.

Клініка, діагностика та лікування опіків IV ступеню: Автореф. дис… д-ра мед. наук / Е.Я. Фісталь, Харк. держ. мед. ун-т. — Х., 1999. — 35 с. — укp.

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Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao

OAeE 616-001.17-07-089

O?noaeue Ai?eue sseiae/

Ee?i?ea, ae?aaiinoeea oa e?eoaaiiy

ii?e?a IV nooiaith

14.01.03.- o??o?a?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? ? 1 Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y
Oe?a?ie oa eaoaae?? eiiaono?ieia?? ? niieo/aii? o?aaie Oa?e?anueeiai
?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
A?eai?’?aa Oaia?a A?eai??aia, Oa?e?anueeee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy
e?ea??a IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a eiiaono?ieia?? oa niieo/aii? o?aaie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ?
oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani? Eoiaeueoeaa Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith
o??o?a?/ieo oai?ia Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

aeieoi?
iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eiceiaoeue Aai?a?e Iaaeiae/, Ee?anueea
aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a o??o?a?? oa
ii?eiai? oai?iae.

aeieoi?
iaaee/ieo iaoe, eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? A?aeei ?aai
Iao?iae/, Aei?i?iiao?ianueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a
o??o?a?/ieo caoai?thaaiue.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo ee?i?/ii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii? o??o?a??
AII Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e i?e?io??o?a?? oa ieanoe/ii? o??o?a??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 22 ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.600.01 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?n?oao? ca aae?anith: 310022, Oe?a?ia, i.
Oa?e?a, i?. Eai?ia, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?n?oaoo ca aae?anith: 310022, Oe?a?ia, i.
Oa?e?a, i?. Eai?ia, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 22 aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Oaiueei I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. No?oeoo?a ii?eiaiai o?aaiaoecio ca inoaii?
?iee cia/ii ci?ieeany a ?acoeueoao? ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii? aaae oai?eo c
aeeaieeie ii?aceaie [Acieia A.A. oa ?i., 1996, Iianoyiee I.TH.,1992,
1998.]. Iaea?eueo oea a?ae/oaa?oueny a i?iieneiaeo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie,
ui aeyaey?oueny c?inoaiiyi eaoaeueiino? oa ?iaae?ae?caoe??. Oai?? c
ii?eaie IV nooiaiy neeaaeathoue, ca iaoeie aeaieie, a?eueo ye 18% an?o
iino?aaeaeaeeo a?ae aeeaieeo ii?e?a. Iniaeeaa oyaee?noue ia?aa?ao
oaeeo ii?e?a, caaeaaeue aeeaieeo aiaoii?/ieo no?oeoo?, a?eueoa /anoioa
oneeaaeiaiue, ?icaeoie a?oaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e ? cae/aeii i?e/eiaie
iiaaieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo iane?aee?a [Ee/aiania N.O., 1990, Zhang
M.,Zhang H., 1995, Shahin A. at al., 1998.]. Iaieai? ? iicaaaeai?
aeeaeaiiy cciai? e?noee, noaeiae, nooiaeeeey iinooiiai ia?oa?thoue,
?icaeaathoueny a?o?eoe, inoaii??e?oe. Oeueiio ni?ey? ?nioth/a oaeoeea
e?eoaaiiy iino?aaeaeaeeo, ui iieyaa? a aoaiieo iae?aeoii?yo,
inoaiiae?aeoii?yo, i?aeaioiaoe? a?aioethth/eo ?ai ? cae?eooth ?o oeyoii
a?eueii? ia?anaaeee oe??e. Oaea oaeoeea a iei?oi?e /an ?
ia?aoe?iiaeueiith ? oeaiith [Aoaeeaae/ E.?.oa ?i., 1998, Aonae A.E. oa
?i., 1998, Eiceiaoeue A.I., 1998].

A?aeaa?oaiiy caa?ice caaeaae? aeeaieeo aiaoii?/ieo no?oeoo? iaaii
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aiiueiai cae?eooy ?ai iaeiei c cania?a ieanoeee
iiaiioe?iiei iie?iaii oeaiei, ui aeicaieeoue a?aeiiaeoe e?iaiia?a a
o?aaeai?e cii? ? aeinyaoe ?aaaneoey?ecaoe??. Ca inoaii? ?iee c’yaeeany
cia/ia e?euee?noue iia?aeiieaiue i?i canoinoaaiiy ia?anaaeie eiiieaen?a
oeaiei ? aea?iioaic?? i?e e?eoaaii? aeeaieeo ii?eiaeo ? o?aaiaoe/ieo
iioeiaeaeaiue [ A?eionia ?.A., 1989,1991, A?eai?’?aa O.A., 1991, A?aeei
?.I. oa ?i., 1994, Galhhos F.H. at al., 1985, Grube D.J.at al., 1992.].

