EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

IAEUeIE*OE IEAA AIAOIE?EIAE*

OAeE 947.084.5/6(477.43/44)

EII?OAOE IACAIIAEIEO NAEssI IA IIAe?EE?

(1920 — 1933 ??.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01. — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio A?eai?/oe

Iao?i Naiaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e ?noi???

neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a
A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaii-

ai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Ieoaeea

Eioethaeinueeiai.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ion??iei

Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/, eaoaae?a
iia?oiuei? ?n-

oi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?

Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio Oi?iooi

Ai?en ?aaiiae/, eaoaae?a
oe?a?iiciaanoaa oa

o?einio?? Oe?a?inueeiai
o?ainii?oiiai oi?aa?-

neoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/-

iee oi?aa?neoao.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15” n?/iy 1999 ?ieo i 1000 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.01.01.38 Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith:252017,i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, aoae.349.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea,58, e?ii.10).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “11” a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aii/a?ia I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia iniaeeainoyie no/aniiai
aoaio ?icaeoeo ?noi?e/ii? iaoee oa ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa. A oeeo oiiaao ia?aae aeine?aeieeaie iinoaea iaaaeueia
iio?aaa a ia?ainieneaii? ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano oa noai?aii? iiaeo
i?aoeue, a yeeo aiie ia iniia? aeeaieiai aiae?co oa iaoia?aaeaeaiiai
noaaeaiiy, c aeei?enoaiiyi iaaeinooiieo ?ai?oa aeieoiaioaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a, aeaee a i?aaaeeao, aeaaaeaio ioe?ieo iiae?yi oa yaeuai
a?o/eciyii? ?noi???. Oaeee i?aeo?ae coiiaeoue ia?ai???ioaoe?th
?noi?e/ii? iaoee c ?aeaieia?/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ia nooi iaoeiaa
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi ia Iiae?ee? ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aea/aiiy caaaeueii? i?iaeaie anoaiiaeaiiy
?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio a oe?a?inueeiio nae? o 20 — 30 o? ??. OO noie?ooy.
Ia i?eeeaae? aeaiiai, aeineoue niaoe?ae?ciaaiiai, ?aa?iiaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeth?oueny aioenaeyinueeee oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino?
eiiiacai?a, ye? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? aenooieee
nioe?aeueiith iii?ith ?aaeeio i?e ianaaeaeaii? eiioi?noe/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue ia nae?, oeyoii eiai ?icoa?oaaiiy ca iaeiiaith iciaeith oa
iineeaiiy i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae ??cieie nioe?aeueieie aa?noaaie naeyinoaa.
Oaeee i?aeo?ae ? eeth/iaei aeey ?icoi?iiy oeyo?a oa iaoiae?a
ooaa?aeaeaiiy a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ?aaeeio. ?acii c oei, /?oea canoaeaeaiiy
eiioi?noe/ii? aeieo?eie, a oaeiae noai?aieo aeey ?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a, ia i?eeeaae? ae?yeueiino? iiae?euenueeeo EIN,
iieeeeaia aa?aiooaaoe iacai?ioi?noue ia?aiiai Oe?a?iith aeaiie?aoe/iiai
oeyoo.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eii?oaoe iacaiiaeieo naeyi Iiae?eey ye ooo/ii
noai?ai? a?eueoiaeeaie eeania? iie?oe/i? i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueei?
a?aeiioe.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeyaeaiiy i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? eiiiacai?a c
a?eueoiaeoeueeeie aeaaeieie no?oeoo?aie aeey ai?ioueae i?ioe
naeyi-aeaniee?a c iaoith ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio a
iiae?euenueeiio nae?.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue caaaeuei? i?eioeeie
eia?ee, ?noi?ecio oa ia’?eoeaiino?,nenoaia caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo
aeine?aeieoeueeeo iaoiae?a nenoaiiiai oa no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
aiae?co, a oaeiae ?noi?e/iee, eia?/iee, ii??aiyeueiee iaoiaee.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue aanue ia??iae ?nioaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?e EIN ia Iiae?ee?, oiaoi a?ae 1920 ?., eiee ca aeac?aeaie
?aaeyinueeeo oa ia?o?eieo i?aai?a ?icii/aeany i?aai?caoe?y eiiiacai?a ia
i?noeyo, ii 1933 ?., yeee iciaiaioaaa inoaoi/ia ooaa?aeaeaiiy
a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ?aaeeio ia nae?, ui a naith /a?ao aeicaieeei
?aaeyinueei-ia?o?eiiio ea??aieoeoao iaieineoe i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th
eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi.

A oa?eoi??aeueiiio ieai? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia ?aa?ii?
?noi?e/iiai Iiae?eey ( a iniiaiiio a iaaeao no/anieo A?iieoeueei? oa
Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeanoae), yeee o 20 — 30 o? ?iee aoiaeea aei neeaaeo
ON??.

Nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie. A oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? a?aenooi?
niaoe?aeuei? i?aoe?, ye? a eiie?aoii noinoaaeenue oaie aeaii?
aeena?oaoe??. I?ioa ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c oaiith ?iaioe noaee i?aaeiaoii
aea/aiiy aeine?aeiee?a.

Cia/ia e?euee?noue caaaeueieo oa niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue i?i EIN,
iioae?eiaaieo a ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae, aaea i?aeaeaaaeanue
?noi??ia?ao?/iiio aiae?co, aea aecia/aia iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaea aaaaoueio
aniaeo?a oaie.

Aena?oeaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo i?iaeai ae?yeueiino? iiae?euenueeeo eiiiacai?a
?icii/aeiny c ioae?eaoe?e 20 — o ?ie?a. Oea, ianaiia?aae noaiia?aie oa
noaiia?ao?/i? ca?oe c’?cae?a, eiioa?aioe?e, ieaioi?a ?aaeyinueeeo,
ia?o?eieo oa aaciina?aaeiuei eiiiacai?anueeeo i?aai?a ye ia aea?aeaaiiio
oa ?anioae?eainueeiio, oae ? ia i?noeaaiio ??aiyo. O aenooiao a?aeaeoi
noaaeaiiy oiae?oiueiai ea??aieoeoaa ON?? oa N?N? aei ae?yeueiino?
eiiiacai?a. Oe? iiaeyaee ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy ? a iioae?eiaaieo
ieie niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeyo, i?enay/aieo EIN. Aeai? i?aoe? a?aeaeaathoue
aeeneon?? noiniaii aeioe?eueiino? a ?nioaaii? i?aai?caoe?e n?euenueei?
a?aeiioe, e?eoeeo iaoiae?a oa oi?i ?iaioe eiiiacai?a. E??i oiai, a oeae
ia??iae ?iaeyoueny ia?o? ni?iae iaienaiiy ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c
?noi??? EIN. I?ioa oae? ?iaioe a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? iaeiia?iaeai?,
caiaaeoi ca?aeaieia?ciaai?. C?a?aiee a ieo iaoa??ae ia i?aeaeaaaany
aeeaieiio oa ia’?eoeaiiio aiae?co.

Ia??iae ae?oai? iieiaeie 30-o — 50-o ??. oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iineaaeaiiyi
oaaae aeine?aeiee?a aei ?noi??? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ?, cie?aia,
eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi. Ca oeae /an aoei iioae?eiaaii anueiai
aeae?eueea i?aoeue, a yeeo o iaaeao iaioth/i? oiae? io?oe?eii?
?aeaieia?? ?icaeyaeaeeny ie?ai? noi?iie ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe?e
n?euenueei? a?aeiioe. I?e/iio oa?aeoa? ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?
aena?oethaaany iaeiia?/ii, aac aeinoaoiueiai caeo/aiiy a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a.

Iaea?eueo ie?aeiei o ni?aa? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ?noi??? eiiiacai?a ?
ia??iae 60-o — 80-o ?ie?a. A oeae /an ?oi?e ae?yeueiino? aoei i?enay/aii
?yae iiiia?ao?e, noaoae, eaiaeeaeaonueeeo aeena?oaoe?e. Oae o 1960 ?.
iiaa/eea na?o eieaeoeaia iiiia?ao?y Caai?nueeiai I.N. oa Noiyia I.E., a
ye?e aaoi?e ia iniia? a?eueo oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii? aace ni?iaoaaee aeaoe
caaaeueiee aiae?c ae?yeueiino? EIN o oi?i? ?noi?e/iiai ia?eno. I?ioa
aaaaeai? a ia?a iia? a?o?ai? iaoa??aee aena?oethaaee aeine?aeaeoaaio
i?iaeaio /a?ac i?ecio aa?i?ee nioe?ae?noe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia nae?.

Ia iicaaaeai? ?aeaieia?/ieo iaoa?oaaiue i?aeaioiaeai? a oeae /an aei
ae?oeo ca??iee niiaaae?a /eai?a EIN oa niaoe?aeueiee ca??iee
aeieoiaio?a, i?enay/aiee aeai?e oai?. Iniiaia iana c?a?aiiai a ieo
iaoa??aeo oa?aeoa?eco? eiiiacaie eeoa ye a??ieo iii?/iee?a ia?o?? a
i?iaaaeaii? a?eueoiaeoeueei? iie?oeee ia nae? oa ?o “aa?i?/io” ai?ioueao
c ai?iaaie nioe?ae?cio — caiiaeieie naeyiaie.

