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I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

Oa?iii?euenueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y

?i. ?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai

I?IEII*OE AIAOIE?E ?AAIIAE*

OAeE 617.586:616.379 –
008.64-089

EE?I?EI-EAAI?AOI?I? OA ?IOIIEIA?*I? INIAEEAINO? IA?AA?AO ? EI?AEOe??
NEIAe?IIO Ae?AAAOE*II? NOIIE IA AOAI? EIAI O??O?A?*IIAI E?EOAAIIss

14. 01.03 – O??o?a?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?iii?eue – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?iii?euenuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? ?i.
?. ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie

IAOEIAEE EA??AIEE:

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? O?aeeianueeee A?eoi?
Ieaenaiae?iae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a??
Oa?iii?euenueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i. ?. ss.
Ai?aa/aanueeiai

IO?Oe?EI? IIIIAIOE:

aeieoi? iaae. iaoe, i?ioani? Aaiee Noaiai Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e caaaeueii? o??o?a?? ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai??;

aeieoi? iaae. iaoe, i?ioani? Aiaothe Ieoaeei Noaiaiiae/, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? ? oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??, caa?aeoaa/
oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? eaai?aoi??? Oa?iii?euenueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i. ?. ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai.

I?IA?AeIA ONOAIIAA:

Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe

?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a o??o?a?? ? ii?eiai? oai?iae.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny ’’ 21 ’’ n?/iy 1999 ?.

I 12 aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.58.601.01.
o Oa?iii?euenuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? ?i. ?.ss.
Ai?aa/aanueeiai (282001, i. Oa?iii?eue, iaeaeai Aie? 1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?iii?euenueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i. ?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai (282001,
i. Oa?iii?eue, aoe. ?onueea, 12)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ’’ 19 ’’ a?oaeiy 1998?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?o
I. I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Oeoe?iaee ae?aaao (OeAe) iaeaaeeoue aei /enea
iaeiioe?ai?oeo aiaeie?eiieo caoai?thaaiue ?c no?eeith oaiaeaioe??th aei
?inoo. Oea caoai?thaaiiy noaei aaeeeei nioe?aeueiei aei?iaiaoaaiiyi ia
o?eueee a e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny, aea e a on?o ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao. A
na?o? ia?aoiao?oueny 110 iei. oai?eo ia OeAe (Aoeiia A.N., Oea/ N.I.,
1997).

A Oe?a?i? iaea?eueoa caoai?thaai?noue OeAe niinoa??aa?oueny a
?iaeono??aeueieo ?aa?iiao – a?ey 2 oen. aeiaaee?a ia 100 oen.
ianaeaiiy, i?e/iio oai?? ? oeiii OeAe neeaaeathoue 15-20 % a?ae on?o
oai?eo. Anueiai a iao?e e?a?i? ia?aoiao?oueny a?ey 1 iei. oai?eo ia
OeAe, iaeiae ?o ?aaeueia e?euee?noue iiaea neeaaeaoe 2,5 – 3 iei.
/ieia?e (Eoeiia A.N., Oea/ N. I., 1997).

Neiae?ii ae?aaaoe/ii? noiie (NAeN) ? iaeiei c i?ci?o oneeaaeiaiue OeAe ?
yaey? niaith ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo aiaoii?/ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i, ye?
i?eaiaeyoue aei ?icaeoeo ai?eii-iae?ioe/ieo o?aaeaiue noiie (Aeaaeia
E.E. e niaao., 1993). A iniia? oeeo ci?i eaaeaoue ae?aaaoe/ia i?e?i- ?
iae?iaia?iiao?y, iae?iiao?y, inoaia?oiiao?y (Aaenoyi A.?., Aioeeoa?ia
I.A., 1996). NAeN cono??/a?oueny a ??ci?e oi?i? o 30-80 % oai?eo ia
OeAe. Aiiooaoe?? ieaei?o e?ioe?aie (IE) o oai?eo ?c NAeN aeeiiothoueny a
15 ?ac?a /ano?oa, i?ae a iiioeyoe?? in?a oaeiai ae a?eo aac ae?aaaoo
(Aacaoia A.I., Eaeeiei A.I., 1991). A NOA ui?ieo aeeiio?oueny aeecueei
38 oeny/ aiiooaoe?e IE o oai?eo ia OeAe (Wooldridge J. et al., 1996).
Ca aeaieie ??cieo aaoi??a, 50 – 70 % a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? an?o
aiiooaoe?e IE aeeiiothoueny oai?ei ia OeAe. I?ney aiiooaoe?? 20 %
iaoe??io?a iiie?a?, 60 % i?iaeeaathoue 3 ?iee, 45 % – 5 ?ie?a, 40 %
oai?eo, ye? ia?aianee ia?oo aiiooaoe?th, ai?iaeiaae ianooiieo o?ueio
?ie?a i?aeaeathoueny ae?oa?e, 56 % iaoe??io?a ae?oao aiiooaoe?th
ia?aiinyoue i?ioyaii i’yoe ?ie?a i?ney iiia?aaeiuei? (Pichup G., Wiliams
G., 1997).

