IAOe?IIAEUeIA TH?EAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

?iai? ss?INEAAA IOAe?IAI

Na?ueia?ia Na?oeaia A?eai??aia

OAeE 342. 511

EIIIAOAIOe?ss I?ACEAeAIOA OE?A?IE :

OAI?AOE*II — I?AAIA? CANAAeE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.02 — eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa
Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?iiia
Ieeiea Iaaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa
Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe :

1. *eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oiaeeea TH??e Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??
Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai.

2. Eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio ?aa?aoia Iaaei Ai?eniae/,
noaeaey Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?iai?
A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, i?iaeai
caeiiioai?/ino? ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 12 ” ethoiai 1999 ?. i 10.00 aiae.

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.086.03 a
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e th?eaee/i?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa
Ioae?iai ( 310024, i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea , 77 ).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai ( 310024,
i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea, 77 ).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 17 ” a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee AEeaaee?i
I.?.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icaoaeiaa iacaeaaeii?
aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?aaiai? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae iio?aao? ?aoi?ioaaiiy
anueiai aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? i?eaaaeaiiy o a?aeiia?aei?noue aei aeiia nueiaiaeaiiy,
ui ia?aaeaa/a? iaiao?aei?noue ye no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue, oae ? iiaeo
i?aeoiae?a aei ?iciaaeoaaiiy e ii?iaoeaiiai ioi?ieaiiy eiiiaoaioe?? i?ae
on?ia i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. O
oeueiio aniaeo? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? i?iaeaia iioeiaeueiiai
th?eaee/iiai aecia/aiiy eiiiaoaioe?? aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
ine?eueee naia aiie aecia/athoue ci?no ? caaaeueio ni?yiiaai?noue
aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee aea?aeaae.

Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie 1996 ?. oi/ ? i?aeaeea i?aenoiee o?eaaeeo aeeneon?e
uiaei caaaeueieo canaae i?aai?caoe?? oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
aia?aoo, iieacaaoe a?aeaeai?noue ?aeaaeai aeaiie?ao?? e a?eueiiai
?icaeoeo iniaenoino?, aea caeeoeea a?aee?eoeie oe?eo ieceo ieoaiue uiaei
?iciiae?eo eiiiaoaioe?? i?ae ??cieie a?eeaie ? ??aiyie aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee oa iaeaaiaeaeaiiy eiino?oeoeaii? aca?iiae?? i?ae ieie. Iaei??th c
iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo i?iaeai no/anii? iaoee eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa
Oe?a?ie ca aeaieo oiia noa? i?iaeaia oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy i?noey ?
?ie? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye aeaae aea?aeaae a caaaeuei?e nenoai? i?aai?a
aeaaee, iaeneiaeueii /?oeiai aecia/aiiy eiai eiiiaoaioe??. Ii?ie
Iniiaiiai Caeiio, i?enay/ai? noaoono I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, c i?e/ei ?o
caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o aeathoue aeineoue oe?ieee i?ino?? aeey oeoia/aiiy,
ui i?noeoue caa?ico aee?eaeaiiy ae?enieo iai???a caeiiiaeaaoey ?
oaeoe/iiai aeoiaeo aeaae aea?aeaae ca iaae? nai?? eiiiaoaioe??. Oea
iio?aao? caaaeaiiai e /?oeiai aeieo?eiaeueiiai aecia/aiiy oe?e?nii?
eiioeaioe?? i?aai?caoe?? oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?inoeoooo aeaae aea?aeaae a
Oe?a?i?, iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiiai eiio ia’?io eiiiaoaioe??, a oaeiae
?aoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo aaaeae?a aieeao
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ia ??ci? noa?e noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa, iacaaaeath/e ia naith a?aeiinio “iieiae?noue”,
anoea ia o?eueee iin?noe iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue o nenoai?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?ie, aea e a?ae/ooe o?ainoi?iaoe?th, iia’ycaio c?
ci?iith oyaeaiue i?i i?noea ? ?ieue aeaae aea?aeaae a caaaeuei?e nenoai?
aeaaee ? a?eueo /?oeei ao?eaiiyi o aeeooy i?eioeeio ?iciiae?eo aeaae.
Iaa?oue i?ney i?eeiyooy iiai? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie aoei a ia?aae/aniei
?icaeyaeaoe ?inoeooo I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye onoaeaio noeoii?noue
eiinoeoooe?eieo ii?i, ine?eueee a?i iino?eii ?icaeaa?oueny ? iaaoaa?
iiaeo ?en. Aaaaoi ooieoe?e ? iiaiiaaaeaiue I?aceaeaioa, cae??ieaieo o
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, io?eiaee iaiao?aeio eiie?aoecaoe?th o iioi/iiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? oa ii?iaoeaieo oeacao naiiai aeaae aea?aeaae; ii?yae c
oei cia/ia ?o e?euee?noue ana ua caeeoathoueny iaaeinoaoiuei ?icaeiooeie
? iio?aaothoue iaeaaeiiai iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy. Aei oiai ae no/aniee
noaoon aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ua aeaeaeee a?ae iioeiaeueiiai, ui
iio?aao? eiino?oeoeaiiai e?eoe/iiai aiae?co ii?iaoeaiiai aecia/aiiy eiai
noaoono ? i?aeoeee ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaiiai ?inoeoooo, ii??aiyiiy eiai c
ca?oa?aeieie aiaeiaaie. Aeuaicia/ai? oaeoi?e aecia/athoue aeooaeuei?noue
ia?aii? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?? aaaeeea?noue aeey
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

O a?o/eciyi?e th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ??aaiue iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy
i?iaeai i?aaiaiai noaoono aeaae aea?aeaae acaaae? oa eiai eiiiaoaioe??
cie?aia ? iaaeinoaoi?i ? ia a?aeiia?aea? iio?aaai aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa. C oeeo ieoaiue iaia niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ca
aeiyoeii aeayeeo noaoae, aenooi?a ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo oa
i?aoeue iaoeiai-iiioey?iiai oa?aeoa?o, ui ia a?aeiia?aea? aaaeeeaino?
oaie. A?aenoaaaiiy o aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?iaeaie i?aaiaiai noaoono
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie cia/iith i??ith iiynith?oueny ?o o?niei ca’yceii ?c
nooi iie?oe/ieie aniaeoaie, cie?aia c ?iciiae?eii ioae?/ii? aeaaee i?ae
aieiaieie iie?oe/ieie neeaie e?a?ie, a oaeiae ??cei iiey?iei noaaeaiiyi
aei ?inoeoooo aeaae aea?aeaae ??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi Oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa. Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii a?aenoaaaiiy ? e oie oaeo, ui ca
?aaeyinueeeo /an?a aeaiee ?inoeooo aeciaaaany ao?aeoaciei,
aioeaeaiie?aoe/iei, ? oaeei /eiii aoa aeaaaeaiee ca iaae? a?oioiaieo
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Eeoa c aaaaeaiiyi a aea?aeaaiee
iaoai?ci Oe?a?ie o 1991 ?. iinaaee I?aceaeaioa O?N? ii/aany iiaee aoai
aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaiaiai noaoono aeaae aea?aeaae ? iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aei
oeeo i?iaeai cia/ii c??n.

Ca’ycie i?aoe? c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c eiiieaeniith i?ia?aiith ? 0186.0.070865 “I?iaeaie
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a caeiiiaeaa/i? ?
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee oa naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?”.