Aaaiiee aianie o aena?oeaiiy i?iaeaie ae?yeueiino? eiiiacai?a iaeaaeeoue
ae. ?. i. i?ioani?o Aa?acia/oeo I.Ae. A?i ? aaoi?ii o?ueio eiea oa
a?eueoa aeanyoea noaoae c aeaii? oaie. Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia iaaiee
i?ia?an o ni?aa? iaeiie/aiiy iaoa??aeo, caeo/aiiy oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii?
aace , eiai aiae?c i?iaiaeeany a ?one? io?oe?eii? iaoiaeieia??. ?noioieo
ci?i o i?aeoiaeao aei aena?oeaiiy ae?yeueiino? EIN ia a?aeaoeinue.
Eii?oaoe iacaiiaeieo naeyi ?icaeyaeaeeny a ?aieao
ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeiai a/aiiy i?i nithc ?ia?oie/iai eeano oa
naeyinoaa, oe?iei i?iiaaoaaeanue ae??oaeueia ?ieue EIN a nioe?ae?noe/ieo
ia?aoai?aiiyo naea.

Ia noaee aeiyoeii ? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Cie?aia,
ioae?eaoe?? i?enay/ai? aaciina?aaeiuei aena?oeaiith ae?yeueiino?
eiiiacai?a ia Iiae?ee? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue iie?oe/iith ni?yiiaai?noth a
?aieao iaioth/i? eiioi?noe/ii? ?aeaieia??. Oae? ae iaoiaeieia?/i?
i?aeoiaee iaioaaee ? i?e oi?ioaaii? ca??iee?a aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a,
ui a?aeia?aaeaee ?noi??th Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?iio a aeaiee ia??iae,
oi?eath/enue ? i?iaeaie ?noi??? EIN. A ieo o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?
c?a?ai? iaeiia?/i? aeieoiaioaeuei? oa a?o?ai? iaoa??aee, ui
a?aeia?aaeaee eeoa “aacia?a/i?“ oni?oe ?aaeyinueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia
Iiae?ee? oa “anaa?/io” i?aeo?eieo nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue iniiaiith
ianith naeyinoaa.

Ioaea, i?aoe? ?aaeyinueeeo aeine?aeiee?a 60-80 ??., i?enay/ai? oai?
ae?yeueiino? eiiiacai?a, ?icaeyaeaee o?aaeeoe?ei? i?iaeaie, oa?aeoa?i?
aeey ?aaeyinueei? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee. A?aecia/ath/e iaaiee ?o aianie o
aea/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?iaeai, ne?ae iai’yoaoe, ui aaoi?e oeeo
?ia?o, aoaeo/e iia’ycaieie aeiaiaoaie ia?enecio-eai?i?cio, a oaeiae a
neeo ia’?eoeaieo i?e/ei (iaiaaeaiee aeinooi aei cia/ii? e?eueeino?
a?o?aiiai iaoa??aeo ? o.i.), ciooai? aoee aeio?eioaaoenue io?oe?eii?
eiioeaioe?? ?noi?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A?aei?ii? a?ae ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? iiaeyaee ia aeaio i?iaeaio, c
yeeie aaaaoi a /iio ni?acao/i? no/ani? ?ic?iaee a?o/eciyieo ?noi?ee?a,
i?noyoue ?yae i?aoeue ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a. A?aecia/ath/e
aioenaeyinueeo ni?yiiaai?noue nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, a?eueo?noue
c ieo oe?eeii eia?/ii aaaaeathoue, ui aenoiaiiy a?eueoiaeeaie eicoiao
i?i nithc ?c naeyinoaii aoei coiiaeaii nooi eii’thieoo?ieie
i??eoaaiiyie, iia’ycaieie c iaiao?aei?noth oo?eiaiiy aeaaee a nai?o
?oeao. Iai?eeeaae, aia?eeainueeee ?noi?ee I.Oaeiniae ua a 1953 ?. ienaa,
ui iiceoe?y eiioi?no?a uiaei naeyinoaa o?eaaeee /an yaeyea niaith
oe?eaaa ii?aeiaiiy caeaaeiino? e ai?iaeia/?. Oaei? ae aeoiee
aeio?eio?oueny ? nioe?ieia Aeae. Aa?aai?i?, yeee ?icoe?ith? iiaeyaee
eiioi?no?a ia naeyinoai ye ia ?ici?iio iiiaoo a iie?oe/i?e a??. Ia
aeoieo aia?eeainueeiai ?noi?eea E. Oai??i, noai?aiiy a?eueoiaeeaie
i?aai?caoe?e n?euenueei? a?aeiioe iia’ycaia a ia?oo /a?ao c
iaiao?aei?noth ?ica’ycaiiy aei?noei? ai?ioueae i?ioe iniiaii? iane
n?euenueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, oiiei caianeoaaaoe ?? i?ae “eeaniao
a?eio”.

I?aoaiaeo? ia oaaao ? noaooy aia?eeainueeiai ?noi?eea Ae. A. Iaena,
yeee ?icaeyaeath/e i?iaeaio i?noey eiiiacai?a o no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iiy a
oe?a?inueeiio nae? 20-o — ii/. 30-o ??., iaaieioo? ia cae?eniaii?
eiiiacaiaie ooo/iiai ?icoa?oaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa, ui e ni?eyei
ooaa?aeaeaiith ?aaeyinueeiai iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio. Aeath/e oa?aeoa?enoeeo
eiiiacaiai ye aioenaeyinueeei i?aai?caoe?yi aaoi? ?icoe?ith? ?o ye
“eii?oaoe n?euenueei? iaioino?, ye? ?aaeei i?a aeei?enoaoe i?ioe
n?euenueei? a?eueoino?”.

Iaeiia?o? iiaeyaee a ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao??, ye? oi?eathoueny aeaii?
i?iaeaie, aeeeaaeai? a i?aoeyo A. A?aoe?ic?, A. Ea??a, ?. Eiieaanoa, oa
?i.

Ie?aio a?oio aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeeo aiae?cothoueny ??ci? aniaeoe
ae?yeueiino? eiiiacai?a, noaiiaeyoue aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
ca?oa?aeieo ?noi?ee?a. A i?aoeyo TH. Aieea, ?. Aeoaiiae/a, I.
Aa?aeoeueeiai, O. I?a?aei, I. Nieia’y caa?iooi oaaao ia ?yae ieoaiue,
ui noinothoueny oaie aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe (o/anoue EIN a
aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo, ?o i?noea a nenoai? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo
a?aeiinei, ?ieue o cae?eniaii? aaiioeeaeo i?ioe oe?a?inueeiai
naeyinoaa). Iaoeiao oe?ii?noue oeeo ioae?eaoe?e aecia/a?, ia?aaeon?i,
oa, ui aiie i?noyoue i?ioeeaaeia onoaeaiiio a ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??
o?aeooaaiiy iie?oe/ieo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? a
20 — 30-o ?ieao.

I?aee?anethth/e aaaeeea?noue noaeaeaiue ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a aeey
aea/aiiy oe??? i?iaeaie, ia iiaeia a oie aea /an ia a?aei?oeoe, ui
iaienai?, a iniiaiiio, a oiiaao ?nioth/iai ia oie /an ?aeaieia?/iiai
i?ioenoiyiiy c a?aenooi?noth aeieoiaioaeueii? aace i?aoe?, ia??aeei
aecia/aeeny iaaeoi ca?aeaieia?ciaaieie ioe?ieaie /e aano?aeoieie
i??eoaaiiyie, ye? ia iaee i?ae niaith oaeoieia?/ii? iniiae. Aei oiai ae
na?oiaa ?aaeyiieia?y o?eaaeee /an cina?aaeaeoaaeanue ia aea/aii?
caaaeueiinithcii? i?iaeaiaoeee, ia aa?o/e aei oaaae ?aa?iiaeueii? ?
i?noeaai? niaoeeo?ee i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaaeeny.

I?iaieioaiiy a 1991 ?. iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, ?ic?ea c oioae?oa?iei
ieioeei a?aee?eee iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey aea/aiiy ?? ?noi??? a
?aaeyinuee? /ane. A oeueiio ieai? ia?aaeyaeo ? ia?ainieneaiiy iio?aao?
? oaia ae?yeueiino? eiiiacai?a, ?o i?noey ? ?ie? a caaaeueiiio i?ioean?
anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio a oe?a?inueeiio nae?.
Iaeiae e aein? oey i?iaeaia, ca aeiyoeii ie?aieo aniaeo?a, ia ciaeoea
aena?oeaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??.

I?aenoiiaoth/e ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, aa?oi cacia/eoe, ui
oi/a a ?yae? iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o aiae?cothoueny aeaye? aniaeoe
ae?yeueiino? eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi ia Iiae?ee?, i?ioa a a?eueoino?
oe? ioae?eaoe?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaeiia?/iei iai?yieii aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?iaeeeoiaaiei io?oe?eiith eiioi?noe/iith ?aeaieia??th, a oiio ia
aeathoue ia’?eoeaiiai oa eiiieaeniiai aena?oeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie.

