EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

?INOEOOO AEO?IAE?NOEEE

AA?OIA Ieaenaiae? Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 655.4/.5(73)

EIEAIAEAeAAIE*A NI?AAA A NIIEO*AIEO OOAOAO AIA?EEE

(II??AIssEUeII-NENOAIIEE AIAE?C)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.01.08 — aeo?iae?noeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae oa ?aaeaaoaaiiy
aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie

(Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo( I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?aai/aiei ?iiai A?eai?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae oa ?aaeaaoaaiiy

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie

(Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo(

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

??coi Aieiaeeie? Aieiaeeie?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeo?iae?nonueei? iaenoa?iino?

oa ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae

?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iieeiaaiei A?eoi? Aaneeueiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeo?iae?noeee I?aeia?iaeiiai ?inoeoooo e?iaa?noeee ?
i?aaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Eaoaae?a aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae ? ?aaeaaoaaiiy

Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? ae?oea?noaa I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i.
Euea?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny (___( ____________ 1999 ?. i ______ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.34 i?e Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (254119, i. Ee?a, aoe. Iaeueieeiaa,
36/1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252033, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee (___(_____________1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe
A. O. ?aaiia Caaaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia oei, ui a oiiaao
eiieo?aioe??, eiee noa?? ae?oea?nuee? eaae?e Oe?a?ie ciooai?,
i?enoiniaoth/enue aei iiaeo ?aae?e, ia?aaoaeiaoaaoe naith ?iaioo ia
?eieiaeo canaaeao, a iieiae? — oeyoii i?ia ? iiieeie canaithaaoe
iia?oith iaoiaeeeo e oaoiieia?th aeaeaaie/i? ae?yeueiino?, aea/aiiy
eieaiaeaeaaie/iai e iie?a?ao?/iiai aeina?aeo e?a?i ?c aeniei?icaeiaiith
aeiiii?eith, ianaiia?aae NOA, iaaoaa? aeiyoeiai? i?aeoe/ii? aaae.

I?ioa aea/aiiy canaae eieaiaeaeaiiy ca ei?aeiiii ia? ia eeoa i?aeoe/ia,
a e aaeeea iaoeiaa cia/aiiy, ine?eueee a ?aaeyinueeee /an iaoeiaa aeoiea
i?aoethaaea caeaa?eueoiai iaeiiaiei, /anoi ia caia?a/aiiy /e inoae
aeina?aeo i?iieneiai ?icaeiaieo e?a?i ?c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith.
ssne?aaei i?eeeaaeii iiaea aooe noaaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? iaoee aei
e?aa?iaoeee oa aaiaoeee, ui naiai /ano aoee i?iaieioai? eaeaiaoeaie.
Iei? ae ae?eni?noue ciooo? ian ia’?eoeaii aea/aoe e?au? iaaeaaiiy
ethaenoaa. Oiio iaoeia? caeiaooee, ui aaea noaee cae/ieie aeey na?oiaiai
caaaeo, ie o?eueee aaiaeeii a oai?aoe/iee ia?a.

Aeoiaey/e naia c oeeo i??eoaaiue, ie iiaeaii aiai?eoe i?i ca?oa?aeiee
aeina?ae ye i?i ciaiiy, ui aeey ian iathoue cia/aiiy iaoeiai? iiaecie.
Aiie /anoi ? noeoii?noth iiaeo ae?aeaeoe/ii neeaaeieo oai?aoe/ieo aai
i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue, ui noia?a/aoue oai?aoe/iei iieiaeaiiyi aai
i?eeeaaeiei iaoiaeai o a?o/eciyiiio eieaiaeaeaii?, a cia/eoue, ?oi?
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith, ui iio?aao? aea/aiiy.

?iaioa iia’ycaia c aeeiiaiiyi ?ic?iaeaii? eaoaae?ith aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae
oa ?aaeaaoaaiiy Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie
(Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo( iaoeiai? i?ia?aie i?aeaioiaee
(Aioeeeeiiaae?? oe?a?inueeiai eieaiciaanoaa(, a oaeiae Aea?aeaaii?
i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai eieaiaeaeaiiy ? i?ane ia ia??iae aei
2000 ?ieo.

Iaoa e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii-ia?oa, aeine?aeeoe iaee?aua,
iae?aoe?iiaeuei?oa c aeina?aeo eieaiaeaeaaie/i? i?aeoeee naia a NOA — o
e?a?i?, eio?a aaaaoi acyea c ?a?iiaenueeiai eieaiaeaeaiiy, ia? nai?
iaiiaoi?i? ?ene, aea aeione ? ?aae?caoe?y eieaeeiai? oa ?ioi?
aeaeaaie/i? i?iaeoeoe?? cae?eniththoueny a oiiaao iaeoaeaeoiai o na?o?
noaiiaeaiiy iino?iaeono??aeueiiai, ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai noni?euenoaa, ?,
ii-ae?oaa, aeoiaey/e c oaeiai aeina?aeo, ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? noiniaii
iie?ioaiiy iaaieo aniaeo?a eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae a Oe?a?i?. O
i??eoaaiiyo ie nie?aeeny ia aeaeaaie/o i?aeoeeo NOA oa ia o?
ioae?eaoe??, a yeeo aiae?co?oueny oey i?aeoeea.

Aaaaoi aniaeo?a i?iaeaie iaaiith i??ith ? c ??cieo oi/ie ci?o aena?oeaii
a niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo??, ui aeeoea a NOA, eieeoiueiio ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithc?, ?in?? oa Oe?a?i?.

Oaiaoe/iee ? aeai?iaee niaeo? e?oa?aoo?e c eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae,
aeiouaii? a NOA aeoaea oe?ieee. Iniiai? i?aoe? i?iaiae?ciaai? a oe?e
aeena?oaoe??.

O eieeoiueiio ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? aoei aeiouaii e?eueea aeaeaiue, ui
i?enay/ai? eieaiaeaeaiith a NOA. I?ioa aiie ?aeaieia?/ii caaiaaaeiaai?,
? ?oi? aeai? canoa??ee. ?aeeia a ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? aeena?oaoe?y A. A.
Iineaeaiea ia a?aeiia?aea? iei?oi?i aeiiaai.

I?ney ?iciaaeo ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco a ?in?? o ca’yceo c ?eieiaeie
ia?aoai?aiiyie aaeeeo oaaao i?eae?eythoue aea/aiith aeina?aeo NOA a
eieaiaeaeaaie/?e ni?aa? e oiio aeioneathoue a?aeiia?aeio e?oa?aoo?o.
Iaeaaaii?oeie ? i?aoey I. A. Aeoa?ianueeiai i?i aa?o?noue iaoeiaeo
aeaeaiue ? ia?aeeaaeai? A. A. Eainueeei ?iaioe c eieaiaeaeaaie/iai
a?ciano e eieaeeiaiai ia?eaoeiao.

Aei iae?ioi?iaoeai?oeo noaoae iaeaaeaoue i?aoe? E. Aeieo???aa, I.
Ii?icianueeiai, TH. Naii?eiaa oa E. Nooi?oeiaa.

A Oe?a?i? aei nueiaiaei? ia iioae?eiaaii aeiaeiiai aeaeaiiy, eio?a
aaciina?aaeiuei noinoaaeiny a aeania eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae a NOA, oi/a
o oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao ?iiae? c’yaeythoueny noaoo?, ui iathoue a?aeiioaiiy
aei oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee. Aeena?oaoe?e uiaei eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae a NOA
oaeiae iaia?.

Aaoi? oe??? i?aoe? aaaaea? ca iio??aia aeine?aeeoe noaiiaeaiiy
eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae a NOA, ?? i?iaeoeoe?th ? no?oeoo?o, iaai?
aniaeoe iaiaaeaeiaioo e eieaeeiaiai ia?eaoeiao oa iniaeeaino?
aaoi?nueeiai i?aaa.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eieaiaeaeaaie/a ni?aaa a NOA ye aaaaoia?aiia
?noi?eei-nenoaiia yaeua.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee aniaeoe eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae a NOA,
eio?? aai ?ai?oa ia aoee aena?oeai? o a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??,
aai aiaeiae yeeo o eieaiaeaeaaie/?e ni?aa? Oe?a?ie a?aenooi?. Aei oaeeo
aniaeo?a iaeaaeaoue: iaeaaaeeea?o? aoaie ?noi??? eieaiaeaeaiiy, ?icaeoie
aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/ii? oaoi?ee, iniiai? aeaiaioe eieaiaeaeaaie/i?
aaeoc?, a?ae?ioaee iiaiai oeio e iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ?oiuei? ni?ai?aoe? c
eieaeeiaeie aeaeaaieoeoaaie, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeiiai iiai? noaie
i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa e iioe?aiiy ae?oeiaaii? eieaeeiai?
i?iaeoeoe??, aeione aeaeo?iiieo eieaeeiaeo aeaeaiue, iaenooo?a?o?
ieoaiiy eieaeeiaiai ia?eaoeiao, a oaeiae oaeineiiaeaiiy aaoi?nueeiai
i?aaa.

*ania? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/athoueny ia??iaeii a?ae canioaaiiy
ia?oeo io?eoainueeeo iinaeaiue ? i?ei?oeaieo ae?oea?aiue o Iiaiio Na?o?
aei oe?ieiai e onaa?/iiai aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e o
eieaiaeaeaaie/?e ni?aa? no/anieo NOA.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny canoinoaaiiyi
caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo ? eiie?aoii-iaoeiaeo iaoiae?a. Nenoaia
eieaiaeaeaaie/i? aaeoc? NOA aea/aeanue ?c oi/ee ci?o iaoaiaoe/ii?
eiioeaioe?? aaaaoiaei??iiai i?inoi?o. Oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeanue
iaoiaeeea ?iaioe iaae e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaea?aeaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui a ?iaio? ia
i?eeeaae? NOA oe?eani?yiiaaii iiaeathoueny iia? ciaiiy, eio??
?ice?eaathoue iia? yaeua o noa?? eieaeeiai? ni?aae, aeey aeei?enoaiiy ?o
o oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaeao a Oe?a?i?, cie?aia aeey caaaa/aiiy
eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue eieaiciaanoaa, oai??? ?aaeaaoaaiiy ?
aeo?iae?noeee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a coiiaeaia oei, ui
aeeeaaeaiee iaoa??ae aeicaieeoue iaoeiai ae??ooaaoe aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
a?o/eciyii? aeaeaaie/i? i?aeoeee; i?iaiicoaaoe oaiaeaioe??
eieaiaeaeaiiy; caeo/eoe ?iicaiiee aeina?ae o noa?o iaoi?
eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae. Iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe ni?eyoeiooue iie?ioaiith
caeiiiaeaa/i? iniiae e no?oeoo?e eieaiaeaeaaie/i? aaeoc? Oe?a?ie,
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? oe?a?inueeeo eieaeeiaeo aeaeaaieoeoa, aeiiiiiaeooue
cai?iaaaeeoe a Oe?a?i? i?eioeeiiai iiao noaio i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa
oa iioe?aiiy i?iaeoeoe?? eieaeeiaeo aeaeaaieoeoa. Iaoa??aee iiaeooue
aeei?enoaoe iaoeiaoe?, aeeeaaea/?, ani??aioe e nooaeaioe
aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/ieo oaeoeueoao?a ? oaeoeueoao?a aeo?iae?noeee, a
oaeiae oao?aoe? eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe ??oioo?oueny ia oiio, ui iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee:

1. Iaaiai?ai? ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae oa
?aaeaaoaaiiy Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie (Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo(, ia ni?eueieo can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
aeo?iae?nonueei? iaenoa?iino? oa ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae,
eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeii? aeo?iae?noeee ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea e eaoaae?e aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae oa
?aaeaaoaaiiy Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie (Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo(.