?aii? o??o?a?/i? ao?o/aiiy, iaaii, noathoue caniaii aeai?o i?e ii?eao
III ? iniaeeai IV nooiaith, iaeiae a Oe?a?i? aiie aeioaia?, iaaeaeue,
ia io?eiaee iaeaaeiiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. Oea iia’ycaia, ca iaoith
aeoieith, c ianoa/ath i?aeaioiaaieo oao?aoe?a, a?aeiia?aeiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy ? iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ii?eiaeo oeaio??a e?a?ie.

A e?oa?aoo?? oaeoe/ii a?aenooi? a?aeiiino? i?i iaoiaaiac ii?e?a IV
nooiaiy, ee?ie/i? i?iyae, caniae ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee oaeeo
iioeiaeaeaiue. A?aenooiy ?aeeia i?aeia?iaeia eeaneo?eaoe?y ?ai ca
aeeaeiith ii?acee, a a ?nioth/eo ca?oa?aeieo – IV nooi?iue ii?eo
acaaae? ia ia?aaeaa/aiee. Ia ocaaaeueiai? iayai? ?ic??ciai? ioae?eaoe??,
ui noinothoueny ieoaiue o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ii?eaie IV
nooiaiy. Ana aeeeaaeaia aeua aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue ?ic?iaee
eeaneo?eaoe?? ? iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee iioeiaeaeaiiy oeaiei i?e ii?eao
IV nooiaiy aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy oaeeo
iino?aaeaeaeeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie ? oaiaie. Iaaaaeaia aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia a ?aieao ieaiiai? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe «E?eoaaiiy
aeeaieeo ii?e?a a oiiaao i?iieneiaiai ?aa?iio» (aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?y
?0198V009524), a oaeiae IAe? «Aaeineiiaeaiiy eiina?aaoeaieo ?
o??o?a?/ieo cania?a ?aaa?e?oaoe?? aaaeeiiaia/aieo ?c niieo/aieie ?
eiia?iiaaieie ii?aceaie» (aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?y ? 0198V002290), ye?
cae?eniai? ia eaoaae?? aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? ?1 Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? eaoaae?? eiiaono?ieia?? oa
niieo/aieo ii?acie Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?? aoea caoaa?aeaeaia ia can?aeaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a 14 eenoiiaaea 1996 ?ieo,
i?ioieie ? 8.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iie?ioaiiy ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
ii?eaie IV nooiaiy ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy eaoaeueiino?, /enea
oneeaaeiaiue ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue

.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1.?ic?iaeoe iiao iaa?oioiaaio eeaneo?eaoe?th ii?e?a ca aeeaeiith ii?acee
? eeaneo?eaoe?th oneeaaeiaiue ii?eiaeo ?ai.

2.?ic?iaeoe iia? niiniae aecia/aiiy aeeoo?caeaoieo oeaiei c iaoith
ae?aaiinoeee aeeaeie ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiino? ii?e?a IV nooiaiy.

3.?ic?iaeoe niin?a aecia/aiiy ianyao iioeiaeaeaieo oeaiei ?
i?iaiicoaaiiy oyaeeino? o?aaie i?e aeeaieeo ii?eao.

4.Noai?eoe aenia?eiaioaeueio iiaeaeue ii?eo IV nooiaiy c iaoith
aea/aiiy ?aiueiaiai i?ioeano ? aecia/aiiy iiaeeeaino? ?aaaneoey?ecaoe??
oeaiei.

5.Aea/eoe ee?i?ei-iaoiaaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? ii?e?a IV nooiaiy.

6.Aea/eoe aoaeoeai?noue ?aii?o o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue ? niinia?a
?aaaneoey?ecaoe?? ?oai?ciaaieo oeaiei i?e aeeaieeo iioeiaeaeaiiyo
aieiae ? e?ioe?aie.