Oiio aea/aiiy iaoiaaiaco, ee?i?ee ? e?eoaaiiy NAeN ? aaaeeeaei
caaaeaiiyi ee?i?/ii? iaaeeoeeie.

O oai?eo ia NAeN, ye i?aaeei, ?nio? iaa?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae aeeaieei
o?aaeaiiyi i’yeeo oeaiei ? e?noie nooiiae ? iacia/ieie ee?i?/ieie
i?iyaaie oeeo ci?i. Iaeiae, ye ia’?eoeaiee e?eoa??e aaaeeino?
iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano ia nooii? ? noaio iacaaeia?eueii? eiiiainaoe??
OeAe, caaaeaee i?enooi?e neiae?ii aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? (A?). Aeaiee
neiae?ii ia ? niaoeeo?/iee ? caeaaeeoue a?ae ao?ieia?/iiai oaeoi?o,
nooiaiy aaaeeino? iniiaiiai caoai?thaaiiy (Aa?aniaa A. A. e niaao.,
1987, Oa?ueeia A. I., 1997).

?ieue ?ioiieo oaeoi??a, ii?ooaiue i?ioean?a ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy
e?i?ae?a (IIE) ? aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie caoenoo (AINC) a iaoiaaiac?
noaeeiieo o?aaeaiue i?e OeAe aea/aee aaaaoi aeine?aeiee?a (Aoeiia A.N.,
1989, 1996, Aeaaeia E. E. e niaao., 1992, Eoeaoia A. A., Eoeaoia N. A.,
1996, Eyien I. A., 1991, Barbosa J. at al., 1984). Noi?ioeueiaai? oa
aeiaaaeai? ?ioiieia?/i? iaoai?cie ?icaeoeo aia?iiao?e (Aoeiia A.N.,
1989). Iienai? iniaeeaino? i?ioean?a IIE ? AINC i?e ae?aaaoe/ieo
aia?iiao?yo. Aiie ?icaeyaeathoueny ye eaiee iaoiaaiaco ii?ooaiue
i?ioean?a ?aaaia?aoe?? ?ai i?e OeAe. A inoaii? ?iee aea/a?oueny ai?no
na?aaeiueiiieaeoey?ieo iaioeae?a (NII) i?e ??cieo oi?iao OeAe. I?ioa a
e?eoaaii? oneeaaeiaiue OeAe oeei ci?iai ia iaaea?oueny aeinoaoiueiai
cia/aiiy. I?ioe??/ieie ? aeai? i?i noai ?ioiii? nenoaie, IIE, AINC, i?i
??aaiue A? o aeiaaeeao ?icaeoeo NAeN a ii??aiyii? c oai?eie ia OeAe aac
ai?eii-iae?ioe/ieo o?aaeaiue noiie. Iio?aaothoue oaeineiiaeaiiy
?nioth/? oa ?ic?iaea iiaeo iaoiae?a ei?aeoe?? oeeo c?ooaiue. Iniaeeaa
i?noea na?aae ieo caeia? aeaoieneeaoe?y.

A?aenooi?noue /?oei? eiioeaioe?? aiaeioieneeico ? i?e/eiith oiai, ui ia
?nio? caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo niinia?a aeaoieneeaoe?? (Oa?ueeia A.I., 1997).
C a?aeiieo iaeiaio ?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a aeaoieneeaoe?? ia?niaeoeaiei ?
iaoiae aioa?ini?aoe?? (AN), i?e i?iaaaeaii? yeiai i?ioiaeeoue aeeo/aiiy
??ciiiai?oieo aeci- ? aiaeiaaiieo ?a/iaei ca o/anoth o oeueiio i?ioean?
i?e?iaei?o aeaoieneeaoe?eieo ooieoe?e (Aiae?ae/ei I. A., Aiaothe I.N.,
1992, Aa?aiia A. A. 1992, Aaeyeia I. A., Nieiiaiieeia A. A., 1990).
?acii c oei, ia nueiaiaei? iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiee aieea AN ia ??aaiue
A?, noai ?ioiii? nenoaie, IIE, AINC o oai?eo ia NAeN, ui iio?aaothoue
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ye o?aaiaio iaoeiai? i?ia?aie eaoaae?e oaeoeueoaonueei?
o??o?a?? Oa?iii?euenueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i. ?. ss.
Ai?aa/aanueeiai ii aea/aiith iaoiaaiaco, ee?i?ee oa iiaeo iaoiae?a
e?eoaaiiy ai?eii-iae?ioe/ieo o?aaeaiue IE o oai?eo ia OeAe.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iie?aueoe ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai ?
eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia OeAe, oneeaaeiaiee NAeN ??cieo oi?i,
oeyoii aieeao ia oaeoi?e ee?oeiiiai ? aoii?aeueiiai ?ioi?oaoo, ??aaiue
A?, ?ioaineai?noue IIE ? AINC.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1. Aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao NAeN a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio
OeAe ? ii??aiyoe ?o c iae?oa?oth/ei aoa?ineea?icii IE.

