3

AEAAeAI?ss IAAeE*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IAE?IO??O?A??

?i. aeaae. A.I.?IIIAeAIIAA AII OE?A?IE

II?ICIA AIAOIE?E IEEIEAEIAE*

OAeE:
616.714+616.831]-001-071-036.2:616.8-089(470)

EE?I?EI-AI?AeAI?IEIA?*I? INIAEEAINO?

AINO?I? *A?AIII-IICEIAI? O?AAIE ? I?AeAEUAIIss AOAEOEAIINO?
NIAOe?AE?CIAAII?

IAE?IO??O?A?*II? AeIIIIIAE A OE?A?I?

14.01.05 – iae?io??o?a?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a?? ?i.aeaae.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? IAAeA*AIEI ?aaai?e
Aai?a?eiae/, ?inoeooo iae?io??o?a?? ?i.aeaae.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo iae?io?aaie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iie?uoe Ieeiea ?o?aiiae/,
Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iae?io??o?a??;

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Oaaaaa Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/, Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
iaa?ieia?? ? iae?io??o?a??;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iiaeea Aaneeue Aaneeueiae/, E?einueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.N.?.Aai?a??anueeiai, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e iae?io??o?a??.

Aaaeo/a i?aai?caoe?y: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao
IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a iae?io??o?a??, i.Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 19 .10. 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.557.01 i?e ?inoeooo? iae?io??o?a??
?i.aeaae.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie (252050, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Iaio?euenueeiai, 32).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iae?io??o?a?? ?i.aeaae.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie (252050, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Iaio?euenueeiai, 32).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 18.09. 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
I?eia TH.I.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?iaeaia /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie c oa/??th /ano ia
o?eueee ia ao?aoeea nai?? aeooaeueiino?, aea e noaea ua aino??oith
(TH.A.Cioia, A.A.Aoaeaoaanueeee, A.A.E?a?ae?a, 1984; A.I.Eiiiaaeia oa
ni?aaao., 1986; A.A.ss?oeaa, A.I.I?iiiiyuee, E.A.E?ooa?iai, 1991;
?.A.Iaaea/aiei, I.A.Eaaeaeay, 1995; K.M. Barlow et al., 1998;
C.A.Janicak, 1998 oa ?io.).

Iineeaiiy o?aai?caoe?? oa ?iaeono??ae?caoe??, ??cea ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? aaoio?ainii?oa, i?aeaeuaia i?a?aoe?y ianaeaiiy, c?inoaiiy
/anoioe a?enueeiaeo eiioe?eo?a, oe?iea caoiieaiiy ianaeaiiy iieiaeiai
a?eo o?aaiaoe/ii ?eceeiaaieie aeaeaie nii?oo oa ?io?, oa?aeoa?i? aeey
no/aniiai aeeoo?aiai oeeaaeo, ianoaaeie i?ecaaee aei i?ia?anoth/iai
c?inoaiiy o?aaiaoecio, iniaeeai – /a?aiii-iiceiaiai ( A.A.Ee?iia, 1995;
A.A.Iaea?iaa, A.I.E?o/?i?i, 1995; I.?.Iie?uoe oa ni?aao.,1996;
B.C.Barnes et al.,1988; K.Hux et al., 1998; S.Linn, D.Smith, S.Sheps,
1998; J.S.Osberg et al., 1998; M.Tudor, 1998 oa ?io.).

Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? /a?aiii-iiceiaeo o?aai, iiaeeaeaiiy ?o aaaeeino?,
c?inoath/a cia/aiiy oeueiai aeaeo o?aaiaoecio na?aae iniiaieo i?e/ei
nia?oiino? oa ?iaae?aeecaoe?? ianaeaiiy, iniaeeai o in?a iieiaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?eo, aeaaee oeth i?iaeaio ia iaeia c ia?oeo i?noeue na?aae
iniiaieo iaaeeei-nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai no/aniiai noni?euenoaa
(A.I.?iiiaeaiia, I.I.Iin?e/oe, 1990; A.A.ss?oeaa oa ni?aaao., 1991;
S.L.Gianotta et al., 1991; J.Benito Fernandes et al., 1998; A.Engberg,
T.W.Teasdale, 1998; T.Ingebrigtsen, K.Mortensen, B.Romner, 1998;
R.L.Tate, S. McDonald, J.M.Lulham, 1998 oa ?io.).

Aeniea aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie iaoiiaeea aaee/acio e?euee?noue
i?enay/aieo ?e ??ciiieaiiaeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?ic?iaie o
anueiio na?o?. Iaeiae, i?iaeaia aeaeaea a?ae naiai ae??oaiiy, i?i ui,
cie?aia, ia?aeiieeai na?ae/aoue noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?i iacaaeia?euei?, a
oe?eiio, ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy /a?aiii-iiceiaeo ooeiaeaeaiue.

Aaee/acia e?euee?noue oai?eo aeia ia aeiaini?oaeueiiio aoai? ? ia aoai?
ia?oi? aini?oaeueii? aeiiiiiae. Niinoa??aathoueny nooo?aa ??cieoey a
i?aeoiaeao aei ae?aaiinoe/ii? oa e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee, iayaieo
iiaeeeainoyo ?? ?aae?caoe?? ?, ye iane?aeie, iai?eionoeii aaeeea
??cieoey ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy /a?aiii-iiceiaeo o?aai a ??cieo
e?eoaaeueieo onoaiiaao.

sse ? ?ai?oa, caeeoa?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiith oyaeea
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaia – iniiaia i?e/eia nia?oiino? oa ?iaae?aeecaoe??
ianaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo. Aeiaie? /anoi eaoaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe
aeieeathoue aiane?aeie iiieeeiai? ioe?iee noaio iino?aaeaeaeeo,
i?i?aooie?a a ee?i?/iiio i?iaiic? ?, a?aeiia?aeii, iaaaeaeaaoii?
e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee. Caeeoathoueny iaae??oaieie ieoaiiy
?ieo?aaaeueiino? oai?eo, ae?aaiinoeee nia?o? iiceo.

Caeeoa?oueny iaae??oaiith caaea/a ye?nii? i?aeaioiaee oe?ieiai caaaeo
iaaeee?a c ieoaiue iae?io?aaiaoieia??, oae naii ye ? noai?aiiy iaea?eueo
?aoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie aoaeoeaii? eiinoeueoaoeaii? aeiiiiiae. Inoaii? ?
iniaeeai aeooaeueiei a oiiaao ?aaeueii ?nioth/i? neooaoe??, eiee iniiaia
iana iino?aaeaeaeeo c /a?aiii-iiceiaeie iioeiaeaeaiiyie e?eo?oueny a
iai?io?eueieo e?eoaaeueieo caeeaaeao, iniaeeai a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii? oaie i?aaenoaaeaiiai
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny, ia?o ca ana, aaeeeei
iaoeiai-iaaee/iei oa iaaeeei-nioe?aeueiei cia/aiiyi i?iaeaie
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie ? iano?eeeaith iaiao?aei?noth ae??oaiiy
aeuaaeacaieo ieoaiue ia no/aniiio ??ai? c iaoith iie?ioaiiy ye ie?aieo
?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy, oae ? naii? nenoaie iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae
i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?.

Aaoi? aeeaiei aaey/iee na?oei? iai»yo? aee?aeoi?o ?inoeoooa
iae?io??o?a??, aeaaeai?eo IAI ? AII Oe?a?ie ?iiiaeaiiao Aiae??th
Iao?iae/o, yeee aeoeaii i?aeo?eiaa ?aeath i?iaaaeaiiy oaeiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa nai?ie oe?iieie ii?aaeaie ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie aeiiii?a
aecia/eoe eiai iniiai? iai?yiee.

Ca»ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa iia»ycaia c
aeeiiaiiyi aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie «*a?aiii-iiceiaa o?aaia», ui
aeeiio?oueny ?inoeoooii iae?io??o?a?? ?i.aeaae.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII
Oe?a?ie ia caiiaeaiiy I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia»y oa Aeaaeai??
iaaee/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy yaeyeiny
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy iino?aaeaeaeeo c aino?ith
/a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith oeyoii aiae?co ? i?iaiico neooaoe??, ui
neeaaea?oueny a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae caaacia/aiiy
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? nenoaie iaaeaiiy iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e
/a?aiii-iiceiaeo ooeiaeaeaiiyo c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo noaiaea?o?a
iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e, eiii»thoa?ii? aenia?oii? nenoaie i?e a?aooaaii?
ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oyaeei? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie.

A?aeiia?aeii, caaea/aie aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aecia/aii:

— aea/eoe ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aniaeoe /a?aiii-iiceiaiai o?aaiaoecio
a Oe?a?i? oa eiai aeeiai?eo;

— aeyaeoe ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/i? ? o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? iniaeeaino?
no/anii? oyaeei? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie ye iniiaii? i?e/eie
?iaae?aeecaoe?? oa nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy i?e oeueiio aeae? o?aaiaoecio;

— aea/eoe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe no/ani? i?aeoiaee aei ae?aaiinoe/ii? ?
e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?, ?ic?iaeoe ?
ai?iaaaeeoe a?aeiia?aei? noaiaea?oe iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e;

— ?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe aoaeoeaio, aenieiaeiiii?/io oa oe?ieiaeinooiio
eiii»thoa?io aenia?oio nenoaio c aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie;

— aea/eoe ? i?iaiae?coaaoe ?nioth/o a Oe?a?i? i?aai?caoe?eio iiaeaeue
iaaeaiiy iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?,
?ic?iaeoe ? ?aae?coaaoe i?iiiceoe?? ii ?? oaeineiiaeaiith.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? i?iaaaeaii
oe?ieiianooaaia ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie aino?i?
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie ? cae?eniaii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiee i?iaiic
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo neooaoe?? c iaeii/aniith ioe?ieith aaeaeaaoiino?
?nioth/i? nenoaie iaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeai? ? noi?ioeueiaai? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iniiae no/aniiai
ia??iaeo ? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo nenoaie iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e
aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? oa aecia/ai? iia?
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? ? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? iieiaeaiiy, ui
aecia/athoue ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ia?niaeoeaiee ?icaeoie a Oe?a?i?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? iae?io??o?a?/ii? neoaeae, aieiai? c yeeo iieeaaeai? a
iniiao ii/aoi? a aea?aeaa? ?ai?aai?caoe?? ?nioth/i? nenoaie ioi?iie
caei?ia»y.

Aia?oa aeae?eaiee eiiieaen ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/ieo ? o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo
iniaeeainoae oyaeei? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie aeey ia»?eoea?caoe??
ee?i?/iiai i?iaiico oa ioe?iee yeino? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeai? aaeocaa? noaiaea?oe iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e i?e aino??e
/a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia eiii»thoa?ia aenia?oia nenoaia ae?aaiinoeee ?
e?eoaaiiy aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?iaaaeai?
ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie
a Oe?a?i? ? aecia/aiiy ?? aeeiai?ee ia i?ioyc? o?eaaeiai /ano aeicaieeee
ia»?eoeaii aea/eoe noai i?iaeaie, iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaeieia?th ? iniiai?
iai?yiee ?iaioe ii i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ? iie?auaiith ?acoeueoao?a
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/ieo oa o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? aeicaieeee iioei?coaaoe
i?ioean iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e oyaee?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?
– iniiai?e i?e/ei? ?iaae?aeecaoe?? oa nia?oiino? iino?aaeaeaeeo.

Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo aeaieo aia?oa a Oe?a?i? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia
iaiao?aei?noue ? i?iaaaeai? e?oeaicoaaiiy oa na?oeo?eaoe?y
iae?io??o?a?/ieo a?aeae?eaiue.

?ic?iaeai? ? ai?iaaaeaeai? noaiaea?oe iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e i?e
/a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?, a oaeiae aenia?oia eiii»thoa?ia nenoaia
«O?aaio-1.0», ui aeicaieeei oi?o?eoaaoe ia no/aniiio ??ai? iaaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae a ??cieo e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo
caeeaaeao oa ca a?aenooiino? a iai?io?eueieo noaoe?iia?ao iaiao?aeii?
ae?aaiinoe/ii? aia?aoo?e ? i?aeaioiaeaieo oao?aoe?a ooi/iyoe ae?aaiic ?
aecia/aoe ?aeeii a??io e?eoaaeueio oaeoeeo.

?aae?caoe?y cai?iiiiiaaiiai eiiieaeno i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo oa
ee?i?/ieo caoiae?a aeicaieeea a inoaii? ?iee nooo?ai iie?aueoe a Oe?a?i?
?acoeueoaoe iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e
o?aai?, iniaeeai a aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?aa?iiao n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?,
iaaeeceaoe ?o aei i?nueeiai ??aiy.

Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy iae?io??o?a?/ii?
neoaeae Oe?a?ie, a naia ianooii? ia?oi/a?aia? caoiaee:

— ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no/anieo i?eioeei?a iaaeaiiy ia?aeiii? aini?oaeueii?
aeiiiiiae i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? a iai?io?eueieo
e?eoaaeueieo caeeaaeao, iniaeeai a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?. A ca»yceo c
oeei a ie?aieo iaeanoyo aeioe?eueii ?iciiae?eeoe ooieoe?? caa?aeoaa/a
iaeaniei iae?io??o?a?/iei a?aeae?eaiiyi ? aieiaiiai iae?io??o?aa
iaeano?;

— iaia»yceiaa aini?oae?caoe?y iino?aaeaeaeeo c /a?aiii-iiceiaith
o?aaiith na?aaeiueiai ? aaaeeiai nooiai?a a iae?io??o?a?/i? noaoe?iia?e
(iacaeaaeii a?ae a?aenoai? o?ainii?ooaaiiy ca oiiae a?aenooiino?
ae?aaeaieo a?oaeueieo ii?ooaiue), ?o ianoaaeaiiy ? e?eoaaiiy ii
oi?o?eiaaieo noaiao;

— iiaeaeueoa oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie na?oeo?eaoe?? a?aeae?eaiue, ui
caaacia/othoue iaa?aeeeaaeio iae?io??o?a?/io aeiiiiiao, a?aeiia?aeii
no/aniei aeiiaai aei ?o ?iaioe (oe?eiaeiaiaa /a?aoaaiiy iae?io??o?aa,
iayai?noue ? iiaeeea?noue oe?eiaeiaiaiai aeei?enoaiiy eiii»thoa?iiai
oiiia?aoa);

— ?ic?iaea oi?o?eiaai?o i?ioieie?a e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c aino?ith
/a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith a niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iae?io??o?a?/ieo
noaoe?iia?ao a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo iaoieia?? oa aaaeeino? noaio
iino?aaeaeaeiai.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue eyaee a iniiao aieiaiiai
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai aeieoiaioo, ?aaeaiaiooth/iai a aeaiee /an
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie i?io?eueii? neoaeae — Iaeaco IIC
Oe?a?ie a?ae 24.11.94?. ?295 «I?i caoiaee uiaei iie?ioaiiy i?aai?caoe??
oa i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae ianaeaiith Oe?a?ie» ?
i?iaaaeaiiy e?oeaicoaaiiy oa na?oeo?eaoe?? iaeanieo iae?io??o?a?/ieo
a?aeae?eaiue c iiia?aaeiueith ?ic?iaeith iiiaieeaoo?e iae?io??o?a?/ieo
ao?o/aiue ii eaoaai??yi neeaaeiino? (Aeac?aea IIC Oe?a?ie a?ae
05.05.95?. ?143 «I?i i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aa??ee aeeiiaiiy Iaeaco i?i?no?a
ioi?iie caei?ia»y Oe?a?ie a?ae 24.11.94?. ?295 «I?i caoiaee uiaei
iie?ioaiiy i?aai?caoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae
ianaeaiith Oe?a?ie»). Aeina?ae aia?oa i?iaaaeaii? a Oe?a?i? ?iaioe
oaeiai iai?yieo aoa aeei?enoaiee aeey ii/aoi? ia aeeiiaiiy Iniia
Caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie i?i ioi?iio caei?ia»y oe?ieiianooaaii? ?iaioe ii
e?oeaicoaaiith ? ae?aaeeoaoe?? e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo onoaiia
nenoaie I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia»y Oe?a?ie (Iaeac IIC Oe?a?ie a?ae
29.07.96?. ?236 «I?i i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo c e?oeaicoaaiiy oa
ae?aaeeoaoe?? e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caeeaae?a nenoaie I?i?noa?noaa
ioi?iie caei?ia»y Oe?a?ie», Iinoaiiaa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 15
eeiiy 1997?. ?765 «I?i caoaa?aeaeaiiy Ii?yaeeo aea?aeaaii? ae?aaeeoaoe??
caeeaaeo ioi?iie caei?ia»y», Iaeac IIC Oe?a?ie a?ae 29.09.97?. ?287 «I?i
ae?aaeeoaoe?th caeeaae?a ioi?iie caei?ia»y»). ?ic?iaee no/anieo
i?aeoiae?a aei ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie c iaoith
i?aeuaiiy ?o aoaeoeaiino? ? yeino? aeeth/ai? o aeaeyae? a?aeiia?aeiiai
o?aaiaioo aei aaeocaaeo noaiaea?o?a iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e, caoaa?aeaeaieo
Iaeacii IIC Oe?a?ie a?ae 27.07.1998?. ca ?226 » I?i caoaa?aeaeaiiy
Oei/aniaeo aaeocaaeo oi?o?eiaaieo noaiaea?o?a iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e
ae?aaiinoe/ii-e?eoaaeueiiai i?ioeano noaoe?iia?ii? aeiiiiiae aei?ineiio
ianaeaiith a e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie oa Oei/aniaeo
noaiaea?o?a ianya?a ae?aaiinoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a
oa e?eoa??? yeino? e?eoaaiiy ae?oae».

?ic?iaeaia ? cai?iiiiiaaia aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy eiii»thoa?ia
aenia?oia nenoaia «O?aaio-1.0» ai?iaaaeaeaia a ?iaioo
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie, ui a eiiieaen? aeicaieeei
aeinyaoe nooo?aiai iie?ioaiiy ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy aino?i?
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie a ?aa?iiao ai?iaaaeaeaiiy, cie?aia ciaioeoe
nia?oi?noue i?e oyaee?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? c 71,9% a 1992 ?ioe? aei
46,6% a 1996 ?ioe?.