Aeoiaey/e c iaaeinoaoiuei? ?ic?iaee a ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? aeaii?
i?iaeaie, aaoi? iinoaaea ia?aae niaith iaoo : aeaoe ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c
ae?yeueiino? eiiiacai?a Iiae?eey oa, aecia/eaoe ?o ye ooo/ii noai?ai?
a?eueoiaeeaie eeania? iie?oe/i? i?aai?caoe??, iieacaoe aioenaeyinueeee
oa?aeoa? oa iaaaoeai? iane?aeee ?o ae?yeueiino? i?e ooaa?aeaeaii?
a?eueoiaeoeueeiai oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio a iiae?euenueeiio nae?. Oey iaoa
?aae?co?oueny oeyoii ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue:

— ?ice?eooy ia?aaeoiia oa aaciina?aaei?o i?e/ei, ui niiioeaee
?aaeyinueei-ia?o?eia ea??aieoeoai aei noai?aiiy eiiiacai?a;

— ?noi?e/ia ?aeiino?oeoe?y i?ioean?a anoaiiaeaiiy a?eueoiaeoeueei?
aeaaee ia Iiae?ee? /a?ac i?ecio ae?yeueiino? EIN;

— aecia/aiiy ?ie? ? i?noey eiiiacai?a o nenoai? ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia
Iiae?ee?;

— aiae?c aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? EIN Iiae?eey a aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo
ia nae?;

-aena?oeaiiy ae?yeueiino? eiiiacai?a ii cae?eniaiith i?iaeiaieue/i?
aeeeoaoo?e a?eueoiaee?a.

Iaoeiao iiaecio aeaii? ?iaioe aecia/a?, ianaiia?aae, iiaee i?aeo?ae aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy c a?aooaaiiyi no/anieo eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae, ui
aeicaieea a?ae?eoe a?ae iai?aii? a ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? noaie
iieaco i?iaeaie, aeyaeoe ?aeaieia?/i? oa iie?oe/i? /eiieee, ui i?eaaee
aei noai?aiiy EIN, ?ice?eoe i?ia?eueoiaeoeueeee oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino?
oaeeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Ia iniia? iiaeo ? iaeia?aeiieo aeaea?ae cae?eniaii aiae?c
aca?iiiia’ycaieo i?ioean?a iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae o eiiia?o?? noiniaii
iaoiae?a ae?yeueiino? eiiiacai?a, a?aeia?aaeaii i?aaiaiiy
a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ea??aieoeoaa c aeiiiiiaith eiiiacai?a i?ea?aoe aei
nai?o ?oe aeaaeo ia nae?, aena?oeaii aioenaeyinueeo ni?yiiaai?noue
ae?yeueiino? EIN Iiae?eey i?e i?iaaaeaii? nioe?ae?noe/ieo aa?a?ieo
ia?aoai?aiue oa i?iaeiaieue/eo eiiiai?e ia nae?.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ??
iaoa??aee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeiiii?noaie, ?noi?eeaie,
iie?oieiaaie, iie?oeeaie, i?noeaaeie e?a?ciaaoeyie o iiaeaeueo?e
iaoeia?e oa i?aeoe/i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeai aa?a?ii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, a
oaeiae i?e ?ic?iaoe? ii?iaoeaieo eo?n?a c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, niaoeeo?n?a c
?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee iioae?eiaai? oa a?o?ai?
aeieoiaioe. I?e iaienaii? ?iaioe aeei?enoaii oiiaee aeaio oeaio?aeueieo
aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a Oe?a?ie, aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a A?iieoeueei? oa
Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeanoae.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iaee aeieoiaioe Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao
a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie) — oiiae 1 ( OeE
EI(a)O ) oa oiiae 28 ( Iiae?euenueeee aoaeii EI(a)O ), ye? a?aeaeaathoue
iiaeyaee ?anioae?eainueeiai oa i?noeaaiai ia?o?eiiai ea??aieoeoaa ia
i?iaeaio ae?yeueiino? iiae?euenueeeo eiiiacai?a, i?noyoue cia/io
e?euee?noue ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i an? noi?iie ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe?e
n?euenueei? a?aeiioe. Aaaeeea?noue aeieoiaio?a coiiaeaia oei, ui ?o
cia/ia e?euee?noue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeinoaoi?i ??aiai aeinoia??ii?
?ioi?iaoe??.

Aaaeeea? aeai? i?noyoue aeieoiaioe Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao
aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie ( OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie).
Aeei?enoaii iaoa??aee oiiae?a : ?aaee Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??a Oe?a?inueei?
N?? ( O.2), Ia?iaeiiai eii?na??aoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa ON?? (O.5),
Ia?eiiaoo caiea?ianoaa ON?? (O.27), Anaoe?a?inueeiai oeaio?aeueiiai
eii?oaoo iacaiiaeieo naeyi (O.257). E??i aaaaoiai ?ioi?iaoeaiiai
iaoa??aeo, yeee iaaeoiaeea aei oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a c i?noeue,
aeieoiaioe oiiae?a i?noyoue a?aeiiino? aiae?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o i?i
ae?yeuei?noue iiae?euenueeeo EIN. ? oi/a cia/ia /anoeia oeeo aeieoiaio?a
aaea aeine?aeaeoaaeanue ?ai?oa, i?ioa aiie aeei?enoiaoaaeenue /anoeiai,
aea??eiai, a iniiaiiio aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?aeaieia?/ieo oa iie?oe/ieo
ooaii?a.

Ine?eueee aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? ?aa?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?, oi a?eueoo
/anoeio oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ii/a?iiooi c aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a
A?iieoeueei? oa Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeanoae, a yeeo c?a?ai? a?aeiiino? i?i
??ciia?/i? aniaeoe ae?yeueiino? iiae?euenueeeo eiiiacai?a. Cie?aia,
aaoi? aeei?enoaa oae? oiiaee AeAAI: Iiae?euenueea aoaa?inueea eii?n?y
iacaiiaeieo naeyi (O.?-1901), Iiaee?a-Iiae?euenueea ie?EIN (O.?-401),
A?iieoeueea ie?EIN (O.?-915), Aaeneinueeee ?aeEIN (O.?-784), N?euenuee?
eii?oaoe iacaiiaeieo naeyi (O.?-2041), Iiae?euenueeee aoaa?inueeee
aeeiiaa/ee eii?oao (O.?-925), Ieueaii?euenueeee iia?oiaee aeeiiaa/ee
eii?oao (O.?-587), Iiae?euenueea aoaa?inueea i?ieo?aoo?a (O.?-1882);
AeAOI: Eai’yiaoeueea ie?oaeia eii?n?y iacaiiaeieo naeyi (O.?-1791),
Eai’yiaoeueeee iia?oiaee aeeiieii (O.?-336). A oeeo oiiaeao
caa??aa?oueny aaee/aciee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ye aaciina?aaeiuei i?i
ae?yeuei?noue iiae?euenueeeo EIN, oae ? i?i ?o aca?iia?aeiineie c
?aaeyinueeeie i?aaiaie, yeei aiie aoee i?aeii?yaeeiaai?.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?noeaai? niaoeeo?ee ?iaioe EIN
iathoue aeieoiaioe eieeoi?o ia?o?eieo a?o?a?a (iei? a?aeae?ee
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e) AeAAI, AeAOI. O oiiaeao: Iiae?euenueeee
aoaa?inueeee eii?oao EI(a)O (AeAAI,O.I-1), A?iieoeueeee iaeaniee eii?oao
EI(a)O (AeAAI, O.I-136),A?iieoeueeee ie?oaeiee eii?oao EI(a)O (AeAAI,
O.I-29), Ooeue/einueeee ie?oaeiee eii?oao EI(a)O (AeAAI, O.I-33),
Iiaee?a — Iiae?euenueeee ie?oaeiee eii?oao EI(a)O (AeAAI, O.I-31),
Eai’yiaoeueeee ie?oaeiee eii?oao EI(a)O (AeAOI, O.I-3), Ai?iiiaeoeueeee
?aeiiiee eii?oao EI(a)O (AeAAI, O.I-43), Eaeei?anueeee ?aeiiiee eii?oao
EI(a)O (AeAAI, O.I-53) ? aee?aeoeae i?noeaaeo ia?o?eieo i?aai?a ii
ea??aieoeoao eiiiacaiaie, ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ca?oe i?i ae?yeuei?noue EIN,
oiui.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii aeai? noaoenoe/ieo ca??iee?a, ca??iee?a
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a,ui aena?oeththoue ??ci? aniaeoe i?iaeaie,
iaoa??aee aea??eiaeo ianoaaeaiue EIN Iiae?eey, oe?ii?noue yeeo iieyaa?,
ianaiia?aae, a oiio, ui aiie i?noyoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue noaoenoe/iiai
oa oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, aiae?c yeiai aeaa iiaeeea?noue aena?oeeoe
i?aai?caoe?eiee noai iiae?euenueeeo EIN, ?o o/anoue a o?e /e ?io?e noa??
?aaeyinueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia nae?. I?ioa /anoeia ioae?eaoe?e ia?
na?eici? iaaeie?ee : oaiaeaioe?eia iaeiia?/i?noue i?aea??ie iaoa??ae?a,
?o iaaei??ia ca?aeaieia?ciaai?noue. E??i oiai, aeieoiaioaeuei? aeaea?aea
oa noaoenoeea oeo ?ie?a ia caaaeaee a?aeia?aaeaea ae?eniee noai ?a/ae.
Oiio aei aeei?enoaiiy caaaeaieo aeieoiaio?a aeey aena?oeaiiy ?noi?e/ieo
i?ioean?a ieioeiai aaoi? i?aeoiaeea e?eoe/ii.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny iii?ith ia
i?ia?aei? iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy, aeei?enoaiiyi oe?ieiai oa
??ciiiai?oiiai aeine?aeieoeueeiai iaoa??aeo, canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno
iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo ia’?eoo, i?aaeiaoo, iao? ? caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?aia e ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei caoenoo ia ni?eueiiio
can?aeaii? eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa eaoaae?e anana?oiuei? ?noi???
A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.
Eioethaeinueeiai.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia Anaoe?a?inueeiio
neiiic?oi? c i?iaeai aa?a?ii? ?noi??? (Oiaiue, 1996), iaei?e
Anaoe?a?inuee?e (I?aeei, 1997), o?ueio ?aa?iiaeueieo (A?iieoey, 1995;
Eai’yiaoeue — Iiae?euenueeee, 1995; A?iieoey, 1997) oa o?ueio ca?oieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.
Eioethaeinueeiai ( A?iieoey: 1994, 1995, 1997). C oaie aeena?oaoe??
iioae?eiaaii /ioe?e noaoo? oa i’youe iaoa??ae?a ? oac aeiiia?aeae oa
iia?aeiieaiue .