Aieiaia iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?
oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye iaeiiai c aeueo
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa aecia/aii? iioeiaeueiiai iaai?o
iiaiiaaaeaiue, iaiao?aeieo aeey aoaeoeaiiai aeeiiaiiy iieeaaeaieo ia
iueiai ooieoe?e a iaaeao eiinoeoooe?eieo canaae i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee Oe?a?ie. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeena?oaio iaa
ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

n iaa?oiooaaoe oai?aoe/io eiino?oeoe?th eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie, ae/eaioaaaoe ?? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe;

n aecia/eoe nenoaio ooieoe?e aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, ye?
iaoiiaeththoue ci?no eiai eiiiaoaioe??;

n i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? i?aaiaiai cae??ieaiiy eiiiaoaioe??
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o /eiiiio eiinoeoooe?eiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? ?
aecia/eoe oeyoe eiai iioei?caoe??;

n ?ice?eoe ci?no eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, aeoeaiooth/e
oaaao ia eiai eiinoeoooe?eieo iiaiiaaaeaiiyo ca iaaieie noa?aie
noni?eueiiai aeeooy;

n aena?oeeoe iniiai? i?iaeaie ?iciaaeoaaiiy eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie c eiiiaoaioe??th Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie oa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie ? ciaeoe oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy eiaeiiai c oeeo i?aai?a;

n aeine?aeeoe oi?ie ?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae aea?aeaae,
cai?iii-ioaaoe eiie?aoi? caoiaee uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aoaeoeaiino?.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ui
neeaaeathoueny a i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie,
aeoiaey/e c ooieoe?e, ui iieeaaeai? ia iueiai Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie.
Ia’?eoii aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea, ci?no, i?iaeaie
ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ?iaioe neeaaea? caaaeueiiiaoeiaee
iaoa-??ae?noe/ii-ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae
canoi-niaoaaeenue ?noi?e/ii-i?aaiaee, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee,
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee, oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee, nioe?ieia?/iee,
noaoenoe/iee oa ?yae ?ioeo caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo ? niaoe?aeueieo iaoeiaeo
iaoiae?a.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? noaee iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy i?i
nooi?noue oa ci?no ooieoe?e ? eiiiaoaioe?? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, noaoon
aeaae aea?aeaae o nenoai? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, i?i niaoeeo?eo
i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo ca i?eioeeiii ?iciiae?eo aeaae oa
i?iaeaie aca?iiae?? i?ae ?? a?eeaie, i?i oi?ie ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
aea?aeaae, ui i?noyoueny a ?iaioao eeanee?a aei?aaiethoe?eii?
iie?oeei-i?aaiai? aeoiee I.N.Ae?en??aa, I.Ae.A?aaeianueeiai,
I.I.Caoa?iaa, O.O.Eieioe?ia, I.I.Ei?eoiiaa, I.?.Eaca?aanueeiai,
A.A.Iieueaea, a oaeiae no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo oa ?in?enueeeo
aea?aeaaiciaaoe?a A.A.Aaa?’yiiaa, I.A.Aeaenaiae?iaa, A.I.Aeueio?ia,
I.A.Aaaeay, Ae.I.Aao?aoa, ?.E.Aa/eei, A.N.A?eiona, O.A.Ao?/aea,
A.I.Aaa?e/eaeca, N.N.Aieiaaoiai, A.I.Ai?oaiueiaa, A.I.Eaca??aa,
E.A.Eiaaey, TH.I.Eiceiaa, A.A.Eiiae/eeiaa, E.O.E?eaaiei,
I.A.E?ooiaieiaa, A.?.Eoae?y/aiei, I.?.Eooao?ia, N.E.Eenaieiaa,
A.O.Iicae?a/iaa, E.A.Ieoiueeiaa, A.O.Ii?eoea, A.O.Iiai??eea,
I.A.Naoa?iaa, A.I.No?aooia, TH.I.Oeoiie?iaa, TH.I.Oiaeeee, A.?.*e?e?ia,
A.I.Oaiiaaea, I.A.Oao??a, E.O.Oa?aiaoa, A.A.Ooaaeiai?, I.?.THueea oa
?ioeo.

Ii?yae c iaoeiaeie ?ic?iaeaie a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a a aeena?oaoe?? oe?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?aoe? eeanee?a ca?oa?aeiiai eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio
AE.Aiaeaia, A.Aaaaey, E.Aetha?, A.Eiinoaia, O.Iiioane’?, a oaeiae
i?ia?aeieo no/anieo aea?aeaaiciaaoe?a A.Eiaa?ia, Ae.Ea???, Aeae.Oa?aa?a,
Aeae.O?eniia, E.Oanna, A.Oeac?iaa?a oa ?ioeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny ia iniia? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, caeii?a
Oe?a?ie, oeac?a I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, eiinoeoooe?e, aeo?a ia?eaiaio?a ?
noaeiai? i?aeoeee ?yaeo ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaa. Iaoeiaiio aiae?co
i?aeaeaaaeenue ye ae?th/? ii?iaoeai? aeoe, oae ? o?, ui ao?aoeee
/eii?noue, aea iathoue iaoeiao oe?ii?noue a ?noi?e/ii-i?aaiaiio
aniaeo?.

Aii??e/iith aacith ?iaioe noaee iaoa??aee i?aeoeee ii?iioai?/i? oa
i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, iioae?eiaai? a
io?oe?eieo aeaeaiiyo oa ia??iaee/i?e i?an?, a oaeiae iaoa??aee uiaei
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?inoeoooo aeaae aea?aeaae, iioae?eiaai? o a?o/eciyi?e oa
ca?oa?aei?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??.

Iniaeea?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny ni?iaith
eiiieaeniiai ?icaeyaeo i?iaeai ii?iaoeaiiai cae??ieaiiy ? ?aae?caoe??
eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ? ae?iaeaiiy ?? ?aeeii?, oe?e?nii?
eiioeaioe??, caniiaaii? ia a?oioiaiiio aiae?c? iieiaeaiue /eiii?
Eiinoeoooe?? oa ia?aaeiaiai ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo. Iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo i?iaeai eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae cae?enithaaeanue c aeei?enoaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue caaaeueii? oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
i?aaa oa oai??? oi?aae?iiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa?, ianaiia?aae, o oiio, ui aia?oa o
a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa ia oai?aoe/iiio ??ai?
i?iaiae?ciaaii nooi?noue ? ci?no eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae, c?iaeaii eiiieaeniee e?eoe/iee aiae?c ?? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? o
eiinoeoooe?eiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? ? i?aeoeee ?aae?caoe??, ui aeaei ciiao
cai?iiiioaaoe oe?e?nio eiioeaioe?th eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye
i?aai?/io neeaaeiao caaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?ie,
cae??ieaii? Eiinoeoooe??th 1996 ?.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaaii ?yae iiei-aeaiue,
aeniiae?a oa i?iiiceoe?e, c /enea yeeo aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

· aecia/aiiy iiiyooy eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye noeoiiino?
cae??ieaieo Eiinoeoooe??th oa caeiiaie Oe?a?ie i?aea?aeii/ino? ?
iiaiiaaaeaiue aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy yei?
o?eno?oueny ia’?i ? ci?no eiai ae?yeueiino? oa aecia/a?oueny i?noea
I?aceaeaioa a nenoai? aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?ie;

· oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i aeaioaeaiaioiee neeaae eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie yei? aeciathoueny
i?aea?aeii/?noue (i?aaeiaoia ? oa?eoi??aeueia) oa iiaiiaaaeaiiy
(i?aai-iaia’ycee); oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aea?aeii/ino? ye ?iaeiaiai iiiyooy
ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?aaeiao?a a?aeaiiy oa oa?eoi??aeueieo iaae
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a ioae?/ii? aeaaee;

· aecia/aiiy iniiaieo ooieoe?e aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae; aeae?eaiiy
aeaio i?a?iaaoeaieo iai?yi?a eiai ae?yeueiino? — caaacia/aiiy ?aeiino?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa i?aaenoaaieoeoai; oaca i?i iio?aeiee a?ae ooieoe?e
oa?aeoa? eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa;

· ?ice?eooy ci?noo eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae oa
oa-?aeoa?enoeea eiai iiaiiaaaeaiue o noa?ao aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa,
caeiiiaeaa/i? ae?yeueiino?, caaacia/aiiy eiinoeoooe?eii? caeiiiino?,
iai?iiicaeaoiino? e iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, iniiaieo i?aa ? naiaiae
a?iiaaeyi, iaai?iaeii? iie?oeee, a oaeiae o noa?? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei;

· iieiaeaiiy i?i iai?eionoei?noue ?icoe?thaaeueiiai oeoia/aiiy oa?i?io
“aa?aio Eiinoeoooe??, iniiaieo i?aa ? naiaiae a?iiaaeyi”;

· oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i iai?eionoei?noue anoaiiaeaiiy noai?aeeiaoe?eieo
ca’yce?a i?ae I?aceaeaioii ? Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, ine?eueee
iii?iaoe?ei? (??aii ye ? onoaiia/?) iiaiiaaaeaiiy nai? ii nia? ia
oyaiooue ca niaith i?aaa ea?oaaoe a?aeiia?aeieie i?aaiaie;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy iaea?eueo aeioe?eueieo niinia?a ?aaeaiaioaoe??
iia-iiaaaeaiue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o
ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a: aeey Eiinoeoooe?? — “eiiiaoaioe?eii-?aieiaee” ?
“ia?ae?e c aeiiouaiiyi ?ioeo ii?iaoeaii anoaiiaeaieo iiaiiaaaeaiue”, a
aeey niaoe?aeueieo caeii?a — “cae?eoee ia?ae?e”;