?ic?iaeaiee oa cai?iiiiiaaiee aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaen
e?eoa???a iacai?ioiino? ci?i ooieoe?e aieiaiiai iiceo i?e oyaeeiio
o?aaeaii? eiai ai?iaaaeaeaiee a ?iaioo iae?io?aaiaoieia?/iiai oa
iae?i?aai?iaoe?iiiiai a?aeae?eaiue ?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a??
?i.aeaae.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeaii aeaa iaoiaee/ieo iin?aieea.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

Aaoi? naiino?eii aecia/ea iai?yiie, iaoiaeieia?th oa i?ia?aio
i?iaaaeaiiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii?aoethaaa
ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeai? 10206 aeiaaee?a aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai?
o?aaie o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie ?c caaaeueiith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy
a?ey 4 i?eueeii?a /ieia?e, cai?iiiioaaa, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaa oa
?ic?iaea iniiai? iieiaeaiiy noaiaea?o?a iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e i?e aino??e
/a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?, ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ia i?aea?oioy ? i?ia?aio
e?oeaicoaaiiy oa na?oeo?eaoe?? iae?io??o?a?/ieo a?aeae?eaiue, i/iethaaa
eii?n?th IIC Oe?a?ie i?e i?iaaaeaii? oe??? ?iaioe, aeine?aeea,
ocaaaeueiea oa eiie?aoecoaaa ?noi?e/i? aniaeoe, no/ani? i?aeoiaee ?
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e
o?aai?, aeeiiaa 70% caaaeueiiai ianyao aeine?aeaeaiue iniaeeainoae
iaaeaiiy ae?aaiinoe/ii? ? e?eoaaeueii? aeiiiiiae i?e aino??e
/a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? (noai?aiiy i?ia?aie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a), 65%
caaaeueiiai ianyao ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/ieo oa o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oyaeei? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie (anueiai – 457 aeiaaee?a)
– noai?aiiy i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaciina?aaei?e aiae?c oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a, ni?anoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieie,
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy, 65% aaciina?aaeiuei? ?iaioe
i?e noai?aii? aenia?oii? eiii»thoa?ii? nenoaie «O?aaio-1.0″ (?ic?iaea
eiioeaiooaeueii? i?ia?aie, caaacia/aiiy iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? oa
iaaeeei-aiae?oe/ii? /anoeie ?iaioe, ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie
a ee?i?/io i?aeoeeo).

An? ?icae?ee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaienai? iniaenoi caeiaoaa/ai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
oa?eoee a aeena?oaoe?th, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia ia?aeiai?e eiioa?aioe??
?aoe?iiae?caoi??a oa aeiao?aeiee?a (Caii??aeaey, 1989), ???-io Eiia?an?
Anana?oiuei? Oaaea?aoe?? Oe?a?inueeeo E?ea?nueeeo Oiaa?enoa
(Ee?a-Euea?a, 1990), VI — io c?cae? iaa?iiaoieia?a, ineo?ao??a ?
ia?eieia?a Oe?a?inueei? ?N? (Oa?e?a, 1990), Ia?o?e ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaaeeei-nioe?aeuei? ? a?ieia?/i?
aniaeoe aaciaee ?ooo ia i?nueeiio ianaaee?nueeiio o?ainii?o?”
(Aeiiaoeuee, 1990), iaeani?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? c ieoaiue
iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae oai?ei c /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith (A?iieoey, 1991),
IV- io Eiia?an? Anana?oiuei? Oaaea?aoe?? Oe?a?inueeeo E?ea?nueeeo
Oiaa?enoa (Oa?e?a, 1992), i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eiiithoa?ia
iaaeeoeeia — 93” (Oa?e?a, 1993), nai?ia?? “No/ani? oaoiieia?? — ioi?ii?
caei?iay: eiiithoa?i? iaaee/i? nenoaie” (Ee?a, 1993), Ia?oiio c?cae?
iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1993), Ieaioi? anioe?aoe?? aianoac?ieia?a
Oe?a?ie “O?aaia. Aianoac?y ? ?ioaineaia oa?ai?y” (Eoaainuee-Eooeuee,
1994), aia?aoieo ia?aaeao o I?i?no?a ioi?iie caei?iay Oe?a?ie “I?i noai
i?aai?caoe?? oa oeyoe iie?auaiiy iaa?aeeeaaeii? iae?io??o?a?/ii?
aeiiiiiae o A?iieoeuee?e oa *a?i?a?anuee?e iaeanoyo” (Ee?a, 1995; 1996),
nai?ia??-ia?aae? iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie “I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?
?icoe?aiiy iaoiaee/ii? caaacia/aiino? ?ino?oiaioaeueieo cania?a
ae?aaiinoeee iae?io??o?a?/ieo oi?i iaoieia??. Aeooaeuei? caaea/?
no/anii? iae?io??o?a??” (Euea?a, 1996), ?V- io c?cae? Anaoe?a?inueeiai
e?ea?nueeiai oiaa?enoaa c i?aeia?iaeiith eiioa?aioe??th “Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy ioi?iie caei?iay a Oe?a?i?” (Ee?a, 1997), Ae?oaiio
c?cae? iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie (Iaeana, 1998), Ae?oaiio Eiia?an?
iae?io??o?a?a I?e/i?iiii?nueeeo e?a?i (Naeii?ee, A?aoe?y, 1999).

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaia ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? A/aii? ?aaee
?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaae.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie oa eaoaae?
iae?io??o?a?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey ? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii?
ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 19.03.1999?., i?ioieie ?7).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 24 noaooyo a
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ( c ieo 6 – a iaeiiin?aiiio aaoi?noa?), 2 noaooyo — a
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iaeiiio aaoi?nueeiio na?aeiooeoa?, a 19
iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiia?an?a, c»?cae?a, eiioa?aioe?e oa ieaioi?a.

Ia»?i ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 7
?icae?e?a, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoea.

Caaaeueiee ia»?i ?iaioe — 297 noi??iie iaoeiiieno. ?iaioa
i?i?ethno?iaaia 40 iaethieaie, ia? 37 oaaeeoeue. Nienie
e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 458 aeaea?ae, c ieo 186 — e?a?i NIAe, 272 —
?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

I?iaaaeaia aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/aia aea/aiith iaaee/ieo
aniaeo?a i?iaeaie aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie ? ?? iniaeeainoae a
Oe?a?i? c iaoith iiooeo ? cai?iiiioaaiiy iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueieo oeyo?a
?? ??oaiiy.

Aeaia iaoa iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea? i?iaieioai?e Anana?oiueith
I?aai?caoe??th Ioi?iie Caei?ia’y (AIIC) iia?e iie?oeoe? a iaeano?
oaeineiiaeaiiy yeino? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, ui ni?yiiaaia ia caa?aaeaiiy
aeeooy ? aeinyaiaiiy yeiaea?eueo aenieiai ??aiy caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy. A
iniiao oe??? iie?oeee iinoaaeaia ?aae?caoe?y aei 2 000 ?ieo a on?o
e?a?iao-o/anieoeyo AIIC i?ioean?a, ye? aa?aioothoue aacoieiia iie?ioaiiy
yeino? a nenoai? ioi?iie caei?ia’y, a oaeiae ?icaeoie ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
ia a?aeiia?aeiiio ??ai? iiaeo iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e, i?i ui, cie?aia,
aiai?eoueny a i?iaeoiiio aeieoiaio? AIIC «?a?iiaenueea iie?oeea AIIC ii
aeinyaiaiith caei?ia’y aeey on?o ia aeaaaeoeyoue ia?oa noi??//y» (AIIC,
AEaiaaa,1997).

Aiaeii/an, aa?oi a?aoiaoaaoe, ui aeinyaiaiiy iioeiaeueii? yeino? ?
iaeneiaeueii? aoaeoeaiino? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e i?i?iaeueieo aeo?aoao
ia? aaaaoi neeaaeiaeo ? e??i aa?aio?e aeiiii?/ii? i?aeo?eiee aaeoc?, a
oaeiae caaacia/aiiy i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a ioi?iie
caei?ia’y, iiaeiii aooe aeio?eiaia aa?iii?/ia ae??oaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo
? nooi i?ioan?eieo iaaee/ieo ieoaiue, ui iathoue aaciina?aaei?
a?aeiioaiiy aei ae?aaiinoe/ieo ? e?eoaaeueieo oaoiieia?e
(A.A.Noaiaiaiei, 1999).

Oa?aeoa? iinoaaeaieo caaea/ aecia/ea iaoiaeieia?th aeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iiia?aaei?e aiae?c aeinooiii? e?oa?aoo?e caeeoea aaeueie noia?a/eeaa
a?aaeaiiy. C iaeiiai aieo — ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoiaaiaco ? ee?i?ee /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie, iiyaa ? no??ieee ?icaeoie
no/anii? ae?aaiinoe/ii? oaoi?ee, ui aeicaiey? ia?iaaceaiei oeyoii
a?coae?coaaoe aioo??oiuei/a?aii? ci?ie, aacnoii?ai? aeinyaiaiiy a
o??o?a?/iiio ? eiina?aaoeaiiio e?eoaaii? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie a
i?ia?aeieo iae?io??o?a?/ieo ? niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iae?io?aaiaoieia?/ieo
oeaio?ao. C ?ioiai aieo — ianoi??ia ianooaai?noue i?iaeaie,
noia?a/eea?noue ee?i?/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy
iino?aaeaeaeeo, ia??aeei — ?aii?oaaiiy aeinyaiaiiyie iaaee/ii? iaoee ?,
ia?aoo?, yaii iacaaeia?euei?, a oe?eiio, noaoenoe/i? iieacieee, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?acoeueoaoeai?noue ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie a aeaiee /an,
iniaeeai a ieoaiiyo aaaeei? o?aaie aieiaiiai iiceo. Ie?aii ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe, ui ia neooaoe?th a Oe?a?i?, a?aoiaoth/e ye iaae??oaii?noue
i?iaeaie, oae ? ?? ianooaai?noue, ae?ae iaaaoeaii aieeaa? iaaeinoaoi?
o?iainoaaiiy aaeoc? ioi?iie caei?ia»y, ui ? i?iyaii caaaeueii? neeaaeii?
aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??, oa?aeoa?ii?, cie?aia, aeey aea?aeaa
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e aeicaieea eiie?aoecoaaoe iniiai? iai?yiee aeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ianaiia?aae, aoea iaaaeueia iio?aaa iaea?aeaoe iaeneiaeueii aeinoia??io
ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie
a Oe?a?i? ? aea/eoe ?? aeeiai?eo i?ioyaii aeinoaoiuei o?eaaeiai
ia??iaeo.

Aea/aiiy ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo aniaeo?a aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai?
o?aaie aoei i?iaaaeaii ia iniia? iiioeyoe?eieo i?eioeei?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Onueiai i?iaiae?ciaai? aeai? 10206 aeiaaee?a aino?i?
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie, ui a?aeaoeeny a ia??iae ?c 1983 ?ieo ii 1998
??e o 6 aaeeeeo, oeiiaeo aeey Oe?a?ie i?nueeeo ? n?euenueeeo ?aa?iiao ?c
caaaeueiith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy a?ey 4 i?eueeii?a /ieia?e.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iineei oa?aeoa? iaeii/aniiai niinoa?aaeaiiy, ii
ioiieaiith iaeeieoeue noeoiiino? — nooe?eueiiai ii?yae ?c iaoiaeii
iniiaiiai ianeao (iaaeieiiaiiai nooe?eueiiai) i?e noai?iio aeio?eiaii?
aeiia e?euee?nii? ? ye?nii? ?ai?acaioaoeaiino?.

t2pq

2

Ianya aea??eiai? noeoiiino? ianaeaiiy aoa aecia/aiee ia iniia?
iiia?aaeiueiai aecia/aiiy /anoioe /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie ii oi?ioe?
i?inoi? aeiaaeeiai? aea??ee — n = . Ca iiia?aaei?ie aeaieie
/anoioa /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie neeaaeaea 2 aeiaaeee ia 1000 ianaeaiiy.
A?aeiia?aeii, i?i?iaeueiith noeoii?noth ianaeaiiy aeey ia»?eoeaii?
ioe?iee yaeua iaei aooe 199600 in?a. Iiioeyoe?y, ui aea/aeany a ?aa?iiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaeaea a 20 ?ac?a ia?aaaaeaea i?i?iaeueiee ianya
aea??eiai? noeoiiino?.

?ic?aooiee i?iaaaeeeeny ia ia?niiaeueiiio eiii’thoa?? oeio IBM/PC/XT ii
noaiaea?oi?e i?ia?ai? c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee.

A?aoiaoaaeeny e aiae?coaaeeny o?eueee o? aeiaaeee aino?eo
/a?aiii-iiceiaeo o?aai, aea ee?i?/iee ae?aaiic aoa i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee
eiiieaenieie aeaieie ee?i?/ieo, ?aioaaiieia?/ieo, iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo,
eaai?aoi?ieo, ii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ioe?iea ii?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae aaaeei? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie
cae?eniaia ca aeaieie 402 aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaeueieo aeiaaee?a (iaoa??ae
?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie ? e?eoaaeueieo caeeaae?a i.Ee?aa).

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy i?e?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue (89 aeiaaee?a) aieiaiee
iicie oai?eo, ui caaeioee a?ae /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie, iiia?aaeiuei
o?enoaaany a 10% ?ic/ei? oi?iae?io.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeeny oae? a?aeae?ee iiceo: aiaieua caaith c ia??oieaeueiith
ciiith — iiceiaa ?a/iaeia ia aeayeiio a?aeaeaeaii?, a?aeiia?aei?
ae?eyiee iiceo a i?ioeeaaei?e i?aeoe?, noiaao? iiceo ?, o /anoei?
aeiaaee?a, iici/ie. I?e iiiaeeiieo aeainoi?iii?o caaiyo
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny a?aeiia?aei? ae?eyiee a iaio i?aeoeyo.

Aiooaaeeny oioaeuei? i?aia?aoe ye c iaeano? aiaieua caaith c
ia??oieaeueiith ciiith, oae ? c oaei? ae ae?eyiee i?ioeeaaeii? i?aeoe?.
Aea/aeeny ye oeaei?ae?iia?, oae ? caii?iaeai? c??ce. Aeey i?eaiooaaiiy
i?aia?ao?a aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oae? iaoiaeeee: iaeyaeia? – caaa?aeaiiy
aaiaoienee?i-aic?iii, aaiaoienee?i-i?e?iooen?iii, aeey aea/aiiy ci?i
ia?aiaeo ee?oei — o?ii?iii, e?iaiiini? noaeeie aea/aeeny ia i?aia?aoao,
?ii?aaiiaaieo ii Aiii??, ano?ioeeoe — ca aeiiiiiaith cieioi-noeaiiaiai
iaoiaeo Eaoaea. Aeey ioe?iee noaio i??e?iiaeo aieieii c??ce
caaa?aethaaeeny aaiaoienee?iii Eoeue/eoeueeiai.

O 29 aeiaaeeao aoei i?iaaaeaii ye?nia a?noio?i?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeoeaiino? oaeeo ieenethaaeueii-a?aeiiaieo oa?iaio?a ye
noeoe?iaoaeaa?ae?iaaiaca (NAeA), iaeaoaeaa?ae?iaaiaca (IAeA),
eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiaca (EAeA) ? IAAe-ae?aoi?aca a ia?aiaeo ee?oeiao ?
ano?ioeeoao o aiaieu? caaith, ia??oieaeuei?e cii?, ia a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae
aiaieua caaith, o i?ioeeaaei?e i?aeoe? e o noiaao?? iiceo. Aoea aea/aia
oaeiae aeoeai?noue oaeeo i?ioaie?oe/ieo oa?iaio?a ye eenea ? eoaeia
oinoaoace.

Aeoeai?noue ieenethaaeueii-a?aeiiaieo oa?iaio?a aea/aee ia a?noieia?/ieo
c??cao oiaueiith 10 ? 20 ie, i?eaioiaeaieo o e??inoao? c iao?eniaaiiai
iaoa??aeo. Aeoeai?noue IAAe-ae?aoi?ace aecia/aeany ii iiaeeo?eaoe??
Aa?noiia, IAeA ? EAeA — ii iaoiaeeoe? Hess ?c ni?aaao., NAeA — ii
iaoiae? Nachlas ?c ni?aao., aeey aecia/aiiy eenei? ? eoaeii? oinoaoac
ei?enooaaeeny iaoiaeii Aiii?? (A.I??n, 1962).

O yeino? eiio?ieth aoa ocyoee iicie caaeaeiai a?ae iauaniiai aeiaaeeo,
ia iia’ycaiiai c /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith.

A?io?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee i?iaaaeai? ia iaoa??ae? 55
iae?io??o?a?/ieo oai?eo o e?eoe/iiio noai? (35 /ieia?e?a ? 20 ae?iie o
a?oe? 18-76 ?ie?a).

Ioe?ithaaeeny ee?i?/i?, o?c?ieia?/i?, a?io?i?/i?, o?ceei-o?i?/i?,
ii?oieia?/i? iieacieee c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co.

Oai?? ianoaaeai? ii oi?o?eiaai?e i?ia?ai? ee?i?ei-o?c?ieia?/ieo
iieaciee?a. Nooi?iue aaaeeino? ee?i?/iiai noaio ioe?ithaaeany ii
i?eeiyoei o iae?io??o?a?? e?eoa??yi ?c aeei?enoaiiyi oeaee eiie Aeacai.

I?e ee?i?ei-iaa?ieia?/iiio e ?ino?oiaioaeueiiio ianoaaeaii? oai?eo
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oae? aia?aoo?a ? iaoiaeeee: eiii’thoa?iee oiiia?ao
“Niiaoii NE” o??ie Siemens; iaai?oii — ?aciiainiee oiiia?ao;
8-eaiaeueiee aioeaoaeia?ao; aecia/aiiy neooiauo aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a
noiaao?a iiceo; oea?aa?aeueia aia?ia?ao?y; o?aine?ai?aeueia
aeiiea?ia?ao?y; iii?oi?oaaiiy iniiaieo aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo iieaciee?a
— AEA; /anoioa ioeueno ? aeeoaiiy, oaiia?aoo?a o?ea, ioeuenieneiao??y
e ?i.

Niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaia ea?oa aeeth/aea 33 ee?i?ei-o?c?ieia?/ieo
iieacieea, ui aaiaeeeeny a aaco aeaieo eiii’thoa?a e o aeie
noaoenoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??.

O i?ioean? noaeiai-iaaee/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiaeeeinue iae?ineii?/ia,
iae?i-i?e?ineii?/ia ? i?e?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aaiaoe/ieo
o?aaeaiue oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie o 33 caaeaeeo (27 /ieia?e?a ? 6
ae?iie o a?oe? a?ae 19 aei 80 ?ie?a).

Aoee canoiniaai? oae? a?noieia?/i? iaoiaeeee: caaa?aeaiiy
aaiaoien?e?i-yic?iii, aaiaoien?e?i-i?e?iooen?iii, aaiaoien?e?iii
Eoeue/eoeueeiai, o?ii?iii ii I?nneth, ?ii?aaiaoe?y n??aeii ii Aiii??.