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy
? neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeaea?ae
oa e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoe?a.

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, iieacaii noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee
i?iaeaie, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi
iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “I?noea iiae?euenueeeo eiiiacai?a a nenoai?
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee” ?icaeyaeathoueny i?e/eie, ye? cioneee a?eueoiaee?a
noai?eoe i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueei? a?aeiioe, aiae?cothoueny
aca?iia?aeiineie ia?o?eieo i?aai?a oa eiiiacai?a ia ??cieo aoaiao ?o
?nioaaiiy, iieacai? aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae eii?oaoaie iacaiiaeieo naeyi
oa i?aaiaie aeaaee ia nae? — n?euenueeeie ?aaeaie.

I?aaiaiiy a?eueoiaee?a aei caoiieaiiy i?aai?a i?noeaai? aeaaee —
n?euenueeeo ?aae, cioneee ?o i?iaieineoe i?i noai?aiiy, ia?aeaeueii c
?aaeaie, eeaniaeo iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e n?euenueei? a?aeiioe —
eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi. Oae? i?aai?caoe??, ioiiethth/e
i?ieaoa?nuee? oa iai?ai?ieaoa?nuee? aa?noae naea, iaee neoaoaaoe
nioe?aeueiith iii?ith ?aaeeio i?e oi?ioaaii? iio??aiiai neeaaeo i?aai?a
i?noeaai? aeaaee oeyoii cae?eniaiiy naeaeoe?? na?aae n?euenueeeo
oiaa?iae?iaiee?a ca iciaeith ?o ?aaiethoe?eiino?. O ?ac? ae
iani?aoethaaiiy oaeiai i?eioeeio ea??aieoeoai ON?? aeiioneaei iaa?oue
neanoaaiiy ?aae ? ia?aoai?aiiy ia ieo eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi.

Iniaeeao iio?aao a ?nioaaii? EIN a?eueoiaeee a?ae/oaaee ia
I?aaiaa?aaeae?, a iaeiiio c eiai cao?aeieo ?aa?ii?a — Iiae?ee?, yeee
/a?ac niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ?aaeyinueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa (iacia/ia
/anoea i?ieaoa?nueeiai ianaeaiiy oa ia?o?eieo i?aoe?aiee?a,
i?eei?aeiiia iieiaeaiiy, aeoea?caoe?y aioea?eueoiaeoeueeiai
naeyinueeiai ?ooo oa ?i.) aaaaeaany iaeiei c iaeaaae/eo ?aa?ii?a a
ooaa?aeaeaii? ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aeaye? cai?ciaiiy c i?aai?caoe??th eiiiacai?a,
iayai?noue oe?iei? nioe?aeueii? aace (cia/iiai a?aenioeo iaeicaiaeueieo
oa aaccaiaeueieo naeyi ) ni?eyea oi?ioaaiith ooo iae/enaeuei?oi? ii
Oe?a?i? i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueei? a?aeiioe. Oae, ia ii/aoie 1925 ?.
i?aai?caoe?? EIN Iiae?eey ia’?aeioaaee a nai?o ?yaeao 194322 /eai?a.

Aeoeai?noue iiae?euenueeeo eiiiacai?a aoea ni?yiiaaia a ia?oo /a?ao ia
caoiieaiiy ea??aieoeoaa n?euenueeeie ?aaeaie, ui e caaacia/oaaei ?i
ia?aaaaeiee aieea a i?aaiao i?noeaai? aeaaee. Ia oeueiio cia/iith i??ith
iicia/eany oie oaeo, ui a a?eueoino? iia?o?a Iiae?eey aeai?e aei ?aae
oa cai?ia ieie iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a — ?aaeii?a i?ioiaeeee ooo cia/ii
i?ci?oa, i?ae a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, i?e iayaiino? ia i?noeyo
ina?aaee?a EIN. Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaaeai? aeaaeith i?ea?ea? (i?aai
oi?ioaaiiy niene?a eaiaeeaeao?a ia caaaeueieo cai?ao EIN, i?eeiyooy ieie
??oaiue i?i a?aeaaaeaiiy iaaaaeaieo eaiaeeaeaoo? oa iicaaaeaiiy aeai?/eo
i?aa), /eaie EIN, caaithaaaoe o ?aaeao ia?aaaaeio e?euee?noue i?noeue,
oaeoe/ii ia?aoai?eee ?o a i?aaie aeanii? aeeeoaoo?e, i?ioenoaaeyth/e
naaa iniiai?e naeyinuee?e ian?.

C i?iaieioaiiyi IAIo aeiooaiee aeiiii?/iee a?aenooi a?eueoiaee?a aae
i?ye ia icia/aa a?aenooio iie?oe/iiai. ?icoi?th/e, ui ?acii c
aeiiii?/iei i?aeianaiiyi naeyi-aeaniee?a aeoea?co?oueny ? ?o i?aaiaiiy
aei iaieiae?iiy iie?oe/iith aeaaeith, aea?aeaaii-ia?o?eia ea??aieoeoai
caeo/aiiyi eiiiacai?a aei ?aae i?aaia iiia?aaeeoe i?iya iie?oe/ii?
aeoeaiino? iniiaii? naeyinueei? iane. Caoiieaiiy ea??aieoeoaa ?aae
eiiiacaiaie aoei aeciaii iaeaieiai?oei ?o caaaeaiiyi. Aiii oe?eeii
a?aeiia?aeaei ? iai??ai /eai?a EIN, ye? ?icoe?ieaoe ia??iae IAIo, ye
c?aaeo ?ioa?an?a a?aeiioe, iaiaaaeenue caa?aaoe ooo/io ia?aaaao a
?aaeao, niiae?aath/enue oaeei /eiii ? iaaeae? caaacia/eoe ca niaith
iie?oe/iee aieea ia nae?. A ?acoeueoao? ia 1923 ?. ia Iiae?ee? na?aae
/eai?a n?euenueeeo ?aae eiiiacai?aoe? noaiiaeee 67 a?aenioe?a.
Iiaithth/enue eiieo?aio?a, aiie c aaeeeith i?aeic?ith iinoaaeeenue aei
iiyae a iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo aa?noa. Oeei iiynith?oueny
?aii?oaaiiy eiiiacaiaie aeiia a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o?? i?i
iaiao?aei?noue ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa o ?aaeao ?c na?aaeiyeaie.

I?ioenoaaeyth/e naaa on?i ?ioei aa?noaai naeyinoaa, /eaie EIN iaieio/a
ii?iaeaeoaaee o ieo i?aaiaiiy ia’?aeiaoenue c iaoith caoenoo aeanieo
?ioa?an?a. Ia Iiae?ee? oea cia/iith i??ith i?iyaeeinue i?ae /an in?ii?o
(1924 ?.) aeai??a aei ?aae oa /anoeiaeo ia?aaeai??a aceieo 1925 ?., ye?
a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a i?ioiaeeee ooo c i?iaaeaiiyi eaiaeeaeaoo? /eai?a
EIN oa eiioi?no?a. I?aaiaiiy ia?o?eieo no?oeoo? caa?aaoe na?e aieea a
i?aaiao i?noeaai? aeaaee aeyaeeenue o i?eeiyoo? ??oaiiy i?i iicaaaeaiiiy
eiiiacai?a aeeiiaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ooieoe?e oa ia?aoai?aiiy ?o a
aeia?ia?euei? a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??.