2. Aeei?enoai? a eaeoe?yo aeeeaaea/?a, o eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?iaioao
nooaeaio?a aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie (Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo(.

3. Ii?eethaeiai? ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? (I?eioeeie e
iaoiaee ooieoe?iiaeueii-naiaioe/iiai iieno iiae: I?aenoiee, iai?yiee,
ia?niaeoeae( (i. N?ioa?iiieue, 9—12 aa?an. 1997 ?.), II Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? (Oe?a?inueea oa?i?iieia?y ? no/ani?noue( (i. Ee?a,
26—28 eenoii. 1997 ?.), III Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
(Oe?a?inueea oa?i?iieia?y ? no/ani?noue( (i. Ee?a, 10—12 eenoii. 1998
?.). Oace aenooi?a aaoi?a aeena?oaoe?? iaae?oeiaai? a o?ueio ca??ieeao
iaoa??ae?a iacaaieo eiioa?aioe?e.

4. Iioae?eiaai? o ainueie noaooyo o?ueio iaoeiaeo aeo?iae?a, iaienaieo
iaeiiin?aii aaoi?ii i?aoe?.

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee
ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 203 noi??iee, o oiio /ene? 62 noi??iee, ui
caeiathoue aea? ?ethno?aoe??, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (233
iaeiaioaaiiy) oa 11 aeiaeaoe?a.

C i ? n o ? i a i o e

O anooi? aena?oeththoueny aeooaeuei?noue ? nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino?
oaiaoeee aeena?oaoe??, oi?ioeththoueny ?? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy,
aecia/athoueny ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae
aeena?oaoe??, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, cacia/athoueny
aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? — (Noaiiaeaiiy eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae a
Niieo/aieo Ooaoao Aia?eee( — aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?icaeoie eieaiaeaeaiiy oa
aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/ii? oaoi?ee.

Iaeaaaeeea?o? aoaie ?noi??? eieaiaeaeaiiy. Iacaaaeath/e ia caaithaaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? a inoaii?e /aa?o? XVIII no., iacaaaeath/e ia o?aaeeoe??
aeaniiai eieaiae?oeoaaiiy, eio?? ii/aee neeaaeaoenue o ia?o?e o?aoei?
XVII no., ? eiai oaeaeeee ?icaeoie oi?iaeiaae XVIII ? XIX no., NOA ua
o?eaaeee /an, iaeaea aei ii/aoeo XX no., aaaaoi a /iio caeeoaeeny
caeaaeieie a?ae eieaeeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i, ianaiia?aae
Aaeeeia?eoai??. Ia??iae 1914—1918 ??. aoa aeaui ia?aeiiiei o iioe?aii?
aia?eeainueei? ae?oeiaaii? eieae ca ei?aeiiii ? a caaithaaii? NOA
iiceoe?e ia na?oiaiio eieaeeiaiio ?eieo. I?ioa a 1918—1939 ??. o noa??
eieaiaeaeaaieoeoaa e i?aeia?iaeii? eieaeeiai? oi?a?ae? NOA caeeoaeeny
aea?aeaaith ae?oaiai ?aiao. Eieaiae?oeoaaiiy a NOA i?ae /an ae?oai?
na?oiai? a?eie iaeaea ia a?ae??ciyeiny a?ae oiai/aniiai eieaiae?oeoaaiiy
a ?a?ii?. A?ae iaia?o, ni?aoeueiaaia onoaoeoaaiiy, i?ecia niaoe?ae?no?a
— ona oea aoei i?e/eiith aeioneo iaye?nieo eiea. Aiaeii/an aaeeeei
oni?oii ei?enooaaeeny aeaoaa? eieae, ye? aeaeaaaeeny ianiaeie oe?aaeaie
aeey a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a, ianaeaiiy aeanii? e?a?ie oa e?a?i, aea
ciaoiaeeeenue aia?eeainuee? a?enueea. Oae? aeaeaiiy i?aeaiooaaee ??oio
aeey aeaeaiiy i?ney a?eie na??e aenieiye?nieo eiea a iaeeaaeeioe?.
Oaeoi?ii, yeee ni?eya ca?eueoaiith e?eueeino? e ani?oeiaioo eiea, ui
aeioneaeeny a NOA ?iicaiieie iiaaie, ? a?iiaaeaeaiith aeina?aeo a oe?e
aaeoc?, noaea ai?a?aoe?y aei NOA aeaeaaoe?a ?c oei/aniai ieoiiaaieo
i?iaoeueei-oaoenonueeeie a?enueeaie ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa. Aeey
eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae NOA 1950-o ?ie?a iaeoa?aeoa?i?oei aoa ianiaee
aeione eiea a iaeeaaeeioe?, cie?aia iaa/aeueieo. Oi?iaeiaae 1960—1990
??. o eieaiaeaeaaie/?e aaeoc? NOA cae?enithaaeany cia/ia no?oeoo?ia
ia?aaoaeiaa. C’yaeyeeny iiaooi? eieaiaeaeaaie/? eiiaeiia?aoe,
a?aeaoaaeeny ceeooy ? iiaeeiaiiy aeaeaaieoeoa ca caeiiaie a?eueiiai
?eieo. Aiaeii/an oi?iaaaeaeoaaeiny ? iino?eii aaeineiiaethaaeiny
iae??ciiiai?oi?oa aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/ia onoaoeoaaiiy, noai?aia ia
iniia? ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee.

?icaeoie aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/ii? oaoi?ee. Aia?eeainuee? aeiao?aeieee
c?iaeee aaeeeee aianie o aaeineiiaeaiiy aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/ii?
oaoi?ee. Ii/eiath/e c 1796 ?., eiee Aaeai ?ai?aeae (Adam Ramage) cai?iea
canoa??eee oeoio?aeiee aaeio ae?oea?nueeiai aa?noaoa oaeaeeio?aeiei
aaeioii, ? cae?i/oth/e 1993 ?., eiee aoee ai?iaaaeaeai? ia?o? oeeo?ia?
ae?oea?nuee? iaoeie (digital printing presses). Iniaeeao oaaao
i?eae?eaii naia oaeei iaoeiai. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui ai?iaeiaae O?O—XX no. o
eieaiaeaeaaie/?e ni?aa? aeio?eioaaeeny i?aeoiaeo, ca?aeii c yeei
i?ei??iee?a eiea ae?oeoaaee a?eueoa, i?ae ?o aoei iio??aii (/anoi-aonoi
oe?aae? ia 50% ia?aaeuoaaee iaiao?aeio e?euee?noue), i?ney oeueiai
ae?oeiaaio i?iaeoeoe?th caa??aaee e iioe?thaaee ??cieie niiniaaie. Ua
aeiiaaeaaia /a?ac aenieo aa?o?noue i?aeaioiaee iaoei aeey ae?oeoaaiiy
eiea (iai?eeeaae, i?aeaioiaee ae?oea?nueeeo oi?i) ? iaia?aaeaa/oaai?noue
iiieoo ?aeeiei oeyoii cieaeaiiy aeo?ao aoei ca?eueoaiiy oe?aae?a, oiaoi
eoeiny i?i aeiiii?th, eio?a coiiaeaia c?inoaiiyi ianooaao ae?iaieoeoaa e
i?iyaey?oueny a cieaeaii? aeiaaino?ieiaeo na?aaei?o ae?iaie/eo aeo?ao ia
iaeeieoeth i?iaeoeoe??. C oi?iaaaeaeaiiyi oeeo?iaeo ae?oea?nueeeo iaoei
noaiiaeua ci?ith?oueny. Aiie ye eiia/ia ae?oea?nueea iaeaaeiaiiy
i?eeiathoue eiii’thoa?i? eiaee, ii?aoeueiaothoue ?o oa a?aeoai?ththoue
cia?aaeaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei ia ie?aoe? aai iaia??. Aeaeaaieoeoai
caaaeyee oeeo?iaei nenoaiai caeaoia noai?thaaoe oaenoia?, a?ao?/i? oa
?io? oaeee, eio?? a iiaeaeueoiio iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aai aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy cae/aeieo oi?i ionaoiiai ae?oeo, aai aeey a?aeoai?aiiy
cia?aaeaiue aaciina?aaeiuei ia iaia?? ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?iiieo
ae?oea?nueeeo iaoei. A?aeiaaea? iaiao?aei?noue aeioneaoe eieae aaeeeeie
oe?aaeaie, ine?eueee oeeo?ia? iaoeie ia iio?aaothoue ae?oea?nueeeo oi?i
? caaacia/othoue aeiiii?/ii aea?aeia ae?oeoaaiiy ? iaei?, ? aaeeei?
e?eueeino? i?ei??iee?a. Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaei? e o? nai? eiii’thoa?i?
oaeee, iiaeia ae?oeoaaoe eieae a /eneaiieo iaeeo ae?oea?iyo,
?icii?ioaieo ii an?e e?a?i?, eeoa a oeo e?eueeinoyo, ye? iio??ai? a
iaaiiio ?aa?ii?, ? iaia? iio?aae iaoe cia/i? oeaio?ae?ciaai? caiane
eiea. Aaeee? eieaeeia? aeaeaaieoeoaa NOA aaea noai?ththoue no?oeoo?i?
i?ae?icae?ee oeeo?iaeo oaoiieia?e ? ia?aae? iaeeo oeeo?iaeo ae?oea?aiue,
oi/a, cae/aeii, o?aaeeoe?ei? niiniae ae?oeoaaiiy ? caooo eiea aoaeooue
iaaiee /an ni?a?nioaaoe c iia?oi?ie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? — (I?iaeoeoe?y no/anii?
eieaiaeaeaaie/i? aaeoc? Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee( — aiae?co?oueny
aeaeaaie/a i?iaeoeoe?y.

Iaia?ia? eieaeeia? aeaeaiiy. Ca?aeii c nenoaiith, i?eeiyoith
Anioe?aoe??th aia?eeainueeeo aeaeaaoe?a (Association of American
Publishers) aeey noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, on? iaia?ia? eieaeeia?
aeaeaiiy iiae?eythoueny ia oae? eaoaai???: eiia?oe?ei? eieae aeey
aei?ineeo ? ae?oae, ?ae?a?ei?, i?ioan?ei? oa iaoeia? eieae, ia?aaeieaoi?
aeia?aeeia? aeaeaiiy, oe?euei? i?ae?o/ieee e iin?aieee, i?ae?o/ieee e
iin?aieee aeey eieaaeae?a e oi?aa?neoao?a.