· i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy eiiiaoaioe??
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, cie?aia iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui eiiiaoaioe?y
I?aceaeaioa ia? ?aaeaiaiooaaoeny eeoa Eiinoeoooe??th ? caei-iaie
Oe?a?ie, ine?eueee iaae? iiaiiaaaeaiue ? i?aea?aeii/?noue aeueo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee iiaeii? aecia/aoeny o?eueee ia?iaeii Oe?a?ie
(aaciina?aaeiuei ia ?aoa?aiaeoi? aai /a?ac Aa?oiaio ?aaeo Oe?a?ie), i?i
iaiao?aei?noue cae??ieaiiy ia eiinoeoooe?eiiio ??ai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy
I?aceaeaioa aaeaaaoeny aei ocaiaeaeoaaeueieo i?ioeaaeo? aeey ?ica’ycaiiy
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo eiioe?eo?a;

· aecia/aiiy iniiaieo oi?i ?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae
Oe?a-?inueei? aea?aeaae: i?aaiaeo (onoaiia/i?, ii?iioai?/i?,
i?aaicanoinia/i?, eiio?ieueii?, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?eii?) ? iai?aaiaeo (ui
cae?eniththoueny I?aceaeaioii iniaenoi, a oaeiae oeo, ui
cae?eniththoueny ni?a?ia?oieeaie Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa);

· ?ice?eooy iniiaieo i?iaaaeaeaiue a iaaeao i?aaiai? oi?ie ?aae?caoe??
eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie oa ?o iniiaieo noaae?e.

Iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a
oiio, ui noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee
oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aaeineiiaeaii?
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i noaoon I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, a
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e ?iaio?, iiaeeaeyoue ciaiiy i?i ?inoeooo
i?aceaeaioa oa eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ni?eyoeiooue iioeiaeueiiio
canoinoaaiith i?eioeeio iiae?eo aeaaee a Oe?a?i?. Iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeeeai oaeiae canoinoaaoe a o/aiaiio i?ioean? i?e /eoaii?
eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a “Eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai Oe?a?ie” oa “Aea?aeaaia
aoae?aieoeoai ? naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?”.

Iniiai? oace aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy o aenooiao aaoi?a ia
i?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? “I?iaeaie ?icoe?aiiy
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa oaeineiiaeaiiy aeeeaaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa” (Oa?e?a, 19 /a?aiy 1998 ?.), a oaeiae ia i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo o/aieo oa ani??aio?a “Noaiiaeaiiy
i?aaiai? nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/ii? Oe?a?ie oa th?eaee/ia iaoea” (Oa?e?a,
16-17 /a?aiy 1998 ?ieo). Ia iniia? iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?
i?aeaiooaaa oaeno eaeoe?? c eo?no aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa oa
naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? e iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee aei aea/aiiy oaie
“I?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Noi?ioeueiaai? a ?iaio? aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe?? aeeeaaeai?
aeena?oaioii o i’yoe noaooyo oa oacao aeiiia?ae? ia iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe??.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iaoe, caaaeaiue, i?aaeiaoo ? eia?ee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, oanoe
i?ae?icae?e?a, /ioe?ueio i?aeioieo?a, aeniiaeo oa nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e (200 iaeiaioaaiue). Ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 178 noi??iie.

Ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?? oa nooi?iue
?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino?, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, aecia-/athoueny ??
iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa oa iaoeiaiciaa/a aaca, a oaeiae iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, i?aee?aneth?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia
? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Iiiyooy ? i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy eiiia-oaioe?? I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ii” i?enay/aiee aecia/aiith aeo?aeieo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue uiaei
th?eaee/ii? i?e?iaee, ooieoe?iiaeueii? iaoiiaeaiino? oa aioo??oii?
no?oeoo?e eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae oa?aeoa?o ??
i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? o eiinoeoooe?eiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie.

Aiae?c i?aeoiae?a aei oeoia/aiiy ci?noo iiiyooy “eiiiaoaioe?y”, ui
neeaeenue o a?o/eciyi?e aea?aeaaiciaa/?e iaooe? c e?ioey O?O no., aeaa
iiaeeea?noue aeae?eeoe o?e iniiai? iai?yie — “eeane/iee”,
“?icoe?thaaeueiee” oa “iaiaaeoaaeueiee”. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, o
no?oeoo?? eiiiaoaioe?? i?aai?a ioae?/ii? aeaaee iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii
aeae?eyoe aeaa aeaiaioe — i?aea?aeii/?noue ? iiaiiaaaeaiiy, ine?eueee
naia aiie aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ?iaeoe oe?eeii iaaiee aeniiaie i?i
i?aaiii/i?noue aeaaeiiai i?aaio a eiie?aoieo ioae?/ieo i?aaia?aeiineiao.
I?e oeueiio i?ae iiaiiaaaeaiiyie i?aaio ne?ae ?icoi?oe eiai
“i?aai-iaia’ycee”, aaeaea ca iayaiino? th?eaee/ieo oaeo?a i?aai ia iiaea
ia ?aae?coaaoe nai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy, aiaeii/an aenooiath/e ye iin?e
noa’?eoeaiiai i?aaa ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?aeaeaaeiiai noa’?eoa. O naith
/a?ao i?aea?aeii/?noue — oea th?eaee/ia aeac?aea ia oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae?
oa ci?noiaio niaoeeo?eo oeo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ia ye? iai?aaeaia
aeaaeia ae?yeuei?noue i?aaio, /ei iaoiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noue ??
?ic/eaioaaiiy ia aea? neeaaeia? — i?aaeiaoio ? oa?eoi??aeueio
i?aea?aeii/?noue.

Aeoiaey/e c “eeane/ii?” oi/ee ci?o ia iiiyooy eiiiaoaioe??
noi?ioeueiaaii aecia/aiiy eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye noeoiiino?
cae??ieaieo Eiinoeoooe??th oa caeiiaie Oe?a?ie i?aea?aeii/ino?
(i?aaeiaoii? e oa?eoi??aeueii?) oa iiaiiaaaeaiue aeaae Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae, oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy yei? o?eno?oueny ia’?i, ci?no eiai
ae?yeueiino? oa aecia/a?oueny i?noea I?aceaeaioa a nenoai? aeueo
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Aiaeii/an caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia oa, ui
eiiiaoaioe?y I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaaaoiiai?oi?noth,
aioo??oiueith no?oeoo?iith ?aei?noth ? ia?nii?o?eiaai?noth.

I?e oeueiio iiaa eaea i?i aeaao aea?aeaae ye i?i i?aai aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee, a ia iinaaeiao iniao. Aaeaea aea?aeaaii-neoaeaiaa iinaaea — oea
/anoeia i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e aea?aeaaiiai i?aaio, iainiaeaia ?
cae??ieaia a io?oe?eieo aeieoiaioao, c a?aeiia?aeiith /anoeiith
eiiiaoaioe?? oeueiai i?aaio, oiaoi “neoaeaiaa i?noea” a aea?aeaaiiio
i?aai?. sseui aeciaoe aeaao aea?aeaae eeoa iinaaeiaith iniaith, oi
caeeoa?oueny iac?icoi?eei, a yeiio ae i?aai? a?i caeia? iinaaeo. Oiio
a?eueo ei?aeoii ?iaioaaoe aeaao aea?aeaae ia iinaaeiaith iniaith, a
iaeiei c aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Ine?eueee a oai??? aea?aeaae
? i?aaa caaaeueiiaeciaii, ui i?aai aea?aeaae — oea iinaaeiaa iniaa
(iaeiiin?aiee i?aai) aai iaaiei /eiii i?aai?ciaaia a?oia iinaaeiaeo in?a
(eieaa?aeueiee i?aai), ui cae?enith? o iaaiiio ia’?i? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae
ia iaai?e ae?eyioe? ea??aieoeoaa noni?euenoaii, I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie, ye ?
i?aeoe/ii an? aeaae ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaa, ? iaeiiin?aiei i?aaiii.