2. Aea/eoe ci?ie iieaciee?a ee?oeiiiai ? aoii?aeueiiai ?ioi?oaoo, IIE ?
AINC caeaaeii a?ae iayaiino? NAeN /e iae?oa?oth/iai aoa?ineea?ico IE
???-?V no.

3. Aea/eoe ??aaiue A? o oai?eo ia NAeN, ii??aiyoe eiai c ??aiai A? i?e
noaeiiiainiaaiiio oa aeaeiiiainiaaiiio OeAe aac NAeN ? iae?oa?oth/iio
aoa?ineea?ic? IE ???-?V no.

4. Aea/eoe aieea AN c aeei?enoaiiyi Neeea?aea I ia iieacieee ?ioi?oaoo,
IIE, AINC, A? o oai?eo ia NAeN.

5. Aeaoe ioe?ieo ee?i?/i?e aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy Neeea?aea I a
o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia NAeN.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. Aia?oa i?ney ee?i?/iiai oa eaai?aoi?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o ianoaaeaieo
oai?eo aeyaeaia caeaaei?noue A? a?ae iayaiino? NAeN /e iae?oa?oth/iai
aoa?ineea?ico IE aac OeAe.

2. Anoaiiaeaii ia?ea?e A? o oai?eo ia NAeN: c?inoaiiy cia/aiue NII oa
a?eo?ioeeoa?iiai ?iaeaena ?ioieneeaoe?? (A??).

3. Aea/aia ?ieue A? o ii?ooaii? ?ioiiiai noaoono, a oaeiae o
aeenaaeain? a nenoai? IIE-AINC i?e NAeN.

4. Aea/aiee aieea aioa?ini?aaioa Neeea?ae I ia iieacieee ?ioi?oaoo, A?,
IIE, oa AINC o oai?eo ia OeAe, oneeaaeiaiee NAeN.

5. Iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue ? aeieacaia ee?i?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy aioa?ini?aaioa Neeea?ae I i?e o??o?a?/iiio
e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia NAeN.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo ?c NAeN aeicaieythoue aeae?eeoe ee?i?/i? iniaeeaino?
o?aaeaiue IE i?e OeAe. Ia’?eoeaia ioe?iea ?ioi?iaoeaiino? ee?i?/ieo ?
eaai?aoi?ieo iaoiae?a ianoaaeaiue, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea ae?aaiinoe/iiai
aeai?eoio aeicaieeea i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue ae?aaiinoeee ? iie?aueoe
?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy NAeN. Aea/aia aeeiai?ea eaai?aoi?ieo
? ee?i?/ieo iieaciee?a ae?aaeaiino? aiaeioieneeico, ?ioaineaiino?
i?ioean?a IIE ? AINC i?e canoinoaaii? o?aaeeoe?eiiai e?eoaaiiy oa
aeeth/aii? aei iueiai aioa?ini?aaioo. Aia?oa c iaoith onoiaiiy
aiaeioieneeico aeei?enoaii iiaee aioa?ini?aaio Neeea?ae I, yeee
i?iyaey? ni?aoe?eio oa ?ioiiei?eaoth/o ae?th. Ai?iaiaaii a ee?i?/ieo
oiiaao Oa?iii?euenueei? i?nueei? e?ea?i? N 1 niin?a ei?aeoe?? ci?i ??aiy
A?, iieaciee?a ee?oeiiiai ? aoii?aeueiiai ?ioi?oaoo, IIE, AINC o oai?eo
ia NAeN ?c canoinoaaiiyi aioa?ini?aaioa Neeea?ae I a eiiieaeni?e
oa?ai??. Iioeiaeueiee oa?aiaaoe/iee aoaeo io?eiaii i?e i?ecia/aii?
Neeea?aea I a aeiaia?e aeic? 3 a i?ioyaii 10 aei?a.