Eiiieaen a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue e?eai?a, a?oa??aeueii? ? aaiicii?
e?ia? iiceo o oai?eo aeeth/aa oae? iieacieee: ai?no eaoaoieai?i?a
(A.A.Aiiaoeeee, A.E.Oaaei?ia, 1989); aaia-ai?iiianeyii? eeneioe — AAIE
(J. Lindgren, N. E. Andren, M.A. Grabowska-Andren, 1992); ?ii?a eae?th ?
iao??th (A.A.Iie?ianueeee, 1969); caaaeueii?, a?eueii? ? ca’ycaii?
aiaee (?.I.Naoaiiaa, 1974); iiei/ii? eeneioe (B. K. Siesje, L. K.
Granholm, A. Kjalgnist, 1968); i??iaeiia?aaeii? eeneioe
(A.A.Iie?ianueeee, 1969); noeueoa?ae?eeueieo a?oi (G. Ellman, 1959);
caaaeueiiai a?eeo ? a?eeiaeo o?aeoe?e (A.A.Iie?ianueeee, 1969);
ioe?ithaaany eeneioii-iniiaiee noai ia aia?ao? i?e?i-Ano?oi ( o??ie
«?aae?iiao?», Aeai?y); iniiey?i?noue ca aeiiiiiaith iniiiao?a (oei IIEA
1Oe-01); ia?aeenia ieenethaaiiy e?i?aeia (IIE) ? aioeieneaeaioia
aeoeai?noue (AIA) (E.Ae.Noaeueiay, O.A.Aa?o?a?e?, 1977), ?ioaineai?noue
?iaeoeiaaii? oai?ethi?ianoeaioe?? (?OE) ( A.E.Caea?yi, TH.A.Aiaae,
1974) ? ??aaiue ia?aeenii? ?acenoaioiino? a?eo?ioeeo?a (I?A)
(A.A.Iie?ianueeee, A.A.Aa?a?ia, 1964). Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
i?aeaeaaaeeny noaoenoe/iiio ii?aoethaaiith c aeei?enoaiiyi O-e?eoa??y
Nouethaeaioa.

Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui a 1983 ?ioe? /anoioa
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie a Oe?a?i? neeaaeaea 2,75 + 0,02%i i?e cia/i?e
aa??aaaeueiino? ie?aieo iieaciee?a (oaae.1). O iaeii??aeieo a?oiao
(i?nueea ? n?euenueea ianaeaiiy) iieacieee oaeiae aoee a?eueo
iaeii??aeieie. sseui a i?iieneiaeo i?noao, ui aea/aeeny, /anoioa
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie eieeaaeeny a?ae 3,10%i (i.Aeiiaoeuee) aei 3,73%i
(i.Ea?/), oi a ia?aaaaeii noaiiaeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?aeiiao ??
iieacieee neeaaeaee a?ae 0,35%i (Eicaeaoeueeee ?aeii *a?i?a?anueei?
iaeano?) aei 0, 85%i (Eaeei?anueeee ?aeii A?iieoeueei? iaeano?).
Iaea?eueo aenie? iieacieee a?aei?/aeeny a i?noao ? a??nuee?e i?noeaaino?
(Aa?aa?anueeee ?aeii Caea?iaonueei? iaeano?).

Oaaeeoey 1

*anoioa /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie (*IO) a

aeine?aeaeaieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie (ia 1 000 ianaeaiiy)

Aeine?aeaeoaaiee ?aa?ii

*anoioa *IO

i.Ee?a 1,53%i i.Aeiiaoeuee 3,10%i i.Ea?/ 3,73%i Aa?aa?anueeee ?aeii
Caea?iaonueei? iaeano? 6,96 %i Eaeei?anueeee ?aeii A?iieoeueei? iaeano?
0,85 %i Eicaeaoeueeee ?aeii *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano? 0,35 %i O
na?aaeiueiio 2,75+0,02%i

Ia aeeeth/aii, ui a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, e??i ia’?eoeaii a?eueo
iecueei? /anoioe aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie, ia ?? iieacieee
aieeaaa ? oaeee /eiiee ye a?aeaeaeai?noue iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, iaioa e?euee?noue caa?iaiue i?e eaae?e o?aai?, iniaeeai
i?e no?on? aieiaiiai iiceo.

Na?aae o?aaiiaaieo aoei 67,17% iino?aaeaeaeeo /ieia?/i? noao? ? 32,83% —
ae?ii/i?.

Iiaooiaa o?aaia aoea aaaeo/ith — 66,99% on?o aeiaaee?a,
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oia -21,90% ? ae?iaie/a — 4,87%.

Aeeiaieueia ni’yi?iiy a?aecia/aii a 21,95% niinoa?aaeaiue.

No?oeoo?iee aiae?c /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie na?ae/ea i?i cia/ia
ia?aaaaeaiiy eaaeeo ?? oi?i. No?on ? caai? aieiaiiai iiceo eaaeiai
nooiaiy aoee a?aei?/ai? a 75,23% niinoa?aaeaiue, caai? aieiaiiai iiceo
na?aaeiueiai ? aaaeeiai nooiaiy — o 20,45% niinoa?aaeaiue,
aioo??oiuei/a?aii? aaiaoiie — o 4,32%. Oaeei /eiii, eaaea
/a?aiii-iiceiaa o?aaia cono??/aeany a 75,23% aeiaaee?a, aaaeea — o?eueee
a 24,77%. Oe? iieacieee ia a?ae??ciyeeny cia/ii ii ie?aieo ?aa?iiao, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th a no?oeoo?? /a?aiii-iiceiai?
o?aaie oiai ia??iaeo /ano, ui aea/aany (oaae.2).

Oaaeeoey 2

No?oeoo?a /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie a

aeine?aeaeaieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie (%)

?aa?ii No?oeoo?a /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaieno?on aieiaiiai iiceo ? caai?
eaaeiai nooiaiy caai? aieiaiiai iiceo na?aaeiueiai ? aaaeeiai nooiaiy
aioo??oiuei/a?aii? aaiaoiie

i.Ee?a

80,09% 16,77% 3,14% i.Aeiiaoeuee

73,13% 18,85% 8,02% i.Ea?/

83,47% 6,90% 9,62% Aa?aa?anueeee ?aeii

Caea?iaonueei? iaeano? 80,48% 19,52% — Eaeei?anueeee ?aeii

A?iieoeueei? iaeano? 69,23% 25,64% 5,13% Eicaeaoeueeee ?aeii

*a?i?a?anueei? iaeano? 65,00% 35,00% — O na?aaeiueiio 75,23% 20,45%
4,32%

Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo iieaciee?a, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue noai ?
eaae?o?eiaai?noue iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e
o?aai?, ? /anoioa aini?oae?caoe?? iino?aaeaeaeeo.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui no?oeoo?a aini?oae?caoe?e ?noioii ia a?ae??ciyeany
a?ae caaaeueii? no?oeoo?e /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie, ui iaea i?noea,
niinoa??aaeany eeoa aeayea ci?ia iieaciee?a ca ?aooiie caaeaeeo ia
i?noe? iiae?? ? a?aeiiae a?ae aini?oae?caoe?? (oaae.3).

Oaaeeoey 3

No?oeoo?a aini?oae?caoe?? c i?eaiaeo /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie a
aeine?aeaeaieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie (aaniethoi? oeeo?e, %)

?aa?ii No?oeoo?a aini?oae?caoe?? no?on aieiaiiai iiceo ? caai? eaaeiai
nooiaiy caai? aieiaiiai iiceo na?aaeiueiai ? aaaeeiai nooiaiy
aioo??oiuei-/a?aii? aaiaoiie Onueiai12345 i.Ee?a

1801

(79,10%) 401

(17,61%) 75

(3,29%) 227712345 I.Aeiiaoeuee

1653

(72,72%) 435

(19,14%) 185

(8,14%) 2273 i.Ea?/

392

(83,23%) 33

(7,01%) 46

(9,76%) 471 Aa?aaianeee ?aeii

Caea?iaonueei? iae. 312

(79,39%) 81

(20,61%) — 393 Eaeeiianeee ?aeii

A?iieoeueei? iaeano? 21

(63,64%) 10

(30,30%) 2

(6,06%) 33 Eicaeaoeeee ?aeii

*a?i?a?anueei? iae. 12

(63,16%) 7

(36,84%) — 19 ?acii 4191

(76,67%) 967

(17,69%) 308

(5,64%) 5466

(100%)

I?e ii??aiyeueiiio aiae?c? aeaieo ii ?aa?iiao , ui aea/aeeny ,
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aini?oae?ciaaii? eaaei? ? aaaeei? /a?aiii-iiceiai?
o?aaie eieeaaeiny iacia/ii — a?ae 74,47% : 25,53% aei 85,82% : 14,18%.

A oie aea /an, nooo?ai a?ae??ciyeeny iieacieee nia?oiino?. O
aeine?aeaeoaai?e iiioeyoe?? aiia neeaea 0,06%i, eieeaath/enue a?ae
ioeueiaiai iieacieea aei 0,11%i.

Aa?oi oaaae, ui 61 iino?aaeaeaeee (0,016%i) caaeioa ia i?noe? iiae?? ?
165 (0,044%i) — o e?eoaaeueieo caeeaaeao. O caaeaeeo ia
aeiaini?oaeueiiio aoai? iniiaieie i?e/eiaie nia?o? aoee
aioo??oiuei/a?aii? aaiaoiie (41 aeiaaeie) ? oyaee? caai? iiceo ( 20
aeiaaee?a).

Oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iniiaieo i?e/ei nia?o? — 2:1, ci?ith?oueny na?aae
in?a, ye? caaeioee a noaoe?iia?? — 88:77 ? ua a?eueoa ci?uo?oueny o a?e
caai?a na?aae iiia?eeo i?ney iia?aoe?? — 43:58. Iiae?aio ci?io
ni?aa?aeiioaiue, iaaooue, iiaeia iiynieoe ?yaeii /eiiee?a. Ii-ia?oa, a
in?a, ui caaeioee ia aeiaini?oaeueiiio aoai?, i?aeoe/ii caaaeaee
aeyaeyeeny ye ianeai? aioo??oiuei/a?aii? aaiaoiie, oae ? aaaee? caai?
iiceo, i?ioa, a ca’yceo c ae?aci?noth e?iaiaeeea?a, naia aiie
aeacoaaeeny a yeino? iniiaii? i?e/eie nia?o?. Ii-ae?oaa, i?e niieo/aii?
aioo??oiuei/a?aiii? aaiaoiie ? caaith aieiaiiai iiceo aoaa? ae?enii
neeaaeii, iaa?oue i?e iaoieiaiaiaoii?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii?, aecia/eoe,
ui ? iniiaiith i?e/eiith eaoaeueiiai e?ioey. Aei oiai ae, /anoeia c oeeo
oai?eo iia?o?oueny c i?eaiaeo ? aaiaoii, ? caai?a aieiaiiai iiceo, aea
ine?eueee aaiaoiie aeaeaeythoueny, i?e aooiin?? aeyaey?oueny o?eueee
aiaieua caaith, iaa?oue i?ney eiai /anoeiaiai aeaeaeaiiy, a?i aea ?
aeaco?oueny a yeino? iniiaii? i?e/eie nia?o?. Iieacieee e?ea?iyii? ?
i?neyiia?aoe?eii? eaoaeueiino? iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 4.

Oaaeeoey 4

E?ea?iyia ? i?neyiia?aoe?eia eaoaeuei?noue i?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e
o?aai? a aeine?aeaeaieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie (%)

?aa?ii E?ea?iyia eaoaeuei?noue I?neyiia?aoe?eia eaoaeuei?noue123 i.Ee?a
2,83% 3,93%123 i.Aeiiaoeuee 1,91% 2,14% i.Ea?/ 3,34% 3,49% Aa?aa?anueeee
?aeii

Caea?iaonueei? iaeano? — Eaeei?anueeee ?aeii

A?iieoeueei? iaeano? 14,63% 12,24% Eicaeaoeueeee ?aeii

*a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?— O oe?eiio 2,33% 2,81%

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a no?oeoo?? nia?oiino? a?ae /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie
o?ao?othoue o?eueee aeaa /eiieee: aioo??oiuei/a?aii? aaiaoiie ? caai?
aieiaiiai iiceo. A aeaiiio aeiaaeeo oaeee iiae?e ?, iaaooue, ooo/iei ?
ia a?aeaeaa? noo? ieoaiiy, ine?eueee aino?? aioo??oiuei/a?aii? aaiaoiie
caaaeaee niieo/aeeny ?c caaiyie iiceo, oiio aeae?eaiiy iniiaii? i?e/eie
nia?o? ? noa’?eoeaiei. Nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy a?ae aioo??oiuei/a?aiieo
aaiaoii neeaea 1,6%, a a?ae caai?a aieiaiiai iiceo — 1,2%.

O oe?eiio, eaoaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe a?aei?/aeeny o?eueee i?e aaaee?e
/a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?, caaaeueiee iieaciee eaoaeueiino? neeaa 2,8%.
I?neyiia?aoe?eia eaoaeuei?noue (2,81%) iacia/ii a?ae??ciyeany a?ae
e?ea?iyii? (2,33%). Oe?eeii eiia??ii, oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui iniiai?e
ian? iino?aaeaeaeeo ?c aaaeeith /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith
canoiniaoaaeiny o??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy.

Caa?ioee ia naaa oaaao iieacieee /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino?. Oae, o iaea?eueo ?ai?acaioaoeaiiio c aeine?aeaeaieo
Eaeei?anueeiio ?aeii? A?iieoeueei? iaeano? i?e a?aeiinii iecuee?e
/anoio? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie — 0,85%i, /anoioa aini?oae?caoe??
aeyaeeany oaeiae aaeueie iaaenieith — 0,64%i. I?e oeueiio a ?aeii?
o?enoaaeany aeinoaoiuei aeniea caaaeueia nia?oi?noue a?ae
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie — 0,08% ? iaeaeua e?ea?iyia eaoaeuei?noue —
14,63%, ui a?eueo i?ae o 6 ?ac?a (!) ia?aaeuoaaei na?aaei?e iieaciee a
Oe?a?i?. Noai aeeiaieueiiai ni’yi?iiy aoei a?aecia/aii a 25,81%
iino?aaeaeaeeo, ui oaeiae ?noioii ia?aaeuoaaei na?aaei?e iieaciee.

Io?eiai? aeai? cioneee ian caa?iooe iniaeeao oaaao ia neooaoe?th c
/a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, a ca’yceo c /ei o
1992 ?ioe? aoei i?iaaaeaii niaoe?aeueia iiaeeaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie o an?o ?aeiiao A?iieoeueei? iaeano?.

O aeacaiiio ?ioe? a oeaio?aeuei? ?aeiii? e?ea?i? iaeano?, a oaeiae o
ae?eueie/i? e?ea?i? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? aoei aeinoaaeaii 3246
iino?aaeaeaeeo ?c aino?ith /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith.

Aiae?c io?eiaieo aeaieo aeicaieea a?aeianoe aei iniaeeainoae aino?i?
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ianooii?: ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue eaaei? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie — 2954 iino?aaeaeaeeo ?c 3246
( 91,0%), iecueea /anoioa o?aai o ae?oae — onueiai 236 iino?aaeaeaeeo,
ui neeaei 7,3% aei caaaeueiiai /enea o?aaiiaaieo, iaaeoi aenie?
iieacieee eaoaeueiino? i?e oyaee?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?: o iaoeo
niinoa?aaeaiiyo — 71,9%, a oaeiae aenieo /anoioo o?aai, io?eiaieo o
noai? aeeiaieueiiai ni’yi?iiy — 39,0%.

Eiaeiee aeanyoee iino?aaeaeaeee ?c n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? c aino?eie
aioo??oiuei/a?aiieie aaiaoiiaie iia?oaaany aeeeeeaiei c iaeaniiai
oeaio?o iae?io??o?aii ?c cia/iei cai?ciaiiyi, o noaae?? ee?i?/ii?
aeaeiiiainaoe??. Aiaeii/an, o 20% aeiaaee?a aeeeeee iae?io??o?aa aoee
iaiaa?oioiaaieie.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ia?aeiieeai na?ae/aoue i?i iaciaiiy ee?i?ee e
iniaeeainoae aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie c aieo a?eueoino? iaaee/ieo
i?aoe?aiee?a, ui a niieo/aii? c a?aeaeaeai?noth niaoe?ae?ciaaii?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei o?aa?/ieo ?acoeueoao?a, yeeo iiaeia
aoei a oieeiooe.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi inoaiiuei? oace ? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo a ianooii?
?iee oe?eani?yiiaaieo caoiae?a, naieoe?iiiaaieo a?aeiia?aeieie iaeacaie
A?iieoeueeiai iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy ioi?iie caei?ia’y. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?eioeei?a oe?eueiai? aini?oae?caoe?? iino?aaeaeaeeo ?c aaaeeith
/a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith aaciina?aaeiuei a iaeania iae?io??o?a?/ia
a?aeae?eaiiy, i?aai?caoe?y oe?eiaeiaiaiai /a?aoaaiiy iae?io??o?a?a ?
oe?eiaeiaiai? ?iaioe eiii’thoa?iiai oiiia?aoa, canoinoaaiiy
eiii’thoa?ii? aenia?oii-eiinoeueoaoeaii? nenoaie «O?aaio-1.0» a
eiiieaen? aeaee iiaeeea?noue aei 1996 ?ieo cieceoe eaoaeuei?noue i?e
oyaee?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? a n?euenueeeo ?aeiiao iaeano? c 71,9%
aei 46,6%, oiaoi a?eueo i?ae a 1,5 ?ace, ii??aithth/e c iieacieeaie 1992
?ieo.

Aea??eia? ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy inoaii?o (1992-1998)
?ie?a aeicaieeee ooi/ieoe iieacieee no/anii? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie, ?,
c o?aooaaiiyi ?ai?oa io?eiaieo aeaieo, i?inoaaeeoe ?? aeeiai?eo oa
i?iaiicoaaoe iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie neooaoe??.

Inoaii?i /anii /anoioa aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie a Oe?a?i?
eieeaa?oueny a ??cieo ?aa?iiao a?ae 2,3 aei 6,0%i, neeaaeath/e, a
na?aaeiueiio, 4,0 — 4,2%i, oiaoi a?ey 200 oen. /ieia?e i?ioyaii ?ieo.
Oaeoe/ii, i?ioyaii ieioeeo 10-15 ?ie?a a?aeaoeiny ca?eueoaiiy ?? /anoioe
iaeaea a 2 ?ace.

Iae?io??o?a?/i? a?aeae?eaiiy Oe?a?ie o?aaeeoe?eii i???ioiaai? ia
ia?aaaaeia iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae oai?ei naia c oeei aeaeii
iaoieia??. Oae, yeui a 1996 ?ioe? iino?aaeaeae? c o?aaiaoe/ieie
o?aaeaiiyie ia?aiai? nenoaie neeaaeaee 69,8% na?aae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? oai?eo, aini?oae?ciaaieo o iae?io??o?a?/i? noaoe?iia?e (52
278 in?a ?c 74 896, a o. /. c aino?ith /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith –
43940 (58,7%), oi e o 1998 ?ioe? oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia ci?ieeiny –
oaeiae 69,8% (55567 ?c 79592, a o./. c aino?ith /a?aiii-iiceiaith
o?aaiith – 46815 (58,8%). I?e i?aeoe/ii iaci?iieo a?aeiinieo iieacieeao
aini?oae?ciaaieo c /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith i?ia?anoth/a c?inoa?
e?euee?noue ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ieoiia aaaa aini?oae?caoe?e iino?aaeaeaeeo
?c oyaeeith /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith. sseui a 1993 ?ioe? oai?? c
/a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith na?aaeiueiai ? aaaeeiai nooiai?a oyaeeino?
neeaaeaee ca aeaieie a?aeae?eaiiy iae?io?aaie ?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a??
?i. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie 15,8%, oi a 1998 ?ioe? — aaea
29,3% ia oii? iaooeeueiiai ?inoo e?eueeino? aini?oae?ciaaieo,
a?aeiia?aeii 740 ? 845 oai?eo (?en.1). Aiaeia?/i? aeai? iaaiaeyoue ii
??cieo i?noao ? ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie A.N.Aeaaeeea, A.I.Ei?ieue (1998),
?.N.Ea/o?ianueeee ?c ni?aaao. (1998), N.A.Eiia?ieoeeee ?c
ni?aaao.(1998), N.N.Iiaianaoe ?c ni?aaao. (1998) ? ?i.