I?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia ci?io noaoono i?aai?caoe?e, ?aaeyinueei-ia?o?eia
ea??aieoeoai ? iaaeae? i?iaeiaaeoaaei ?icaeyaeaoe eiiiacaie ye naith
iie?oe/io iii?o ia nae?. Eiai i?aaiaiiiy ?o caeo/eoe i?aai?caoe?? EIN
aei ai?ioueae ?c naeyiaie-aeanieeaie iniaeeai i?iyaeeenue i?e iiaoi?i?e
ni?ia? cae?eniaiiy a?enueeiai-eiioi?noe/iiai ooo?io. I?iya aeoeaiino?
i?aai?ciaaii? a?aeiioe i?ae /an aeai??a aei ?aae aeaaea noeioethaaea
ca?eueoaiiyi a?aenioeo iicaaaeaieo aeai?/eo i?aa oa aeciaiiyi
iaae?enieie aeai??a, aea ia?aaaao io?eioaaee caiiaei? aa?noae
naeyinoaa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “O/anoue eiiiacai?a a aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo ia
Iiae?ee?” ?icaeyaea?oueny o/anoue eiiiacai?a o i?iaaaeaii?
nioe?ae?noe/iiai caieaono?ith ia nae?, aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue
iiae?euenueeeo EIN ii ononi?eueiaiith iaeiiin?aieo naeyinueeeo
ainiiaea?noa oa ?o ai?ioueaa c aieiaieie ai?iaaie ?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio
— naeyiaie-aeanieeaie.

O/anoue eiiiacai?a Iiae?eey a aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo oe?eeii aecia/aeany
aeieo?eiaeueieie ianoaiiaaie a?eueoiaee?a. Iiaiaeeaoenue i?ae oeneii ian
ia i?iaaaeaiiy c??aiyeueiiai iiae?eo caiaeue, aiie i?aaioee i?iaanoe
nioe?ae?noe/iee caieaono??e ia eeoa c aeio?eiaiiyi eeaniaeo i?eioeei?a
iaae?eaiiy naeyi caieath, aea e noai?eoe ia?aaeoiiae aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
ooo eieaeoeaiiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Ine?eueee iniiai? iieiaeaiiy nioe?ae?noe/ieo aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiue yaii
noia?a/eee aaaeaiiyi a?eueoi? /anoeie naeyinoaa, oi ni?eyiiy o ?o
i?iaaaeaii? iieeaaeaeinue ia eii?oaoe iacaiiaeieo naeyi, ye? noaiiaeee
nioe?aeueio iii?o ?aaeeio ia nae?. Aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue
eiiiacaiai aoee iaaeai? iniaeea? iiaiiaaaeaiiy. Aiie iaee i?aai ia eeoa
cae?enithaaoe eiio?ieue ca ae?yeuei?noth caii?aai?a, aea e i?iaiaeeoe
iae?e oa ?iciiae?e ye eieeoi?o iii?ueoeueeeo caiaeue, oae ? eeoe?a
caiaeue, ui ciaoiaeeeenue a iniaenoiio ei?enooaaii?. A ?acoeueoao? i?ae
/an oei/aniaiai ?iciiae?eo eieeoi?o iao?oaeiaeo caiaeue ia Iiae?ee? 70%
ieiu? aoei ?iciiae?eaii i?e o/ano? caii?aai?a oa eiiiacai?a, ? eeoa 30%
— oaoi?eaie-caieai??aie.

?acoeueoaoii i?iaaaeaiiai ca o/anoth EIN ia Iiae?ee? c??aiyeueiiai
iiae?eo caiaeue noaei ia ca?eueoaiiy naeyinueeeo iaae?e?a, a iaaiaee, ?o
ciaioaiiy. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeueiai iaae?ee /eai?a EIN ca?eueoeeeny ?
iaa?oue ia?aaeueee na?aaeith ii?io caieacaaacia/aiiy a ?aa?ii?. Oae,
yeui ia Iiae?ee? a 1925 ?. ia iaeia naeyinueea ainiiaea?noai i?eiaaeaei
3,3 aeanyoeie, oi ia ainiiaea?noai /eaia EIN – 3,7 aeanyoei. Oiaoi
iaaeai? eiiiacaiai iiaiiaaaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ieie a a?eueoino?
aeey caaeiaieaiiy aeanieo iio?aa, ?aii?oth/e ?ioa?ane iniiaii?
naeyinueei? iane. Oaeee oa?aeoa? ia?aoai?aiue ia eeoa ia ae??oea i?iaeai
caieaei?enooaaiiy oa caieaaii?yaeeoaaiiy a ?aa?ii?, aea e iiaeeaea
i?ioe??//y i?ae nioe?aeueieie aa?noaaie naeyinoaa, ni?eyaoe, ii noo?,
i?iaeiaaeaiith a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ia nae?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia i?iaaaeaiee c??aiyeueiee ia?a?iciiae?e caiaeue,
a?eueoiaeee ia a?aeiiaeyeenue a?ae iai???a uiaei noai?aiiy ia nae?
aaeeeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oeyoii ianaaeaeaiiy
eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noa c ??ciei nooiaiai a?ae/oaeaiiy aeaniino?.
Iaa?oue a oiiaao cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueea
ea??aieoeoai i?iaeiaaeoaaei i?aeo?eioaaoe iacaiiaeieoeuee? eieainie,
iniiaio iano /eai?a yeeo neeaaeaee i?aaenoaaieee i?aai?ciaaii? a?aeiioe.
Oae, ia aa?anaiue 1923 ?. ia Iiae?ee? c 318 eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noa —
205 aoee i?aai?ciaai? ia?aaaaeii c /eai?a EIN. ?o caa?aaeaiiy aoei
iia’ycaii ia no?eueee c aeiiii?/ieie, ye c iie?oe/ieie i?e/eiaie. A
oaeee niin?a ?aaeyinueea aeaaea iaiaaaeanue ia eeoa i?aeo?eiaoe
aeiiii?/iee aieea EIN ia nae?, aea e caa?aaoe naith nioe?aeueio iii?o
aeey iiaeaeueoiai ianooio ia iiceoe?? naeyi-aeaniee?a.

Ia aeoieo a?eueoiaee?a, iaeiei ?c cania?a caeo/aiiy naeyi aei eieaeoea?a
iiaea neoaoaaoe naeyinueea eiiia?aoe?y, yea ia iio?aaoaaea iaaaeiiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy a?ae aeaniino? ? aoea i?eeeaaeii canoinoaaiiy eieaeoeaii?
i?aoe?. ?icoe?ithth/e o/anoue naeyi o eiiia?aoe?? ye i?aeaioiaeo aei
nooe?eueii? eieaeoea?caoe??, ?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai aenooieei ca
iaiao?aei?noue iaea?aeaaeaiiy eiiia?aoe??. Eiio?ieue ca ae?yeuei?noth
n?euenueeeo eiiia?aoea?a iieeaaeaany ia i?noeaa? EIN oeyoii caoiieaiiy
ieie a?eueoino? i?noeue a i?aae?iiyo i?noeaaeo eiiia?aoea?a.Oae?
i?ioeane iniaeeai yne?aai aoee ae?aaeai? ia Iiae?ee?, aea 80 % i?aae?iue
eiiia?aoea?a neeaaeaee /eaie EIN.

A ia??iae i?iaaaeaiiy ianiai? eieaeoea?caoe?? i?aai?caoe?? EIN aoee
i?iaieioai? a?eueoiaeeaie “oeaio?ii, ui ?ooa? naei aei eieaeoea?caoe??”.
?o ae?yeuei?noue aoea ni?yiiaaia ia noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai oeneo ia
naeyi-aeaniee?a c iaoith caeo/aiiy inoaii?o aei eieaini?a. ?acii c oei
/eaie EIN noaee aeoeaieie aeeiiaaoeyie i?iaieioaiiai ia?o??th eo?no ia
“e?ea?aeaoe?th eo?eoeuenoaa, ye eeano”. Ia i?aai?caoe?? EIN
iieeaaeaeinue neeaaeaiiy niene?a caiiaeieo ainiiaea?noa oa iaia’yceiaa
i?enooi?noue i?e eiio?neaoe?? ?o iaeia. A ?acoeueoao? ia 10 aa?aciy 1930
?. a 34 ?aeiiao nooe?eueii? eieaeoea?caoe?? ia Iiae?ee? c aeiiiiiaith
EIN aoei i?iaaaeaii ?iceo?eoeaiiy 4442 naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa, ui
noaiiaeee 28 a?aenioe?a ?iceo?eoeaieo ainiiaea?noa ia I?aaiaa?aaeae?.
Aeeiioth/e aeac?aee ?aaeyinueei-ia?o?eiiai ea??aieoeoaa oa
i?ioenoaaeyth/e naaa iniiai?e ian? naeyinoaa, /eaie EIN aeeeeeaee
a?aeiia?aeio ?aaeoe?th c aieo n?euenueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a.
Aioe?aaeyinueeee ?oo, ui aeiee o a?aeiia?aeue ia cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
nooe?eueii? eieaeoea?caoe?? (ia ii/aoie aa?aciy 1930 ?. eeoa a o?ueio
ie?oaao Iiae?eey ianiaeie oaeethaaiiyie ? ca?ieieie aenooiaie aoei
ioiieaii 343 n?eue?aaee, c yeeo a 73 e?ea?aeiaaii ?aaeyinueeo aeaaeo)
aoa ni?yiiaaiee ? i?ioe /eai?a EIN.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Aeei?enoaiiy a?eueoiaeoeueeith ia?o??th eii?oao?a
iacaiiaeieo naeyi aeey cae?eniaiiy i?iaeiaieue/i? aeeeoaoo?e”
aena?oeth?oueny aioenaeyinueeee oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino? eiiiacai?a, ui
ae?aceany a ni?eyii? ?aaeyinueeei i?iaeiaieue/ei i?aaiai ii cai?o
i?iae?iceeaaeee, i?iaeiiaeaoeo oa i?iaaaeaii? oe?aicaaio?aaeueieo
eiiiai?e, oeyoii ianeeueiiai aeeo/aiiy o naeyinueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a
aoaeue-yeeo i?iaeiaieue/eo caian?a, i?e??eath/e ?o ia aieiaeia
ni?a?nioaaiiy.