Eiia?oe?ei? eieae (trade books). I?ecia/ai? aeey oe?ieiai eiea /eoa/?a.
Iiaeooue aooe a iae?oo?oe? (hardbound books) aai iaeeaaeeioe?
(paperbound books) e i?noeoe oai?e aeey aei?ineeo ? ae?oae. Iania? eieae
a iaeeaaeeioe? aeey aei?ineeo yaeythoue niaith aeaeaiiy, ui iathoue
/?oei aecia/ai? o?ce/i? ia?aiao?e: iaia?iao iaeeaaeeieo, ?ethno?iaaio
eieuei?iaei iaethieii; aacoiaia ne??ieaiiy; noaiaea?oiee oi?iao (o NOA —
115(175 ii, a ?a?ii? — 110(180 ii).

?ae?a?ei? eieae (religious books). Oea a?ae??, inaeoe??, iieeoiaieee
oiui.

I?ioan?ei? oa iaoeia? eieae (professional and scientific books).
I?ecia/ai? aeey i?ioan?iiae?a ? aaciina?aaeiuei noinothoueny ?oiuei?
?iaioe. Anioe?aoe?y aia?eeainueeeo aeaeaaoe?a iiae?ey? i?ioan?ei?
aeaeaiiy ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? (scientific and technical), iaaee/i?
(medical) oa a?ciania? (business) eieae. O NOA aeaea?oueny aaaaoi
aeena?oaoe?e, ia?a?iaeaieo ia i?ioan?ei? eieae.

Ia?aaeieaoi? aeia?aeeia? aeaeaiiy (subscription reference books). Aei
ieo iaeaaeaoue aioeeeeiiaae?? (encyclopaedias), eio?? iiae?eythoueny ia
i?e?iiaae?? (micropaedias) oa iae?iiaae?? (macropaedias).

Oe?euei? i?ae?o/ieee e iin?aieee (elementary and secondary school text
books). Aeaeathoueny aeey ii/aoeiai? oa na?aaeiuei? oeiee.

I?ae?o/ieee e iin?aieee aeey eieaaeae?a e oi?aa?neoao?a (college and
university text books). I?ecia/ai? a ia?oo /a?ao aeey nooaeaio?a
eieaaeae?a. Noaea iioe?aiith i?aeoeea a?ioo?oaaiiy iaa/aeueieo
iaoa??ae?a, i?ae?a?aieo ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia caiiaeaiiy.

Aeaeo?iii? eieaeeia? aeaeaiiy. Aeaeo?iiia aeaeaiiy (electronic
publication) — oea ii?aoeueiaaiee ?aaeaeoe??th ? aeiouaiee o na?o oa??
aai aeieoiaio, o?ce/iith oi?iith ?nioaaiiy yeiai ? aai iaai?oiee
(iaai?oia no??/ea, iaai?oiee aeene), aai iioe/iee (iioe/iee aeene), aai
iaai?oiiioe/iee (iaai?oiiioe/iee aeene) iin?e ?ioi?iaoe??, aai
ii?aeiaiiy oeeo iin??a c ?ioeie iin?yie ?ioi?iaoe?? (iai?eeeaae, c
iaia?ii) ? aeey iiaiiai aai /anoeiaiai a?aeoai?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? yeiai
iaia’yceiai aeei?enoiao?oueny aeaeo?iiiee i?eno??e. Caeaaeii a?ae
oa?aeoa?o cao?eniaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ??ciiaeae?a ?? iin??a aeaeo?iii?
eieaeeia? aeaeaiiy iiae?eythoueny ia: iiiiiaae?a-eieae,
ioeueoeiaae?a-eieae, iie?iaae?a-eieae, a?ia?iaae?a-eieae,
oaeaiaae?a-eieae.

Iiiiiaae?a-eieae — aeaeo?iii? aeaeaiiy, a yeeo aeei?enoiao?oueny aai
oaeno, aai caoe, aai a?aeaicia?aaeaiiy, cao?eniaai? ia iaeiiio iin??.

I?eeeaaeaie oaeeo aeaeaiue iiaeooue aooe aoae?ieieaeee (audiobooks).
Aoae?ieieaeee iio??aii a?ae??ciyoe a?ae caoeiaeo eiea (talking books),
eio?? yaeythoue niaith niaoe?aeuei? aeaeaiiy o caoeia?e oi?i?,
i?ecia/ai? aeey ne?ieo oa in?a c ?ioeie o?ce/ieie aaaeaie. Cae/aeia
aoae?ieieaeea neeaaea?oueny c iaai?o aoae?ieanao, ia yeeo caienaii oa??
o oe?ieiio cia/aii? oeueiai neiaa, e icaeiaeaiiai eiioaeia?a aeey ?o
caa??aaiiy. A?eueo?noue eiioaeia??a iathoue noaiaea?oi? ?ici??e: oe?eio
4,25—4,5 aetheia (107,95—114,3 ii) ? aenioo 7 aethei?a (177,8 ii), —
oi/a aoaathoue

? aeiyoee. Aeioneathoueny aoae?ieieaeee ye nooi aoae?iaeaeaaieoeoaaie,
oae ? niaoe?ae?ciaaieie i?ae?icae?eaie aai aei/??i?ie eiiiai?yie
o?aaeeoe?eieo eieaeeiaeo aeaeaaieoeoa. ?ic?aoiaai? ia ??ci? a?eia? e
nioe?aeuei? eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy. Oaiaoe/iee ? aeai?iaee niaeo?
aoae?ieieaeie aeoaea oe?ieee, aiie ia’?aeiothoueny a iaai? na???. Oe?aae
aoae?ieieaeee iiaea nyaaoe e?eueeio nioaiue oeny/ i?ei??iee?a.
I?iaeathoueny aoae?ieieaeee a o?aaeeoe?eieo eieaa?iyo, iaaaceiao
iiaea?oie?a, e?ea?iyo oiui. Aiie oaeiae ?icneeathoueny iiooith ca
ae?oeiaaieie e aeaeo?iiieie eaoaeiaaie. C’yaeeeny ??ci? ia’?aeiaiiy,
iia’ycai? c aoae?ieieaeeaie. Ca e?au? aoae?ieieaeee i?enoaeaeothoueny
niaoe?aeuei? i?ai??. O??ie (Iae?ae ?iei?ii?aeoeae( (Audible Inc.), oa
(Iae?a oaeaae( (Audio Highway) aeathoue ciiao niiaeeaa/ai caaaioaaeoaaoe
aoae?iiaoa??aee, aeei?enoiaoth/e ia?aaeo (?ioa?iao( (Internet), ?
a?aeoai?thaaoe ?o ca aeiiiiiaith ia?niiaeueieo eiii(thoa??a aai
niaoe?aeueieo eeoaiueeiaeo eiii(thoa?ieo iea???a.

Ioeueoeiaae?a-eieae — aeaeo?iii? aeaeaiiy, a yeeo aeei?enoiaothoueny
e?i?eii i?aai?ciaai? oaeno, caoe oa a?aeaicia?aaeaiiy, cao?eniaai? ia
iaeiiio iin??.

Iie?iaae?a-eieae — aeaeo?iii? aeaeaiiy, a yeeo aeei?enoiaothoueny
oaeno, caoe oa a?aeaicia?aaeaiiy, cao?eniaai? ia ??cieo iin?yo.
Iiioey?ieie ? aeaeaiiy, ui yaeythoue niaith ii?aeiaiiy ae?oeiaaii? eieae
e eiiiaeo-aeenea.

A?ia?iaae?a-eieae — aeaeo?iii? aeaeaiiy, a yeeo aeei?enoiaothoueny
iae?i?eii i?aai?ciaai? oaeno, caoe oa a?aeaicia?aaeaiiy, cao?eniaai? ia
iaeiiio iin??. A?ia?iaae?a-eieaa neeaaea?oueny c? noi??iie, iaeiae, ia
a?aei?io a?ae ae?oeiaaii? eieae, ?? noi??iee ooai?ththoue ia e?i?eio, a
ia?aaeaao no?oeoo?o. O eiaeiiio aoce? ia?aae? — noi??ioe? eieae —
i?noeoueny ?ioi?iaoe?y, iiaeaia ia o?eueee o aeaeyae? oaenoo, a e o
aeaeyae? a?ao?ee, ai?iaoe??, caoeo, a?aeai. O??ia (Iuethai i?ae?a( (Nuvo
Media) ? o??ia (Niooaoe i?an ?iei?ii?aeoeae( (SoftBook Press Inc.)
aeioneathoue ii?oaoeai? i?eno?i? — a?aeiia?aeii (?ie?oaoe( (RocketBook)
? (Niooaoe( (SoftBook), — i?ecia/ai? aeey /eoaiiy eieaeie o oeeo?ia?e
oi?i?, eio?? iioe?ththoueny ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aae? (?ioa?iao(. Aeey
iicia/aiiy oaeeo i?eno?i?a a aia?eeainuee?e niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo??
aaeeaa?oueny oa?i?i (??aea?( (reader). Eieaa?i? iniauathoueny
niaoe?aeueieie eiii’thoa?ieie oa?i?iaeaie, i?ecia/aieie aeey
caaaioaaeaiiy aeaeo?iiieo oaeno?a o ??aea?e.

Oaeaiaae?a-eieae — aeaeo?iii? aeaeaiiy, a yeeo aeei?enoiaothoueny
oaeno, caoe, a?aeaicia?aaeaiiy, cao?eniaai? ia iaeiiio /e e?eueeio
iin?yo, oa ?ioi?iaoe?eii-oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? oaoiieia??.

O eieaiaeaeaaie/?e e?oa?aoo?? NOA cacia/ai? aeua ??ciiaeaee aeaeo?iiieo
aeaeaiue ocaaaeueiaii iaceaathoueny nenoaiaie ioeueoeiaae?a (multimedia
systems).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? — (Nenoaia no/anii? eieaiaeaeaaie/i?
aaeoc? Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee( — aeine?aeaeothoueny no?oeoo?a aaeoc?
e iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?? iaaieo aeaiaio?a, ieoaiiy iaiaaeaeiaioo
e i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a aeaeaaieoeoa, ieoaiiy eieaeeiaiai ia?eaoeiao
e iaeaoaeoeai?o? eaiaee eieaiiioe?aiiy, a oaeiae aaoi?nueea i?aai ye
iaeei ?c aieiaieo /eiiee?a, ui ?aaoeththoue ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeoc?.