E?euee?noue oai?eo

?en.1.Aaniethoi? iieacieee aini?oae?caoe?? oai?eo ?c aino?ith

/a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith o a?aeae?eaiiy iae?io?aaie

?inoeoooo iae?io??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie

Iaci?ii?noue, noae?noue, ianooaai?noue ? aeinoia??i?noue a?aecia/aieo
oaiaeaioe?e aeathoue i?aenoaao i?eioneaoe ? iaaeae? c?inoaiiy /anoioe
aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie ? ?? oyaeeino?.

Oaeee i?iaiic caeiiii??ii i?eionea? iaiao?aei?noue iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy
oyaeei? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie, ui ii/ano?oaea, ye iniiaii? i?e/eie
eaoaeueiino? oa ?iaae?aeecaoe?? iino?aaeaeaeeo c iaoith ae?iaee
iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoieo i?aeoiae?a aei ae?aaiinoeee, ee?i?/iiai i?iaiico
?, a?aeiia?aeii, iaeneiaeueii iaa?oioiaaii? e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee. Oaea
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaei aacnoii?aiee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an ? a ieai?
iaa?oioiaaiino? iayaieo iieaciee?a eaoaeueiino?, ui niinoa??aathoueny
i?e oyaee?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? ye nai???aeiiai e?eoa??th yeino?
i?iaaaeaiiai e?eoaaiiy.

A?aeiii, ui oyaee?noue ee?i?/ieo i?iya?a ?, a inoaoi/iiio i?aenoieo,
?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie, ianaiia?aae,
aecia/a?oueny noiooi?ie ii?oieia?/ieie ci?iaie ?a/iaeie aieiaiiai iiceo.

O ca’yceo c oeei, aeeeeeaei aacnoii?aiee ?ioa?an aeine?aeeoe iniiai?
ii?oieia?/i? aniaeoe oyaeei? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie.

Aoee aea/ai? ? i?iaiae?ciaai? aaaaoi??/i? iaoa??aee iaoiii?oieia?/iiai
ianoaaeaiiy aieiaiiai iiceo 402 iino?aaeaeaeeo, caaeaeeo o ?acoeueoao?
oyaeei? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie.

Aiae?c ii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieaco?, ui a ae?oae ? i?aee?oe?a
niinoa??aaeeny aaeee? caai?, ui iioe?thaaeeny /ano?oa ia eiaiao,
ne?iiaao ? o?i’yio aeie?. Iaeeie/i? aiaieua a?aecia/aeeny ??aeei. Oaeiae
??aeei niinoa??aaeeny caai? c aaii??aa?/iei ?ioa?eoaaiiyi. O oie aea
/an, aeinoaoiuei /anoi a?aei?/aeeny e?iaiaeeeae a noiaao? iiceo. Ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui a oeeo niinoa?aaeaiiyo a?eueo?noue ae?oae iiia?ei a ia?o?
24 aiaeeie i?ney o?aaie: aei 12 aiaeei — 14, aei 24 aiaeei — 10 ae?oae,
ui na?ae/eoue i?i aaaee?noue o?aaie. Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao, ui a aeai?e
a?eia?e a?oi? /ano?oa aoee a?aenooi? eiiiaeoi? aiaieua caaith c
e?iaiaeeeaii, aea aecia/aeeny iioe?ai? ia cia/iiio i?ioyc? ae??ai?
aiaieua e?iaiaeeea?a.

O in?a iieiaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?eo a a?eueoino? niinoa?aaeaiue aiaieua
caai?a noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny ae?aaeaieie noai?aeueieie ? noaaeo?aeueieie
e?iaiaeeeaaie, aoee iiaeai? aacno?oeoo?ieie ianaie c aaii??aa?/iei
?ioa?eoaaiiyi. I?e oeueiio, ye i?aaeei, e?iaiaeeea o caa?e aoa o
aeaeyae? eiiiaeoiiai aiaieua ? eeoa ii eiai ia?eoa???, o ia?eoieaeuei?e
cii?, aecia/aeeny ae??ai? eoeaiiae?ai?, o aeaeyae? nioaeie ?
iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie e?iaiaeeeae, ui ioi/oaaee aiaeua eiiooc??. Iiceiaa
?a/iaeia ia??oieaeueii? ciie a oeeo aeiaaeeao aoea ci?iaia, iaa?yeea.
Eieae?caoe?y caai?a aoea ??ciiiai?oia, i?ioa ia?aaaaeaee o?aaeaiiy
eiaiai? ? ne?iiaai?, aeaui ??aeoa — o?i’yii? aeieae. Caai? ioiiethaaee
ei?o aieiaiiai iiceo ? i?aee??eiao a?eo ?a/iaeio.

O iaaaee/e?e e?eueeino? niinoa?aaeaiue ( 7) o iino?aaeaeaeeo iieiaeiai
a?eo ?, a iaeeie/ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo ( 2 ), na?aaeiueiai a?eo
a?aei?/aeany aeeoocia aeniiaeueia ooeiaeaeaiiy iiceo. Oea iaeei ?c
iaeaaae/eo aeae?a o?aaie aieiaiiai iiceo, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeaeeiai
iaa?yeo eiai. Aeeoocia ooeiaeaeaiiy iiceo i?iyaeyeiny iayai?noth
ae??aiie?aieiaeo e?iaiaeeea?a o ei??, i?aee??eiaeo a?aeae?eao,
iicieenoiio o?e? ? noiaao?iaeo a?aeae?eao iiceo.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeaio iienaieo aeua a?eiaeo a?oi o e?oiueiio ?
noa?a/iio a?eao ca?eueooaaeany /anoioa aioo??oiuei/a?aiieo e?iaiaeeea?a,
a oaeiae ooeiaeaeaiue e?noie /a?aia. I?aeoe/ii a eiaeiiai
ae?oaiai-o?aoueiai iino?aaeaeaeiai a?aei?/aany aioo??oiuei/a?aiiee
e?iaiaeeea. E?iaiaeeeae aoee aaeeeeo ?ici???a, ia??aeei c i?i?eaii o
oeoii/ee iiceo ? ?o oaiiiiaaeith e?ia’th. A oie aea /an, a?aecia/aeiny
c?inoaiiy iaeeie/ieo aiaieuaaeo caai?a ?c cia/ii ae?aaeaiei
aaii??aa?/iei ?ioa?eoaaiiyi. O oeeo aeiaaeeao ae??ai? e?iaiaeeeae
iaaeiei iniiaiiai aiaieua caaith iae?ineii?/ii ia aecia/aeeny. A /aa?o?
aeiaaee?a niinoa??aaeeny e?iaiaeeeae a noiaao?ia? a?aeae?ee iiceo.

I?e i?e?ineii?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? caaaeueiith aeey on?o a?eiaeo a?oi
aeyaeeany iayai?noue aiaieu aeano?oeoe?? ia?aiai? oeaieie. O aeeoy/iio
a?oe? aiie aoee ae??aieie. Aecia/aeany aaeeea e?euee?noue ae??aieo
e?iaiaeeea?a, i?ae yeeie ciaoiaeeeany iaei ci?iaia iiceiaa ?a/iaeia.
Ia?aiaa oeaieia aeaeyaeaea iaa?yeei ?iciooaiith. Caa?oaea ia naaa oaaaa
??cea a?ia?ai?y ae??aieo noaeei ei?e ? i?aee??eiai? a?ei? ?a/iaeie:
i?aeai?ey??a ? eai?ey??a, ui oi?iothoue ia?aae?. Oe? ci?ie noaeei
aeyaeyeeny a ia??oieaeuei?e cii? ? iiaeeco aiaieua caaith, ia
a?aeaeaeaii? niinoa??aaeany eeoa a?ia?ai?y noaeei na?aaeiueiai eae?a?o.
O ia?aiaeo ee?oeiao niinoa??aaeeny ae?aaeai? aeano?oeoeaii-aeeno?io?/i?
ci?ie. Ci?ie ano?ioeeo?a (eeaciaoiaeaiae?ic) aoee ae?aaeai? iii??ii.

O iino?aaeaeaeeo iieiaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?e?a caa?e aieiaiiai iiceo
caeaa?eueoiai iaa aeaeyae eiiiaeoiiai aiaieua, ?ia?aiaaiiai e?ia’th.
*anoioa ae??aieo, ??ciiiai?oii? oi?ie e?iaiaeeea?a o ia??oieaeuei?e cii?
ciaiooaaeany e o na?aaeiueiio a?oe? aiie iaeaea ia aecia/aeeny. Ci?ie
iiceiai? ?a/iaeie ia??oieaeueii? ciie aoee ae?aaeai? neeuei?oa. Ii?yae
?c aeeoociei ?iciooaiiyi ia?aiai? oeaieie aiane?aeie iaa?yeo aiaieuaai
aecia/aeeny o. ca. «aoa/anoee» ? «ii?enoee» noaie. A?aecia/aeany
a?ia?ai?y noaeei na?aaeiueiai eae?a?o, ae?aiaaeaci? ia??aaneoey?i?
e?iaiaeeeae, yaeua ieacii??aa??, aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie ia?aiaeo ee?oei.

Ci?ie oaeiai oa?aeoa?o niinoa??aaeeny oaeiae a in?a e?oiueiai a?eo e o
noa?eo. I?e oeueiio ia ia?oee ieai aenooiaee noaeeii? ci?ie. Iaa?ye
a?ei? ?a/iaeie aieiaiiai iiceo aoa ae?aaeaiee o iaioiio nooiai?.
I??e?iia? aieieia i?e caaa?aeaii? aaiaoienee?iii Eoeue/eoeueeiai
aeaeyaeaee iaa?yeeeie, i?ioa /?oei aeaeei? caeoooy ?o ? o?aaiaioaoe?y
aoee ia iano?eueee ae?aaeaieie, oae naii, ye ? aiaieua aeai??e?i?caoe??
oeaieie.

Iienai? aeua ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie aoee iaea?eueoa ae?aaeaieie a
aaciina?aaei?e aeecueeino? a?ae aiaieua caaith, oiaoi a ia??oieaeueiie
cii?, iinooiiai neaaio/e a i??o a?aeaeaeaiiy a?ae iueiai. Ine?eueee
aiaieua eiiooc?? a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aoee iiiaeeiieie ?
/anoi aeainoi?iii?ie, oi ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie aeyaeyeeny a iaio i?aeoeyo ?
a noiaao?iaeo a?aeae?eao iiceo. Ia?aeii? caai? noiaao?a iiceo a iaoeo
niinoa?aaeaiiyo cono??/aeeny ??aeei (onueiai 4 niinoa?aaeaiiy).
Aecia/aeeny aoi?eii? iaeeie/i? aai iiiaeeii? e?iaiaeeeae a noiaao?ia?
a?aeae?ee, iaa?ye noiaao?a iiceo.

A?aeiii, ui /a?aiii-iiceiaa o?aaia ia o?eueee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
??ciiiai?ooyi ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i, aea oaeiae ? ii?ooaiiyi i?ioean?a
iaoaaie?cio. A oeueiio aniaeo? nooo?aee ?ioa?an aeeeeeaei a?noio?i?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeeo ieenethaaeueii- a?aeiiaieo oa?iaio?a ye NAeA,
IAeA, EAeA ? IAAe-ae?aoi?aca, cie?aia, aeey c’yniaoaaiiy aca?iia?aeiinei
i?ioean?a aeeoaiiy ? ae?eie?co. Aea/aiiy ae oaeeo oa?iaio?a, ye eenea ?
eoaeia oinoaoace, aeaei iiaeeea?noue iaaiith i??ith neeanoe oyaeaiiy i?i
ae?aci?noue aeeno?io?/ieo ? iae?ioe/ieo i?ioean?a o ee?oeiao ? oeaieiao,
i?i ii?ooaiiy aaiaoi-aioeaoae?/iiai aa?’??a — i?iieeiino? noaeeiieo
no?iie, a oaeiae anoaiiaeoe iayai?noue aai a?aenooi?noue ei?aeyoe?e ?c
ii?oieia?/ieie ciao?aeeaie.

C oe??th iaoith aoei c?iaeaii ye?nia aeine?aeaeaiiy (29 niinoa?aaeaiue)
aeuaaeacaieo ieenethaaeueii-a?aeaoaeiaieo ? i?ioaie?oe/ieo oa?iaio?a.

Aeyaeaii oe?eeii aecia/aiee cnoa aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a i?e caaiyo
aieiaiiai iiceo, ui ei?aeth? ?c aeyaeaieie ii?oieia?/ieie ci?iaie
iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a ia?aiai? oeaieie ( iae?ii?a, ano?ioeeo?a, noaeei).

Caai? aieiaiiai iiceo o oai?eo c eaoaeueiei e?ioeai noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny
cieaeaiiyi aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a, ui aea/aeeny, ( NAeA, IAeA ?
IAAe-ae?aoi?ace) ye o ia?aiaeo ee?oeiao, oae ? a ano?ioeeoao ei?e ?
a?ei? ?a/iaeie i?aeoe? ia noi?ii? caaith. Aeoeai?noue EAeA o oeeo
niinoa?aaeaiiyo aeyaeyeany aeaui i?aeaeuaiith. Iiaeeco aiaieu
aeano?oeoe?? ia?aiai? oeaieie i?aeaeuoaaeany aeoeai?noue eenei?
oinoaoace ? cieaeoaaeany aeoeai?noue eoaeii? oinoaoace. Inoaii?
na?ae/eoue i?i ii?ooaiiy i?iieeiino? noaeeiieo no?iie, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeaieie ii?oieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, eio?a
aeyaeyei ia??aaneoey?i? ae?aiaaeaci? e?iaiaeeeae ? ieacii??aa?th. Cnoae
oa?iaioii? aeoeaiino? aoee a?eueo ae?aaeaieie ia noi?ii? caaith. O
i?aeoe?, i?ioeeaaei?e caaith, oaeiae aeyaeyeeny ci?ie aeoeaiino?
oa?iaio?a, aea iaioa ae?aaeai?.

O niinoa?aaeaiiyo ?c iiiaeeiieie aeainoi?iii?ie aiaieuaie eiiooc??
oaeiae a?aei?/aany cnoa aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a oa?e cieaeaiiy a ia?aiaeo
ee?oeiao, ano?ioeeoao ? aiaeioae?? noaeei a iaio i?aeoeyo.

O ia?aiaeo ee?oeiao ? ano?ioeeoao i?aeoeue cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino?
oa?iaio?a aoei a?eueo ae?aaeaiei, i?ae o oaeeo aea ee?oeiao noiaao?a
iiceo, ui, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeia iiynieoe iaiaeiaeiaei ooieoe?iiaeueiei
noaiii oeeo ee?oei o ??cieo a?aeae?eao aieiaiiai iiceo.

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo a?noio?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?aeoaa?aeeee iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui i?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?eai?/aiiy ieenethaaeueieo i?ioean?a (oa?iaioe NAeA,
IAeA, IAAe-ae?aoi?aca) ? iineeaiiy ae?eie?ca ( EAeA ). Aiaeii/an, i?ae
aieeaii o?aaie aeoeai?noue oaeeo oa?iaio?a ye NAeA ? IAeA ci?ith?oueny
ia a iaeiaeiaiio nooiai?. Ii?yae ?c niinoa?aaeaiiyie, a eio?eo nooi?iue
cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? NAeA ? IAeA a?aeiinii iaeiaeiaa, o a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a ae?aci?noue oeeo ci?i aeyaeeany ??ciith. I?e cia/iiio
cieaeaii? aeoeaiino? NAeA, cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? IAeA o oiio ae aeiaaeeo
iiaea aooe iaio ae?aaeaiei. Iieacieee ci?ie aeoeaiino? ieenethaaeueieo ?
i?ioaie?oe/ieo oa?iaio?a o aaeeeiio nooiai? caeaaeaoue a?ae o?eaaeino?
i?neyo?aaiaoe/iiai ia??iaeo. A?noio?i?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioaie?oe/ieo
oa?iaio?a na?ae/eoue i?i aecia/aiee cnoa ?oiuei? aeoeaiino?, ui ei?aeth?
?c ii?oieia?/ieie aeano?oeoeaieie-aeeno?io?/ieie ci?iaie.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui oyaeea
/a?aiii-iiceiaa o?aaia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ??ciiiai?ooyi ii?oieia?/ieo
ci?i aieiaiiai iiceo.

Iae?ineii?/ia ea?oeia ia? nai? iniaeeaino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eo
iino?aaeaeaeiai. Iioe?ai?, a?eueo iiaa?oiaa? aiaieua caaith
a?aei?/athoueny a aeeoy/iio oa thiaoeueeiio a?oe? ? aoaathoue
i?aaenoaaeai? ae??aieie aiaieuaie aeano?oeoe?? c aaii??aa?/iei
?ioa?eoaaiiyi oa iaaaeeeeo ?ici???a e?iaiaeeeaaie ??ciiiai?oii? oi?ie,
?icoaoiaaieie, a iniiaiiio, o ei?? ? i?aee??eia?e a?e?e ?a/iaei?.

Aaeeea e?euee?noue ae??aieo aiaieu e?iaiaeeeao iaaeiei aaeeeiai
iniiaiiai aiaieua oa?aeoa?ia aeey iieiaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?e?a. O
iieiaeiio a?oe? niinoa??aathoueny oaeiae aeeooci? ooeiaeaeaiiy ??cieo
a?aeae?e?a iiceo. O e?oiueio ? noa?a/iio a?eao aiaieua caaith iaiaaeai?
? eiiiaeoi?. C a?eii ca?eueoo?oueny /anoioa aioo??oiuei/a?aiieo
e?iaiaeeea?a. A on?o aeiaaeeao a?aecia/aany ae?aaeaiee o??th /e ?ioith
i??ith iaa?ye aieiaiiai iiceo. O aeeoy/iio, iieiaeiio ? na?aaeiueiio
a?eao iaa?ye ae?aaeaiee o a?eueo?e i???, i?ae o e?oiueiio ? noa?a/iio.