?ic?iaeai? ae?aaiinoe/i? oa oaeoe/i? i?aeoiaee a o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii?
NAeN ? iiaeeeaeie aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy a i?aeoe/i?e eaioe?
ioi?iie caei?ia’y. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny a
i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? ee?i?e caaaeueii? ? oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a??
Oa?iii?euenueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??, a oaeiae a ?yae?
o??o?a?/ieo a?aeae?eaiue Oa?iii?euenueei? oa Caea?iaonueei? iaeanoae.
Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e /eoaii?
eaeoe?eiiai eo?no ? i?iaaaeaii? caiyoue ia eaoaae?ao caaaeueii? ?
oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? Oa?iii?euenueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi i?iaaaeaii e?eoaaiiy
56 % ianoaaeaieo oai?eo ia NAeN ? ia iae?oa?oth/ee aoa?ineea?ic IE aac
noiooiueiai OeAe. Aaoi? i?iaiae?coaaa aeieoiaioaoe?th 154 ianoaaeaieo
iaoe??io?a, naiino?eii cae?eniea aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo, aeeiiaa
noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue oa ioi?ieaiiy ?iaioe. O
ioae?eaoe?yo, aeeiiaieo a ni?aaaoi?noa?, 70 % ?ic?iaie oa iaoa??aeo
iaeaaeaoue caeiaoaa/aa?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia eiioa?aioe?? aiaeie?eiieia?a
oa o??o?a?a, i?enay/ai?e i?iaeaiai NAeN a i.Oa?iiiie? a 1997 ?., ia
can?aeaiiyo iaeaniiai oiaa?enoaa o??o?a?a Oa?iii?euenueei? iaeano? a
1997-1998 ??., ia can?aeaii? ??aiainueeiai iaeaniiai oiaa?enoaa
aiaeie?eiieia?a ca o/anoth aieiaiiai aiaeie?eiieiaa Oe?a?ie a 1998 ?.,
ai?iaiaai? ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae? caaaeueii?,
oaeoeueoaonueei?, aini?oaeueii? o??o?a??, o??o?a?? oaeoeueoaoo
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe, iaoieia?/ii? o?c?ieia?? oa eo?no aiaeie?eiieia??
OAeIA 30 /a?aiy 1998 ?ieo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 4 ?iaioe o
oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 180 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? i?noeoue o nia? anooi, iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e,
iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, 3 ?icae?ee aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeniiaee, i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e. ?iaioa
?ethno?iaaia 37 oaaeeoeyie, 20 ?enoieaie. Aeei?enoaii 386 aeaea?ae
e?oa?aoo?e (a oiio /ene? 261 – e?a?i NIAe, 125 – ca?oa?aeieo).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaie ianoaaeaii 135 oai?eo ia OeAe,
19 oai?eo ia iae?oa?oth/ee aoa?ineea?ic IE aac noiooiueiai OeAe ? 22
caei?iaeo aeiii?e, ui neeaee eiio?ieueio a?oio.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio OeAe, iayaiino? /e a?aenooiino? NAeN,
oai?? ?iciiae?eai? ia 6 a?oi. Aei ia?oi? a?oie oa?eoia 21 oai?ee ia
OeAe ? oeio a ii?aeiaii? c NAeN. Aei ae?oai? a?oie – 51 oai?ee ia OeAe
?? oeio a ii?aeiaii? c NAeN. O?aoth a?oio neeaei 13 oai?eo ia OeAe ?
oeio aac ai?eii-iae?ioe/ieo o?aaeaiue IE, /aoaa?oo – 20 iaoe??io?a ?c
OeAe ?? oeio aac ai?eii-iae?ioe/ieo o?aaeaiue IE. Aei i’yoi? a?oie
oa?eoei 19 oai?eo ia iae?oa?oth/ee aoa?ineea?ic IE aac noiooiueiai OeAe.
Oinoo a?oio neeaee 30 oai?eo (5 – ia OeAe ? oeio ? 25 – ia OeAe ??
oeio), ye? io?eioaaee a eiiieaeni?e ia?aaeiia?aoe?ei?e i?aeaioiaoe? /e
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio e?eoaaii? aioa?ini?aaio Neeea?ae I.

A?eueo?noue oai?eo – 87 (64,4 %) no?aaeaeaee ia OeAe aaaeei? oi?ie a
noaae?? noaeiiiainaoe??. O 38 oai?eo (28,1 %) OeAe aoa a noaae??
aeaeiiiainaoe??. Ia a?eiao a?oio 56-65 ?ie?a i?eiaaeaa iaeneioi
caoai?thaaiino? ia OeAe ?? oeio, oneeaaeiaiee NAeN. A?eueo?noue oai?eo
ia OeAe ? oeio, oneeaaeiaiee NAeN, aoea o a?oe? 31-45 ?ie?a.