No?oeoo?a aaeoc? e iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?? aeaiaio?a. Aeoiaey/e c
oiai, ui a NOA iaia? oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy
eieaiaeaeaaie/ith aaeoccth ? ui aca?ieie i?ae noa’?eoaie
eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ae?yeueiino? anoaiiaeththoueny ca caeiiaie a?eueiiai
?eieo, aeey oe?eae aeine?aeaeaiiy aeioe?eueii aaaaeaoe, ui oey aaeocue ?
ia’?iiith nenoaiith, eio?a neeaaea?oueny c aaaaoueio ??ciiye?nieo
eiiiiiaio?a, eiaeiee c yeeo, o naith /a?ao, ooai?aiee neeaaeieie
???a?o?/ieie (ci?yieie( nenoaiaie aeaiaio?a o oi?i? eoe?, o oeaio?? yei?
ciaoiaeeoueny eieaeeiaa aeaeaaieoeoai (ine?eueee naia aiii aioo? ?
aeionea? eieaeeiao i?iaeoeoe?th), a ia iiaa?oi? — ?io? noa’?eoe —
aeaiaioe, /a?ac ye? i?ioiaeyoue ieiueie aaaaoueio aei???a nenoaie. Aei
oaeeo noa’?eo?a, cie?aia, iaeaaeaoue: aaoi?e, e?oa?aoo?i? aaaioe,
iaeaaeaea?e, aaeaieaoe, (?ica?aeieee(, iicaooaoi? i?aoe?aieee
aeaeaaieoeoa, iie?a?ao?/i? i?aei?e?inoaa; ae?iaieee onoaoeoaaiiy,
i?ia?ai, iaia?o, eea?a, oeaiei, oa?a, ieoie oiui; ia?aae?
eieaiiioe?aiiy, i?aai?caoe??, ui cae?eniththoue i?aeaioiaeo eaae??a,
iaoeiaa, o?iainiaa oa iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy
eieaiaeaeaaie/i? noa?e, caa??aaiiy, aea?aeaaio a?ae?ia?ao?th ?
noaoenoeeo eiea; nenoaie oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e ? iiooiaiai ca’yceo.

Eieaeeiaa aeaeaaieoeoai (publishing house) — i?aei?e?inoai, ui
cae?enith? i?aeaioiaeo e aeione eieaeeiai? i?iaeoeoe??. Aeaeaaieoeoaa
aoaathoue ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? e ??cii? i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e.
Iniiai? ooieoe?? eieaeeiaiai aeaeaaieoeoaa NOA aoaeue-yeiai oeio a
iniiaiiio oae? nai?, ye ? ooieoe?? eieaeeiaeo aeaeaaieoeoa Oe?a?ie.
Oi?iaeiaae inoaii?o ?ie?a iii?oii ci?ieeanue i?aai?caoe?y i?aoe?
i?aeoe/ii ia an?o noaae?yo aeaeaaie/iai i?ioeano i?ae aieeaii
aeaeo?iiiiai oaeoi?a. Ci?noia? ooieoe?? aeaeaaie/iai oeeeeo caeeoeeeny
i?e oeueiio oeie naieie,

a i?ioeaaeo?a e ii?yaeie ?o aeeiiaiiy ??cei ci?ieeeny.

E?oa?aoo?iee aaaio (literary agent) — o?ce/ia /e th?eaee/ia iniaa,
eio?a ? a?cianiaei i?aaenoaaieeii aaoi??a. E?oa?aoo?i? aaaioe iiaeathoue
aaoi?nuee? i?ea?iaee aeaeaaoeyi, i?iaiaeyoue ia?aaiai?e noiniaii
oeeaaeaiiy aeaeaaie/eo aeiaiai??a, ia?aeiiothoue aeaeaaoe?a iineeeoe
ia?eaoeiaia? caoiaee aeey ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a i?iaeaaeo a?aeiia?aeieo
oai??a, aaaeooue iae?e aaoi?nueeeo aiii?a??a, i?iaeathoue noaneae?a?i?
(subsidiary), aai aeiaeaoeia?, i?aaa aai caioi/othoue aeaeaaoe?a
i?iaeaaaoe oae? i?aaa a?eueo iaiieaaeeai. Aaaioe iiaeooue aeaoe
?aaeaeoi?nueeo ii?aaeo, aea aiie ia cae?eniththoue aeeaiea ii?aoethaaiiy
oai?o ?, ye i?aaeei, ia i?eeiathoue oai?e, ui iio?aaothoue cia/iiai
?aaeaeoi?nueeiai ii?aoethaaiiy. Ca naith i?aoeth aaaio iaea?aeo?
eii?n?ei? a ?ici??? 10—15% aaoi?nueeeo aiii?a??a o ?ac? i?iaeaaeo
iaoa??ae?a aaoi?a-a?iiaaeyieia NOA ? i?eiaeii? 20% aaoi?nueeeo
aiii?a??a, yeui e?oa?aoo?iee aaaio NOA a?ae ?iai? aaoi?a ia? ae?eia?
noinoiee c ?iicaiiei aaaioii.

Aaeaieao (lawyer) — o?ce/ia iniaa, eio?a ? a?cianiaei i?aaenoaaieeii
aaoi??a. ?noioia a?aei?ii?noue i?ae e?oa?aoo?iei aaaioii e aaeaieaoii
iieyaa? a oiio, ui aaeaieao ia cae?enith? aei?aaeaeoe?eia ii?aoethaaiiy
i?ea?iaeo, ia caeia?oueny iiooeaie aeaeaaoe?a, ia iiaea? i?ea?iae, a
i?aaenoaaey? aaoi?a, eiee oie oaea ciaeoia aeaeaaoey ? i?ia?a ?c iei
iiia?aaei? ia?aaiai?e. Aeiyoie noaiiaeoue aeoaea iacia/ia e?euee?noue
aaeaieao?a, ye? oi?aaeythoue aeanieie th?eaee/ieie o??iaie. *anii aaoi?e
iaeiathoue aaeaieao?a o oiae? aai i?ney oeeaaeaiiy aeaeaaie/iai
aeiaiai?o.

Iaeaaeaea? (packager, book packager, book producer) — o?ce/ia /e
th?eaee/ia iniaa, eio?a niaoe?ae?co?oueny ia cae?aii? iaoa??ae?a,
iaiao?aeieo aeey aeaeaiiy eieae, ia i?aeaioiaoe? ?o aei aeaeaiiy, a
oaeiae ia i?iaeaaeo noai?aii? a oaeee niin?a ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino?
aeaeaaieoeoaai aeey ioae?eaoe??.

(?ica?aeiee( (scout) — o?ce/ia iniaa, eio?o iaeia? aeaeaaaoeue aai
e?oa?aoo?iee aaaio aeey iiooeo iiaeo, ia?niaeoeaieo aaoi??a aai
aeaeaaie/eo i?iaeo?a, a oaeiae ?aeae aeey noai?aiiy iiaeo eiea.

Eieaeeiaee eeoa (book club) — i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a, ui cae?enith?
i?iaeaae eiea iiooith, cae/aeii ca a?eueo iecueeeie oe?iaie ii??aiyii c
oe?iaie a ?icae??ai?e oi?a?ae?, ? eeoa /eaiai, ye? i?aeienaee eiio?aeo
i?i oaeee aeae ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

On? eieaeeia? eeoae iiae?eythoueny ia oae? aeaee: e?oa?aoo?i?
(caaaeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy), niaoe?ae?ciaai?, i?ioan?ei?, ?ae?a?ei? oa
aeeoy/?.

Oi?aiaaeueiee i?aaenoaaiee aeaeaaieoeoaa (book traveler, publisher’s
representative, sales representative) — eii?aiyaea? aeaeaaieoeoaa, yeee
a?aea?aeo? iioaioe?eieo iieoioe?a (eieaii?iaeaaoe?a, a?ae?ioaea??a,
ea??aiee?a oaeoeueoao?a oi?aa?neoao?a, iioiaeo oi?aiaoe?a, aaaio?a ?c
caeoi?ae? eiea oiui) e iciaeiieth? ?o ?c iiaith i?iaeoeoe??th
aeaeaaieoeoaa, aeei?enoiaoth/e c?acee aai eaoaeiae.

Iacaeaaeiee aeeno?ea’thoi? (independent distributor) — o??ia, ui
niaoe?ae?co?oueny ia iinoa/aii? eiea a iaeeaaeeioe? e aeo?iae?a o
aacaoii-aeo?iaeuei? e?inee, noia?ia?eaoe oa ?io? iiae?ai? ?icae??ai?
oi/ee, a ia a cae/aeio eieaioi?aiaaeueio ia?aaeo. Aiia ae??, ye i?aaeei,
ia i?noeaaiio aai ?aa?iiaeueiiio ?eieo.

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aeeno?ea’thoi? (national distributor) — o??ia, ui ca
aei?o/aiiyi aeaeaaieoeoaa aai ?ioi? i?aai?caoe?? cae?a? caiiaeaiiy a?ae
i?noeaaeo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo aeeno?ea’thoi??a, a oaeiae i?aai?co? aeeiiaiiy
oeeo caiiaeaiue. Aaeee? aeaeaaieoeoaa eiea a iaeeaaeeioe? aeey ianiaiai
?eieo nai? ? iaoe?iiaeueieie aeeno?ea’thoi?aie, eio?? i?aoeththoue ca
aei?o/aiiyi ?ioeo aeaeaaieoeoa aai iioe?ththoue eeoa eieae aeaniiai
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aeaeiaaa? (jobber) — o??ia, ui caeoiiao? aaeee? ia?o?? eiia?oe?eieo
aeaeaiue o iae?oo?oe? e iaeeaaeeioe? aeey iiaeaeueoiai ia?ai?iaeaaeo
eieaeeiaei iaaaceiai aai a?ae?ioaeai.

Iioiaee oi?aiaaoeue (iioiaee ) (wholesaler) — o??ia, ui caeoiiao? o
aaeeeeo ianyaao eieae, ia?aaaaeii aeaeaiiy a iaeeaaeeioe? aeey ianiaiai
?eieo, c iaoith iioe?aiiy /a?ac aacaoii-aeo?iaeuei? e?inee, a oaeiae
iiae?ai? aei ieo i?noey i?iaeaaeo.

Iacaeaaeiee aaaio (mailing-list broker) — o?ce/ia iniaa, eio?a
i?aaenoaaey? ?ioa?ane i?iaeaaoey aai iieoioey niene?a ?icneeee ?aeeaiieo
iaoa??ae?a (iaaeneeathoueny iioaioe?eiei iieoioeyi ?c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy
caiiaeaiiy).

Iacaeaaeia eieaa?iy (independent bookstore) — ?icae??aia eieaeeiaa
oi?aiaaeueia i?aei?e?inoai, ui ia ia? aaciina?aaei?o ca’yce?a i? c
?aa?iiaeueieie, i? c iaoe?iiaeueieie eieaeeiaeie ia?aaeaie.

Aaaio ?c ia?aaeieaoe (subscription agent) — i?aai?caoe?y, ui cae?enith?
ia?aaeieaoo e?oa?aoo?e aeey a?ae?ioae.

A?ae?ioaee (libraries). O NOA an? a?ae?ioaee iiae?eythoueny ia:
iaoe?iiaeuei? (national), iaoeia? (academic), ioae?/i? (public),
oe?euei? (school), niaoe?aeuei? (special). Caaaeyee ?icaeoeo
?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoi?ee e oaoiieia?? noai?ththoueny oeeo?ia? a?ae?ioaee
(digital libraries). Oeae i?ioean iio?aao? ?ica’ycaiiy ?yaeo
aeiiii?/ieo, oaoi?/ieo oa th?eaee/ieo i?iaeai. Iaa?oue yeui c /anii oae?
i?iaeaie aoaeooue ?ica’ycai?, ia iiaeia i/?eoaaoe, ui oeeo?ia?
a?ae?ioaee iiai?noth cai?iyoue o?aaeeoe?ei?, ine?eueee a?ae?ioaee
caaaeaee aoee ia eeoa c?a?aiiyie iin??a ?ioi?iaoe??, a e eoeueoo?ieie
ina?aaeeaie noni?euenoaa, ? oiio NOA aoaeooue ? iaaeae? aeieeaaeaoe
coneeey, uia caa??aaoe ?oeiieni?, ae?oeiaai? oa ?io? c?a?aiiy, o oiio
/ene? oeeo?ia?, aeey iaeaooi?o iieie?iue /eoa/?a.