I?e i?e?ineii?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? nooi?iue ae?aciino?
iaa?yeo-iaaoaiya?iiy aieiaiiai iiceo oaeiae ??ciiiai?oia ? aeyaeyeany o
aeaeyae? iaa?yeeiai ?iciooaiiy ia?aiai? oeaieie — «niiia?iciiai»
(aoa/anoiai) ? «ii?enoiai» noai?a.

I?e?ineii?/ii a?aei?/aeeny ??ciiiai?ooy ? ??ciee nooi?iue ae?aciino?
ci?i on?o eiiiiiaio?a ia?aiai? oeaieie: ano?ioeeo?a, ie?aiaeaiae?iae??,
ia?aiaeo ee?oei, e?iaiiinieo noaeei.

I?iaaaeaia c aeei?enoaiiyi a?noio?i?/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
eiiieaeno ieenethaaeueii-a?aeaoaeiaieo ? i?ioaie?oe/ieo oa?iaio?a
na?ae/eoue i?i oe?eeii iaaiee cnoa ?oiuei? aeoeaiino? i?e caaiyo
aieiaiiai iiceo, ui ei?aeth? ?c ii?oieia?/ieie ci?iaie. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui i?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?eai?/aiiy ieenethaaeueii-a?aeiiaieo i?ioean?a ?
iineeaiiy ae?eie?co.

Aacoth/enue ia ?acoeueoaoao ee?i?/ieo ? i?iaaaeaieo ii?oieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ii aea/aiith i?e/ei eaoaeueiino? i?e oyaee?e
/a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?, o oe?e eaoaai??? iino?aaeaeaeeo iiaeia
aeae?eeoe aea? iniiaieo a?oie:

1. Iino?aaeaeae?, aea o?aaia ia i?ecaaea aei ianoi?nieo c aeeooyi

ooeiaeaeaiiyi. Nia?oue oai?eo iaoiiaeaia ?ioeie
ianoaaeiaie.

2. Iino?aaeaeae? c ianoi?nieie c aeeooyi ooeiaeaeaiiyie iiceo,

i?e yeeo a?aeiiaeaiiy eiai ooieoe?? iaiiaeeeai.

Inoaii? — a?oia ?ieo?aaaeueieo oai?eo ?c a?oaeie i?aai?/ieie
ooeiaeaeaiiyie noiaao?a iiceo ia?aeiiiai aai aoi?eiiiai oa?aeoa?o o
aeaeyae? ianeaieo e?iaiaeeea?a ?c caaeaaeeth ia?aiai? oeaieie, yaeuaie
??cei ae?aaeaiiai iaa?yeo ? iioe?aieie aiaieuaie caaith.

Aiae?c niinoa?aaeaiue ia?oi? a?oie cionea ian caa?iooeny aei aeoaea
noia?a/eeai? aeioaia? ? ona ua inoaoi/ii ia ae??oaii? i?iaeaie e?eoa???a
nia?o? aieiaiiai iiceo.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iniiaieie
iieacieeaie nia?o? iiceo a iae?io??o?a?/ieo oai?eo ia no/aniiio aoai?
?icaeoeo iaaeeoeeie aa?oi aaaaeaoe iayai?noue iaiai?ioieo a?oaeo
no?oeoo?ieo o?aaeaiue noiaao?iaeo a?aeae?e?a iiceo ? iaiai?ioi?noue
iaoaaie?/ieo ?iceaae?a ae?yeueiino? aieiaiiai iiceo. Iaiai?ioi?noue
ooeiaeaeaiiy noiaao?a iiceo ae?aaiinoo?oueny ia i?aenoaa?
ee?i?ei-o?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a o oai?eo a noai? aoii?/ii? eiie (3 aaee
ca oeaeith eiie Aeacai i?e no?ee?e a?aenooiino? aai iaaoaeoeaiino?
niiioaiiiai aeeoaiiy, a?aenooiino? aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a iiceiaiai
noiaao?a i?e aacnoii?aiiio ia?aeiiiio a?oaiio i?aai?/iiio ooeiaeaeaii?
aieiaiiai iiceo (ca aeaieie eiii’thoa?ii? aai iaai?oii-?aciiainii?
oiiia?ao??).

Iniiaieie ii?oieia?/ieie e?eoa??yie nia?o? iiceo aa?oi aaaaeaoe:

1.Ia?aeii? aaeee? iaeeie/i? aai iiiaeeii? caai? aieiaiiai iiceo c
iioe?aiiyi ia i?eeaaeo a?eo ?a/iaeio, ooai?aiiy aioo??oiueiiiceiaeo
aaiaoii ?c ?oi?i i?i?eaii o oeoii/eiao nenoaio.

2.Ia?aeii? ooeiaeaeaiiy noiaao?iaeo ? noiaao?iai-a?iioaeai?/ieo
a?aeae?e?a iiceo — caai?, ia?aeii? e?iaiaeeeae a noiaao?ia? a?aeae?ee.

C.Aaia?ae?ciaai? aeniiaeuei? ooeiaeaeaiiy a?iioaeaiona ? noiaao?iaeo
a?aeae?e?a iiceo, i?e yeeo o?aaeathoueny aeeoo?ai aaaeeea? ooai?aiiy
?iiaiaeaeii? yiee, oeaio?aeueia n??a ?a/iaeia na?aaeiueiai iiceo.

O ciiao “aeniiaeueieo ooeiaeaeaiue” niinoa??aaeeny aeano?oeoeai? ?
aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie ia?aiaeo ee?oei. Oa?aeoa?ieie ? ci?ia
no?oeoo?e aenii?a ia?aiaeo ee?oei o aeaeyae? o?aaiaioaoe??, ci?ia
eiioo??a i??e?iiai? iaieiiee c ?? ?ic?eaii ? ooai?aiiyi “i??e?iiaeo
eoeue”; iaiai?ioi? a?oa? aoi?eii? noaeeii? ooeiaeaeaiiy
ae?aioeaoaeueii-noiaao?iaeo a?aeae?e?a. Ii?yae ?c ia?aeiieie
ooeiaeaeaiiyie iino?eii aecia/aeeny ? aoi?eii?: iioe?ai? iaa?ye ?
iaaoaiya?iiy i?aeoeue aieiaiiai iiceo, eiai noiaao?a, aeeneieaoe??
(??cei ae?aaeaia naeaaeaiiy oeoii/e?a ? ae?aaeaiee cnoa na?aaeeiieo
no?oeoo?).

Ieoaiiy ?ieo?aaaeueiino? oai?eo ?c oyaeeith /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith,
ae?aaiinoeee nia?o? iiceo, ? iaeiei ?c iaea?eueoa neeaaeieo, ni??ieo ?
aeioaia? iaae??oaieo. Oea ieoaiiy ia? ia o?eueee oai?aoe/ia, aea ?,
ianaiia?aae, aaee/acia i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ine?eueee a aaaaoueio
aeiaaeeao oyaeei? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie naia aiii ii oi?i? ? noo?
aecia/a? aeioe?euei?noue oa, a?aeiia?aeii, iiaiioo, aaeaeaaoi?noue ?
iaiieaaeea?noue i?iaaaeaieo e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a.

I?eeiyo? a 70-80 ?ieao o ??ciiiai?oieo e?a?iao na?oo i?aaia? e?eoa???
nia?o? iiceo caniiaothoueny ia?aaaaeii ia eiiieaen? ee?i?/ieo
iieaciee?a, aeaieo aeaeo?iaioeaoaeia?ao??, ?a?no?aoe?? aeeeeeaieo
iioaioe?ae?a noiaao?a iiceo, ?acoeueoaoao oea?aa?aeueii? aia?ia?ao??
(O.Ieai, Aeae.A.Iicia?, 1986; Aeae.Oieea?, 1988; I.Naoa?,1997; M.Such,
1995 ? ?i.) N oai?aoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaeeee ia iiaeia
aaaaeaoe aaniethoii aeinoia??ieie, a c i?aeoe/ii? — aeinoaoiuei c?o/ieie
?, a?aeiia?aeii, i?eeiyoieie aeey oe?ieiai ee?i?/iiai canoinoaaiiy. Ia
iao iiaeyae, oeeo iaaeie?e?a aaaaoi a /iio iiaeia iicaaaeoeny,
canoinoaaaoe aecia/aiee eiiieaen ee?i?ei-a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a
yeino? ?ioi?iaoeaieo e?eoa???a «iaoaaie?/ii? nia?o? iiceo», ui ?
?ai?acaioaoeaieie iaaaaeaiei ii?oieia?/iei e?eoa??yi ? na?ae/aoue i?i
iaiai?ioi? ci?ie ooieoe?e aieiaiiai iiceo aiane?aeie ooeiaeaeaiiy,
ianoi?niiai c aeeooyi.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee aeyaeoe
e?eoe/i? iaaeii?iaia? ??ai? ii?ooaiue ??cieo eaiie iaoaaie?cio, ui
iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoeny a yeino? iaoaaie?/ieo e?eoa???a “nia?o? iiceo”.

Aeyaeaii aiaeii-?iiiee ? iniioe/iee aeenaaeain. O e?ia? ? e?eai??
aecia/aany aaniethoiee aeao?oeeo ?ii?a eae?th, iia’ycaiee ?c
aeaaia?a?caoe??th ee?oei ? ?oeiaoe??th nenoai o?ainiaia?aiiiai ia?aiino
?ii?a. Iaaeii?iaiaa e?eoe/ia cieaeaiiy ?ii?a eae?th ? iao??th a
a?eo?ioeeoao aaiicii? e?ia? iiceo (a?aeiia?aeii 66,3+5,2 iiieue/e ?
11,9+7,9 iiieue/e i?e ii?i? 98,0+1,5 iiieue/e ? 16,0+2,0 iiieue/e)
na?ae/eoue i?i aeniaaeaiiy oi?iaieo aeaiaio?a e?ia?, ci?io ?oiuei?
no?oeoo?e, ooieoe??, ciaioaiiy ia»?io, ui ni?ey? niaaeaiith ee?oei,
aeaoi?ioaaiith iiae?aii “eieaino”. Oa?aeoa?iei ? ??cea cieaeaiiy
iieacieea aaiaoie?eoa ( aei 28,0+1,69% i?ioe ii?ie 43,0+2,0%).
Iiae?ai? ci?ie iia’ycai? c ii?ooaiiyi i?iieeiino? iaia?ai, ooeiaeaeaiiyi
naieo ee?oei (O.Oooi, 1990; A.A.Aa?aaie, Ae.A.Nooeiaie, 1997;
A.A.Ieoaeeaiei, A.E.Iie?ianueeee, 1977 ), ?c ?iciaaeii nenoaie
ooee?caoe?? eenith oeaieiith iiceo (A.A.Cei/oe, 1998 ).

A??ciith iciaeith iaiai?ioiino? iaoaaie?/ieo cnoa?a ? e?eoe/ia
i?aeaeuaiiy ca’ycaii? aiaee (ia 150-225%) a a?eo?ioeeoao aaiicii? e?ia?
? e?eai?? (o 75% niinoa?aaeaiue) oa cieaeaiiy ai?noo a?eueii? aiaee, ui
aeaco? ia ??cea cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? ? ?ooeeaino? iieaeoe aiaee.

O 25% oai?eo niinoa??aaany ?ioee aa??aio ia?a?iciiae?eo ia»?io o?aeoe?e
aiaee, ye-io: ??cea ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ca’ycaii? aiaee (ia 45-75%) ?
ca?eueoaiiy ia»?io a?eueii? aiaee. Oaeee aa??aio ii?ooaiue aecia/aany ye
o e?ia?, oae ? a e?eai??, oeacoth/e ia a?aenooi?noue oii?yaeeiaaiino?
?ooo iieaeoe aiaee iaaeiei a?iiae?iiieaeoe aiane?aeie aeac?ioaa?aoe??
iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a ? ia?aoiaeo ca’ycaii? aiaee o a?eueiee noai
(A.A.Aiiaoeeee, A.E.Oaaei?ia, 1989; O.Oooi, 1990; M. Such, 1995).

Ia iao iiaeyae, iaea?eueoa ?ioi?iaoeaieie aeey aecia/aiiy “iaoaaie?/ii?
nia?o? iiceo” ? iaaeii?iaia? e?eoe/i? aaee/eie oaeeo a?io?i?/ieo
iieaciee?a e?eai?a ? aaiicii? e?ia? iiceo: i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy eaeoaoa
a?aeiia?aeii aei 7,1+0,095 iiieue/e ? 5,08+0,126 iiieue/e i?e ii?i?
1,59+0,099 iiieue/e; i??oaaoa — aei 0,48+0,0261 iiieue/e ? 0,440+0,325
iiieue/e i?e ii?i? 0,090+0,0140 iiieue/e; oaiie?a — aei 0,465+0,012
iiieue/e ? 0,449+0,015 iiieue/e i?e ii?i? 0,192+0,005 iiieue/e; ??cea
cieaeaiiy ?I aei 6,88+0,022 ? 7,10+0,025 i?e ii?i? 7,37+0,016.
Oa?aeoa?iei iieacieeii oi?ioaaiiy iaiai?ioieo iaoaaie?/ieo noai?a o
oeaiei? iiceo ? ??cea ia?aaaaeaiiy e?eoe/ieo ??ai?a iacaaieo iieaciee?a
e?eai?a iaae e?ia’th. Oea iieiaeaiiy ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie
e?oa?aoo?e i?i iiyao ia?aaeienaeueieo iaoaaie?/ieo oaiiiai?a a oiiaao
aeeaiei? a?iien?? a aieiaiiio iiceo i?e eiiaoicieo noaiao
(A.A.Iaaea/aiei, A.I.ssoiaiei, 1974; A.A.A?ociai, O.O.Oai?e, 1991;
O.TH.Aonaeiia, 1991; Aeae.A.E?oca, 1997; A.A.Ieoaeeaiei,
A.E.Iie?ianueeee, 1997; A.A.Ioaee?i, 1998; M. Such, 1995 ).

Caieeaiith “oeaiiai eiea” iaoaaie?cio iiceo ni?ey? iaeiie/aiiy
iae?ioienei?a (oaiie?a, iie?oaiieia, a?iiaoe/ieo ai?i?a,
na?aaeiueiiieaeoey?ieo iaioeae?a), ui ? aeieaoi?aie eeth/iaeo eaiie
iaoaaie?cio iiceo (A.A.Iaaea/aiei, A.I.ssoiaiei, 1974; O.Oooi, 1990;
Ae.A.Eio?aee, 1996; A.Ae.Ne?iooe?i, N.A.Aaneeue?a, 1997 ). O oaeeo
oiiaao e?eai? noa? nai???aeiith “ianoeith” aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo
iaoaaie?oia, ui ia?aoai?ththoueny a io?oei? aeey iiceo ?a/iaeie.

Iaoaaie?/ia caaeaaeue iiceo iaaeeaea?oueny aiane?aeie ii?ooaiiy
eai?ey?ii? i?iieeiino? aeey a?eea i?e ??ceiio cieaeaii? ai?noo
caaaeueiiai a?eea (ia 25%), aee?eaeaii? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiai o?aeoe?e,
cieaeaii? ai?noo o?aeoe?e noeueoa?ae??eueieo a?oi (ia 39%) o e?ia? iiceo
i?e ii?iaiaeo cnoaao eieei?aeii-iniioe/iiai noaio e?ia? (aei 320+4,0
iini/e i?e ii?i? 285+3,0 iini/e) o aaiici?e e?ia? iiceo ? e?eai??.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ai?noo iae?iiaae?aoi??a o e?eai??
ianoaaeaieo oai?eo na?ae/aoue i?i ??cea i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ii?aae?aiae?io
(o 5,2 ?aco), ui neeaaea? 240,9+44,8 ia/ie i?e ii?i? 43,0+4,5 ia/ie;
ai?no aeioai?ia i?aeaeuo?oueny a 3,1 ?aco ? neeaaea? 189,0+33,7 ia/ie
i?e ii?i? 63,4+4,9 ia/ie ; ??aaiue AAIE i?aeaeuo?oueny o 2,3 ?ace ?
neeaaea? 0,417+0,097 iiieue/ie i?e ii?i? 0,159+0,023 iiieue/ie.

Oea ci?ie ? iaei??th ?c eaiie eaneaaeo iaoaaie?/ieo ii?ooaiue,
iaoiiaeaieo iae?iiaeueiui ooeiaeaeaiiyi. Aeyaeai? oa?aeoa?i? ii?ooaiiy
iae?iiaae?aoi?iiai iai?io na?ae/aoue i?i aeieaaeo ia?aaea/? ?iioeuen?a
o neiainao ? ?ic?ea ocaiaeaeaiino? i?aeiae?iiaeueieo aca?iia?aeiinei
(O.Oooi, 1990; A.A.Ieoaeeaiei, A.E.Iie?ianueeee, 1997; S. J. Gibbson, J.
R. Brorson, D. Bleakman, 1993), a oaeiae i?i o?aaeaiiy oiieeo eaiie
iaoaaie?cio, ui caaacia/othoue niaoeeo?/io ooieoe?th iiceo —
iaeiie/aiiy, caa?aaeaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?th ?ioi?iaoe??. Aeai? iieacieee
iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie aeey noai?aiiy aeai?eoio ae?aaiinoeee nia?o?
iiceo.

Ca aeaieie i?iaaaeaieo iaoiii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ianoi?ni? c
aeeooyi ooeiaeaeaiiy iiceo aoee a?aecia/ai? o?eueee a 39-45 % eaoaeueieo
aeiaaee?a.

Iaaii, oea o? iieacieee, ui iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ia no/aniiio aoai? ye
i???ioe?e iiaeeeai? eaoaeueiino? i?e oyaee?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?.
I?e oeueiio aa?oi a?aoiaoaaoe, ui a 20-25% eaoaeueieo aeiaaee?a nia?oue
oai?eo aoea iaoiiaeaia i?e?aeiaiiyi aoi?eiieo ooeiaeaeoth/eo /eiiee?a,
oae caaieo «iiaeo» aai aoi?eiieo ooeiaeaeaiue iiceo, iniiao ?icaeoeo
yeeo neeaaea? aioo??oiuei/a?aiia a?ia?oaic?y ? oea?aa?aeueiee aaciniaci.
Oe?iea canoinoaaiiy aeoeaii? e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee ii onoiaiith inoaii?o
?aaeueii ni?iiiaeia aaea iaeaeeae/ei /anii a oe?eiio ?noioii aieeiooe ia
ciaioaiiy iieaciee?a eaoaeueiino?.

A?aei?/ath/e aaeeeo ??cieoeth ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy aino?i?
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie a iae?io??o?a?/ieo ? niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
iae?io?aaiaoieia?/ieo noaoe?iia?ao o ii??aiyii? c iai?io?eueieie
a?aeae?eaiiyie, iiaeia aoei a c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui oeae aeae
o?aaie iiaeiai aooe i?a?iaaoeaith aeiyoeiai iae?io??o?a?a, ye?,
cae/aeii, oaoiai a?eueo i?aeaioiaeai? aeey iaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ?, ye i?aaeei, iathoue aeey oeueiai e?aua
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy. Iaeiae, a aeaiee /an o
iae?io??o?a?/i? ? niaoe?ae?ciaai? iae?io?aaiaoieia?/i? a?aeae?eaiiy
aini?oae?co?oueny ia a?eueoa 21,5 — 22,5% iino?aaeaeaeeo, ?io?, ye
i?aaeei, — o iaa?ieia?/i?, o?aaiaoieia?/i?, caaaeueiio??o?a?/i? (?en.2).

