?aia aa?oiae eiia/iinoe. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee
i?eiaiaiea a iae?ioe?o?ae/aneie e iaa?ieiae/aneie i?aeoeea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iia?aaeaeaiea, iea/aaia nieaoaiea, ia?eoa?e/aneea
ia?au, aieaaie neiae?ii, aeeaaiinoeea, yeaeo?iieia?aoey, ?aaaia?aoeey.

SUMMARY

Chebotareva L.L. Diagnostics complex for the brachial plexus and
peripheral nerves injuries and control of their functions recovery. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor degree of medical science by speciality 14.01.05 –
neurosurgery, 14.01.15 – nervous diseases. – Romodanov Neurosurgery
Institute of Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to the problem of impovement for diagnostics
and treatment of brachial plexus and upper extrimity nerves injuries.
Clinical variants and reinnervation stages were defined though analysis
of clinical-neurophysiological investigation results; diagnostic
informativity of electromyographic criteria on treatment stages was
estimated. It is established that pain syndrom appearance and neuromotor
function recovery depend on functional pecualirities of the segmentary
neuromusculary and autonomous apparatus, as well as regeneration
dinamics of the motor, sensitive and autonomous fibers. The proposed
concept of the relativity of clinical-neurophysiological correspondence
provides new approaches for treatment tactics. Metod of complex
pre-operative diagnostics and system of differential gradual estimation
for brachial plexus and upper extrimity nerves treatment effectiveness
were worked out. The results of the researches are applied in
neurosurgery and neurological practice.

Key words: injury, brachial plexus, peripheral nerves, pain syndrom,
diagnostics, electromyography, regeneration.

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