Aeey ee?i?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee oai?eo ei?enooaaeenue
eeaneo?eaoe??th OeAe iaoeiai? a?oie AIIC ii OeAe (1985), eeaneo?eaoe??th
NAeN ca ?. ?. Ae?aeiaei, I. A. Aioeeoa?iaei ? ni?aaao. (1993),
iae?oa?oth/iai aoa?ineea?ico HK ca A. A. Iie?ianueeei (1977). A
ioe?ioe? aaaeeino? o?aaeaiue ? ee?i?/ieo i?iya?a NAeN ei?enooaaeenue
eeaneo?eaoe??th Aaaia?a.

Aei an?o oai?eo canoiniaoaaany caaaeueiii?eeiyoee eiiieaen ee?i?/iiai oa
eaai?aoi?iiai ianoaaeaiiy.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ee?i?/ii? oi?ie NAeN a?aee aei oaaae ia’?eoeaiee
noaoon, aea/aee aieueiao, oaeoeeueio, oaiia?aoo?io /ooeea?noue,
ioeuenaoe?th ia iaa?no?aeueieo noaeeiao, i?iaiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia?eoa?e/ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee ca aeiiiiiaith ?aiaacia?ao??.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy ia’?eoeaieo e?eoa???a aaaeeino? ia?aa?ao caoai?thaaiiy,
??aiy A? aecia/aee aeeiai?eo ai?noo NII a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ca
iaoiaeeeith I. ?. Aaa??aeyia ? ni?aaao. (1985). I?e aeiaaeei? oaee? 280
ii (NII1) aecia/aee iaioeaee, ui i?noyoue a?iiaoe/i? ai?iieeneioe, a i?e
aeiaaeei? 254 ii (NII2) – iaioeaee, ui i?noyoue ioeeaioeaee.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ??aiy A? aeiaeaoeiai ae?aoiaoaaee ?iaeaene
?ioieneeaoe??: A?? – aecia/aany ca iaoiaeii A. A. Oaaiaa?aa ? ni?aaao.
(1988); eaeeioeeoa?iee ?iaeaen ?ioieneeaoe?? (E??) – cai?iiiiiaaiee
ss.ss. Eaeueo-Eae?oii, iiaeeo?eiaaiee A.E. Ino?ianueeei ? ni?aaao.
(1983).

Ianoaaeaiiy ioiiethaaei aea/aiiy iieaciee?a ee?oeiiiai (ai?no a
ia?eoa?e/i?e e?ia? O-e?ioioeeo?a ? I-e?ioioeeo?a) oa aoii?aeueiiai
(ai?no A-e?ioioeeo?a, ne?iaaoeiaeo ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a G, A, I) ?ioi?oaoo,
oee?eoethth/eo ?ioiieo eiiieaen?a (Oe?E), eiiieaiaioo.

Aecia/aiiy O- (A-?OE), A- (AAN-?OE), I-ee?oei i?iaiaeeeinue ca I.Iandas
a iiaeeo?eaoe?? O.?.A??oeia ? ni?aaao. (1973). E?ioioeeoe aeae?eyee c
aaia?ei?ciaaii? e?ia? a iaeiineeaaeiaiio a?aae??io? aonoeie o?eieo –
aa?ia?ao?io aonoeiith 1,077 a/e. “Aeoeai?” O-e?ioioeeoe (AA-?OE)
aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii J.Smith ? ni?aaao. (1977) a iiaeeo?eaoe??
A.I.*a?aae??aa ? ni?aaao. (1988). Noaiiioeyoe?? O-e?ioioeeo?a
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith oanoo /ooeeaino? aei oaio?e?io. I?e
oeueiio aaaaeaee, ui a oaio?e?iiaiio oano? oaio?e?i?acenoaioi?
e?ioioeeoe (O?-?OE) ? ia?aaaaeii O-ee?oeiaie c oaeia?iith aeoeai?noth, a
oaio?e?i/ooeea? (O*-?OE) – a iniiaiiio c noi?ani?iith. Aeoeai?noue
aoii?aeueiiai ?ioi?oaoo aecia/aee ca ai?noii iniiaieo eean?a
?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a G, A, I ca iaoiaeii ?ioiiaeeooc?? ii I.Iann?ni ?
ni?aaao. (1965). ?ic?aooiie eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a i?iaiaeeee ca
ae?aiao?ii e?eueoey i?aoeei?oaoe?? a ?aaeoe?? ?ioiiaeeooc??. Oe?E
aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii i?aoeei?oaoe?? c 3,5 % ?ic/eiii iie?aoeeaiae?eiey.