?en.2. No?oeoo?a aini?oae?caoe?? a Oe?a?i? iino?aaeaeaeeo c /a?aiii-

iiceiaith o?aaiith

Aa?oi i?aee?aneeoe, ui oe? iieacieee aeinoaoiuei noaa?euei? i?ioyaii
aaaaoueio ?ie?a. C iaeyaeo ia ianooaai?noue i?iaeaie ? a?aeiinii
iaiaaeai? iiooaeiino? iae?io??o?a?/ieo noaoe?iia??a, iaa?yae /e
?aaeueii i?eioneaoe ?noioi? ci?ie oaei? no?oeoo?e aini?oae?caoe??
iaeaeeae/ei /anii ? iaa?yae /e aeioe?eueii oae ii?oooaaoe ieoaiiy.
Iaei?ino?o? ?ic?aooiee na?ae/aoue, ui i?e ?nioth/iio ??ai?
/a?aiii-iiceiaiai o?aaiaoecio ni?iaa caeo/eoe an? iayai? a Oe?a?i?
iae?io??o?a?/i? ? iae?io?aaiaoieia?/i? e?aeea aeey e?eoaaiiy o?eueee
oeueiai eiioeiaaioo oai?eo, iaa?oue ca oiiae 100% aeei?enoaiiy i?ioyaii
?ieo eiaeiiai e?aeea ? na?aaeiueiai ia?aaoaaiiy ia iueiio 10 ae?a,
caaeaaeaea a ?icai?iooe aeiaeaoeia? a?aeae?eaiiy, ?ic?aoiaai? ia
e?eoaaiiy ua ii?yaeeo 100 oen. oai?eo i?ioyaii ?ieo, oiaoi aenoaineaiei
oeyoii iiaeai?oe iiooaei?noue iae?io??o?a?/ii? neoaeae e?a?ie. C iaeyaeo
ia oa, ui caaacia/ai?noue ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie e?ea?iyieie e?aeeaie ? oae
iaeia c iaea?eueo aenieeo o na?o?, ia?niaeoeae iie?ioaiiy iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae i?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? ? iaaeeaeaiiy ?? aei ianaeaiiy
iieyaathoue ia a e?euee?niiio ca?eueoaii? i?io?eueieo a?aeae?eaiue ?
e?aeie, a a iiooeo aoaeoeaieo i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo ??oaiue ia
aenoaineaiiai, a ?ioaineaiiai oa?aeoa?o, i?aaeeueiiai ?iciiae?eo iayaieo
?ano?n?a ? aeoeaiiio ai?iaaaeaeaii? ia?aaeiaeo iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e. O
oeueiio eiioaeno? aa?oi aeciaoe, ui i?a?iaaoeaith iae?io??o?a?/ieo ?
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iae?io?aaiaoieiae/aneeo a?aeae?eaiue o aeaiee /an
iiaeiia aooe ia?aaaaeii aaaeea /a?aiii-iiceiaa o?aaia. Ne?ae ??oo/a
a?aeiiaeoeny ? a?ae oi?iaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy i?io?eueiiai
a?aeae?eaiiy, i???iooth/eny o?eueee ia eiai iacao. Aioiai?noue
i?ioan?eii ? ia no/aniiio ??ai? iaaeaaaoe iaiao?aeio iaaee/io aeiiiiiao
i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? i?aai?caoe?eii aecia/a?oueny aeaiia
aaaeeeaeie oiiaaie: iiaeeea?noth oe?eiaeiaiaiai /a?aoaaiiy iae?io??o?aa
? oe?eiaeiaiai? ?iaioe eiii’thoa?iiai oiiia?aoa. A?aeiia?aeia ioe?iea
i?io?eueii? neoaeae ? ?? ie?aieo no?oeoo? iiaeeeaa oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy
e?oeaicoaaiiy e ae?aaeeoaoe??.

Ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai iie?ioaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e aino??e
/a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? aacnoii?aii iia’ycai? c ia?aoiaeii aei nenoaie
noaiaea?o?a ae?aaiinoe/iiai ? e?eoaaeueiiai i?ioean?a, ine?eueee oae?
noaiaea?oe aeoioeththoue ia?aaeiaee aeina?ae o e?eoaaii? oiai aai ?ioiai
caoai?thaaiiy aai o?aaie.

Aeaia caaea/a aoea ae??oaia a eiioaeno? caaaeueii? i?ia?aie cae?eniaiiai
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa a?aoiaoth/e ??oaiiy i?aenoieiai?
eieaa?? I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie a?ae 17 ethoiai 1998 ?ieo
i?i iaiao?aei?noue oi?o?eaoe?? aeiia aei ianya?a ? yeino? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae a e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie.

?ic?iaeai? aaeocaa? noaiaea?oe iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e
ae?aaiinoe/ii-e?eoaaeueiiai i?ioeano noaoe?iia?ii? iae?io??o?a?/ii?
aeiiiiiae i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? oa?eoee o?aaiaioii a
?aeeiee aeie iaaee/ieo noaiaea?o?a, caoaa?aeaeaieo iaeacii I?i?noa?noaa
ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie a?ae 27 eeiiy ?226.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? noaiaea?o?a iaa?aeeeaaeii? iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e
aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? a?aoiaoaaeany ye niaoeeo?ea naii?
neoaeae, ui ? iaeiei ?c aeae?a aocueeiniaoe?ae?ciaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae oa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia?aaaaeii noaoe?iia?iei i?io?eai ?
iayai?noth iae?io??o?a?/ieo noaoe?iia??a ??cieo ??ai?a ? iiaeeeainoae,
oae ? ?aaeueia ioe?iea neooaoe??, ui aecia/a? ia?aaaaeio
aini?oae?caoe?th iino?aaeaeaeeo o noaoe?iia?e iaiae?io??o?a?/iiai
i?io?eth.

Iniiaieie aeiiaaie aei noai?aiiy noaiaea?o?a iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e i?e
aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? aoee aecia/ai?:

-aaeaeaaoi?noue iaiao?aeieo ianya?a ? aeae?a ae?aaiinoe/ieo ?
e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a

iinoaaeaiei caaea/ai ae?aaiinoe/iiai ? e?eoaaeueiiai i?ioean?a;

-?aaeueia iiaeeea?noue cae?eniaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano iaaeaiiy
iaaee/ii?

aeiiiiiae iino?aaeaeaeei a oiiaao noaoe?iia?iiai e?eoaaiiy;

-i?aeoe/ia aeinyaei?noue e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo e?eoaaiiy.

?ic?iaea noaiaea?o?a aacoaaeany ia ?aeeieo, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiaeao aei ?oiueiai noai?aiiy, a naia:

-caaacia/aii? ?aeeieo no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo iniia noaiaea?oo;

-aeei?enoaii? no/anieo aeae?a ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy oai?eo,
aecia/aii? ?oi?o

ianya?a, iine?aeiaiino?, e?aoiino? c iiaeyaeo ?aeeiiai oaoiieia?/iiai
i?ioeano;

-ai?iaaaeaeaii? e?eoa???a yeino? e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo;

-aecia/aii? iaiao?aeieo oa?i?i?a noaoe?iia?iiai e?eoaaiiy;

-c?noaaeaii? noaoenoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?ae e?a?iaie-/eaiaie AIIC
(ia?ae?e

iicieia?/ieo oi?i iiaeaiee a?aeiia?aeii aei I?aeia?iaeii?
eeaneo?eaoe?? oai?ia

Aeanyoiai ia?aaeyaeo (IEO-10).

Noaiaea?oe iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e ii iaa?aeeeaaei?e iae?io??o?a?/i?e
aeiiiiic? i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? yaeythoue niaith ia?ae?e
a?aeiia?aeieo oi?o?eiaaieo aeiia aei yeino? ae?aaiinoe/ii-e?eoaaeueiiai
i?ioeano, ni?yiiaaieo ia eiai iioei?caoe?th. Aiie ?ic?iaeai? aeey
iaaee/ieo caeeaae?a ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai ??ai?a, ui iaaeathoue
iaa?aeeeaaeio iaaee/io aeiiiiiao i?e oeueiio aeae? o?aaie iniiai?e ian?
iino?aaeaeaeeo. Aenieiniaoe?ae?ciaaia iae?io??o?a?/ia aeiiiiiaa a
Oe?a?i?, ye i?aaeei, iaaea?oueny aieiaiei i?io?eueiei caeeaaeii —
?inoeoooii iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaae. A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie
(i.Ee?a).

No?oeoo?a noaiaea?oo neeaaea?oueny ?c ianooiieo iniiaieo ?icae?e?a:

-iaeiaioaaiiy iicieia?/ieo oi?i ? ?oi?o a?oi c eiaeiaei aecia/aiiyi

a?aeiia?aeii IEO-10;

-ia?ae?e ? e?aoi?noue iaia’yceiaeo ianoaaeaiue c o?aooaaiiyi
a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy

iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae a e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iiio caeeaae?;

-ia?ae?e ? ianyae e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a ?c cacia/aiiyi iaiao?aeieo
o??o?a?/ieo

ao?o/aiue, a?oi iaaee/ieo i?aia?ao?a ? ?ioeo, iaiaaeeeaiaioicieo
iaoiae?a

e?eoaaiiy;

-aeiiae aei ?acoeueoaoo e?eoaaiiy;

-aeiiae aei na?aaeiuei? o?eaaeino? e?eoaaiiy.

I?e iiaoaeia? noaiaea?o?a a?aoiaoaaeany iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy ?o ca
eaaeith aeey ni?eeiaiiy ? canoinoaaiiy oi?iith oa iiaeeea?noue
iaa?oioiaaii? ?ioa?i?eoaoe?? noaiaea?oieo iieiaeaiue
e?ea?ai-ei?enooaa/ai aeoiaey/e c eiie?aoii? neooaoe?? ? iayaieo
iiaeeeainoae ae?aaiinoe/iiai ? e?eoaaeueiiai i?ioean?a (oaae.5).

Oaaeeoey 5

O?aaiaio aaeocaaeo noaiaea?o?a iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e

i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?, caoaa?aeaeaieo

Iaeacii IIC Oe?a?ie a?ae 27.07.1998?. ?226.

I?e noaa?eueiino? iniiaii? noaie ? iaoiaeieia?? cai?iiiiiaaieo
noaiaea?o?a aiaeii/an ia?aaeaa/a?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ia??iaee/iiai (ia
aeaiiio aoai? iaeei ?ac ia ??e) ?o ia?aaeyaeo e oaeineiiaeaiiy. I?e
aeio?eiaii? oe??? oiiae noaiaea?oe iaa?aeeeaaeii? iae?io??o?a?/ii?
aeiiiiiae i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? aoaeooue a?aeiia?aeaoe
no/aniiio ??aith ?icaeoeo iaaee/ii? iaoee ? ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith yeino?
e aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy, ?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaiith ?ano?n?a,
ai?iaaaeaeaiith iiaeo iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e.

?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oi?o?eiaaieo noaiaea?o?a iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e
aoee, ia?o ca ana, ni?yiiaai? ia caaacia/aiiy aa?aioiaaiiai ??aiy e
ianyao iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, ieae/a yeeo iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae o
a?aeiia?aeiiio e?eoaaeueiiio caeeaae? ? iai?eionoeiei.

Iaei??? c iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo neeaaeiaeo i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ?? ?acoeueoao?a ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ee?i?/io
i?aeoeeo ia?aaeiaeo iaaee/ieo oaoiieia?e ? iaoiaeee.

C iaeyaeo ia oa, ui aoaeoeai?noue e?eoaaiiy aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai?
o?aaie ciaoiaeeoueny a i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae nai?/anii? ? ye?nii?
ae?aaiinoeee, iaiao?aeia ?, iaaooue, ia?oi/a?aiaa oaaaa iiaeiia
i?eae?eyoeny naia oe?e eaioe? a nenoai? eiiieaeniiai ae??oaiiy aeaii?
i?iaeaie. Aeioe?euei?noue oaeiai i?aeoiaeo aeeeoo?oueny oaeiae
i?ia?anoth/ith iioe?ai?noth aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie e
iniaeeainoyie ?? ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao, ui ia??aeei aeeeeeathoue ?noioi?
ae?aaiinoe/i? o?oaeiiu? iaa?oue o aeina?ae/aieo niaoe?ae?no?a ? i?e
iayaiino? no/aniiai ae?aaiinoe/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

Ia iaio aaaeeeao ?ieue o aeinyaiaii? iioeiaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a a?a?
oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo ? iaea?eueoa aaeaeaaoieo neooaoe?? iaoiae?a
e?eoaaiiy.

I?eeiath/e aei oaaae, ui iniiaia iana iino?aaeaeaeeo ?c aino?ith
/a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith a aeaiee /an iio?aiey? a iaaeinoaoiuei
iniauai? e?ea?i? ??ciiai ??aiy, o iai?io?euei? a?aeae?eaiiy ? aei
iaaee/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ui iae/ano?oa iiaaii iciaeiieai? c oeei aeaeii
iaoieia??, iaei??th c caaea/, iinoaaeaieo iaie a i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aoei noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii?
eiinoeueoaoeaii-aenia?oii? nenoaie aeey ianiaiai canoinoaaiiy.

Aoaeoeai?noue noai?thaaii? nenoaie iiaeiia aoea, ia iao iiaeyae,
aecia/aoeny oaeeie aeiiaaie: aeniea aeinoia??i?noue ae?aaiinoeee,
iiaeeea?noue aeai?o iaea?eueoa iioeiaeueii? e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee,
i?inoioa ? iaae?ei?noue o ?iaio?, iino?eia aioiai?noue, aeiiii?/ia
aeinooii?noue ? iiaeeea?noue oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

A eiioaeno? ia?niaeoeaiiai iaoeiaiai iai?yieo «?iaeaia??? ciaiue», ui
noi?ioaaany a inoaii?e /an ? iniiaiith caaea/ath yeiai ? eiino?othaaiiy
oa aeei?enoaiiy oae caaieo aenia?oieo nenoai, ui oaeaeei caaieiaothoue
iiioey?i?noue o iaaeeoeei? ? yaeythoue niaith ethaeeii-iaoeii? nenoaie
aeey ii?aoethaaiiy iiaaii oi?iae?ciaaieo ciaiue ( I.I.I?ioea? , 1997 ),
iaea?eueoa i?eeiyoiei iaoai?ciii ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? caaea/?, ia
iao iiaeyae, iiaeiii aoei noaoe noai?aiiy naia oaei? nenoaie.

Iinoaaeaia iaie caaea/a, ia?o ca ana, ia?aaeaa/aea aaoiiaoecoaaoe
i?ioean i?eeiyooy aaeaeaaoieo e?ea?nueeeo ??oaiue a aeno?aiaeueieo
oiiaao ? a oiiaao ia?aeiieo iaaee/ieo caeeaae?a o oai?eo c
/a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith.

?ic?iaethaaia nenoaia iiaeiia aoea a?aeiia?aeaoe oaeei iniiaiei aeiiaai:

-ea?oaaiiy a ae?aeiaiaiio ?aaeei?, ui i?eionea? ?iaioo c aeei?enoaiiyi

caaaeueiii?eeiyoi? a iaaee/i?e i?aeoeoe? oa?i?iieia?? ? a?aenooi?noue

iaiao?aeiino? o aieiae?ii? ei?enooaa/ai niaoe?aeueieie oaoi?/ieie
ciaiiyie;

-iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy nenoaie iaaeia?niiaeii, ui ia ia?
niaoe?aeueii?

i?aeaioiaee a iaeano? iae?io?aaiaoieia??;

-o?aooaaiiy iiaeeeaino? oaiaeo iaoi/ii? aai iaaeinoia??ii? ?ioi?iaoe??;

-i?i?i?caoe?y ianyao ?ioi?iaoe??, ui oaiaeeoueny;

-aeeeth/aiiy iiaeeeaino? iiieeeiaeo ae?aaiic?a;

-aeinyaiaiiy e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe nenoaie o aeaeyae?:

ae?aaiico e ioe?iee eiai aeinoia??iino?,

?aeiiaiaeiaaii? noaie e?eoaaiiy,

aeiaeaoeiaeo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ae?aaiinoeoe? ? e?eoaaiith a
iniaeeai

neeaaeieo ee?i?/ieo aeiaaeeao aino?i? /a?aiii- iiceiai? o?aaie;

-iiaeeea?noue i?ioieiethaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Caaea/a aoea ?aae?ciaaia oeyoii noai?aiiy aenia?oii? nenoaie
ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie i?ae iacaith «O?aaio —
1.0».

Iaaee/ia aenia?oia nenoaia «O?aaio – 1.0» i?ecia/aia aeey
ae?aaiinoeee ? aeai?o ?aeeii i?aaeeueii? a eiaei?e eiie?aoi?e neooaoe??
iaoiaeeee e?eoaaiiy aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie.

Nenoaia caniiaaia ia aac? ciaiue i?ia?aeieo niaoe?ae?no?a a oe?e iaeano?
? aeicaiey? ia i?ioyc? 4-5 oaeeei iaea?aeaoe iaiao?aeio eiinoeueoaoe?th
ia ??ai? eaae?o?eiaaiiai niaoe?ae?noa-iae?io??o?aa.

O nenoai? ?aae?ciaai? no/ani? i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee ee?i?/ieo oi?i
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie, aaaeeino? noaio oai?iai ? aeaeo o?aaiaoe/iiai
o?aaeaiiy iiceo, iiaoaeiae ae?aaiico ? i?iaaaeaiiy iniiaieo noai
e?eoaaiiy.

Aenia?oia nenoaia «O?aaio-1.0» onoaiiaeth? oaeo /a?aiii-iiceiai?
o?aaie, caiia?aa? iiieeeai o iinoaiiaoe? ae?aaiico, aeiiiiaaa? iaaeaoe
nai?/anio ? eaae?o?eiaaio aeiiiiiao iino?aaeaeaeiio, aecia/a?
iaiao?aei?noue aeeeeeo iae?io??o?aa.

Nenoaia ?ic?iaeaia aeey aeei?enoaiiy a iaaee/ieo caeeaaeao caaaeueiiai
i?io?eth ? ?ic?aoiaaia ia iaaee/iee ia?niiae, iaeiciaeiiee ?c
niaoeeo?eith iaa?ieia?/iiai ? iae?io??o?a?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy oa e?eoaaiiy
iino?aaeaeaeeo c /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith.

Nenoaia caienaia ia iaei?e aeeneao?.

Aeey ?iaioe nenoaie “O?aaio-1.0” iaiao?aei? i?i?iaeuei? oiiae:

eiii’thoa? PC XT aai PC AT aai aoaeue-yeee, noi?niee ?c ieie;

iia?aoe?eia nenoaia IS DOS aa?n?? 3.00 aai aeua;

a?aeaiaaeaioa? EGA;

aeeneia?ae aeey aio/eeo aeene?a ianyaii 360 Eaaeo aai aeua.