Aeaea?aea o?iainiai? i?aeo?eiee aeaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo oai??a (sources
of grants for publication) — ??ci? aaiee, oiiaee, niiini?e oiui.

Eieaiaeaeaaie/? e noi?aei? ia’?aeiaiiy (book-publishing and cooperating
associations).

Aeey iaeaea aoaeue-yei? anioe?aoe?? oao?aoe?a o aaeoc? eieaeeiai? ni?aae
iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie ?: ?ic?iaea no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ia iniia? ei?ioei-
e aeiaaino?ieiaeo i?ia?ai; oaeineiiaeaiiy aeaeaaie/iai,
a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai, a?ae?ioa/iiai oa ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy;
i?aaenoaaeaiiy i?ioan?eieo ?ioa?an?a ia?aae aea?aeaaith ? noni?euenoaii,
a oaeiae ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai?; ni?eyiiy iai?io ?ioi?iaoe??th ye a
ia’?aeiaiiyo, oae ? iica ieie; aeione niaoe?aeueieo ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiue, eio?? noinothoueny iioi/ii? ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? e
?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue; i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee. ?nio? e?eueea iniiaieo iiaeaeae /eainoaa a anioe?aoe?yo.

Iaiaaeaeiaio e i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a aeaeaaieoeoa. Oai??y oa i?aeoeea
iaiaaeaeiaioo noi?ioaaee aaaaoi oei?a no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy. A iniiao ?o
iiaoaeiae iieeaaeaii aeaa i?eioeeie — e?i?eiee ? ooieoe?iiaeueiee. Naia
aiie e noai?ththoue eiia?iaoe?th ??cieo oei?a no?oeoo?, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny ne??cue — a?ae iaeeo aeaeaaieoeoa aei aaeeeeo
aeaeaaie/eo ei?ii?aoe?e. I?aai?caoe?y aoaeue-yeiai aeaeaaieoeoaa
a?aeia?aaea? eiai ?noi??th, i??i?eoaoe ye o oai?/iio, oae ? a ae?eiaiio
ieai?, eiai ?ici??e ? noeeue oi?aae?iiy. Iaei? eiiiai?? i?eae?eythoue
iniaeeao oaaao ?aaeaeoe?eiei i?iaeaiai, ?io? — o?iainiaei,
ia?eaoeiaiaei. Iiaeeea? ??ci? aa??aioe i?aai?caoe?? ooaoo aeaeaaieoeoaa.

A?aei?iiino? a ooaoiiio ?icien? aeaeaaieoeoa caeaaeaoue ? a?ae iaoe,
ianooaao oa iie?oeee o??ie, a oaeiae a?ae ianyao i?aoe?, eio?ee
aei?o/a?oueny ciai?oi?i i?aai?caoe?yi ? iacaeaaeiei iniaai. Iacae iinaae
oaeiae ??ciyoueny, oiio ieae/a iaaiaeeii oeiia?: ea??aiee aeaeaaieoeoaa
(head of house); aieiaiee ?aaeaeoi? (editor-in-chief)
(a?aeiia?aeaeueiee ?aaeaeoi? — executive editor, aeaeaaaoeue —
publisher, a?oea-i?aceaeaio ?c ?aaeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe — editorial
vice-president); ?aaeaeoi? ?c iaaeoiaeaeaiue (procurement editor)
(noa?oee ?aaeaeoi? — senior editor, ?aaeaeoi? i?iaeoo — project editor);
?aaeaeoi?-ea??aiee (managing editor); iii?/iee ?aaeaeoi?a (associate
editor, assistant editor) (?aaeaeoi? — editor); ?aaeaeoi? oaenoo
(manuscript editor); ?aaeaeoi? ?c aea??ee (copy editor); oaoi?/iee
aee?aeoi? (technology director); aee?aeoi? ?c ae?iaieoeoaa (production
director) (ea?oth/ee ae?iaieoeoaii — production manager, manufacturing
manager, a?oea-i?aceaeaio ?c ae?iaieoeoaa — vice-president of
production); eii?aeeiaoi? ae?iaieoeoaa (production coordinator);
neeaaea/ eiooi?eno aeo?ao (cost estimator); iii?/iee ?c ae?iaieoeoaa
(production assistant); aieiaiee ooaeiaeiee (art director) (aee?aeoi? ?c
aeecaeio — design director); aeecaeia? (designer) (ooaeiaeiee — artist,
iii?/iee aieiaiiai ooaeiaeieea — associate art director); aee?aeoi? ?c
ia?eaoeiao (marketing director) (a?oea-i?aceaeaio ?c ia?eaoeiao —
marketing vice-president); iaiaaeaea? ?c aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo (market
research manager); iii?/iee ?c ia?eaoeiao (marketing assistant);
iaiaaeaea? c? caooo (sales manager); oi?aiaaeueiee i?aaenoaaiee (sales
representative); iaiaaeaea? c? noeioethaaiiy caooo (sales promotion
manager) (iaiaaeaea? ?c ?aeeaie e noeioethaaiiy caooo — advertising and
sales promotion manager); iaiaaeaea? ?c ?aeeaie (advertising manager);
iaiaaeaea? c? noai?aiiy i?eoeeueii? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee (publicity
manager, publicist); iaiaaeaea? c aaoi?nueeeo i?aa ? aeicaie?a
(copyrights and permissions manager); iaiaaeaea? ?c noaneae?a?ieo i?aa
(subsidiary rights manager); iaiaaeaea? ?c ieoaiue caiiaeaiue, ?aooie?a,
ieaoaae?a, e?aaeeo?a, neeaaeoaaiiy oa a?aeaaioaaeaiiy i?iaeoeoe??
(fulfillment manager); ea?oth/ee ni?aaaie (business manager).

Ia?eaoeia ? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/iai i?ioeano. O
ca’yceo c oei, ui eieaiaeaeaaie/a aaeocue NOA ooieoe?iio? a oiiaao
ia?aiane/aiiy ?eieo, aeine?aeaeaii iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? iniaeeaino?
i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie eieaiiioe?aiiy, cie?aia ia?aaaae, ui ?o
caaacia/othoue aeaeiaaa?e, eieaeeia? eeoae, ?icae??ai? oi?aiaoe?,
aeeno?ea’thoi?e, iioiaeee, i?iaeaae eiea iiooith, niaoe?aeuei? aeaee
i?iaeaaeo, aeei?enoaiiy ia?aae? (?ioa?iao(.

Aeaeiaaa?e. Iaeia?oa ia?eaoeiaiaa ia?aaaaa, eio?o aeaeiaaa? caaacia/o?
nai?io ee??ioo, — nai?/ani?noue. Iaeaea a on?o aeiaaeeao eieaa?iy ia?
iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaoe o? /e ?io? eieae ia cia/ii aea?aei?oeo oiiaao
aaciina?aaeiuei a?ae aeaeaaoey (/anoi cieaeea, ui iaaea?oueny, ia 2—8%
ia?aaeuo? cae/aeio). Aeaeiaaa?e aeinoaaeythoue eieae caiiaieeo
ai?iaeiaae iaeiiai — o?ueio aei?a i?ney ?o aeioneo aeaeaaieoeoaaie, a
aeania aeaeaaieoeoaa iiaeooue caaacia/eoe aeinoaaeo caiiaeaieo eiea
oi?iaeiaae aeaio — /ioe?ueio oeaei?a.

Eieaeeia? eeoae. *eaiai eeoao iaaeneeathoueny a oiio /e ?ioiio aeaeyae?
iia?aeiieaiiy, a yeeo eeoa i?iiiio? aeey i?eaeaaiiy ia?ae?e aeaeaiue.
Aaaaoi eieaeeiaeo eeoa?a aoaeothoue naith ae?yeuei?noue ca i?eioeeiii
iaaaoeaiiai iioe?iio. Oea icia/a?, ui eiee /eai eeoao ia aaaea?
i?eaeaaoe cai?iiiiiaaio eieao, oiae? a?i ia? iia?aeiieoe i?i oea eeoa.
sseui oaea ?ioi?iaoe?y a?ae /eaia eeoao ia iaaeoiaeeoue, oi a?i
iaea?aeo? eieao aaoiiaoe/ii. I?ney oiai, ye /eai eeoao eoieoue
iaoiiaeaio e?euee?noue eiea, o iueiai c’yaey?oueny i?aai ia io?eiaiiy
eieaeeiaiai aeea?aeaiaeo — aaceiooiaii? eieae aai aeaeaiiy ca cieaeaiith
oe?iith.

?icae??ai? oi?aiaoe? (retailers). Ia?aaea ?icae??aieo eieaa?aiue
(bookstore

chain) — oea eieaioi?aiaaeueia i?aei?e?inoai, ui, ye i?aaeei,
neeaaea?oueny c oeaio?aeueiiai aia?aoo e /eneaiieo i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo ?
i?aeca?oieo eiio ?icae??aieo eieaa?aiue. Ca ianooaaaie ae?yeueiino?
?ic??ciythoue iaoe?iiaeuei?, ?a??iiaeuei? oa i?noeaa? ia?aae?. Aeina?ae
NOA na?ae/eoue, ui /ei a?eueoa ia?aaea, oei a?eueoa iiaeeeainoae
noai?eoe nenoaio iaaacei?a, ??cieo ca ?ici??ii ? niaoe?ae?caoe??th,
eio?? a?aeiia?aeathoue iaai?e i?noeaaino?. Ia?aae? iathoue aaeeeo
caeoi?aaeueio aeaaeo e caaacia/othoue aeiiii?th, coiiaeaio c?inoaiiyi
ianooaao ae?iaieoeoaa. Cia/ia /anoeia iaaaeeeeo ia?aae i?aeoeeo?
i?iaeaae ??ciiiai?oieo iaeieaeeiaeo oiaa??a. C’yaeeeny eieaa?i?, ui
ianeoaiaothoue iieoioe?a ca aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?ieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
ia?aae o ae?aeiaiaiio ?aaeei?. Iino?eii ?icieaathoueny iaae?, ui
aecia/athoue naia iiiyooy (eieaa?iy(. Noia?eieaa?i? ana /ano?oa e o
a?eueoeo e?eueeinoyo oeeth/athoue aei naiai ani?oeiaioo iaeieaeeia?
oiaa?e. A on?o ?nioth/eo o??iao iii?oii ca?eueoeeany e?euee?noue ia?aae
iaaacei?a, ye? niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia i?iaeoeoe??
ina?oiuei-?icaaaeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o — a?ae eieaeeiai? aei aeaeo?iiii?.
?icoe?th?oueny oi?a?aey eieaaie a iaaaceiao, ui niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia
oi?a?ae? oiaa?aie iaeiiai i?io?eth.