I?i noai IIE oa AINC noaeeee ca ai?noii iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo
(IAeA), ??aiyie oea?oeiieaci?io (OeI) a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? oa
noia?ieneaeaeeniooace (NIAe) a a?eo?ioeeoao. Aecia/aee oaeiae a
ne?iaaooe? e?ia? aeoeai?noue eaoaeace ? eiioeaio?aoe?th SH-a?oi.

??aaiue IAeA aecia/aee a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ca iaoiaeii J.Plazer (1968)
i?ney inaaeaeoaaiiy a?ee?a a aeine?aeaeoaaiiio iaoa??ae?
o?eoei?ioeoiaith eeneioith. NIAe aecia/aee a noia?iaoaio? ca nooiaiai
?ia?aoaaiiy i?ioeano a?aeiiaeaiiy i?o?ineiueiai oao?acie?th a
i?enooiino? IAAeI ? oaiaceiiaoanoeueoaoo, OeI – iaoiaeii eiai ieeneaiiy
ia?aoai?eae?ai?iii. ??aaiue SH-a?oi aecia/aee ii ?aaeoe?? c
n-oei?ia?eo?aaiciaoii iao??th.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ii?aoeueiaai? iaoiaeii aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee
ca?aeii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e TH.?. ?aaiiaa (1990). Aeey eiaeii? a?oie
aeine?aeaeaiue ae?aoiaoaaee na?aaeith a?eoiaoe/io aaee/eio (I),
na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy (), iioeaeo na?aaeiuei?
a?eoiaoe/ii? aaee/eie (m). Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ii??aithaaeenue c
aeaieie eiio?ieueii? a?oie ? i?ae ??cieie a?oiaie oai?eo.
Aeinoia??i?noue a?aeoeeaiue a a?oiao, ui ii??aithaaeenue, anoaiiaethaaee
ca e?eoa???i Nouethaeaioa (t). Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea aeaieo i?iaiaeeeanue
ia eiii’thoa?? ?AI ?N o i?ia?ai? Exell aeey WINDOWS.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy.

O?eaae?noue caoai?thaaiiy ia OeAe o an?o ianoaaeaieo aoea a?ae aia?oa
aeyaeaiiai aei 23 ?ie?a. Ii/aoie ? ee?i?/io iai?oanoaoe?th NAeN
anoaiiaeoe c iio??aiith oi/i?noth ia aaeaeinue /a?ac iinooiiaee ? /anoi
iaiii?oiee aeey oai?iai oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo i?ioeano.

Noiooi? caoai?thaaiiy oa ?o aaaee?noue o a?oiao oai?eo ia OeAe
aecia/aeenue iayaieie ae?aaaoe/ieie aia?iiao?yie (a iaea?eueo?e i??? –
iao?iiao??th). Oaeiae /anoi ae?aaiinooaaee ?oai?/io oai?iao na?oey,
noaiiea?ae?th, o?ii?/iee a?iio?o.

Ee?i?/ia ea?oeia i?ci?o oi?i NAeN i?iyaey?oueny iciaeaie
noaeiiiainiaaiiai /e aeaeiiiainiaaiiai OeAe ? ai?eii-iae?ioe/ieo
o?aaeaiue noiie. Noa’?eoeaia ? ia’?eoeaia neiioiiaoeea neeaaeaea 3
aaaeo/? ee?i?/i? neiae?iie: ?ioieneeaoe?eiee, aieueiaee ? a?ia?ae?eai??.
?ioieneeaoe?eiee neiae?ii o oai?eo ia NAeN cono??/aany o 75-82 %
aeiaaee?a, iaaaaaoi /ano?oa, i?ae o oai?eo ia OeAe aac NAeN, /e o oai?eo
ia iae?oa?oth/ee aoa?ineea?ic IE. A?i i?iyaeyany ae?aaeaiith caaaeueiith
neaa?noth, aieiaiei aieai, a?aenooi?noth aiaoeoo, i?aeaeuaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e o?ea. Aieueiaee neiae?ii oa?aeoa?ecoaaany iaaieie
iniaeeainoyie: a?aenooi?noth ia?ai?aeii? eoeueaaaino?, i?i?iaeueieie
aieueiaeie a?ae/oooyie iaa?oue i?e iayaiino? aaia?aie iaeueoe?a,
iacia/iei aieai a noii? i?e o?ce/ieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo, iaaieth/eie
o?io?/ieie ae?aceaie ia nooiiyo.

Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith NAeN aoea iayai?noue o?io?/ieo ae?acie i?e
iaa?iiaoe/ii-?io?eiaai?e oi?i?, a ai?eieo ?ai – i?e
?oai?/ii-aaia?aiici?e oi?i?. I?e ci?oai?e oi?i? NAeN o?io?/i? ae?acee
oa ai?ei? ?aie cono??/athoueny iaeiaeiai /anoi. A ? a?oi?, aea oai??
iaa?iiaoe/ii-?io?eiaaiith oa ci?oaiith oi?iaie NAeN neeaaeaee 80,9 %,
o?io?/i? ae?acee aoee o 90,5 % aeiaaee?a; o ?? a?oi?, aea oai??
?oai?/ii-aaia?aiiciith oa ci?oaiith oi?iaie NAeN neeaaeaee 96,1 %,
ai?ei? ?aie niinoa??aaeenue o 78,4 % aeiaaee?a. Noiia, ye i?aaeei, aoea
aeaoi?iiaaia. O oai?eo ? a?oie aiiooaoe?y iaeueoe?a a ieioeiio iaea
i?noea o 14 iaoe??io?a (66,7 %), a noiie – o 10 iaoe??io?a (47,6 %), a
?? a?oi? – a?aeiia?aeii 19 (37,3 %) ? 7 (13,7 %), a VI a?oi? – 19
(36,7 %) ? 8 (15,7 %). Noaeia Oa?ei niinoa??aaee o aeaio oai?eo ia OeAe
? oeio – a?aeiia?aeii ii iaeiiio aeiaaeeo a ia?o?e ? oino?e a?oiao.

NAeN noi?iaiaeaeoaaany aenieei ??aiai A?. Iaie i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai?
e?eoa??? aiaeioieneeico – ai?no NII a e?ia? oai?eo, ??ai? A?? oa E??.
Aeyaeaii aeinoia??ia i?aeaeuaiiy NII o an?o aac aeiyoeo oai?eo ia NAeN.
Ai?no iaio ioe?a “na?aaei?o iieaeoe” aoa iaeiaeiai aenieei (oaae. 1).
I?aeaeuaiiy ioeo NII1 na?ae/eoue i?i iaoieia?/i? ci?ie aiiainoaco, ye?
aeieeathoue i?e o?aaeai? ie?ie. Aeenooieoe?y aeae?eueii? nenoaie
a?ae?a?a? ia?oi/a?aiao ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? neiae?iio A? acaaae?, ? o
oai?eo ia OeAe iniaeeai.

Iaeiaeiai cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy NII1 ? NII2 o oai?eo ia NAeN
na?ae/eoue i?i oi?aa?naeueia o?aaeaiiy a?eueoino? i?aai?a oa nenoai o
ieo aiane?aeie ?nioth/iai iaeiiiainiaaiiai OeAe ? aia?iiao?e.

O oai?eo ia NAeN i?e OeAe ? ? ?? oeio aeyaeaii i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy A??
(oaae. 1). Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui i?e aiaeioienai?? iioeiaeaeothoueny
iaia?aie a?eo?ioeeo?a ? ii?ooo?oueny ?o aaeni?aoe?eia caeaoi?noue. A??
aoa aeinoia??ii aeuei a?ae ii?ie eeoa o a?oiao oai?eo ia NAeN, a i?e
OeAe iaio oei?a aac o?aaeaiue IE ? i?e iae?oa?oth/iio aoa?ineea?ic? IE
aeaiee iieaciee ciaoiaeeany a iaaeao ii?ie (p > 0,01).

Iaeiie/aiiy a i?aai?ci? oiene/ieo iaoaaie?o?a, a ia?oo /a?ao NII,
iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia iai?ii? i?ioeane ? i?eai?/o? ae?yeuei?noue ?ioiii?
nenoaie. Aeyaeaii cia/i? ci?ie ee?oeiii? eaiee ?ioi?oaoo o an?o a?oiao
ianoaaeaieo oai?eo ?c NAeN (oaae. 2). O ieo ciaioo?oueny e?euee?noue
caaaeueieo O-e?ioioeeo?a, “aeoeaieo” O-e?ioioeeo?a, O?-?OE, O*-?OE. Oe?
ci?ie aoee a?eueo ae?aaeaieie, i?ae o a?oiao oai?eo ia OeAe aac NAeN,
/e ia iae?oa?oth/ee aoa?ineea?ic IE.

O oai?eo ia NAeN i?aeaeuaia e?euee?noue I-ee?oei. Ca ?aooiie
a?eueo cia/iiai ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? O*-?OE ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
O-oaeia?e/O-noi?ani?e aoei a?eueoei ii?ie o an?o a?oiao ianoaaeaieo
oai?eo c iaeneiaeueiei cia/aiiyi i?e NAeN.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeoi??a aoii?aeueiiai ?ioi?oaoo ia aeyaeee
aeinoia??ieo ci?i e?eueeino? AA-?OE a ia?eoa?e/i?e e?ia?. A?aeiinia
e?euee?noue A-e?ioioeeo?a a aeiaei?e ?c ianoaaeaieo a?oi ia aeoiaeeea ca
iaae? ii?ie. I?e iayaiino? NAeN i?inoaaeaia eeoa oaiaeaioe?y aei
ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? Ig G ? ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo Ig A. Aeyaeaii
aeinoia??ia i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo Ig I i?e iayaiino? NAeN (p 0,05).
Iaeneiaeueii iecueeee ??aaiue eiiieaiaioo aeyaeany o a?oiao oai?eo ia
NAeN.