Niaoeeo?ea aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ye iaeiiin?aiiai
(iiii-e?aoe/iiai) i?aaio aieeaa? ia th?eaee/io eiino?oeoe?th eiai
eiiiaoaioe??. sse a?aeiii, caaaeueia eiiiaoaioe?y eieaa?aeueieo i?aai?a
?aae?co?oueny /a?ac niaoe?aeueio eiiiaoaioe?th eiai no?oeoo?ieo
i?ae?icae?e?a oa iinaaeiaeo in?a. A iaeiiin?aiiio ae i?aai?, yeei ?
i?aceaeaioo?a, eiiiaoaioe?y i?aaio ? iinaaeiai? iniae ni?aiaaeathoue.
Oeei iiynith?oueny oie oaeo, ui ?icae?e V Eiinoeoooe?? 1996?. ia? iacao
“I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie”, a ia “I?aceaeaioo?a Oe?a?ie”. C oai?aoe/ii? oi/ee
ci?o aeioe?eueii ?ic??ciyoe i?aceaeaioo?o ye iiiie?aoe/iee aea?aeaaiee
i?aai ? I?aceaeaioa ye iinaaeiao iniao, ui i/ieth? eiai. Eiinoeoooe?y o
?icae?e? V ie?aneth? noaoon ia ie?aieo neoaeaiaoe?a, ui i?aoeththoue o
i?aceaeaioo??, a noaoon aeaae aea?aeaae ye iaeiiai c aeueo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ?aeeio iinaaeiao iniao yeiai iae?a? ia?iae oeyoii
caaaeueieo, ??aieo, i?yieo ? oa?iieo aeai??a.

Iayai?noue ?icaaeoaeaeaii? nenoaie aeiiii?aeieo oa aei?aae/eo i?-aai?a
iaaea? noaoono I?aceaeaioa aeai?noiai oa?aeoa?o, aaeaea a?i aiaeii/an
aenooia? ? ye iinaaeiaa iniaa, ui iiai?noth ?aae?co? iiaiiaaaeaiiy aeaae
aea?aeaae, ? ye ea??aiee-aaei?i?no?aoi?. Aeai?noa nooi?noue noaoono
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ii?iaeaeo? ? aeai?no?noue eiai eiiiaoaioe??. C
iaeiiai aieo, I?aceaeaio ye iinaaeiaa iniaa iiiie?aoe/iiai i?aaio ia?
ie?aneaio a Eiinoeoooe?? eiiiaoaioe?th, yea aecia/a? i?noea ? ?ieue
aeaae aea?aeaae na?aae aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? iiai?noth
iaeaaeeoue aei i?aaeiaoo eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa; c ?ioiai — ye
ea??aiee-aaei?i?no?aoi?, a?i iaae?eaiee iaaiith eiiiaoaioe??th ii
i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe naiai aia?aoo, ia? iiaiiaaaeaiiy uiaei no?oeoo?ieo
eaiie ? ie?aieo ni?a?ia?oiee?a nai?? aaei?i?no?aoe??, ??ciiai ?iaeo
aei?aae/eo oa eiinoeueoaoeaieo i?aai?a. Aeoiaey/e c aeuaicia/aiiai,
ne?ae /?oei ?iciaaeiaoaaoe eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiao ?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?aaiao eiiiaoaioe?th I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ine?eueee
aiie a?ae??ciythoueny nai?th nooi?noth, ii?iaoeaiith aacith, noa?ith
aeyao, th?eaee/ieie iane?aeeaie aeei?enoaiiy oa aeiiaaie aei iaae ?
ii?yaeeo ?aae?caoe??. Iaiao?aei?noue oaeiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy
iaa?oioiaoaaeanue ua iai?ee?ioe? XIX no. “eeaneeaie” eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio
(Ae.Aa?oaeai?, E.Aetha?, O.Ii?i) ? nueiaiaei? caa??aa? aaeeea oai?aoe/ia
? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

A?aeiia?aeii aei ia?aii? a Oe?a?i? iai?ai?aceaeaionueei? oi?ie i?aae?iiy
aeaaa Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae iaae?eaiee oe?ieei eieii iiaiiaaaeaiue,
aaaii?noue ? cia/ou?noue yeeo aea? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe eiai iaeiei c
oeaio??a cina?aaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? i?eeiyooy iie?oe/ieo
??oaiue. Ca oe?ioith i?aaeiaoii? i?aea?aeii/ino? (ca nooiaiai
i?aaeiaoii? niaoe?ae?caoe??) I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie iaeaaeeoue aei i?aai?a
caaaeueii? eiiiaoaioe??.

Aiae?c noaoae Eiinoeoooe??, i?enay/aieo eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie, aeaa iiaeeea?noue aeae?eeoe a?oie eiai iiaiiaaaeaiue ca
niaoeeo?eith i?aaeiao?a a?aeaiiy, na?aae yeeo iiaiiaaaeaiiy o noa?ao :
1) aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa, 2) caeiiiaeaa/i? ae?yeueiino?, 3)
caaacia/aiiy eiinoeoooe?eii? caeiiiino?, 4) iai?iie oa iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee, 5) caaacia/aiiy iniiaieo i?aa ? naiaiae a?iiaaeyi, 6)
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, 7) iaai?iaeii?
iie?oeee. Iaaaaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y ?, aacoiiaii, aeaui oiiaiith, aea
aeicaiey? aeineoue /?oei oyaeoe ?ieue aeaae aea?aeaae o aii?yaeeoaaii?
??ciiiai?oieo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo a?aeiinei.

Ia iniia? aiae?co iiaeyae?a, aeneiaeaieo o th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ooieoe?yie oa eiiiaoaioe??th aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a,
aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui naia /a?ac eiiiaoaioe?th
?aae?cothoueny ooieoe?? i?aaio, i?e/iio ooieoe?y i?ae ?iceeaaea?oueny ia
aeaiaioa?i? neeaaeia?. Eiiiaoaioe?y i?aaio iio?aeia a?ae eiai ooieoe?e ?
a?eueo ?ooiia ca ia’?iii; aiaeii/an ooieoe?? i?aaio aeyaeythoueny naia
/a?ac noeoii?noue on?o aeaiaio?a eiiiaoaioe??.

C iaeyaeo ia oea, ieoaiiy i?i ooieoe?? aeaae aea?aeaae caiaeeoueny, ii
noo?, aei aecia/aiiy eiai i?noey oa ?ie? a nenoai? aeueo i?aai?a
aea?aeaae. Oai??y O.Iiioane’? aeyaey?oueny iai?eaeaoiith aeey ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie ooieoe?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ine?eueee a eiai eiioeaioe??
?iciiae?eo aeaae aeaa? aea?aeaae (iiia?oo) aa??yeanue aeeiiaa/a aeaaea,
a Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie 1996 ?ieo ia aeeth/a? I?aceaeaioa a aeiaeio c
o?eaaee aeaae. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ne?ae caa?iooeny aei
oai??? “oiiei?thth/i?” (“a??aiiaaaeoth/i?”) aeaaee, ?icaeiooi?
o?aioeocueeei aea?aeaaiciaaoeai A.Eiinoaiii, ?ioa?i?aoiaaii?
i?iaoeueeeie ieneeoaeyie A.Aaaaeai oa E.oii Ooaeiii ? i?aeo?eiaii?
aei?aaiethoe?eieie ?in?enueeeie eiinoeoooe?iiae?noaie O.O.Eieioe?iei ?
I.A.Caoa?iaei. Aeaaea, caeaoia aii?yaeeiaoaaoe ae?? ??cieo aeaae,
iiaeiia aooe ae?enii iacaeaaeiith, aaoi?eoaoiith ? iaeo?aeueiith ii
a?aeiioaiith aei an?o ?o, ? oeei aeiiaai iaeiiai?oa a?aeiia?aea? aeaaa
aea?aeaae. Aieiai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie iiaeii? caaacia/eoe
i?aai?caoe?eio oa ooieoe?iiaeueio ?aei?noue aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ui ae??
ia iniia? ? aeey aeeiiaiiy Eiinoeoooe??, yea i?iaieioo? iniiaiei
iaia’yceii aea?aeaae noaa?aeaeaiiy ? caaacia/aiiy i?aa ? naiaiae
ethaeeie.