?iaioa nenoaie iiaea cae?enithaaoeny aai c aeeneaoe, aai, i?ney
iiia?aaeiuei? onoaiiaee, c aei?noeiai aeenea.

?ic?iaeaia ? ai?iaaaeaeaia eiii’thoa?ia aenia?oia nenoaia «O?aaio – 1.0»
iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ia o?eueee ye caaaeueiiaeinooiia eiinoeueoaoe?eia ?
iaa/aeueia nenoaia c ieoaiue aino?i? /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie aeey
iaaee/ieo ?ia?oiee?a, iaaeinoaoiuei ciaeiieo ?c oeei aeaeii iaoieia??,
aea ? ye aoaeoeaia nenoaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo noaiaea?oieo
iieiaeaiue ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy a i?aeoeeo nenoaie ioi?iie
caei?ia’y.

Ii??aithaaeueiee aiae?c iniiaieo iieaciee?a e?eoaaiiy iino?aaeaeaeeo ?c
aino?ith /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith a iae?io??o?a?/ieo oa
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iae?io?aaiaoieia?/ieo a?aeae?eaiiyo Oe?a?ie ca inoaii?
5 ?ie?a (oaae.6) na?ae/eoue, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia c?inoaiiy a e?a?i?
/enea ?, iniaeeai, aaaeeino? oeueiai aeaeo o?aaiaoecio, oaeaeiny ia
o?eueee noaa?e?coaaoe ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy, aea ? aeiiiaoeny ?noioiiai
?o iie?ioaiiy.

Oaaeeoey 6.

Ii??aithaaeueia ioe?iea iieaciee?a e?eoaaiiy iino?aaeaeaeeo ?c aino?ith

/a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith a iae?io??o?a?/ieo ? niaoe?ae?ciaaieo

iae?io?aaiaoieiae/aneeo a?aeae?eaiiyo Oe?a?ie ca 1994-1998 ?.?.

(aaniethoi? oeeo?e, %)

Iieacieee ?iee 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998123456 Onueiai e?eoaaeiny oai?eo
43157 44597 43940 41379 46815 Caaaeueia eaoaeuei?noue,% 4,4 5,6 4,8 4,4
3,8 I?iiia?iaaii oai?eo 13542 17611 13609 13453 14852 O??o?a?/ia
aeoeai?noue,% 31,4 31,6 30,9 32,5 31,7 Iiia?ei i?ney iia?aoe?? 1246 1809
1369 1186 1282123456 I?neyiia?aoe?eia eaoaeuei?noue,% 9,2 12,0 10,0 8,8
8,6

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui oe? ?acoeueoaoe aeinyaioo? iacaaaeath/e ia ae?ae
iaaeinoaoi? athaeaeaoia o?iainoaaiiy aaeoc? ioi?iie caei?ia’y. Oae,
aeo?aoe ia ia? a Oe?a?i? neeaee a 1997 ?ioe? onueiai 3,3 ie?ae. a?i aai
40% a?ae ?aaeueii? iio?aae ? 3,6% a?ae aioo??oiueiai aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoo
(AAI), a 1998 ?ioe? a?aeiia?aeii – 3,86 ie?ae.a?i aai 50,8% a?ae
?aaeueii? iio?aae ? 3,8% a?ae AAI. C iaeyaeo ia oa, ui ca ioe?ieaie
Anana?oiuei? I?aai?caoe?? Ioi?iie Caei?ia’y o?iainoaaiiy aaeoc? a
ianyc?, iaioiio 5% AAI, na?ae/eoue i?i ?? iaae??caeaoi?noue (A.?.?an??a,
1999), aeinyaioo? noia?i? iieacieee iae?io??o?a?/ii? neoaeae Oe?a?ie a
e?eoaaii? iino?aaeaeaeeo ?c aino?ith /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith, ia iao
iiaeyae, iiaeooue na?ae/eoe i?i aaeaeaaoi?noue i?eeiyoeo ??oaiue ?
aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo oa cae?eniaieo caoiae?a o ae??oaii? iaei???
c iaea?eueo aino?eo iaaeeei-nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai no/aniiai noni?euenoaa.

AENIIAEE

1. *a?aiii-iiceiaa o?aaia a Oe?a?i? yaey? niaith iaaeeei-nioe?aeueio
i?iaeaio iniaeeai? aaaeeeaino?, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaooeeueiei c?inoaiiyi
/anoioe ? oyaeeino? ye o i?noao, oae ? a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?,
?noioiei ca?eueoaiiyi aeeoo?ai iaaacia/ieo o?aaiaoe/ieo
aioo??oiuei/a?aiieo ooeiaeaeaiue.

2. Iioe?ai?noue /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie a Oe?a?i? neeaaea?, o
na?aaeiueiio, 4 — 4,2 aeiaaeee ia 1000 ianaeaiiy ui??/ii.

3. *a?aiii-iiceia? ooeiaeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue 2/3 on??? iae?io??o?a?/ii?
iioieia??, ui aini?oae?co?oueny. O oe?eiio, a Oe?a?i? a iae?io??o?a?/i?
? niaoe?ae?ciaai? iae?io?aaiaoieia?/i? a?aeae?eaiiy aini?oae?co?oueny
o?eueee 1/4 iino?aaeaeaeeo ?c aino?ith /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith.

4. *a?aiii-iiceiaa o?aaia a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? neeaaea? 1/3 on?o
/a?aiii-iiceiaeo ooeiaeaeaiue. A?aei?oiith iniaeea?noth
/a?aiii-iiceiaiai o?aaiaoecio a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? ? aeniea /anoioa
o?aai, io?eiaieo o noai? aeeiaieueiiai ni’yi?iiy (39,0%), ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue eaaeeo /a?aiii-iiceiaeo ooeiaeaeaiue (91,0%), iecueea
/anoioa o?aai o ae?oae (7,3%), a oaeiae iaaeoi aenie? iieacieee
eaoaeueiino? i?e oyaee?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? (71,9%).

5. O n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? eiaeiee 10-e oai?ee ?c aino?eie
aioo??oiuei/a?aiieie aaiaoiiaie iia?o?oueny c ?noioiei cai?ciaiiyi, o
oac? ee?i?/ii? aeaeiiiainaoe??. Aiaeii/an, o 20% aeiaaee?a
/a?aiii-iiceiaeo o?aai aeeeeee iae?io??o?aa ii e?i?? aeno?aii?
eiinoeueoaoeaii? aeiiiiiae ? iaiaa?oioiaaieie.

6. Ee?i?/iee i?iaiic i?e aaaee?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? aecia/a?oueny
nooiaiai o?aaeaiiy noiaao?a iiceo ? oa?aeoa?ii iaoaaie?/ieo ii?ooaiue.
Eiiieaenia a?io?i?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy e?eai?a, a?oa??aeueii? ? aaiicii?
e?ia? aeicaiey? aeyaeoe iaiai?ioi? ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?e aieiaiiai iiceo.

7. Iie?ioaiiy ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy /a?aiii-iiceiaeo ooeiaeaeaiue a
Oe?a?i? iiaeeeai c ia?aoiaeii aei iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie
aeai?eoi?a ? noaiaea?o?a o iiaoaeia? ae?aaiinoe/iiai ? e?eoaaeueiiai
i?ioean?a.

8. Aaaaeaiiy noaiaea?o?a o yeino? neeaaeiai? eaiee ?aeeiiai
iaaeeei-oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano iaiao?aeii ye aeey caaacia/aiiy
iaeaaeii? yeino? e?eoaaiiy eiie?aoiiai iino?aaeaeaeiai c
/a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith, oae ? aeey ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeo?ao ia eiai e?eoaaiiy.

9. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caeeaae?a
oi?o?eiaaieo eiii»thoa?eciaaieo aenia?oieo nenoai ae?aaiinoeee oa
e?eoaaiiy ? iaei??th c iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo neeaaeiaeo i?aeaeuaiiy yeino?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? ?, a?aeiia?aeii,
iie?ioaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?? e?eoaaiiy.

10. Cai?iiiiiaaiee eiiieaen caoiae?a aeicaieea ca inoaii? ?iee cieceoe
a Oe?a?i? caaaeueio eaoaeuei?noue i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? ia
32% (c 5,6% aei 3,8%) ? i?neyiia?aoe?eio – ia 28% (c 12,0% aei 8,6%).

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o.

1. Iaaea/aiei A.A., Ii?icia A.I. Ia yieaeo?aeueiuo aaiaoiiao caaeiae
/a?aiiie yiee // Aii?inu iae?ioe?o?aee. – 1981. — ?1.- N. 52-53.

2. Cicoey TH.A., Aaeiy?oeaa O.O., Aeieaiaa I.E., Ii?icia A.I.,
Aa?oiaeyaeia TH.I. Ia?niaeoeau i?eiaiaiey ooi?oaea?iaeiiai
e?iaacaiaieoaey — ia?ooi?aia i?e oe?o?ae/aneie iaoieiaee aieiaiiai iicaa
// Iae?ioe?o?aey. – E.: Caei?ia»y, 1987. – N.45-49.

3. Aeoiaaaneee A.A., Eiaaeaiei A.A., Ii?icia A.I., ss?ioaiei A.A.,
Eooeaiie E.E. ?acoeueoaou ?aeiino?oeoeaiuo iia?aoeee i?e
/a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaia // Iae?ioe?o?aey.- E.: Caei?ia»y, 1989.-
N.71-75.

4. Aeoiaaaneee A.A., Eiiaei E.A., Ea?eaa A.I., Iacaia A.I., Ii?icia A.I.
Eaaeay /a?aiii-iicaiaay o?aaia o aieueiuo ?aciuo aic?anoiuo a?oii e ia
oiia aeeiaieueiie eioieneeaoeee // Iaaeeoeeineee aeo?iae Ocaaeenoaia.-
1990.- ?9.- N. 25-27.

5. *ie? A., Ii?icia A., Oiiaea I., ssi?ia A., I?eoaea I. I?iaeaie
?aoi?ie nenoaie ioi?iie caei?ia’y a Oe?a?i? // Oe?a?inuee? iaaee/i?
a?no?.- 1997.- ?1.- N.38-40.

6. Oeeiaaethe A?oae?e, Ii?icia Aiaoie?e, Oiiaea Ieaen?e, Aaaae Iooaiaae.
Iae?io??o?a?y ? iaa?ieia?y a i?aeaioiaoe? n?iaeiiai e?ea?y //
Oe?a?inuee? iaaee/i? a?no?.- 1997.- O.1, ?2-3.- N.68.

7. Aoa?ae A., Ii?icia A., Noaieaae/ A., Aiae?a?a A., Noaieaae/ O.,
Oiiaea A. Iniaeeaino? ae?aaiinoeee oa o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy
o?aaiaoe/ieo aioo??oiuei/a?aiieo aaiaoii // Oe?a?inuee? iaaee/i? a?no?.-
1998.- O.2, ?1-2, *.2.- N.81-82.

8. Iaaea/aiei A.I., Iaaea/aiei A.A., *aieee E.I., Oaiaaa I.E.,
Niane/aiei I.A., ssoiaiei A.I., Iiiiia?aaa I.O., Aaneeueaaa E.A.,
Nooeiaie Ae.A., Ieaeiee A.I., Ii?icia A.I. E?eoa?ee nia?oe iicaa o
iae?ioe?o?ae/aneeo aieueiuo // Iae?ioe?o?aey.- 1998.- ?2.-N.33-37.

9. Noaiaiaiei A.A., Ii?icia A.I. ?ic?iaea noaiaea?o?a iaaee/ieo
oaoiieia?e iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae // Atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei?
Anioe?aoe?? Iae?io??o?a?a.- 1998.- ?5.- N.12-13.

10. Ii?icia A.I. Ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i?
iaa?aeeeaaeii? iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e
o?aai? // Atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? Iae?io??o?a?a.-1998.- ?5.-
N.14-15.

11. Iaaea/aiei A.I., Iaaea/aiei ?.A., Aoe A.I., Ii?icia A.I.,
Iiaeue/aiei A.A. No/ani? i?aeoiaee oa noaiaea?oe a e?eoaaii? oai?eo c
/a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith // Atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe??
Iae?io??o?a?a.- 1998.- ?5.- N.28-29.

12. Iaaea/aiei A.A., Nooeiaie Ae.A., Iaeuoaa I.A., Aoe A.I., O?iyi A.E.,
Ii?icia A.I., Aeouaiei I.A., Oaaeinaiei O.I. Naiaiaeii?aaeeeaeueiua
ia?aeenii-ieeneeoaeueiua ?aaeoeee a ino?ii ia?eiaea /a?aiii-iicaiaie
o?aaiu // E?ea?nueea ni?aaa. – 1999. — ?1. – N.54-56.

13. Cicoey TH.I., Iaaea/aiei ?.A., Ii?icia A.I., Iaoeei ss.A.
Iae?io??o?a?/ia aeiiiiiaa a Oe?a?i?: i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo //
A?niee nioe?aeueii? a?a??ie oa i?aai?caoe?? ioi?iie caei?iay Oe?a?ie.-
1999.- ?1.- N.112-114.

14. Iaaea/aiei ?.A., Ii?icia A.I. No/ani? noaiaea?oe ? i?aai?caoe?y
e?eoaaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/iiai i?ioeano i?e /a?aiiiiiceia?e o?aai? //
A?niee nioe?aeueii? a?a??ie oa i?aai?caoe?? ioi?iie caei?iay Oe?a?ie.-
1999.- ?1.- N.115-120.

15. Iaaea/aiei A.A., Iaaea/aiei A.A., Ii?icia A.I., Aoe A.I.,
Iiaeue/aiei A.A. I?iaeaiu ea/anoaa, yooaeoeaiinoe e noaiaea?oecaoeee a
iae?io?aaiaoieiaee eae ninoaaiie /anoe nia?aiaiiie iiaeaee
cae?aaiio?aiaiey // Atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? Iae?io??o?a?a.-
1998.- ?7.- N.5-11.

16. Iaaea/aiei A.A., Aa?oiaeyaeiaa O.I., Ii?icia A.I.
Eeeieei-ii?oieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea oyaeaeie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu
// Atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? Iae?io??o?a?a.- 1998.- ?7. –
N.28-32.

17. Iaaea/aiei A.A., Ii?icia A.I., Ieueoia A.I. Iniaaiiinoe ieacaiey
aeeaaiinoe/aneie e ea/aaiie iiiiue i?e ino?ie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaia a
naeueneie ianoiinoe // Atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe??
Iae?io??o?a?a.- 1998.- ?7.- N.70-72.

18. Ii?icia A.I. Enoi?e/aneea i?aaeiinueee e iaeioi?ua nia?aiaiiua
aniaeou iae?ioe?o?ae/aneie iiiiue a Oe?aeia i?e ino?ie /a?aiii-iicaiaie
o?aaia // Atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? Iae?io??o?a?a.-1998.- ?7.-
N.90-93.

19. Ii?icia A.I. Aeeiaieea e i?iaiic i?e ino?ie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaia
a Oe?aeia // Atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? Ia?io??o?a?a.- 1999.-
?1(8).- N.52-55.

20. Ii?icia A.I. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey e ?acoeueoaou niaa?oainoaiaaiey
iae?ioe?o?ae/aneie iiiiue a Oe?aeia i?e ino?ie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaia
// Atheaoaiue Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? Iae?io??o?a?a.- 1999.- ?1(8).-
N.71-74.

21. Iaaea/aiei A.A., Ii?icia A.I., Noaiaiaiei A.A., Ieueoia A.I. ?ieue e
ia?niaeoeau eniieueciaaiey noaiaea?oia iaaeeoeeineeo oaoiieiaee a
?aoaiee i?iaeaiu ino?ie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu // Atheaoaiue
Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? Iae?io??o?a?a.- 1999.- ?1(8).- N.83-87.

22. Iaaea/aiei ?.A., Ii?icia A.I. I?ioeeaeoeea e ea/aiea aaciniacia e
aoi?e/iie eoaiee iicaa i?e /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaia i?aia?aoii ieiioii //
E?ee Oe?a?ie. – 1999.- ?3.- N.67-68.

23. Cicoey TH.I., Iaaea/aiei ?.A., Ii?icia A.I., Iaoeei ss.A. No/aniee
noai iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae a Oe?a?i? oa ia?niaeoeae ?? ?icaeoeo //
Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y.- 1999. — ?4. – N.44-45.

24. Ii?icia A.I. Nia?aiaiiua acaeyaeu ia iaaeeeaiaioiciia ea/aiea ino?ie
/a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu // E?ee Oe?a?ie.- 1999.- ?4.- N.59-60.

25. Ii?icia A.I. Noaiaea?ou iaaeeoeeineeo oaoiieiaee i?e ino?ie
/a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaia e aii?inu iaaeeeaiaioiciiai iaania/aiey
ea/aaiiai i?ioeanna // E?ee Oe?a?ie.- 1999.- ?4.- N.65-67.

26. Iaaea/aiei A.A., *aieee E.I., Iaaea/aiei A.A., Oaiaaa I.E.,
Niane/aiei I.A., Iiiiia?aaa I.O., Aaneeueaaa E.A., Nooeiaie Ae.A.,
Aiiaea?ue O.N., ssoiaiei A.I., Ii?icia A.I. Eeeieei-eaai?aoi?iua
e?eoa?ee nia?oe iicaa o iae?ioe?o?ae/aneeo aieueiuo // E?ea?nueea
ni?aaa.- 1999.- ? 4.- N.88-90.

27. A.n. 1789202 A1 NNN?, A 61 A 17/16. Ono?ienoai aeey o?aiaiaoeee
/a?aia / A.A.ss?ioaiei, A.I.Naiaiia, I.N.I?eoiaeueei, A.A.Iaaea/aiei,
A.I.Ii?icia, A.I.Ai?oeueei (NNN?).- ? 4863312/14; Cayaeaii 03.09.90;
Iioae. 23.01.93, Athe. ?3. –6 n.

28. Ai?iiei I.A., Ii?icia A.I., Aeaenaaa N.I. Eioaineaiay oa?aiey iinea
oaeaeaiey o?aaiaoe/aneeo aioo?e/a?aiiuo aaiaoii // Iao/iay eiioa?aioeey
iae?ioe?o?aia ONN?.- Aeiai?iiao?iane.- 1978.- N.78-79.

29. Ii?icia A.I. N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea ?acee/iuo iaoiaeia ieanoeee
o?aaiaoe/aneeo aeaoaeoia /a?aia o aeaoae // OI Ananithciay eiioa?aioeey
iieiaeuo iae?ioe?o?aia (Oacenu aeieeaaeia).- Iineaa.- 1978.- N.45-46.