I?aai?caoe?? n?euenueei? a?aeiioe ye nioe?aeueia iii?a ?aaeeio aoee
aeei?enoai? ? ye iaa?ae’?iia neeaaeiaa /anoeia ?aaeyinueeiai
i?iaeiaieue/iai aia?aoo. Niaeo? ?o ae?yeueiino? a oeueiio iai?yieo aoa
oe?ieei: a?ae noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai oeneo ia naeyi-aeaniee?a c
iaoith aeeiiaiiy ieie aeiia i?iaei?aai?a aei aaciina?aaeiueiai
i?iaaaeaiiy ianeeueiiai aeeo/aiiy ia ei?enoue aea?aeaae aoaeue-yeeo
caian?a i?iaeiaieuenoaa.

Caeo/aiiy iiae?euenueeeo EIN aei i?iaeiaieue/eo eiiiai?e aecia/aeinue,
ianaiia?aae, iie?oeeith ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, yea ?icaeyaeaea
i?iaeiaieue/a ieoaiiy ye neeaaeiao /anoeio oai??? eeaniai? ai?ioueae.
I?iaaaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?yie EIN iie?oe/iiai ?icoa?oaaiiy naea
caaacia/oaaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee eeaniaee i?eioeei i?iaeiaieue/i?
iie?oeee, a yeiio iniiaiee oyaa? ii caea/? i?iaeiaieuenoaa eyaaa ia
iea/? a?eueo caiiaeieo naeyi.

Noeioethaaiiyi o/ano? /eai?a EIN o i?iaeiaieue/eo eiiiai?yo aoei ia
eeoa ?o iiaia ca?eueiaiiy a?ae caea/? i?iaeiaieue/eo caian?a, aea e
caaacia/aiiy i?ioeaioieie a?ae?aooaaiiyie a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
c?a?aiiai ieie oe?aa. A oaeee niin?a aea?aeaaa caaacia/oaaea ca niaith
iniaeeao aeoeai?noue oa i?aeo?eieo eiiiacai?a, aeei?enoiaoth/e ?o, ye
nioe?aeueio iii?o aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?iaeiaieue/i? aeeeoaoo?e ia
Iiae?ee?. Oae, eeoa aei e?ioey 1920 ?.i?iaeiaieue/eie i?aaiaie Iiae?eey
oa eiiiacaiaie c aeiiiiiaith aei?noeeo neeiaeo iaoiae?a aoei c?a?aii 7
iei. ioae?a oe?aa, ui noaiiaeei 10% a?ae caaaeueiioe?a?inueeeo
iieaciee?a. Ca oeth iineoao ca iinoaiiaith ?aaeia?eiio ON?? ia ei?enoue
iiae?euenueeeo EIN aoei i?iaaaeaii aeiaeaoeiaee ?iciiae?e nie? oa
iaiooaeoo?e.

?c cai?iith i?iae?iceeaaeee oaa?aeei i?iaeiiaeaoeii caaaeaiiy EIN ia
ci?ieeenue. Aiie i?iaieiooaaeeny aea?aeaaieie cae?a/aie iiaeaoe?a, oei
naiei i?aeoaa?aeaeoth/e,ui IAI – oea eeoa oei/aniaee a?aenooi a?ae
ao?eaiiy a aeeooy eiioi?noe/ii? aeieo?eie.

C a?aeiiaeaiiyi a?enueeiai-eiioi?noe/iiai ooo?io /eaie EIN Iiae?eey aoee
oe?iei caeo/ai? aei ?iaioe oe?aicaaio?aaeueieo eii?n?e c iaoith
ianeeueiiai aeeo/aiiy i?iaeiaieue/eo caian?a o n?euenueeeo
oiaa?iae?iaiee?a. Ca iaiiaieie aeaieie ia Iiae?e? aei ieo aoiaeeei 1150
/eai?a EIN.

AEa?oaaie aaiioeeaeo, canoiniaaiiai aei oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa noaee
a?eueo ye i?ai?eueeiia iiae?euenueeeo naeyi. Ii?yae ?c nithciei oa
?anioae?eainueeei ea??aieoeoaii a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oea ianooue ?
“i?eaiaei? iane” – n?euenuee? aeoea?noe, a oiio /ene? e /eaie EIN. Oey
aeaoeeaa iineoaa eiioi?noe/iiio ?aaeeio aoea aeey ieo inoaiiueith,
ine?eueee a aa?aci? 1933 ?. eiiiacaie aoee e?ea?aeiaai?.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeaii caaaeuei? i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, c?iaeaii
ocaaaeueiaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii ?yae i?iiiceoe?e ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

Noaiiaeaiiy oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio a Oe?a?i? i?ioiaeeei ca oiia aia?oiai
i?ioeai?noaa a?eueoiaee?a c ??cieie aa?noaaie noni?euenoaa. I?ioa
iaea?eueoo i?ioeae?th eiioi?noe/iei ia?aoai?aiiyi /eieee caiiaei?
naeyie, aaeaea aiie iiaee ciaeoe i?noea a noai?thaai?e aea?aeaa? eeoa
i?ney a?aeiiae a?ae nai?? aeaniino?. Ine?eueee i?i aeia?ia?eueio caiaeo
ia oea naeyinueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a ia iiaei aooe e iiae, oi oni?oe
nai?o ia?aoai?aiue a?eueoiaeee iia’ycoaaee c iaiao?aei?noth ?icoa?oaaiiy
naea ca iaeiiaith iciaeith oa iineeaiiy i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae ??cieie
nioe?aeueieie aa?noaaie. Aeeiiaiiy oeeo caaaeaiue iieeaaeaeinue ia
noai?ai? ca caeiiii AOOeAE oa ?aaeia?eiio ON?? a?ae 9 o?aaiy 1920 ?.
eeania? iie?oe/i? i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueei? a?aeiioe — eii?oaoe
iacaiiaeieo naeyi. Oae? i?aai?caoe?? iaee neoaoaaoe nioe?aeueiith
iii?ith a?eueoiaee?a i?e i?iaaaeaii? ieie eiioi?noe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ia
nae?.

Iaaeaiiyi eiiiacaiai noaoono aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ?aaeyinueea aeaaea
iaiaaaeanue c ?oiueith aeiiiiiaith cae?enithaaoe eiio?ieue ca
ae?yeuei?noth i?aai?a aeaaee ia nae? — n?euenueeeo ?aae. Iaeiae,
aeei?enoiaoth/e iaaeai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy oa caoiieaoe ia?aaaaeio
a?eueo?noue i?noeue o ?aaeao, /eaie EIN ia?aoai?eee ?o a i?aaie aeanii?
aeeeoaoo?e, aeeeeeath/e iacaaeiaieaiiy iniiaii? naeyinueei? iane.

O/anoue EIN Iiae?eey a aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo ia i?eaaea aei ae??oaiiy
i?iaeai caieaaeaoooaaiiy oa caieaei?enooaaiiy a ?aa?ii?. Naith o/anoue o
cai?iaaaeaeaii? nioe?ae?noe/iiai caieaono?ith /eaie EIN aeei?enoiaoaaee
aeey aeaniiai caaaa/aiiy oa iaaeeae. Oaeee oa?aeoa? ia?aoai?aiue
i?ecaiaeea aei caiaiaaeo oa ?oeioaaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa,
cieuaiiy ni?aaaei?o ainiiaea??a ia caie?.