Aeoiaey/e c oace, ui eiiiaoaioe?y aoaeue-yeiai i?aaio ioae?/ii? aeaaee ?
iio?aeiith a?ae iieeaaeaieo ia iueiai ooieoe?e, cae?eniaii
nenoaiaoecaoe?th ooieoe?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie. Caa?iooi oaaao ia oa,ui
iayai?noue aeaae aea?aeaae, yeee ia aoiaeeoue a aeiaeio c “eeane/ieo”
a?eie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, i?yeei /eiii ia ii?ooo? i?eioeei iiae?eo
aeaaee, ine?eueee eiai aieiai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy ni?yiiaai? ia aeeiiaiiy
“aioo??oi?o” ii a?aeiioaiith aei aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio ooieoe?e, o
ia?oo /a?ao ia caaacia/aiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Caaaeueio nenoaio ooieoe?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie
neeaaeathoue: caaacia/aiiy ?aeiino? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
i?aae-noaaieoeoai aea?aeaae, caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai noaa?ai?oaoo oa
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie, caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo i?aa ?
naiaiae a?iiaaeyi, onoaiia/a, ii?iioai?/a, eaae?iaa ooieoe?y, a oaeiae
ea??aieoeoai ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iith ae?yeuei?noth. Ia?o? aea? ooieoe??
iathoue i?a?iaaoeaiee oa?aeoa?, oiaoi aeanoea? o?eueee aeaa? aea?aeaae ?
iaoiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue ?nioaaiiy naiiai oeueiai ?inoeoooo, ?io? —
oaae iathoue aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy, aea iiaeooue aooe i?enooi?ie ? a ?ioeo
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a. Ooieoe?y caaacia/aiiy ?aeiino? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
?icae?ey?oueny ia o?e i?aeooieoe??: 1) eii?aeeiaoe?y ae?yeueiino? an?o
a?eie aeaaee, 2) a??aiiaaaeoaaiiy a?eie aeaaee, noai?aiiy aaeaino nee,
3) i?eieiaiiy, i?en?eaiiy ae?e i?aai?a, ye? ii?ooothoue ?aei?noue
aeaaee. Aiaeii/an a caeaaeiino? a?ae noa?e aeyao ooieoe?y
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa aea?aeaae ?iciiae?ey?oueny ia aea? i?aeooieoe??:
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ia ? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia i?aaenoaaieoeoai.

Ianueiaiaei? iaeaaaeeea?o? (ia aeoieo caeiiiaeaaoey) iiaiiaaaeaiiy
I?aceaeaioa cae??ieai? a Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, a ?aooa aecia/ai?
caeiiaie Oe?a?ie (“I?i I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?inueei? ?N?”,“I?i i?aeia?iaei?
aeiaiai?e Oe?a?ie”, “I?i iai?iio Oe?a?ie”, “I?i a?iiaaeyinoai Oe?a?ie”
oa ?i.). I?eeiath/e aei oaaae oa, ui eiiiaoaioe?y aeaae aea?aeaae, ye ?
eiai i?aaiaee noaoon acaaae?, ia iiaeooue aecia/aoeny i?aecaeiiieie
ii?iaoeaieie aeoaie, a o /eii?e Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie caaaeaiiy, ooieoe??
oa eiiiaoaioe?y I?aceaeaioa aeeeaaeai? oia?ai?o, ?iiae? iaiiaii e
iaoi/ii, ne?ae caanoe an? iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa a ?aeeiee i?aaiaee
aeo, ui ni?eyei a a?eueo eiiieaeniiio, iiaiiio ? c?o/iiio aeey
ni?eeiyooy a?aaoethaaiith eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae aea?aeaae. ?ieue oaeiai
eiaeeo?eiaaiiai aeoo iaee?aua i?a c?a?aoe Caeii “I?i I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie”, yeee cai?iea ae niaith canoa??eee Caeii “I?i I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?inueei? ?N?” ? /?oei aecia/ea caaaeaiiy, ooieoe?? oa eiiiaoaioe?th
aeaae aea?aeaae a on?e ?oi?e ??ciiiai?oiino? ? aca?iica’yceo. I?e
oeueiio aeey ?aaeaiaioaoe?? iiaiiaaaeaiue aeaae aea?aeaae o Eiinoeoooe??
aeioe?eueiei ? aeei?enoaiiy eiiiaoaioe?eii-?aieiaiai niiniao oa ia?ae?eo
c aeiiouaiiyi ?ioeo ii?iaoeaii anoaiiaeaieo iiaiiaaaeaiue, a aeey Caeiio
“I?i I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie” — ia?ae?eo c aeiiouaiiyi ?ioeo ii?iaoeaii
anoaiiaeaieo iiaiiaaaeaiue, ui iaoiiaeaii noaoooiei oa?aeoa?ii oeueiai
aeieoiaioo oa iaiao?aei?noth iaeneiaeueii iiaii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
eiiiaoaioe?th aeaae aea?aeaae, iaeii/anii iath/e iiaeeea?noue
aeaoae?coaaoe ?? o niaoe?aeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?. O niaoe?aeueieo
caeiiao ia?aaaao ne?ae a?aeaeaaaoe cae?eoiio ia?ae?eo iiaiiaaaeaiue.
sse?niee ??aaiue i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie
? ia?aaeoiiaith aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeueiai ?inoeoooo oa e
onueiai aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio a oe?eiio.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ci?no ? ?aae?caoe?y eiiiaoaioe?? I?ace-aeaioa
Oe?a?ie” aeine?aeaeothoueny iiaiiaaaeaiiy aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae
ca aeecueeeie ca ci?noii noa?aie noni?eueiiii-e?oe/iiai aeeooy, i?iaeaie
?iciiae?eo eiiiaoaioe?? i?ae I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie, Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith
Oe?a?ie oa Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae oi?ie ?aae?caoe??
eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie.

Iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o noa?? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa
caiaeyoueny aei i?aa oa iaia’yce?a uiaei oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee, ?o ?ai?aai?caoe?? oa e?ea?aeaoe??, ye? oiiaii iiaeia iiae?eeoe
ia oae? a?oie: 1) onoaiia/? — iiaiiaaaeaiiy uiaei noai?aiiy,
?ai?aai?caoe?? oa e?ea?aeaoe?? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, 2)
iii?iaoe?ei? — uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ia?niiaeueiiai neeaaeo aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a, 3) i?ioeaaeo?i? — uiaei ?i?oe?thaaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e oi?ioaaiiy
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ?nioth/ee ia’?i
iii?ia-oe?eieo iiaiiaaaeaiue aeaae aea?aeaae ? iaaeeeoeiaei, ine?eueee
i?noeoue caa?ico ia?aoai?aiiy I?aceaeaioa a iiiceoe?eiee Aa?oiai?e ?aae?
Oe?a?ie oeaio? iie?oe/ii? aeaaee, aeii?ioth/ee iaa?oue iaae Eaa?iaoii
I?i?no??a, ui a naith /a?ao iiaea i?ecaanoe aei i?ae?eao naiiai
i?ei-oeeio iiae?eo aeaaee ye iaei??? c iniia eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo
Oe?a?ie. ?ica’ycaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie aaa/a?oueny o ei?eaoaaii? eaae?iaeo
iiaiiaaaeaiue aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Ia eiinoeoooe?eiiio ??ai?
ne?ae cae??ieoe i?aaeei, ui i?eieiaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue I?ai’??-i?i?no?a,
oae naii ye ? eiai i?ecia/aiiy, iio?aao? caiaee Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie,
a i?eieiaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue /eai?a Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, ea??aiee?a
?ioeo oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, a oaeiae aie?a i?noeaaeo
aea?aeaaieo aaei?i?no?aoe?e iiaeeeaa eeoa ca iiaeaiiyi I?ai’??-i?i?no?a
Oe?a?ie. Aeacai? ci?ie ci?iooue ieoaiiy i?i “oi?iaeueiiai” ?
“?aaeueiiai” aeaao aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, cae??i-eyoue ?aei?noue oeaio?o
iie?oe/ii? aeaaee a inia? ia?eaiaioo (yeee ca Eiinoeoooe??th ? ?aeeiei
i?aaiii, iiaiiaaaeiei aecia/aoe canaaee aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei?
iie?oeee) ? ua a?eueoa ciaia’yaeooue aeu? i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
ae?yoe ocaiaeaeaii ? eoe ia iaaiee eiii?ii?n i?e ?ic?iaoe? oa i?eeiyoo?
aeaaeieo ??oaiue.