30. Ii?icia A.I. Iaioeiaeiay iiiiuue i?e ioe?uoie /a?aiii-iicaiaie
o?aaia o aeaoae // ??? ?anioaeeeaineay iao/iay eiioa?aioeey iieiaeuo
o/aiuo iaaeeeia ii aeooaeueiui aii?inai ea?aeeieiaee, iauae e
iaioeiaeiie oe?o?aee (Oacenu aeieeaaeia).- *a?iiaoeu.-1981.- N.168.

31. Aeoiaaaneee A.A., ss?ioaiei A.A., Ii?icia A.I., Eiiaei E.A. Ia?aeiiu
einoae iniiaaiey /a?aia n eeeai?aae // Oacenu aeieeaaeia iaeanoiie
iauaaeeiaiiie eiioa?aioeee ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?ia e ecia?aoaoaeae
iaaeeoeeineeo einoeoooia e ea/o/?aaeaeaiee a.Caii?iaeuey.-
Caii?iaeuea.-1989.- N.49-50.

32. Oeeiaaethe A.E., I?eoaea I.E., Eiiaei A.A., Ii?icia A.I., Iacaia
A.I. Aeioeie/aneea iieacaoaee eeeai?a e e?iae a ino?ii ia?eiaea cae?uoie
/a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu n i?eiaiaieai aeia?aa?e/aneie ieneaaiaoeee (AAI)
// Oacenu aeieeaaeia iauaaeeiaiiie eiioa?aioeee ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?ia e
ecia?aoaoaeae iaaeeoeeineeo einoeoooia e ea/o/?aaeaeaiee a.Caii?iaeuey.-
Caii?iaeuea.- 1989.- N.71-72.

33. Aeoiaaaneay N.A., Ii?icia A.I., Aeoiaaaneee A.A., I?eoaea I.E.,
Eiiaei E.A., Ieaenthe E.A. Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae e ea/aieth
aieueiuo noa?oeo aic?anoiuo a?oii a iinoo?aaiaoe/aneii ia?eiaea //
Aa?eao?e/aneea n?aaenoaa: Yenia?eiaioaeueiue iiene e eeeie/aneia
eniieueciaaiea. Oacenu e ?aoa?aou aeieeaaeia Ananithciiai neiiiceoia
9-11 ieoya?y 1990 a., a.Eeaa.- Eeaa.-1990.-N. 65.

34. Aeoiaaaneee A.A., I?eoaea I.E., Aeoiaaaneay N.A., Ii?icia A.I.,
Eiiaei E.A. Aeia?aa?e/aneay ieneaaiaoeey e aa?eao?e/aneea i?aia?aou a
ea/aiee /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu o aieueiuo iiaeeeiai e noa?/aneiai
aic?anoa // Aa?eao?e/aneea n?aaenoaa: Yenia?eiaioaeueiue iiene e
eeeie/aneia eniieueciaaiea. Oacenu e ?aoa?aou aeieeaaeia Ananithciiai
neiiiceoia 9-11 ieoya?y 1990 a., a.Eeaa. – Eeaa.- 1990.- N. 66.

35. Aeoiaaaneee A.A., Ii?icia A.I., I?eoaea I.E., Aeoiaaaneay N.A.,
Eiiaei E.A. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ioeaie a ieacaiee iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue i?e
aaoiaei?iaeiii o?aaiaoecia // Iaaeeei-nioeeaeueiua e aeieiae/aneea
aniaeou aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey ia ai?iaeneii iannaaee?neii o?ainii?oa.
Oacenu aeieeaaeia Ia?aie ?anioaeeeaineie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie
eiioa?aioeee.- Aeiiaoee.-1990.- N.110-111.

36. Ii?icia A.I., Aeoiaaaneee A.A., I?eoaea I.E., Eiiaei E.A.,
Aeoiaaaneay N.A. Iaaeeei-nioeeaeueiua aniaeou aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo
i?ienoanoaee o aieueiuo n aeeiaieueiie eioieneeaoeeae //
Iaaeeei-nioeeaeueiua e aeieiae/aneea aniaeou aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey ia
ai?iaeneii iannaaee?neii o?ainii?oa. Oacenu aeieeaaeia Ia?aie
?anioaeeeaineie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee.- Aeiiaoee.- 1990.- N.
121-122.

37. Aeoia?anueeee Ieaenaiaea?, Ii?icia Aiaoie?e, Eiiaei Aieiaeeie?.
Ia?aeiia ieanoeea aeaoaeoo /a?aia // ??? Eiia?an na?oiai? oaaea?aoe??
Oe?a?inueeeo e?ea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa. Oace.- Ee?a-Euea?a.- 1990.- N.6.

38. Iaaea/aiei A.A., Aeoia?anueeee I.?., Ii?icia A.I., Aeoia?anueea N.A.
I?aei?aeoeueiaa ooieoe?iiaeueia aneiao??y a ae?aaiinoeoe? ina?aaeeiaeo
eiiooc?e aieiaiiai iiceo // VIII c’?cae iaa?iiaoieia?a, ineo?ao??a oa
ia?eieia?a Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. Oace aeiiia?aeae.- *anoeia ??.- Oa?e?a:
?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/ee a?aeae?e iaeiie?a?aoaeaeaao.- 1990.-
N.368-369.

39. Iaaea/aiei ?.A., Iaaea/aiei A.I., ?aae/aiei A.O., Ii?icia A.I.,
Aa?eia N.A. Iaaee/ia aenia?oia nenoaia «O?aaio» i?e aino??e
/a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? // IV Eiia?an na?oiai? oaaea?aoe?? oe?a?inueeeo
e?ea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa. Oace.- Oa?e?a.- 1992.- N.270.

40. Iaaea/aiei A.I., Oeeiaaethe A.?., Ii?icia A.I. I?i nenoaio
i?aeaioiaee iae?io??o?a?/ieo eaae??a a Oe?a?i? // Ia?oee c’?cae
iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie. Oace aeiiia?aeae.- Ee?a.- 1993.- N.7.

41. Iaaea/aiei ?.A., Ii?icia A.I. Noai ? ia?niaeoeae i?aai?caoe?eiiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? aeiiiiiae i?e
/a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? // Ia?oee c’?cae iae?io??o?a?a Oe?a?ie. Oace
aeiiia?aeae.- Ee?a.- 1993.- N.10.

42. Iaaea/aiei ?.A., Iaaea/aiei A.I., ?aae/aiei A.O., Ii?icia A.I.,
Aa?eia N.A. Iaaee/i? eiii’thoa?i? nenoaie aeni?an-ae?aaiino?ee ye can?a
iie?auaiiy ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoaaiiy i?e aino??e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai?
// O?aaia. Aianoacey e eioaineaiay oa?aiey. Iaoa?eaeu Ieaioia
annioeeaoeee aianoaceieiaia.- Eoaaine-Eooee.-1994.- N.128.

43. Aeoiaaaneee A.A., Aiy?neee O.O., Aeoiaaaneay N.A., Oaaeaiei TH.C.,
Ii?icia A.I., Eiiaei E.A., Eieaiaecyi I.O., Ei?iethe A.I. Ia?ooaiea
neooa o aieueiuo iinea /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu //VIII c»?cae
ioi?eiiea?eiaieia?a Oe?a?ie.- Ee?a.- 1995.- N.197-198.

44. Aeoiaaaneee A.A., Iaeaaaa O.E., I?eoaea I.E., Ii?icia A.I.,
I?aaeouaiei N.A., Eiiaicyi I.O. ?acoeueoaou ieanoeee aeaoaeoia einoae
naiaea /a?aia a ?acee/iua n?iee iinea /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu //
Ia?aay eiioa?aioeey iae?ioe?o?aia ?anioaeeee E?ui. Oacenu aeieeaaeia. —
Ea?/ue.-1995.-N.27-29

45. Ii?icia A.I., Ai?iiaiei TH.A., E?nniaa C.?. Iaeei ?c oeyo?a
iie?auaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae oai?ei c /a?aiii-iiceiaith o?aaiith //
Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaa?ieia?? ? iae?io??o?a??.- Euea?a.-1996.- N.117.

46. Pedachenko E.G., Morozov A.N., Huk A.P. Guidelines for management
traumatic brain injury in Ukraine // 2-nd Black Sea Neurosurgical
Congress with the participation of the Neurosurgical Societies of
Balkan and East Mediterranean Sea Countriies. Final Programme and
Abstract Book.- Thessaloniki (Greece).- 1999.- P.52.

Ii?icia A.I. Ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? aino?i? /a?aiii-
iiceiai? o?aaie ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?
iae?io??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae a Oe?a?i?.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.05 – iae?io??o?a?y. – ?inoeooo iae?io??o?a??
?i.aeaae.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

?iaioa i?enay/aia ae??oaiith ia no/aniiio ??ai? i?iaeaie aino?i?
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie. A 6 e?oiieo, oeiiaeo aeey Oe?a?ie i?nueeeo ?
n?euenueeeo ?aa?iiao ?c caaaeueiith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy aeecueei 4
i?eueeii?a /ieia?e a ia??iae c 1983 ?ieo ii 1998 ??e aeine?aeaeai?
ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ? aeeiai?ea /a?aiii-iiceiai?
o?aaie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia i?ioyc? inoaii?o 10-15 ?ie?a /anoioa aino?i?
/a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie ca?eueoeeany iaeaea a 2 ?ace ? neeaaea?, a
na?aaeiueiio, 4,0-4,2%i, c?inea ?? oyaee?noue. A n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?
iieacieee eaoaeueiino? i?e oyaee?e /a?aiii-iiceia?e o?aai? iiaeaeoaee
aeinyaee 71,9%. A aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei
oe?ieiianooaaiiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie oeyoii ?ic?iaee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
noaiaea?o?a ae?aaiinoe/ii-e?eoaaeueiiai i?ioeano oa eiii»thoa?ieo
aenia?oieo oaoiieia?e. Aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaie i?aeoaaaeaeaia nooo?aith
iiceoeaiith aeeiai?eith ocaaaeueiaieo iieaciee?a e?eoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aino?a /a?aiii-iiceiaa o?aaia, ee?i?ea, ai?aeai?ieia?y,
noaiaea?oe, aenia?oia nenoaia.

Iorozov A. M. Clinical-epidemiological specifics of acute brain injury
and improvement of efficiency of specialized neurosurgical treatment in
Ukraine. – Manuscript.

Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Medical Sciences by specialty 14.01.05 – neurosurgery. –
Institute of Neurosurgery n.acad. A.P.Romodanov, Academy of Medical
Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999

Thesis is dedicated to solving the problem of acute brain injury in the
modern level. Clinical-epidemiological specifics and the dynamics of
brain injury were studied in six large, typical for Ukraine urban and
rural regions with the total population about 4 million people. It was
determined that over last 10-15 years the frequency of acute brain
injury increased twofold and constitutes 4.0-4.2%i, injuries have
become more severe. In rural areas the mortality rates with severe brain
injury reached 71.9%. In this thesis we took a new approach to finding a
wide-scale solution to resolving this problem by way of developing and
introducing standards for diagnostic and treatment processes as well as
the computer expert technologies. The substantial positive dynamics of
generalized treatment rates proved the effectiveness of the
developments.

Key words: acute brain injury, clinics, epidemiology, standards, expert
system.

Ii?icia A.I. Eeeieei-yieaeaieieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe ino?ie /a?aiii-
iicaiaie o?aaiu e iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie
iae?ioe?o?ae/aneie iiiiue a Oe?aeia.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.05 — iae?ioe?o?aey. Einoeooo iae?ioe?o?aee
ei.aeaae.A.I.?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

?aaioa iinayuaia ?aoaieth ia nia?aiaiiii o?iaia i?iaeaiu ino?ie
/a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu e aa iniaaiiinoae a Oe?aeia.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu eeeieei-yieaeaieieiae/aneea aeaiiua 10206 neo/aaa
ino?ie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu, eioi?ua i?iecioee a ia?eiae n 1983 aiaea
ii1998 aiae a 6 e?oiiuo, oeie/iuo aeey Oe?aeiu ai?iaeneeo e naeueneeo
?aaeiiao n iauae /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey ieiei 4 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae.

Ioeaiea ii?oieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae oyaeaeie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu
i?iecaaaeaia ii aeaiiui 402 eaoaeueiuo neo/aaa. Aeioeie/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey i?iaaaeaiu ia iaoa?eaea 55 iae?ioe?o?ae/aneeo aieueiuo a
e?eoe/aneii ninoiyiee.

Iieo/aiiua aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi a 1983 aiaeo /anoioa
/a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu a Oe?aeia ninoaaeyea 2,75 + 0,02%i i?e
cia/eoaeueiie aa?eaaaeueiinoe ioaeaeueiuo iieacaoaeae. A iaeii?iaeiuo
a?oiiao (ai?iaeneia e naeueneia ianaeaiea) iieacaoaee oaeaea auee aieaa
iaeii?iaeiuie. Iaeaieaa aunieea iieacaoaee ioia/aeenue a ai?iaeao e
ai?iie ianoiinoe. Aeeiaieueiia iiueyiaiea auei ioia/aii a 21,95%
iaaethaeaiee.

No?oeoo?iue aiaeec /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae i
cia/eoaeueiii i?aiaeaaeaiee eaaeeo aa oi?i. Nio?ynaiea e ooeau aieiaiiai
iicaa eaaeie noaiaie auee ioia/aiu a 75,23% iaaethaeaiee, ooeau
aieiaiiai iicaa n?aaeiae e oyaeaeie noaiaie – a 20,45% iaaethaeaiee,
aioo?e/a?aiiua aaiaoiiu — a 4,32%. Yoe iieacaoaee ia ioee/aeenue
cia/eoaeueii ii ioaeaeueiui ?aaeiiai, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia iauae
oaiaeaioeee a no?oeoo?a /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu eco/aaoaainy ia?eiaea
a?aiaie.

A oi aea a?aiy, aanueia ioee/aeenue iieacaoaee nia?oiinoe. A eco/aaiie
iiioeyoeee iia ninoaaeea 0,06%i, eieaaeynue io ioeaaiai iieacaoaey aei
0,11%i.

Ia?aoeee ia naay aieiaiea iieacaoaee /a?aiii-iicaiaiai o?aaiaoecia a
naeueneie ianoiinoe. Aiaeec iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo iicaieee ioianoe e
iniaaiiinoyi ino?ie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu a naeueneie ianoiinoe
neaaeothuea: iiaeaaeythuaa i?aiaeaaeaiea eaaeie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu
– 91,0%, ieceoth /anoioo o?aai o aeaoae – 7,3% e iauaio /eneo
o?aaie?iaaiiuo, e?aeia aunieea iieacaoaee eaoaeueiinoe i?e oyaeaeie
/a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaia ( a iaoeo iaaethaeaieyo – 71,9%), a oaeaea
aunieoth /anoioo o?aai, iieo/aiiuo a ninoiyiee aeeiaieueiiai iiueyiaiey
– 39,0%. Eaaeaeue 10-e aieueiie ec naeueneie ianoiinoe n ino?uie
aioo?e/a?aiiuie aaiaoiiaie iia?e?iaaeny aucaaiiui ec iaeanoiiai oeaio?a
iae?ioe?o?aii ni cia/eoaeueiui caiicaeaieai, a noaaeee eeeie/aneie
aeaeiiiainaoeee. A oi aea a?aiy, a 20% neo/aaa auciau iae?ioe?o?aa
auee iaiainiiaaiiu.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy /anoioa ino?ie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu a Oe?aeia
eieaaeaony io 2,3 aei 6,0%i, ninoaaeyy, a n?aaeiai, 4,0 – 4,2%i, o.a.
ieiei 200 oun. /aeiaae a oa/aiea aiaea. Oaeoe/anee, a oa/aiea i?ioaaeoeo
10-15 eao i?iecioei oaaee/aiea aa /anoiou ii/oe a 2 ?aca. I?e iaeciaiiuo
ioiineoaeueiuo iieacaoaeyo ainieoaeece?iaaiiie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu
i?ia?anne?othua ia?anoaao eiee/anoai e, niioaaonoaaiii, oaeaeueiue aan
ainieoaeecaoeee iino?aaeaaoeo n oyaeaeie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiie,
i?e/ai eae a ai?iaeao, oae e a naeueneie ianoiinoe.

Ii aeaiiui i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee ianiaianoeiua n aeeciueth
iia?aaeaeaiey iicaa auee ioia/aiu a 39-45 % eaoaeueiuo neo/aaa. Yoe
iieacaoaee iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia eae i?eaioe?u
aiciiaeiie eaoaeueiinoe i?e oyaeaeie /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaia. I?e yoii
neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi a 20-25% eaoaeueiuo enoiaeia nia?oue aieueiuo
auea iaoneiaeaia i?eniaaeeiaieai aoi?e/iuo iia?aaeaeathueo oaeoi?ia,
o.i. «iiauo» eee aoi?e/iuo iia?aaeaeaiee iicaa, iniiao ?acaeoey eioi?uo
ninoaaeyao aioo?e/a?aiiay aeia?oaicey e oea?aa?aeueiue aaciniaci.
Aeoeaiay ea/aaiay oaeoeea ii ono?aiaieth iineaaeieo ?aaeueii niiniaia
oaea a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy nouanoaaiii oeo/oeoue ?acoeueoaou ea/aiey.

A aeenna?oaoeee oai?aoe/anee iainiiaai e inouanoaeai iiaue iiaeoiae e
oe?ieiianooaaiiio ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu iooai
noaiaea?oecaoeee aeeaaiinoe/anei-ea/aaiiai i?ioeanna e nicaeaiey
eiiiuethoa?iuo yenia?oiuo nenoai. ?ac?aaioaiu aeeoioee?iaaaoea
nia?aiaiiua aeinoeaeaiey iaaeeoeeineie iaoee noaiaea?ou iaaeeoeeineeo
oaoiieiaee noaoeeiia?iie iae?ioe?o?ae/aneie iiiiue i?e ino?ie
/a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaia, nicaeaia eiiiuethoa?iay yenia?oiay nenoaia
aeeaaiinoeee e ea/aiey /a?aiii-iicaiaie o?aaiu, iieo/eaoay iacaaiea
«O?aaio — 1,0». Nenoaia iniiaaia ia aaca ciaiee aaaeoueo niaoeeaeenoia
a yoie iaeanoe e iicaieyao a oa/aiee 4-5 ieioo iieo/eoue iaiaoiaeeioth
eiinoeueoaoeeth ia o?iaia eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai niaoeeaeenoa-iae?ioe?o?aa.

Inouanoaeaiea a Oe?aeia i?aaeeiaeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ii iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie iae?ioe?o?ae/aneie iiiiue iicaieeei,
ianiio?y ia aic?anoaiea /anoiou e oyaeanoe ino?ie /a?aiii-iicaiaie
o?aaiu, a oaeaea e?aeia iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia oeiaine?iaaiea io?anee
cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia i?ioyaeaiee 1995-1998 aiaeia iinoaiaiii nieceoue
iauoth eaoaeueiinoue n 5,6% aei 3,8% e iineaiia?aoeeiiioth – n 12,0% aei
8,6%.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ino?ay /a?aiii-iicaiaay o?aaia, eeeieea,
yieaeaieieiaey, noaiaea?ou, yenia?oiay nenoaia.

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