Aeeno?ea’thoi?, aoaeo/e niaoe?ae?ciaaiith ia iinoaaeao eieaeeiai?
i?iaeoeoe?? ? aeia?a oaoi?/ii iniauaiith oiaa?ii-aeniaaeeoe?eiith
o??iith, iiaeiai o iaeneiaeueii ei?ioeee no?ie caaacia/eoe i?ioiaeaeaiiy
eieae a?ae aeaeaaieoeoaa aei iaaaceio e i?iaanoe cayaeo ia eieao a?ae
iaaaceio aei aeaeaaieoeoaa. Aei eiai ae ooieoe?e aoiaeeoue ioi?ieaiiy
an??? aeieoiaioaoe?? ia eoieth-i?iaeaae i?ae aeaeaaieoeoaii ? iaaaceiii
? i?iaaaeaiiy a?ioiaeo ?ic?aooie?a. Aeanieeii eiea, ui /a?ac iueiai
i?ioiaeyoue, a?i ia noa?, a i?aoeth? ia eii?n?eieo canaaeao ia iniia?
aeiaaino?ieiaiai eiio?aeoo. Aeeno?ea’thoi? ciaia’ycaiee a?aoe anth
eieaeeiao i?iaeoeoe?th, eio?o eiio i?iiiio? aeaeaaieoeoai.

Iioiaee oi?aiaaoeue, aai iioiaee. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeeno?ea’thoi?a,
iioiaee caeoiiao? o aeaeaaieoeoa aaeee? ia?o?? eiea, a iio?i iinoa/a? ?o
?icae??aiei oi?aiaoeyi. Iioiaeee cae/aeii ia oeeaaeathoue ?c
aeaeaaieoeoaaie aeiaaino?ieia? eiio?aeoe. Ani?oeiaio ia neeaae? iioiai?
o??ie aecia/a? naia o??ia, a a aeeno?ea’thoi?a a?i aecia/a?oueny
aeaeaaieoeoaaie, c yeeie a?i ni?ai?aoeth?.

I?iaeaae eiea iiooith (mail selling). Aeaeaaieoeoaa eiia?oe?eii?
e?oa?aoo?e canoiniaothoue i?iaeaae eiea iiooith a eiai iaea?eueo
eiina?aaoeai?e oi?i?: nii/aoeo aeaeathoue eieao, a iio?i ooeathoue
iieoioe?a. Aeaeaaieoeoaa, eio?? aeioneathoue eieae, ui i?ecia/ai? aeey
iioe?aiiy ca caiiaeaiiyie oeyoii i?iaeaaeo iiooith, aeei?enoiaothoue
i?eioeeiiai ?ioo oaoiieia?th: aea/athoue nai?o iioaioe?eieo iieoioe?a,
?oi? caieoe e iio?aae e eeoa i?ney oeueiai noai?ththoue eieao.
Aeaeaaieoeoaa ae?oaiai oeio ?aae?cothoue iiaeeeaino? i?iaeaaeo eiea
iiooith ia iaoeia?e iniia?.

Niaoe?aeuei? aeaee i?iaeaaeo (special sales). Oi?ia iioe?aiiy eiea a
iao?ae cae/aeieo oeyo?a (aeaeiaaa? — iioiaee oi?aiaaoeue — eieaa?iy).
Aei oe??? oi?ie iaeaaeeoue e i?aai?caoe?y niaoe?aeueieo aeione?a
aeaeaiue a?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa ? caieo?a iaaiiai ?eieo e iaaii? a?oie
/eoa/?a.

Ia?aaea (?ioa?iao(. C iaoith iaeaoaeoeai?oiai aeei?enoaiiy ia?aae?
(?ioa?iao( aeaeaaieoeoaa aeio?eiothoueny oaei? no?aoaa??. Ianaiia?aae
iaiaaathoueny noai?eoe e ca?a?no?oaaoe a ia?aae? aeani? Web-aocee (Web
sites) — nai???aei? eaoaeiae Web-noi??iie (Web pages) — aeieoiaio?a Web.
I?ney oeueiai aeaeaaieoeoaa ?a?no?othoue (aeiiai( (domain name), oiaoi
aeaniee aeaiaio ?iai? ei?enooaa/a. Iio?i aeaeaaieoeoaa noai?ththoue
Web-noi??iee. Aeaeaaieoeoaa ?ioaineaii iaeaaiaeaeothoue ? i?aeo?eiothoue
o?ni? ae?eia? ca’ycee c aeanieeaie ?ioeo Web-aoce?a, i?eae?eyth/e
iniaeeao oaaao eiiiai?yi, eio?? i?iaeathoue eieae, aeei?enoiaoth/e
ia?aaeo „?ioa?iao( o ae?aeiaiaiio ?aaeei?. Aei iaea?eueoeo oaeeo
eiiiai?e iaeaaeaoue: Amazon.com, Barnesandnoble.com, Books.com oa
Borders.com (oe? iacae aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iiooeo a ia?aae?
(?ioa?iao(). Ani?oeiaio ?oiuei? i?iaeoeoe?? aeoaea aaeeeee. Iaeiae
i?yiee i?iaeaae eiea ?c aeei?enoaiiyi ia?aae? „?ioa?iao( coiiaeth?
a?eueo? i?eaooee e aeiiiiaaa? aeaeaaieoeoaai caaithaaoe ?aiooaoe?th a
/eoa/?a. Ia nai?o Web-noi??ieao aeaeaaieoeoaa iia?aeiieythoue i?i
caoiaee, eio?eo aiie aaeeaathoue ca o/anoth aaoi??a, aaaeooue nienee
iaeyaea/?a, niiaeeaa/?a oiui. Aiie oaeiae i?aeo?eiothoue niaoe?aeuei?
Web-noi??iee aeey iaaieo a?oi /eoa/?a ca ?oi?ie ?ioa?anaie, oiaoi
noai?ththoue naith /eoaoeueeo aoaeeoi??th. Aeey ?ici?uaiiy aeanieo
?aeeaiieo iaoa??ae?a aeaeaaieoeoaa eoiothoue i?noea ia Web-aoceao ??cieo
eiiiai?e.

O NOA iioe?aia oae caaia ia?aaeaaa eieaiaeaeaiiy (net book-publishing),
nooi?noue yeiai iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaai? ienueiaiieee (web writers)
noai?ththoue eieae o?eueee a oeeo?ia?e oi?i? e i?iiiiothoue ?o
aaciina?aaeiuei /eoa/ai o ia?aae? „?ioa?iao(. ? ? niaoe?ae?ciaai? o??ie,
eio?? aeenoaioe?eii caaaioaaeothoue oae? eieae a eiii’thoa?e /eoa/?a.
Iaea?aeii?oeie c ieo ? (A?ae?iaaeon( (Bibliobytes) e (Aeaeo?ii i?an(
(Electron Press). Caaaeyee ia?aaeaaiio eieaiaeaeaiith c’yaeeeny iiiyooy
ia?aaeaai? e?oa?aoo?e (online literature); ia?aaeaaiai, aai
e?aa?iaoe/iiai, i?iaeaaeo (online selling, aai cyberselling);
ia?aaeaaiai, aai e?aa?iaoe/iiai, i?eaeaaiiy (online shopping, aai
cybershopping); aeaeo?iiii? eiia?oe?? (e-commerce); aaciaia?iaiai
aeaeaaieoeoaa (paperless publisher). Ca e?au? oai?e ia?aaeaai?
e?oa?aoo?e i?enoaeaeothoueny niaoe?aeuei? i?ai??.

Oaea ?ic?iaey?oueny ?io?ano?oeoo?a eiii’thoa?ii? ia?aae? (?ioa?iao-2(
(Internet2), eio?a aoaea aaaaeaia a ae?th i?eaeecii a ae?oaiio i?a??//?
1999 ?. O i?e iiaeia aoaea ia?aaeaaaoe iaeaea ieoo?ai a oeeo?ia?e oi?i?
iaa/aeueio, i?ioan?eio, aeeoy/o oa ?ioo e?oa?aoo?o caaaeyee oiio, ui
iia?oi? oaoiieia?? coiiaeththoue noai?aiiy iiaeo i?iaeoeo?a ? eaiae?a ?o
aeinoaaee ?icae??aiei oi?aiaoeyi ? niiaeeaa/ai.

Aaoi?nueea i?aai ye iaeei ?c aieiaieo /eiiee?a, ui ?aaoeththoue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeoc?. I?ney cae?i/aiiy a?eie ca iacaeaaei?noue on?
eieeoi? eieii??, ca aeiyoeii Aeaeaaa?a, i?eeiyee caeiie, eio??
caaacia/oaaee iaaio ioi?iio aaoi?nueeeo i?aa. Aea oe? caeiie iaee
th?eaee/io neeo o?eueee a iaaeao a?aeiia?aeiiai ooaoo. Ia?oee
oaaea?aeueiee caeii i?i ioi?iio aaoi?nueeeo i?aa aoa ooaaeaiee 31 o?aaiy
1790 ?. Iinooiiai aaoi?nueei-i?aaiaa caeiiiaeaanoai aaeineiiaethaaeiny.

Aeaa’yoiaaeoeyoiai aeiaoiy 1976 ?. aoa ooaaeaiee caeii (I?i caaaeueiee
ia?aaeyae aaoi?nueeiai i?aaa, aeeeaaeaiiai a aeaaao 1—8 ?icae?eo 17
Caaaeaiiy caeii?a NOA, c ia?ao?aeieie e aeiaeaoeiaeie iieiaeaiiyie( (Act
for the General Revision of the Copyright Law, Chapters 1 Through 8 of
Title 17 of the United States Code, Together with Transitional and
Supplementary Provisions). Onoaiiaeai? oa?i?ie ae?? aaoi?nueeiai i?aaa
ia oai?e, ui aoee noai?ai? ca noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1978 ?. aai i?ci?oa.
Aaoi?nueea i?aai ia oae? oai?e ?nio? c iiiaioo noai?aiiy ?, ca aeiyoeii
iaaaaeaieo ieae/a aeiaaee?a, caa??aa?oueny ai?iaeiaae aeeooy aaoi?a e 50
?ie?a i?ney eiai nia?o?. sseui aaoi?aie oai?o ? aea? aai a?eueo i?ae
aea? iniae, eio?? ia i?aoethaaee ca iaeiii, oi aaoi?nueea i?aai
caa??aa?oueny ai?iaeiaae aeeooy aaoi?a, yeee inoaii?i caeeoeany aeeaei,
? 50 ?ie?a i?ney eiai nia?o?. sseui oa?? aiii?iiee, i?ae inaaaeii?iii
aai noai?aiee ca iaeiii, oi aaoi?nueea i?aai caa??aa?oueny ai?iaeiaae 75
?ie?a a?ae ?ieo eiai ia?oi? ioae?eaoe?? aai ai?iaeiaae 100 ?ie?a a?ae
?ieo eiai noai?aiiy, caeaaeii a?ae oiai, yeee oa?i?i ne?i/eoueny ia?oei.
sseui aei cae?i/aiiy oaeiai oa?i?io iaeei aai e?eueea aaoi??a aiii?iiiai
oai?o /e oai?o i?ae inaaaeii?iii aoaeooue ?ice?eo? a ?a?no?aoe?eieo
caienao, ui noinothoueny aeaiiai oai?o, oi aaoi?nueea i?aai ia oa??
caa??aa?oueny ai?iaeiaae oa?i?i?a, onoaiiaeaieo aeey oai??a, aaoi?e yeeo
a?aeii?. Ia?aaeaa/ai? iniiai? caniae oa niiniae caoenoo aaoi?nueeeo i?aa
o ?ac? ?o ii?ooaiiy.