O noa?? caeiiiaeaa/i? ae?yeueiino? aei eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie
iaeaaeaoue oae? iiaiiaaaeaiiy: i?aai caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae, i?aai
aaoi, iiaiiaaaeaiiy uiaei i?aeienaiiy oa iaia?iaeoaaiiy caeii?a, a
oaeiae i?aai i?ecia/aoe anaoe?a?inueeee ?aoa?aiaeoi. I?aai aaoi aeaae
aea?aeaae ?, ii noo?, iio?aeiei a?ae eiai iiaiiaaaeaiiy uiaei
i?aeienaiiy ? iaia?iaeoaaiiy caeii?a, ? eiai ?nioaaiiy iieeeeaia
neoaoaaoe caniaii no?eioaaiiy ia?eaiaioo a?ae iaaeinoaoiuei
iaa?oioiaaieo ??oaiue. Ianueiaiaei? iac??ea iio?aaa /?oeiai
caeiiiaeaa/iai a?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai i?aaa
I?aceaeaioa. Cie?aia, ne?ae ia?aaeaa/eoe iaoai?ci, yeee iiia?aaeaeaa ae
aeieeiaiiy neooaoe?e ii?ooaiiy oa?i?i?a i?aeienaiiy ? iaia?iaeoaaiiy
i?eeiyoeo caeii?a, a oaeiae a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue I?aceaeaioa o oiio
aeiaaeeo, eiee a?i ia i?aeieno? ? ia iiaa?oa? ia iiaoi?iee ?icaeyae
iiaeaiee eiio aeey i?iioeueaaoe?? caeii i?ioyaii anoaiiaeaiiai no?ieo.
Aaeueie aeooaeueiith ? nueiaiaei? e i?iaeaia th?eaee/ii? oi?ie
i?aceaeaionueeiai aaoi. Ine?eueee iaeeaaeaiiy aaoi ia caeii ? aeoii
i?aaio aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo th?eaee/ieo
iane?aee?a, eiio iiaeiia iaaeaaaoenue oi?ia oeaco I?aceaeaioa i?i
iiaa?iaiiy caeiiii?iaeoo ia iiaoi?iee ?icaeyae.

Aeioe?eueii aaanoe o eaeneeii a?o/eciyiiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa
caaaeueiiaaeeaaiee o ca?oa?aeiiio aea?aeaaiciaanoa? oa?i?i
“i?iioeueaaoe?y”, ui icia/a? naieoe?iioaaiiy caeiiii?iaeoo aeaaith
aea?aeaae o anoaiiaeai? eiinoeoooe??th no?iee, a oaeiae iioae?eoaaiiy
caeiio a io?oe?eiiio a?nieeo. Canoinoaaiiy oeueiai oa?i?io cai?noue
aaeeaaieo Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie iiiyoue “ii?eethaeiaiiy” oa
“iioae?eoaaiiy” e?ea?aeo? iayaio nueiaiaei? aeaicia/i?noue ?
iaaecia/ai?noue o i?ioeaaeo?? aaaaeaiiy a ae?th noaaeaieo I?aceaeaioii
caeii?a.

Oeaio?aeueia i?noea o eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae
caeiathoue iiaiiaaaeaiiy o noa?? caaacia/aiiy eiinoeoooe?eii?
caeiiiino?, iai?iiicaeaoiino? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee. O iaoai?ci?
caoenoo Eiinoeoooe?? I?aceaeaioo Oe?a?ie iaeaaeeoue i?ia?aeia ?ieue, i?i
ui na?ae/aoue oae? eiai iiaiiaaaeaiiy, ye i?aai caa?oaoeny
Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie, neaniaoaaoe aeoe Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie oa ?aaee i?i?no??a Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, ??oaiiy aie?a
i?noeaaeo aea?aeaaieo aaei?i?no?aoe?e. I?aceaeaio, cae?enithth/e
cacia/ai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy, caaacia/o? iaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy eiinoeoooe?eieo
iaia’yce?a on?ia aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie. Aeinyaa? a?i oeueiai oeyoii
aaciina?aaeiueiai caa?iaiiy aei i?aai?a oa in?a, /e? ae?? ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue ii?iai Iniiaiiai Caeiio Oe?a?ie, oa /a?ac eiiiaoaioi? a
oe?e aaeoc? aea?aeaai? i?aaie. A yeino? cania?a caaacia/aiiy
eiinoeoooe?eii? ca-eiiiino? iiaeooue oaeiae ?icaeyaeaoenue i?aai
I?aceaeaioa ia a?aeeeaaeaeueia aaoi oa eiai i?aai i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy i?i
aaaaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? aai ie?aieo ?? i?noeaainoyo iaaecae/aeiiai noaio.
Iaeiae iieiaeaiith aeaae aea?aeaae, ui caaacia/o? caaeainiaai?noue
aeaae, a?eueoa a?aeiia?aeaei a ia eiai iiaiiaaaeaiiy ae?yoe a ?ie?
iniae, ui neaniao? aeoe oeo /e ?ioeo aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, a ia?o ca ana
nai?i a?a?o?aaeai caaacia/oaaoe ocaiaeaeaiiy iiceoe?e ??cieo i?aai?a
aeaaee, iiooe eiii?ii?nieo ??oaiue a ?ioa?anao a?iiaaenueei? ceaaiaee. C
oe??th iaoith i?iiiio?oueny aeiiiaieoe ia?ae?e eiinoeoooe?eieo
iiaiiaaaeaiue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie i?aaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
ocaiaeaeoaaeuei? i?ioeaaeo?e, a a ?ac? iaaeinyaiaiiy ocaiaeaeaiiai
??oaiiy — ia?aaeaaaoe ?ica’ycaiiy nii?o ia ?icaeyae a?aeiia?aeiiai
noaeo.

Aei noa?e iai?iie oa iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee iaeaaeeoue iaeaea iieiaeia
an?o iiaiiaaaeaiue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ui caaaeii a?aeiia?aea? eiai
eiinoeoooe?eiiio noaoono Aa?oiaiiai Aieiaiieiiaiaeoaa/a Ca?ieieo Nee
Oe?a?ie oa aa?aioa aea?aeaaiiai noaa?ai?oaoo, oa?eoi??aeueii?
oe?e?niino? Oe?a?ie, aeiaea?aeaiiy Eiinoeoooe??, i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie
? a?iiaaeyieia. Aiae?c eiinoeoooe?eieo iiaiiaaaeaiue I?aceaeaioa a
aeai?e noa?? aea? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ?ieue Aa?oiaiiai
Aieiaiieiiaiaeoaa/a caiaeeoueny ia aei iia?aoeaii-oaeoe/iiai /e
no?aoaa?/iiai oi?aae?iiy a?enueeaie, a aei ooieoe?? iie?oe/iiai
ea??aieoeoaa aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie, ui caaacia/othoue
iai?iii-caeaoi?noue Oe?a?ie. Oaeoe/ii naia eiio i?aeii?yaeeiaaia any
noa?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iai?iiith oa caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee, ine?eueee ?aae?caoe?y oaeeo caaaeaiue iio?aao? eiioeaio?aoe?? ?
?aeiino? aeaaee, eii?aeeiaoe?? ae?yeueiino? an?o a?eie aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee ? iaeneiaeueii iia?aoeaiiai i?eeiyooy aeaaeieo ??oaiue.

I?iaieioaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie aa?aioii aeiaea?aeaiiy i?aa ? naiaiae
ethaeeie ? a?iiaaeyieia iaoiiaeth? iayai?noue cia/ieo iiaiiaaaeaiue
aeaae aea?aeaae o noa?? caaacia/aiiy iniiaieo i?aa ? naiaiae a?iiaaeyi.
C aeaiith noa?ith ei?aeththoue i?aeoe/ii an? iiaiiaaaeaiiy aeaae
aea?aeaae, i?eeiath/e aei oaaae, ui ? ?icaoaeiaa iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae,
? caaacia/aiiy ?? aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? aaciaee, eiinoeoooe?eii?
caeiiiino? oa ie?aeii? i?aeia?iaeii? ni?ai?aoe? ia? e?ioeaaith iaoith
naia aeaaiiieo//y a?iiaaeyi, yeiiiaa iiai?oo ?aae?caoe?th ?o i?aa ?
naiaiae. Iaeiae ci?no eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie neeaaeathoue ?
iaai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy, ye? iiaeia a?aeianoe aei noa?e caaacia/aiiy i?aa ?
naiaiae o aocueeiio nain? neiaa: i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy c ieoaiue
a?iiaaeyinoaa oa iaaeaiiy i?eooeeo a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae cae?enithaaoe
iiieeoaaiiy. Aieiaiith i?eeiaoith oeeo iiaiiaaaeaiue ? /?oei
?iaeea?aeoaeueia ni?yiiaai?noue oa eiie?aoi?noue.