Caeo/aiiyi /eai?a EIN aei i?iaeiaieue/eo eiiiai?e ia nae? aeaaea
iaiaaaeanue ia eeoa aeeo/eoe oe?a o naeyinueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a ?oeaie
naieo aea naeyi, aea e iiaeeaeoe nioe?aeueia ?icoa?oaaiiy naeyinoaa.
Nai???aeiei noeioeii aeey /eai?a EIN neoaoaaee a?ae?aooaaiiy ia ?o
ei?enoue 1/4 /anoeie aeeo/aiiai i?iaeiaieuenoaa.

Oaeei /eiii, eii?oaoe iacaiiaeieo naeyi Iiae?eey ye iie?oe/i?
i?aai?caoe?? naeyinoaa oa nioe?aeueia iii?a ?aaeeio aenooieee aeoeaieie
iii?/ieeaie o ai?iaaaeaeaii? a aeeooy a?eueoiaeoeueei? aeieo?eie
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo. Aioenaeyinueeee oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino? eiiiacai?a
aeeeeeaa iie?oe/iee ?iceie na?aae ??cieo nioe?aeueieo aa?noa naeyinoaa,
a caaino?aiiy i?ioe??/ i?ae ieie i?eaaei, ii noo?, aei i?iaeiaaeaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ia nae?. Oaea a?eia aeaooiaoaaea a?eueoiaee?a,
ine?eueee oe?eeii a?aeiia?aeaea ?o oai??? i?i caaino?aiiy eeaniai? a?eie
ia nae? ? iaa?oue iaa?oioiaoaaea canoinoaaiiy ?ai?an?e i?ioe
naeyi-aeaniee?a. ?acii c oei i?iaaaeaia eiiiacaiaie ?icoa?oaaiiy
naeyinoaa caiaeeei iai?aaoeue iiceoe?? aioea?eueoiaeoeueeiai iii?o,
caaacia/eaoe oaeei /eiii a?eueo oaeaeea ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai
?aaeeio ia nae?.

Nueiaiaei? a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie, eiee aeaye?
iie?oe/i? neee, aeei?enoiaoth/e /enaeuei? ia’?eoeai? o?oaeiiu?, ye?
iinoaee ia?aae iieiaeith aea?aeaaith, aeneiaeththoue iinoaeuea?th ?
iaa?oue ?aoothoue ca iiaa?iaiiy aei noa?eo /an?a, iiaeia c aiaaiai?noth
neacaoe, ui eeoa canoaeaeaiiy eiioi?noe/ii? aeieo?eie, a oaeiae
caniiaaieo ia i?e iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a caeaoia aa?aiooaaoe iaiiaa?iaiiy
no?ao?oue oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio, ye? aeiaee ia aeieth oe?a?inueeiai
naeyinoaa a 20-30-o? ?iee iaoiai noie?ooy.

Aa?aioii iinooiaeueiiai aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo noaa?aiii? Oe?a?ie ?
iiaeaeueoa anaa?/ia aea/aiiy oe?a?inueeeie aeine?aeieeaie oaiiiaio
?aaeyinueeiai oioae?oa?ecio, eiai aeoie?a, oeyo?a oa iaoiae?a eiai
ianaaeaeaiiy. A?aoiaoth/e neeaaeiiu? eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaieo
i?iaeai a Oe?a?i?, aeioe?eueiei ia iaeaeeae/ee /an aeaea?oueny oeyo ?o
?aa?iiaeueiiai aena?oeaiiy, yeee iieeeeaiee i?aeaiooaaoe iniiao aeey
noai?aiiy ocaaaeueithth/eo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeanoue
ciiao ia eeoa aeyaeoe caaaeuei? ?ene oa caeiiii??iino?, aea e a?aooaaoe
oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino?, i?eoaiaii? ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo ??cieo ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie, ui a naith /a?ao i?eaaaea aei i?aeaeuaiiy iaoeiai? oe?iiino? oa
ia’?eoeaiino? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeanoue ciiao a?eueo iiaii a?aeoai?eoe
neeaaeia oa aaaaoia?aiia ieioea oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

1.Iaeueie/oe I.A. O/anoue eiiiacai?a a aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo ia
Iiae?ee?. — A?iieoey: Eiain, 1998. — 39 n.

2.Iaeueie/oe I.A. Ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo ia nae? a 1920-1925 ??.:n?euenuee?
?aaee i?ioe eiiiacai?a.// Iiaa iie?oeea.- 1998.- ?2. — N.35 — 37.

3. Iaeueie/oe I.A. Eii?oaoe iacaiiaeieo naeyi a oe?aicaaio?aaeueieo
eiiiai?yo 1928 — 1932 ?? ia Iiae?ee?.// Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue aei 60-??//y
a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a
I.A.Eoeo?oaecyea. — Eai-Iiae-e: Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, 1998. — N.255-261.

4. Iaeueie/oe I.A. Eiiiacaie — iii?a a ooaa?aeaeaii? a?eueoiaeoeueei?
aeaaee ia nae?.// Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aei.V??. Na??y: ?noi??y. — Oa?iii?eue,
1998. — N. 111 — 116.

5.Iaeueie/oe I.A. Aeieeiaiiy eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi ia Iiae?ee?.//
Iaoa??aee ?O — ? Iiae?euenueei? ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/i? eiioa?aioe??. —
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1995. — N. 328-330.

6. Iaeueie/oe I.A. Eiiiacaie a nenoai? ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia Oe?a?i?
1920-1925 ??. // Iaoa??aee ca?oii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a oa
nooaeaio?a ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo ca 1994 ?.- A?iieoey, 1995. — N.35 —
37.

7. Iaeueie/oe I.A. Eiiiacaie ? naeyinueeee iianoainueeee ?oo ia Iiae?ee?
a 1920 — 1925 ??. // Oace aeiiia?aeae XVI A?iieoeueei? iaeanii?
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/i? eiioa?aioe??. — A?iieoey, 1997. — N. 56 — 58.

8.Iaeueie/oe I.A. ?ai?aai?caoe?y eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi a 1925 ?.
// Iaoa??aee ca?oii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo ca 1995 ?.- A?iieoey, 1996. — N.18 — 20.

9. Iaeueie/oe I.A. Nioe?aeueiee neeaae eiiiacai?a Iiae?eey. // Iaoa??aee
ca?oii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a ?noi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo ca 1997 ?.- A?iieoey, 1998. — N.68 — 70.

Aiioaoe?y

Iaeueie/oe I.A. Ae?yeuei?noue eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi ia Iiae?ee?
(1920 — 1933 ??.). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01. — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. — Ee?a, 1998.

A aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? oe?ieiai eiea aeaea?ae aeine?aeaeaii i?noea
eiiiacai?a a nenoai? aeaaee ia Iiae?ee?, i?iaiae?ciaaia ae?yeuei?noue
oeeo i?aai?caoe?e ii cae?eniaiith aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiue ia nae? oa ?o
o/anoue o ai?iaaaeaeaii? i?iaeiaieue/i? aeeeoaoo?e ?aaeyinueeiai
?aaeeio. ?c i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
eii?oaoe iacaiiaeieo naeyi ye ooo/ii noai?ai? a?eueoiaeeaie eeania?
iie?oe/i? i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueei? a?aeiioe aenooieee nioe?aeueiith
iii?ith a?eueoiaee?a i?e ianaaeaeaii? ?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio a
iiae?euenueeiio nae?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eii?oaoe iacaiiaeieo naeyi, nioe?aeueia ?icoa?oaaiiy,
oioae?oa?iee ?aaeei, aa?a?i? ia?aoai?aiiy, i?iaeiaieue/a aeeeoaoo?a,
ii?? oioae?oa?ecio.

Aiiioaoeey

Iaeueie/oe I.A. Aeayoaeueiinoue eiieoaoia iacaiiaeiuo naeyi ia Iiaeieuea
(1920-1933 aa.). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01. — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei. — Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee ia iniiaa oe?ieiai e?oaa enoi/ieeia enneaaeiaaii ianoi
eiiiacaiia a nenoaia aeanoe ia Iiaeieuea, i?iaiaeece?iaaia
aeayoaeueiinoue oaeeo i?aaiecaoeee ii inouanoaeaieth aa?a?iuo
i?aia?aciaaiee ia naea, a oaeaea eo o/anoea a aiaae?aiee
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie aeeeoaoo?u niaaoneiai ?aaeeia. Ec i?iaaae?iiuo
enneaaeiaaiee iainiiaai auaiae i oii, /oi eiieoaou iacaiiaeiuo naeyi eae
eneonoaaiii nicaeaiiua aieueoaaeeaie eeanniaua iieeoe/aneea i?aaiecaoeee
naeueneie aaaeiiou aunooieee nioeeaeueiie iii?ie aieueoaaeeia i?e
ianaaeaeaiee niaaoneiai ?aaeeia a iiaeieuenueeii naea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiieoaou iacaiiaeiuo naeyi, nioeeaeueiia ?anneiaiea,
oioaeeoa?iue ?aaeei, aa?a?iua i?aia?aciaaiey, i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay
aeeeoaoo?a, nii?ioeaeaiea oioaeeoa?ecio.

Annotation

Melnichuck O. A. Unprosperous Peasants Committees Activity in Podoliye
(1920 — 1933 yy.). Manuscript.