Oaeaeeee ?icaeoie iaoee e oaoi?ee, th?eaee/ia i?aeoeea, nioe?aeuei?,
aeiiii?/i? oa iie?oe/i? oaeoi?e coiiaeththoue ci?ie a aaoi?nueeiio
i?aa?, oiio iieiaeaiiy ?icae?eo 17 Caaaeaiiy caeii?a NOA iino?eii
aaeineiiaeththoueny. Aaea aioothoueny ci?ie aei aaoi?nueei-i?aaiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa c iaoith aianaiiy iieiaeaiue i?i ii?aeuei? i?aaa aaoi??a
? aa?iii?caoe?? oa?i?i?a ioi?iie aaoi?nueeeo ? noi?aeieo ?c oa?i?iaie,
onoaiiaeaieie aee?aeoeaith ?aaee ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco a?ae 29 aeiaoiy
1993 ?. ? 93/98/AAN.

Ca?aeii c? no. 1 iacaaii? aee?aeoeae i?aaa aaoi?a oai?o e?oa?aoo?e aai
ienoaoeoaa a cia/aii? no. 2 Aa?inueei? eiiaaioe?? ioi?iiythoueny
ai?iaeiaae aeeooy aaoi?a e 70 ?ie?a i?ney eiai nia?o?, iacaeaaeii a?ae
aeaoe, eiee oa?? ia caeiiieo i?aenoaaao noaa aeinooiiei aeey ioae?ee. O
?ac? noai?aiiy oai?o ni?aaaoi?aie a?aee?e 70-??/iiai oa?i?io
ii/eia?oueny a?ae nia?o? ni?aaaoi?a, eio?ee iiia? inoaii?i. sseui
eaeaoueny i?i aiii?iiee oa?? aai oa?? i?ae inaaaeii?iii, oi oa?i?i
ioi?iie noaiiaeoue 70 ?ie?a i?ney oiai, ye oa?? ia caeiiieo i?aenoaaao
noaa aeinooiiei aeey ioae?ee. Iaeiae, yeui acyoee aaoi?ii inaaaeii?i ia
aeeeeea? aeiaeieo noii?a?a noiniaii iniae aaoi?a aai yeui aaoi? ?ice?e?
na?e inaaaeii?i oi?iaeiaae oeacaiiai a iiia?aaeiueiio ?a/aii? oa?i?io,
oi oa?? ioi?iiy?oueny ai?iaeiaae aeeooy aaoi?a e 70 ?ie?a i?ney eiai
nia?o?. sse ia?aaeaa/aii no. 4, aoaeue-yea iniaa, eio?a i?ney cae?i/aiiy
oa?i?io ioi?iie aaoi?nueeiai i?aaa aia?oa ia caeiiieo i?aenoaaao
iioae?eiao? aai ia caeiiieo i?aenoaaao iia?aeiiey? ioae?oe? ?ai?oa
iaiioae?eiaaiee oa??, io?eio? ioi?iio, aea?aaeaioio ioi?ii? i?aa aaoi?a.
Oa?i?i ioi?iie oaeeo i?aa noaiiaeoue 25 ?ie?a a?ae /ano, eiee aeaiee
oa?? oia?oa ia caeiiieo i?aenoaaao aoa iioae?eiaaiee aai iia?aeiieaiee
ioae?oe?. No. 5 ia?aaeaa/a?, ui iaeneiaeueiee oa?i?i ioi?iie e?eoe/ieo ?
iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e noaiiaeoue

30 ?ie?a a?ae /ano, eiee ia caeiiieo i?aenoaaao aoea cae?eniaia ?o ia?oa
ioae?eaoe?y. Ca?aeii c? no. 7, yeui e?a?iith iioiaeaeaiiy oai?o ia ?
e?a?ia — /eai ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco aai yeui aaoi? ia ? a?iiaaeyieiii
e?a?ie — /eaia ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco, oi e?a?ie — /eaie oeueiai nithco
caaacia/othoue ioi?iio oai?o ai?iaeiaae oa?i?io, ia?aaeaa/aiiai a
e?a?i? iioiaeaeaiiy oai?o, aea ia aeiaoa 70 ?ie?a. O no. 8 cacia/aii, ui
a?aee?e oeacaieo o i?e oa?i?i?a ii/eia?oueny c 1 n?/iy ?ieo, ianooiiiai
i?ney ?ieo, a yeiio noaeany iiae?y, ui ?o coiiaeth?. Ca?aeii c? no. 13
e?a?ie — /eaie ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco iiaeii? aoee i?eaanoe nai?
caeiiiaeaanoai o a?aeiia?aei?noue ?c aee?aeoeaith aei 1 eeiiy 1995 ?.

Ca o/anoth Anioe?aoe?? aia?eeainueeeo aeaeaaoe?a ?ic?iaey?oueny
oeeo?iaee ?aeaioeo?eaoi? ia’?eoa (digital object identifier),
i?ecia/aiee aeey ni?eyiiy oi?a?ae? i?iaeoeoaie aeaeaaieoeoa. A?i aeanoue
ciiao niiaeeaa/ai ?ioi?iaoe?? aecia/aoe, ooi aieiae?? iaaiei ia’?eoii
(iai?eeeaae, eieaith), yeo aeiaeaoeiao ?ioi?iaoe?th iiaea iaaeaoe
aeaniee ia’?eoa, o oiio /ene? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i iiaeeea?noue i?eaeaaiiy
ia’?eoa a oeeo?ia?e oi?i?. Iaoa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeeo?iaiai
?aeaioeo?eaoi?a ia’?eoa iieyaa? o noai?aii? i?aeia?iaeii? nenoaie,
eio?a ??oiooaaeany a ia ia?aae? (?ioa?iao( ? a ye?e aeaeaaieoeoaa oa
?io? aeanieee aaoi?nueeiai i?aaa iiaee a ?aaoey?ii iicia/aoe nai?
ia’?eoe ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino? iiae?aii aei oiai, ye ca?ac aiie
aeei?enoiaothoue i?aeia?iaeiee noaiaea?oiee iiia? eieae.

A e n i i a e e :

1. Iayai?noue o NOA aeaeo?iiieo aeaeaiue coiiaeth? iio?aao ?ic?iaee a
Oe?a?i? iiaeo nenoaiieo eiioeaioe?e eieae, eio?? ioiiethaaee a oae?
aeaeaiiy.

2. Iaiao?aeii aianoe aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie (I?i aeaeaaie/o ni?aao( e
a?aeiia?aeieo aea?aeaaieo oa?i?iieia?/ieo noaiaea?o?a ci?ie e
aeiiiaiaiiy, eio?? ia?aaeaa/aee a aeaeo?iii? aeaeaiiy ye ??ciiaeae
aeaeaaie/i? i?iaeoeoe??.

3. Iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? oe?a?inueeeo eieaeeiaeo
aeaeaaieoeoa iiaea aooe aeione aeaeo?iiieo aeaeaiue, cie?aia
aoae?ieieaeie.

4. Aeioe?eueii aianoe ci?ie e aeiiiaiaiiy aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie (I?i
aeaeaaie/o ni?aao(, ui ia?aaeaa/aee a noai?aiiy: ii-ia?oa, ?inoeooo?a
aaaio?a ?c ia?aaeieaoe, aeaeiaaa??a, oi?aiaaeueieo i?aaenoaaiee?a,
e?oa?aoo?ieo aaaio?a, aeeno?ea’thoi??a, iacaeaaeieo aaaio?a,
iaeaaeaea??a, (?ica?aeiee?a(, ia?aae ?icae??aieo eieaa?aiue, eieaeeiaeo
eeoa?a; ii-ae?oaa, iaaieo iaoe?iiaeueieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo
eieaiaeaeaaie/eo ? noi?aeieo ia’?aeiaiue, aiaeia?/ieo a?aeiia?aeiei
ia’?aeiaiiyi NOA.

5. Aeioe?eueii caii/aoeoaaoe a Oe?a?i? ia?aaeaaa eieaiaeaeaiiy.

6. Oaoi?/i? aeinyaiaiiy NOA o noa?? aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/ii? oaoi?ee
coiiaeththoue iio?aao cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? ia iniia? oeeo?iaeo
oaoiieia?e i?eioeeiiai iiai? noaie i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa e iioe?aiiy
ae?oeiaaii? eieaeeiai? i?iaeoeoe??, oiaoi noaie (aeinoaaea—ae?oeoaaiiy(
cai?noue noaie (ae?oeoaaiiy—aeinoaaea(.

7. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy a NOA a?ae?ioae ia iniia? iia?oi?o aeinyaiaiue o
noa?? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? a?aeiia?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?aeoe/ieo
caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia noai?aiiy oeeo?iaeo a?ae?ioae ? iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
?oiuei? ni?ai?aoe? c eieaeeiaeie aeaeaaieoeoaaie.

8. Aa?oi a Oe?a?i? ?ic?iaeoe a?o/eciyio eiioeaioe?th ?aaeaeoi?a
eieaeeiaiai aeaeaaieoeoaa ye iniae, eio?a ca?aeii c iniiaieie
i?eioeeiaie eieaeeiaiai ia?eaoeiao a oiiaao ?eieo aeeiio? e?eueea
ooieoe?e, oiaoi eiioeaioe?th iie?ooieoe?iiaeueiino? ?aaeaeoi?a.

9. Aeioe?eueii aea/eoe iia?oi? nenoaie iicia/aiiy aeaeaaie/i?
i?iaeoeoe??, cie?aia nenoaie oeeo?iaiai ?aeaioeo?eaoi?a ia’?eoa, c
iaoith iiaeaeueoiai i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy.

10. Aaoi?nueea i?aai NOA oa ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco niiioea? aianoe ci?ie
e aeiiiaiaiiy aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie (I?i aaoi?nueea i?aai ? noi?aei?
i?aaa(, ni?yiiaai? ia cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy no?ie?a ioi?iie i?aa.

11. I?ia?aneaia ni?yiiaai?noue eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae a NOA
na?ae/eoue, ui aeioe?eueii, ii-ia?oa, noai?eoe a Oe?a?i? iaa/aeueiee
iin?aiee c ?noi??? eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao, o oiio
/ene? a NOA, aeey nooaeaio?a aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/ieo oaeoeueoao?a ?
oaeoeueoao?a aeo?iae?noeee, ii-ae?oaa, i?iaanoe iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy
eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae a NOA caaeey aaeineiiaeaiiy eieaiaeaeaaie/i?
ni?aae Oe?a?ie.