Iiaiiaaaeaiiy aeaae aea?aeaae o noa?? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee oa
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ? iaiao?aeiei ao?eaooii eiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai
noaoono a on?o e?a?iao na?oo, a eiie?aoiee ?o ia?ae?e ? oeiiaei
i?eiaeii? aeey aea?aeaa c ?anioae?eainueeith oi?iith i?aae?iiy: i?aai
aanoe ia?aaiai?e ? oeeaaeaoe i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e, ae?aaeeooaaoe ?
i?eeiaoe aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaiee?a. Caaaeii ci?no
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo iiaiiaaaeaiue aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae iieyaa?
o ia?aaaaeaii? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo i?eioeei?a oa ianoaiia, ae?ia-eaieo
ia?eaiaioii, o ieiueio aea?aeaaii-aeaaeieo ??oaiue.

Eiinoeoooe?y 1996 ?. iicaaaeea I?aceaeaioa noaoono aeaae aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee, ?iaioth/e eiai aeeeth/ii aeaaith aea?aeaae, aea aiaeii/an
caa?aaea ca iei (iaeaea a iiaiiio ianyc?) ia’?i iiaiiaaaeaiue, ye?
iaeaaeaee I?aceaeaioo ca Iniiaiei Caeiiii 1978 ?. Oe?ie? iiaiiaaaeaiiy
ii oi?ioaaiith aeeiiaa/i? a?eee aeaaee oa eiio?ieth ca ?? ae?yeuei?noth
aeaee iiaeeea?noue I?aceaeaioo i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe nia? ye o?yae, oae ?
anth aeeiiaa/o aa?oeeaeue, ui i?ecaaei aei iiyae aeaio oeaio??a
iie?oe/ii? aeaaee a Oe?a?i? — aeaae aea?aeaae ? ia?eaiaioo — oa
ai?ioueae i?ae ieie ca i?aai aecia/aiiy iniiaieo canaae aioo??oiuei? e
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee. Oaea i?ioenoiyiiy ? iai?eeiyoiei ? i?aeeyaa?
ae??oaiith oeyoii onoiaiiy aioo??oi?o i?ioe??/ Eiinoeoooe??.
I?iaieioaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie aa?aioii iaaieo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo
oe?iiinoae ia iiaea neoaoaaoe iaa?oiooaaiiyi eiai i?aaa ae?yoe,
aeoiaey/e ca iaae? eiiiaoaioe??, cae??ieaii? Eiinoeoooe??th, ine?eueee
oaeee aeo?ae caeaoai i?eaanoe aei i?ae?eao canaae eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo
Oe?a?ie.

Ine?eueee ?inoeooo aeaae aea?aeaae a?aecia/a?oueny
aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeuei?noth oa oi?aa?naeuei?noth eiiiaoaioe??, eiai
ae?yeuei?noue cae?enith?oueny i?aeoe/ii o an?o i?aaiaeo oi?iao:
onoaiia/?e, i?aaioai?/?e, i?aaicanoinia/?e, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?ei?e ?
eiio?ieueii-iaaeyaeia?e. Onoaiia/o oi?io ?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe??
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie neeaaeathoue o?noue aeae?a i?iaaaeaeaiue, eiaeia c
yeeo a?ae??ciy?oueny e?euee?noth oa ci?noii aoai?a, eieii noa’?eo?a,
i?ioeanoaeueieie no?i-eaie, a oaeiae oaeoe/iei neeaaeii: 1) ii
oi?ioaaiith Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie; 2) uiaei noai?aiiy, ?ai?aai?caoe??
oa e?ea?aeaoe?? oeaio-?aeueieo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee; 3) ii
oi?ioaaiith ia?niiaeueiiai neeaaeo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee; 4) ii
noai?aiith noae?a; 5) uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ia?niiaeueiiai neeaaeo
Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae noae?a caaaeueii? th?enaeeeoe??
oa niaoe?ae?ciaaieo noae?a; 6) uiaei noai?aiiy aeiiii?aeieo i?aai?a ?
neoaea.

Ii?iioai?/a oi?ia ?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio a?oi i?aaioai?/eo i?iaaaeaeaiue: i?aeeia?iiai,
iniaeeaiai ? niaoe?aeueiiai. Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie ia i?noeoue /?oeiai
ia?ae?eo ieoaiue, ye? i?aeeyaathoue naiino?eiiio ii?iaoeaiiio
?aaoethaaiith c aieo I?aceaeaioa, ui ia i?aeoeoe? ?ieiee i?ecaiaeeoue
aei aeoiaeo aeaae aea?aeaae ca iaae? cae??ieaii? ca iei eiiiaoaioe??.

I?aaicanoinia/a ae?yeuei?noue I?aceaeaioa iia’ycaia c? noai?aiiyi
th?eaee/ieo aeo?a, iieeeeaieo i?iaeiaaeeoe caaaeueia ii?iaoeaia
?aaoethaaiiy, caaeaia i?aaioai?/?noth, iaeii/anii aeiiiaithth/e eiai
?iaeea?aeoaeueiei i?aaiaei ?aaeaiaiooaaiiyi. I?e oeueiio iiaea
aeeiioaaoenue ye i?aaiiaae?eueia ooieoe?y i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino?,
oae ? i?aaiioi?iiia. A iaaeao aeaii? oi?ie iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae?
i?iaaaeaeaiiy: 1) uiaei aeciaiiy ?iicaiieo aea?aeaa; 2) uiaei neanoaaiiy
aeo?a Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie oa ?aaee i?i?no??a A?E; 3) c ieoaiue
iaieioaiiy noaio a?eie ? aeei?enoaiiy Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie; 4) c ieoaiue
iia?e?caoe?? ? aaaaeaiiy ai?iiiai noaio; 5) uiaei aaaaeaiiy
iaaecae/aeiiai noaio; 6) uiaei i?enai?iiy aeueo niaoe?aeueieo caaiue ?
eeanieo /ei?a; 7) iaai?iaeia; 8) c ieoaiue a?iiaaeyinoaa; 9) uiaei
iaaeaiiy i?eooeeo a Oe?a?i?; 10) c ieoaiue iiieeoaaiiy.

Eiio?ieueia ae?yeuei?noue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ia io?eiaea ia-eaaeiiai
ii?iaoeaiiai cae??ieaiiy, i?ioa oea ia iiaea neoaoaaoe i?aenoaaith aeey
caia?a/aiiy i?ioe oaei? oi?ie ?aae?caoe?? eiai eiiiaoaioe??, ine?eueee
eiio?ieue ? iaiao?aeiei aeaiaioii aoaeue-yei? oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Aeae?eythoueny i?aaioai?/a ? aeeiiaa/a eiio?ieuei?
i?iaaaeaeaiiy. I?aaioai?/a eiio?ieueia i?iaaaeaeaiiy yaey? niaith
iaaea?aeii/ee eiio?ieue I?aceaeaioa ca i?aaioai?/ith ae?yeuei?noth
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, oeaio?aeueieo
i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ?aaee i?i?no??a A?E (aaciina?aaeiuei) oa
aie?a i?noeaaeo aea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?e (iiina-?aaeeiaaii — /a?ac o?yae oa
aie?a i?noeaaeo aea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?e aeuiai ??aiy), a aeeiiaa/a
eiio?ieueia i?iaaaeaeaiiy — ca i?aaicanoinia/ith ae?yeuei?noth iacaaieo
noa’?eo?a.

I?aaia? ?aaeeie i?aai?ic’ynithaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? I?aceaeaioa ua
o?eueee neeaaeathoueny, ? aenooiathoue ye th?eaeeciaaia ae?aaeaiiy
eiie?aoieo ae?e ii ?ic?iaoe?, i?eeiyooth ? ii?eethaeiaiith
?ioa?i?aoaoe?eieo aeo?a, ui ioi?ieththoueny oeacaie aeaae aea?aeaae.