Dissertation for the Candidate’s degree in the field of historical
sciencies, specialisation 07.00.01. History of Ukraine. — Kyiv State
University named after Taras Shevchenko. — Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation deals with the problem of the Unprosperous Peasants
Committees place in the power structures in Podoliye. Their activity in
agrarian reformation and their part in Soviet regime food dictatorship
implementation are analysed. In the dissertation a great number of
sources are used and researched. On the results of the research the
conclusion is made that Unprosperous Peasants Committees were rural poor
class political organisations artificially made by bolsheviks. The
Committees were bolsheviks social support while the Soviet regime in
Podoliye rural districts was forced.

Key words: Unprosperous Peasants Commitees, social divergence,
totalitarian regime, agrarian reformation, food dictatorship,
resistance to totalitarism (totalitarian regime).

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 1.12.98 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16.

Oi.ae?oe.a?e. 1,0. Iae-aeae. a?e. 1,0.

Iaeeaae 100. Cai. 198.

287001. A?iieoey .aoe. E. Ino?icueeiai, 32, e.240.

Aeaeaaie/ee a?aeae?e AAeIO ?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai

27 – 68 — 70

Aa?acia/oe I.Ae. Eii?oaoe a?aeiioe ? eiiiacaie Oe?a?ie a
?noi??ia?ao??.// Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae ( aeae? — O?AE ). —
1976. — ?1 ; Aa?acia/oe I.Ae. Aioeia?enenonueea aia?eeainueea
?noi??ia?ao?y i?i ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?caoe?e n?euenueei? a?aeiioe ia
Oe?a?i?. // O?AE.. — 1988. — ?7.

Eaeeiei I.E. I ?aaioa a aea?aaia. Aeieeaae ia OIII cuacaea ?EI(a) 29
iay 1924 a. — Eca?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey. — O.1. — I., 1960; Eae?eia Y.E.
Eaiei e e?anoueyinoai. — Oa?ueeia, 1925; Ein?i? N.A. Iacaiiaeieeai i?i
eieaeoea?caoe?th. — Oa?e?a, 1925; Iaioeeueneee Ae.C. Caiaeueiay iieeoeea
ia Oe?aeia. Caeii i eiiiacaiao. — Oa?ueeia, 1920; I?i caaaeaiiy
eiiiacai?a ca no/anieo ianoaaei. — Oa?e?a, 1929; Iao?ianueeee A.?.
Iacaiiaeieee ? na?aaeiyee a 10-??/i?e ai?iouea? ca nioe?ae?ci. — Oa?e?a,
1927; ?aeianeee O.A. *oi aeaee iacaiiaeiui eo eiieoaou. — Oa?ueeia, 1921
oa ?i.

Aieee I. Eii?oaoe iacaiiaeieo naeyi. — Oa?e?a, 1920; ?aeaanueeee A.E.
Ei?ioea ?noi??y eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi. — Oa?e?a, 1924; ?eieaae/ A.
Eiiiacaie — aieia? i?aai?caoe?? iaeieonoaa ? a?aeiioe. — Oa?e?a, 1930;
Oiei/ei I. Eiiiacaie oa ?oiy ?iaioa. — Oa?e?a, 1927 oa ?i.

Aaaaeainueeee Ae.A. Aieueoeaaa A.A. Eii?oaoe iacaiiaeieo naeyi ia
Oe?a?i?. — E., 1941; Oneia O. Eiiiacaie Oe?a?ie a ia??iae ai?iiiai
eiioi?cio ? ia?aoiaeo aei IAIo. — E., 1950; *iuaa A.O. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee
eieoiciiai aeaeaeaiey ia Oe?aeia (1921 — 1925 aa.). — I., 1959 oa ?i.

Caai?nueeee I.N. Noiyi I.E. Ia?ene ?noi??? eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi.
— E., 1960.

Iii?a ia?o?? ia nae?. Niiaaaee aeoeaieo o/aniee?a EIN Oe?a?ie. — E.,
1971.

Eii?oaoe iacaiiaeieo naeyi Oe?a?ie (1920 — 1933). Ca. aeie. ? iao. — E.,
1968.

Aa?acia/oe I.Ae. Eiiiacaie Oe?a?ie a ai?iouea? ca nioe?ae?ci. — E.,
1965; Aa?acia/oe I.Ae. Ia?o? nioe?ae?noe/i? ia?aoai?aiiy ia nae?. I?i
i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueei? a?aeiioe oa ?o ?ieue o cae?eniaii? ia?oeo
nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue. — E., 1976; Aa?acia/oe I.Ae. Aiiaea?aiei
A.A. I?ieaoa?neay iii?a a aea?aaia. E enoi?ee eiieoaoia aaaeiioe ia
Oe?aeia. — E., 1986.

Aa?acia/oe I.Ae. ?ieue eiiiacai?a o nioe?ae?noe/i?e ia?aaoaeia? naea.
// O?AE. — 1960. — ?3; Aa?acia/oe I.Ae. ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?noe/ia
ae?yeuei?noue eiiiacai?a Oe?a?ie. // O?AE. — 1965. — ?2; Aa?acia/oe
I.Ae. Caoiaee EIO ii i?aai?caoe?eii-iie?oe/iiio ci?oeiaiith eiiiacai?a (
1925) // O?AE . — 1964. — ? 1 oa ?i.

?aaiiaa I. ?ieue eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi Iiae?eey a
ainiiaea?nueeiio aoae?aieoeoa? (1921- 1925 ??.) // A ei. C ?noi???
?aaeyinueei? A?iie//eie.- A?iieoey, 1960.- N.107- 131; Aeauaiei I.?.
O/anoue eii?oao?a iacaiiaeieo naeyi a ai?iouea? c aaiaeeoeciii ia
Iiae?ee? ( 1920-1922). // Iaoa??aee V?? Iiae. ?no.- e?a?ci. eiio.-
Eai’yiaoeue -Iiae?euenueeee, 1987.

Iiae?eey a ia??iae a?aeaoaeiae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ( 1921-1925).
Ca. aeie. ? iao. — A?iieoey, 1957; Iiae?eey a ?iee a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie
( ethoee 1918- a?oaeaiue 1920). Aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee. — A?iieoey ,
1959; Nioeeaeenoe/aneia no?ieoaeuenoai ia Aeiie/eia. Aeieoiaiou e
iaoa?eaeu. (1921-1941).- Iaeanna, 1987; Nioe?ae?noe/ia aoae?aieoeoai ia
Oiaeueie//ei?. 1921-1941 ??. Aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee. — Euea?a, 1989.

Fainsod M. How Russia is Ruled. — Gambridge, 1953. — P.448.

Continuity and Change in Russian and Soviet Thought.- Cambridge, 1955.-
P.219.

Schapiro L. The communist Party of the Soviet Union. — New York, 1960. —
P.188.

Mace James E. Soviet Studies. Harward University. -1983.- Vol. 35. — P.
487-503.

A?aoeeice A. Aieueoaaeee e e?anoueyia ia Oe?aeia, 1918-1919 aiaeu. — I.,
1997; Ea?? Y. Enoi?ey Niaaoneie ?innee. Ei.1: O.1,2. Aieueoaaenoneay
?aaiethoeey 1917 — 1923. — I., 1990; Eiieaano ?. AEieaa nei?aioe.
?aaeyinueea eieaeoea?caoe?y ? aieiaeiii?. — E., 1993.

Aieei TH. ?in?enuee? ?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe?? a aieueoaaeoeueeeo ?ica’yceao
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy. — Ia?eae,1964; Aeoaiiae/ ?. Aa?a?ia iie?oeea
oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a 1917 — 1920. — Ithioai, *?eaai, 1968.; Aa?aeoeueeee
I. Iaea?eueoee cei/ei E?aiey. Caieyiiaaiee ooo/iee aieiae a Oe?a?i?
1932-1933 ??.- Eiiaeii, 1952; I?a?aei O. Oe?a?ia i?ae aieueoaaeoeueeith
ieoiaoe??th: iaoa??aee aei ?noi??? ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a
1920-30 ?ieao.-Ithioai, 1956; Nieiaae I.O. Oe?a?ia o na?oe? nia?onueeiai
eieii?ae?cio.-Ithioai, 1959.

Ia?i/ei A.?. Oe?a?inueea naeyinueea eiiia?aoe?y. ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee
aniaeo ( 1861 — 1929 ??.). — E., 1995; Eoeue/eoeueeee N.A. Eiioi?ci a
Oe?a?i? : ia?oa aeanyoe??//y ( 1919 — 1928 ) . — E., 1996; Iaeee ss.E.
Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio a oe?a?inueeiio nae?. (1919-1920).
— Euea?a, 1996; Aaiaea I.?. Ii?? naeyi noaiiaeaiith oioae?oa?iiai
?aaeeio a ON??. — E., 1996; Aaneeue?a A. A?iea E. Eieaeoea?caoe?y ?
naeyinueeee ii?? ia Oe?a?i? ( eenoiiaae 1929 — aa?acaiue 1930). –
A?iieoey, 1997.

Похожие записи