Nienie i?aoeue aaoi?a aeena?oaoe??, iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith
aeine?aeaeaiiy a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao:

1. Noaiiaeaiiy aaoi?nueeiai i?aaa NOA // Ae?oea?noai. — 1996. — ? 6. —

N. 12 — 13.

2. Aeieoiaioaeueia ?aaeaaoaaiiy a NOA // A?ni. Ei. iaeaoe. — 1997. — ?
5. —

N. 15 — 18.

3. Eieaiaeaeaaie/a ni?aaa a NOA ? iia? eiioeaioe?? eieae // A?ni. Ei.

iaeaoe. — 1997. — ? 6. — N. 15 — 17.

4. Aoae?ieieaeee a NOA // A?ni. Ei. iaeaoe. — 1997. — ? 8. — N. 14 — 15.

5. Oeiiaee aeaeaaie/ee aeiaia?? NOA // A?ni. Ei. iaeaoe. — 1997. — ? 9.

N. 27 — 30.

6. Noi??iee ?noi??? eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae a NOA // A?ni. Ei. iaeaoe. —

1998. — ? 2. — N. 19 — 23 ; ? 3. — N. 20 — 24.

7. Oeeo?ia? a?ae?ioaee NOA // A?ae. a?ni. — 1998. — ? 3. — N. 38 — 39.

8. O?aaa aaeineiiaeeoe caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie i?i aeaeaaie/o ni?aao

// Ae?oea?noai. — 1998. — ? 3. — N. 6 — 8.

Aa?oia I. A. Eieaiaeaeaaie/a ni?aaa a Niieo/aieo Ooaoao Aia?eee
(ii??aiyeueii-nenoaiiee aiae?c). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.08 — aeo?iae?noeea. — Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 1999.

?iaioo i?enay/aii oaeei aniaeoai eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae a NOA:
iaeaaaeeea?oei aoaiai ?noi??? eieaiaeaeaiiy (1620—1998 ??.), ?icaeoeo
aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/ii? oaoi?ee, i?iaeoeoe?? eieaeeiaeo aeaeaaieoeoa,
no?oeoo?? eieaiaeaeaaie/i? aaeoc?, i?aai?caoe?ei?e no?oeoo??
aeaeaaieoeoa, iaenooo?a?oei ieoaiiyi eieaeeiaiai ia?eaoeiao oa
aaeineiiaeaiith aaoi?nueeiai i?aaa. Ia??oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee
a Oe?a?i? iiaeo eiioeaioe?e o eieaeeia?e ni?aa?, i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?aeoe/ieo caoiae?a ?c iaoith noai?aiiy oeeo?iaeo
a?ae?ioae ? nenoai iicia/aiiy aeaeaaie/i? i?iaeoeoe?? ia iniia?
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, cie?aia nenoaie oeeo?iaiai
?aeaioeo?eaoi?a ia’?eoa. Aeeeaaeaii i?iiiceoe?? noiniaii iie?ioaiiy
caeiiiaeaa/i? iniiae e no?oeoo?e eieaiaeaeaaie/i? aaeoc? Oe?a?ie,
iiaeeeaeo iai?yie?a aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? oe?a?inueeeo eieaeeiaeo
aeaeaaieoeoa, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? i?eioeeiiai iiai? noaie
i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa e iioe?aiiy i?iaeoeoe?? eieaeeiaeo
aeaeaaieoeoa, a oaeiae caii/aoeoaaiiy ia?aaeaaiai eieaiaeaeaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?noi??y eieaiaeaeaiiy, aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/ia oaoi?ea,
aeaeaaie/a i?iaeoeoe?y, ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiioi?eaoe?ei? oaoiieia??,
no?oeoo?a eieaiaeaeaaie/i? aaeoc?, oeeo?iaa a?ae?ioaea, i?aai?caoe?eia
no?oeoo?a eieaeeiaiai aeaeaaieoeoaa, eieaeeiaee ia?eaoeia, aaoi?nueea
i?aai, oeeo?iaee ?aeaioeo?eaoi? ia’?eoa.

Aa?oia A. A. Eieaiecaeaoaeueneia aeaei a Niaaeei?iiuo Ooaoao Aia?eee
(n?aaieoaeueii-nenoaiiue aiaeec). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.08 — aeo?iaeenoeea. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, 1999.

?aaioa iinayuaia neaaeothuei aniaeoai eieaiecaeaoaeueneiai aeaea a NOA:
iaeaieaa aaaeiui yoaiai enoi?ee eieaiecaeaiey (1620—1998 aa.), ?acaeoeth
ecaeaoaeuenei-iieea?aoe/aneie oaoieee, i?iaeoeoeee eieaeiuo
ecaeaoaeuenoa, no?oeoo?a eieaiecaeaoaeueneie io?anee, i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?a ecaeaoaeuenoa, iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiui aii?inai eieaeiiai
ia?eaoeiaa e oniaa?oainoaiaaieth aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Iainiiaaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ac?aaioee a Oe?aeia iiauo eiioeaioeee a eieaeiii aeaea,
i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee e i?aeoe/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee n oeaeueth
nicaeaiey oeeo?iauo aeaeeioae e nenoai iaicia/aiey ecaeaoaeueneie
i?iaeoeoeee ia iniiaa eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, a
/anoiinoe nenoaiu oeeo?iaiai eaeaioeoeeaoi?a iauaeoa. Eceiaeaiu
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oeo/oaieth caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu e no?oeoo?u
eieaiecaeaoaeueneie io?anee Oe?aeiu, ioiineoaeueii aiciiaeiuo
iai?aaeaiee aeeaa?neoeeaoeee oe?aeineeo eieaeiuo ecaeaoaeuenoa,
aiaae?aiey a Oe?aeia i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie noaiu i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?ino?aiaiey i?iaeoeoeee eieaeiuo ecaeaoaeuenoa, a
oaeaea ioiineoaeueii ia/aea naoaaiai eieaiecaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: enoi?ey eieaiecaeaiey, ecaeaoaeuenei-iieea?aoe/aneay
oaoieea, ecaeaoaeueneay i?iaeoeoeey, eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiioieeaoeeiiiua
oaoiieiaee, no?oeoo?a eieaiecaeaoaeueneie io?anee, oeeo?iaay aeaeeioaea,
i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a eieaeiiai ecaeaoaeuenoaa, eieaeiue ia?eaoeia,
aaoi?neia i?aai, oeeo?iaie eaeaioeoeeaoi? iauaeoa.

Bershov A. V. Book-publishing in the United States of America
(comparative and system analysis). — Manuscript.

Thesis written for the purpose of taking a candidate’s degree in
philology by speciality 10.01.08-journalism. — Kyiv University Named
after Taras Shevchenko, 1999.

The work is devoted to different aspects of book-publishing in the USA.

The thesis comprises an introduction, three sections, conclusions, a
list of literature and

11 appendices.

The introduction gives a general background for the choice of the
subject matter and topicality of the investigation, lays bare its
scientific novelty and theoretical problems, defines the aim and tasks
of

the study, its theoretical and practical significance, characterises the
materials and methods of the investigation, formulates provisions to be
maintained.

In section one the formation of book-publishing in the USA is
discussed. The first subsection briefly deals with major stages of the
history of book-publishing in the USA from 1620, when the earliest
Puritan settlements were made and primitive printing presses were
established in the New World, till 1998, when the newest information and
communication technologies are used in book-publishing.

The development of publishing and polygraphic machines in the USA is
analysed in the second subsection. The coverage of the subsection is
extremely wide. Due regards are given to digital printing presses.

Products of modern book-publishing in the USA are studied in section
two. Paper book publications are considered in subsection one.
Electronic book publications, in particular audiobooks, monomediabooks,
multimediabooks, polymediabooks, hypermediabooks, telemediabooks, are
analysed in the second subsection.

The system of the modern book-publishing industry of the USA is studied
in section three.

In subsection one the structure of the industry and the nature of its
elements (literary agents, packagers, jobbers, digital libraries, book
clubs, etc.) are considered. The subsection contains a diagram to
illustrate the system. The second subsection is devoted to the
organisation structure of publishing houses and the most important
principles of book marketing. Close attention is focused on the use of
the Internet.

The subsection contains a diagram to illustrate the organisation
structure. The formation of copyright in the USA and its tendencies are
described in subsection three.

The following general conclusions and recommendations are made in the
thesis:

1. The availability of electronic publications in the USA gives rise to
the necessity to elaborate, in Ukraine, such new system conceptions of
the book that would comprise publications of that sort.

2. It is necessary to introduce such amendments into the Law of Ukraine

On Publishing and the relevant state terminological standards that would
provide for electronic publications as a type of products of publishing
houses.

3. Issuing electronic publications, in particular audiobooks, can be a
direction of the diversification of Ukrainian book-publishing houses.

4. It is advisable to introduce such amendments into the Law of Ukraine

On Publishing that would provide for the establishment of, first, the
institutions of subscription agents, jobbers, sales representatives,
literary agents, distributors, mailing-list brokers, packagers, scouts,
bookstore chains, book clubs and, second, certain national and regional
book-publishing and co-operating amalgamations analogous to the relevant
amalgamations of the USA.

5. It is advisable to initiate, in Ukraine, net book-publishing.

6. Technological achievements of the USA in the sphere of publishing
and polygraphic machines give rise to the necessity to introduce, in
Ukraine, such a new scheme for organising production and distribution of
printed book products that is based on digital technologies, namely the
scheme «distribution—printing» instead of the scheme
«printing—distribution.»

7. The functioning of libraries based on the newest achievements in the
sphere of information and communication technologies gives rise to the
necessity to carry out, in Ukraine, such investigations and practical
measures that are directed towards both the establishment of digital
libraries and adjusting their co-operation with book- publishing houses.

8. It is necessary to elaborate, in Ukraine, a conception of the
polyfunctionality

of the editor of a book-publishing house.

9. It is advisable to study, in Ukraine, the newest systems to
designate products of publishing houses, in particular the system of a
digital object identifier, for the purpose of using them in practice.

10. The copyright of the USA and that of the European Union make it
necessary that the Law of Ukraine On Copyright and Certain Related
Rights should be amended with a view to enlarging the terms of
protection of rights.

11. It is advisable, first, to create, in Ukraine, a text-book on the
history of book-publishing in foreign countries including the USA and,
second, to carry out further investigations in the sphere of
book-publishing in the USA.

The list of literature comprises 233 sources including 179 ones in
English.

The appendices provide additional information to illustrate the
relevant provisions of the study.

Key words: history of book-publishing, publishing and polygraphic
machines, products of publishing houses, information and communication
technologies, structure of the book-publishing industry, digital
library, organisation structure of a book-publishing house, book
marketing, copyright law, digital object identifier.

______________

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo ______________. Oi?iao 60(84/16.

Aa?i?oo?a (Oaein(. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,38. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1,05.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ? ____.

Iaae?oeiaaii a iaa/aeuei?e ae?oea?i? ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

254119, Ee?a-119, aoe. Iaeueieeiaa, 36/1.

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