A oiiaao ?ioiiaeao?oeeoo iaea?eueo /ooeeaeie aei aieeao oienei?a,
oee?eoethth/eo a i?aai?ci?, ? a?ieia?/i? iaia?aie. Noai ee?oeiieo
iaia?ai /anoeiai ?aaoeth?oueny i?ioeanaie IIE ? AINC. I?e iayaiino? NAeN
??aaiue IAeA aeyaeany aeinoia??ii aeuei, i?ae o oai?eo ia OeAe
a?aeiia?aeiiai oeio. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i aeiaeaoeiao aeoeaaoe?th
i?ioean?a IIE o oai?eo ia ae?aaao, oneeaaeiaiee NAeN. Aeoeai?noue
eaoaeace aeyaeeanue aeinoia??ii ieae/ith ii?ie eeoa o a?oi? oai?eo ia
OeAe ? oeio ?c NAeN.

AINC caeaoia ooee?coaaoe ia?aeeni? niieoee. Oeei cieaeo?oueny ?o
iioeiaeaeoth/a ae?y ia ee?oeii? iaia?aie. I?e OeAe aeoeai?noue AINC
cieaeo?oueny. Iaie aecia/aany ??aaiue NIAe ? OeI. ??aaiue NIAe-
eeth/iaiai aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai oa?iaioo AINC – o oai?eo ?c NAeN aoa
ieae/ei, i?ae i?e OeAe a?aeiia?aeiiai oeio aac NAeN.

Cieaeaiiy ??aiy NIAe coiiaeaii, iaiaaii, ?ia?aoaaiiyi oa?iaioo c?
noi?iie ia?aeeno ? a?eueieo ?aaeeeae?a, ui iino?eii aea?eueiythoueny a
e?ia. A a?eo?ioeeoao NIAe aaeueio? i?ioean ieeneaiiy aaiiaeia?io a
iaoaaiiaeia?i ? caoeua? a?eo?ioeeoa?i? iaia?aie a?ae e?ceno. Cieaeaiiy
aeoeaiino? oeueiai oa?iaioo ni?ey? ii?ooaiith no?oeoo?e iaia?ai
a?eo?ioeeo?a ? i?aeaeuai?e ?o ?oeiaoe??. Oeae i?ioean ? iaei??th c
i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy aiai??, yea caaaeaee i?enooiy o oai?eo ia NAeN.

Ai?no a e?ia? iniiaiiai ne?iaaoeiaiai aioeieneaeaioo – OeI aeyaeany
aeinoia??ii i?aeaeuaiei o an?o a?oiao oai?eo. Aea e anoaiiaeaii
aeinoia??ia i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo OeI i?e iayaiino? NAeN ii??aiyii c
oai?eie ia OeAe a?aeiia?aeiiai oeio, ia oneeaaeiaiiai NAeN (p 0,05).

I?ae ae??th aioa?ini?aoe?? o oai?eo ia NAeN iie?auoaaeenue iieacieee
IIE ? AINC. A a?oi? oai?eo, ye? io?eioaaee Neeea?ae I, ??aaiue NIAe
c??n iaea?eueo aaaiii ii??aiyii c ?ioeie a?oiaie, a oe?e aea a?oi?
nooo?a?oa ciaioeeanue eiioeaio?aoe?y OeI: 240,688,31 a/e i?ioe
319,9412,75 a/e a ? a?oi? (p 0,1NII2,
oi.iae.aei e?eoaaiiy20257,310,590,0136190,975,520,13635,391,17>0,13032,380,89>0,1? –
aeinoia??i?noue ??cieoe? iieaciee?a oai?eo c ii?iith

Oaaeeoey 2.

Iieacieee ee?oeiii? e?iee ?ioi?oaoo aei ? i?ney e?eoaaiiy

A?oie oai?eoIieaciee? a?oia?? a?oiaVI a?oian%aan., o109/en%aan., aan.,
o109/en%aan., aan., o109/eO-caaaeuei? aei
e?eoaaiiy2038,30,70,830,085039,690,570,80,053039,630,770,880,06O-caaaeue
i? i?ney
e?eoaaiiy1642,940,810,990,083645,420,620,940,053048,570,461,080,07? 0,05 0,05 0,1 0,05

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