Caaaeii, ??aaiue i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? i?aaiaeo oi?i ?aae?caoe??
eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ua caeeoa?oueny iecueeei, iniaeeai o
/anoei? i?ioeonoaeueieo ii?i; aeeeth/aiiy noaiiaeyoue i?iaaaeaeaiiy c
ieoaiue a?iiaaeyinoaa, iaai?iaeaeaiiy ? iiieeoaaiiy, a oaeiae
a?eueo?noue ii?iioai?/eo i?iaaaeaeaiue. Iaaeinoaoiy i?ioeanoaeueia
aii?iiaai?noue ? caaaeueiei iaaeie?eii onueiai a?o/eciyiiai
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, aea o noa?? ?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe?? i?aai?a
ioae?/ii? aeaaee oey i?iaeaia noi?oue iniaeeai aino?i.

Cia/iei aeaiaioii ae?yeueiino? aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ? iai?aaia?
oi?ie ?aae?caoe?? eiai eiiiaoaioe??, aei /enea yeeo ne?ae a?aeianoe
i?iaaaeaiiy eii?aeeiaoe?eieo cai??a, ia?aae, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?e, cae?eniaiiy ?iai/eo ii?caeie ii e?a?i?, ?iai/eo oa
io?oe?eieo caei?aeiiieo a?ceo?a, i?iaaaeaiiy i?an-eiioa?aioe?e oa ?yae
?ioeo. I?e oeueiio ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe iai?aaia? oi?ie ?aae?caoe??
eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa, ye? ?aae?cothoueny iei iniaenoi, ? o?, ui
cae?eniththoueny ni?a?ia?oieeaie Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa.

A oe?eiio a?naiae oi?i ?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie
aeineoue oe?ieee, ui a?aeiia?aea? ia’?io eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae aea?aeaae oa
aaaeeeaino? iieeaaeaieo ia iueiai caaaeaiue, a aoaeoeai?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeueiai ?inoeoooo cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae
ai?eiai ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo oi?i ae?yeueiino?.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy eiiiaoaioe??
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, aecia/athoueny aniaeoe, aeine?aeaeaiiy yeeo iiaea
ni?eyoe ae??oaiith cacia/aieo i?iaeai. Cie?aia, aeeeaaea?oueny iiiyooy
eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ?ice?eaa?oueny ?? no?oeoo?a oa ci?no,
i?iiiiothoueny iioeiaeuei? niiniae ?? cae??ieaiiy o /eiiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? oa oeyoe a?eueo /?oeiai ?iciiae?eo iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae
aeueie i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?ie, aecia/a?oueny ia?ae?e oi?i
?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie oa noai ?o no/anii?
i?ioeanoaeueii? ?aaeaiaioaoe??.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? oae? ?iaioe :

1. Na??aeia N.A. Eiinoeoooeeiiiua iniiau acaeiiaeaenoaey
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e i?aceaeaioneie aeanoae // Iiaa Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie
? i?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa: Oaiao.ca.iaoe. i?aoeue /
A?aeiia?ae.?aae I.?.Iaiia. — Oa?e?a: Iaoe.th?eae.aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie,
1997. — N.18-24.

2. Na?ueia?ia N.A. Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie
// Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee a aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo o/aieo.
— Aei.3-4. — Oa?e?a: Oi-o aioo?.ni?aa, 1998. — N.170-177.

3. Na?ueia?ia N.A. I?iaeaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy eiiiaoaioe??
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie // Noaiiaeaiiy i?aaiai? nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/ii?
Oe?a?ie oa th?eaee/ia iaoea: Ei?ioe? oace aeiiia?aeae oa iaoe.
iia?aeiieaiue iaoe. eiioa?. iieiaeeo o/aieo / Ca ?aae. I.?.Iaiiaa. — O.:
Iaoe.th?eae.aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, 1998. — N.11-13.

4. Na?ueia?ia N.A. Ooieoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie caeiiiino?.
?34. ?ani.i?aea?ae.iaoe.ca. — O.: Iaoe.th?eae.aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, 1998. —
N.54-59.

5. Na??aeia N.A. *oi iiaeao I?aceaeaio // Aecian Eioi?i. — 1997. — ?1. —
N.15-19.

6. Na?aaeia N.A. I?iaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee I?aceaeaioa
Oe?aeiu // Aecian Eioi?i. — 1998. — ?15. — N.12-14.

AIIOAOe??

Na?ueia?ia N.A. Eiiiaoaioe?y I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie: oai?aoe/ii — i?aaia?
canaaee. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.02 — eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai. — Iaoe?iiaeueia
th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, Oa?e?a, 1998 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith nooiino? oa ci?noo eiiiaoaioe?? aeaae
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae,a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeai ?iciaaeoaaiiy
eiiiaoaioe?? i?ae aeueie i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa iniiaieo oi?i
?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie. C?iaeaii eiiieaeniee
e?eoe/iee aiae?c ?? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? o eiinoeoooe?eiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? ?
i?aeoeee ?aae?caoe??. Cai?iiiiiaaii oe?e?nio eiioeai-oe?th eiiiaoaioe??
I?aceaeaioa ye i?aai?/ii? neeaaeiai? caaaeueii? i?aa-i?caoe??
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?ie, cae??ieaii? Eiinoeoooe??th 1996 ?. O
aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaai? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy, iaa?oioiaai?
iia? i?iiiceoe?? ? aeniiaee uiaei aeine?aeaeoaaieo ieoaiue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie, aeaaa aea?aeaae, eiiiaoaioe?y,
iiaiiaaaeaiiy, i?aea?aeii/?noue, ooieoe??, iiae?e aeaaee, oi?ie
?aae?caoe?? eiiiaoaioe??.

Na?aaeia N.A. Eiiiaoaioeey I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu: oai?aoeei-i?aaiaua
iniiau. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.02 — eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai. — Iaoeeiiaeueiay
th?eaee/aneay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu eiaie ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, Oa?ueeia,
1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth nouiinoe e niaea?aeaiey eiiiaoaioeee
aeaau Oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa, a oaeaea enneaaeiaaieth i?iaeai
?aciaaeaaaiey eiiiaoaioeee iaaeaeo aunoeie i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe e iniiaiuo oi?i ?aaeecaoeee eiiiaoaioeee I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu.
Naeaeai eiiieaeniue e?eoe/aneee aiaeec aa ?aaeaiaioaoeee a
eiinoeoooeeiiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e i?aeoeee ?aaeecaoeee. I?aaeeiaeaia
oeaeinoiay eiioeaioeey eiiiaoaioeee I?aceaeaioa eae i?aaie/aneay
ninoaaeythuay iauae i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe Oe?aeiu,
cae?aieaiiie Eiinoeoooeeae 1996 a. A aeenna?oaoeee noi?ioee?iaaiu
eiioeaiooaeueiua iieiaeaiey, iainiiaaiu iiaua i?aaeeiaeaiey e auaiaeu
ii enneaaeiaaiiui aii?inai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa : I?aceaeaio Oe?aeiu, aeaaa ainoaea?noaa, eiiiaoaioeey,
iieiiii/ey, iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiinoue, ooieoeee, ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae,
oi?iu ?aaeecaoeee eiiiaoaioeee.

Seryogina S.G. Competence of the President of the Ukraine: theoretical
and legal fundamentals. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the competition for academic degree of the candidate of
jurisprudence for the specialty 12.00.02. — constitutional law. —
National juridical academy named for Yaroslav Mudriy, Kharkov, 1998.

The thesis is devoted to the study of the essence and content of the
competence of the head of Ukrainian State and research of the problems
of demarcation of the competence between the highest organs of the
government and basic forms of realization of the competence of the
President of the Ukraine. The comprehensive critical analysis of its
regulation in the constitutional law and practice of the realization.
The integral conception of the competence of the President of the
Ukraine as the organic component of the general government autority,
presscribed by the Constitution of 1996, is proposed. In this thesis
there are conceptual provisions formulated, new proposals and
conclusions on the investigated uestions are proved.

Key words: President of the Ukraine, head of the state, competence,
authority, dependence, functions, division of power, forms of
realization of the competence.

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione: e.th.i., aeioe. ssai?nueeee A.Ae.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 19.10.98. Oi?iao 60o90/16.

Iai?? ionaoiee. A?aeae?oeiaaii ia ?ecia?ao?. Oiiaii-ae?oe. A?e. 0,6.

Iae?e.-aeae.a?e. 1,0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ?415.

_______________________

Ae?oea?iy

Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie

?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai

310201, Oa?e?a, aoe.Iooe?inueea, 77.

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