7.Aecia/eoe ooieoe?iiaeueio aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaieo niinia?a
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo o ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eieie ia i?aenoaa?
ioe?iee aeeiiaieo ?i i?aaaioeaieo iia?aoe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
aia?oa:

– ?ic?iaeaii niin?a ae?aaiinoeee aeeaeie iioeiaeaeaiiy e?noie
neeai?iiy /a?aio ? i?eno??e aeey eiai cae?eniaiiy, ui aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe oaeoeeo o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy i?e inoaiiae?ic? (Iaoaio
Oe?a?ie ? 24607A, IIE A 61 A 6/00).

– ?ic?iaeaii aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/iee niin?a aecia/aiiy aeeoo?caeaoiino?
i’yciai? oeaieie o iaia/aieo (Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 25468 A, IIE A61A 5/00),
ui aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe ?aiith ae?aaiinoeeo aeeaeie ? iioe?aiino?
ii?e?a IV nooiaiy.

– ?ic?iaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th ii?eiaeo ?ai ca aeeaeiith ii?acee, yea
ia? aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, ui aeicaiey? a?eueo
aeeoa?aioe?eii i?aeoiaeeoe aei ioe?iee aeeaeie ii?eiaeo ?ai. Noai?aii
aeeoa?aioe?eii-ae?aaiinoe/io oaaeeoeth eeaneo?eaoe?eieo iciae aeeaeie
ii?eiaeo ?ai (Na?aeioeoai IA ? 640).

– noai?aia ee?ie/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y oneeaaeiaiue ii?eiaeo ?ai, yea
aeicaiey? ?o i?iaiicoaaoe ? i?iaiaeeoe a/ania e?eoaaiiy.

– a?aeoai?aii aenia?eiaioaeueio iiaeaeue ii?eo IV nooiaiy ia
iaoetheao, ui aeicaieeei aea/eoe i?e?ioee?eoeyoe?th a oeaieiao i?ney
ii?eo ? ia ??cieo aoaiao i?eaeeaeaiiy ia?anaaeaeaiiai oe??ii-i’yciaiai
eeaioy. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? iaoeaieo i?aia?ao?a i’yc?a a iiey?eciaaiiio
na?oe? aeyaeaii ii?oieia?/io iciaeo ci?iiiai aeeo?i?cio, ii ye?e
iiaeia aecia/eoe ??aaiue aeeoo?caeaoiino? iiia?a/ii-nioaanoeo i’yc?a (
??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae ? 96041671 a?ae 20.02. 97.).

– ?ic?iaeaii niin?a ia?anaaeee oe??ii-i’yciaiai eeaioy, yeee
caiia?aa? iiaeeeaei oneeaaeiaiiyi iia?aoe?e aai cieaeo? ?oi? /enei.
Can?a a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae cai?iiiiiaaieo ?ai?oa oei, ui ie??i
aeae?eaiiy ? ia?aiino o?ainieaioaoo a ?aoe?i??ioio ciio, iaeeaaeaiiy
i?e?inoaeeiieo aianoiiic?a i?iaiaeeoueny aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?y i’yco
o?ainieaioaoo ? oaaaeaiiy a a?oa??th noaeeiii? i?aeee eeaioy
aioeieneaeaioo (??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae ? 98052608 a?ae
19.05. 98.).

– cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a oi?ioaaiiy ? ia?anaaeee oe??ii-i’yciaiai
eeaioy. A neeaae i?a?oth/iai e?oaeiai noaaea aeeth/aii i’yc c
a?nueiaei e?iaioieii. Aanue ia??iae i?a?aoe?? i’yc cacia?
aeaeo?inoeioeyoe??, ui iiia?aaeaea? eiai ao?io?th (iiaeaii cayaeo a
IAeIA).

– ?ic?iaeaii niin?a aecia/aiiy ia’?io iioeiaeaeaieo oeaiei i?e
aeeaieeo ii?eao c iaoith i?iaiicoaaiiy oyaeeino? o?aaie (??oaiiy i?i
aeaea/o iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae ? 98010090 a?ae 08.10.98.).

– ?ic?iaeaii niin?a aecia/aiiy ianyao caaeaeeo oeaiei i?e
ii?eao IV nooiaiy, yeee cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aie «Volume»
eiii’thoa?iiai oiiia?aoo, ui aeicaieeei iaeneiaeueii oi/ii aecia/eoe
ianya o?aaeaieo oeaiei ( cayaea ia aeiao?ae ? 98052803 a?ae
29.05.98.).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Cai?iiiiiaai? eeaneo?eaoe?? ii?eiaeo ?ai ? ?o oneeaaeiaiue
aeicaieythoue a?eueo aeeoa?aioe?eii i?ae?eoe aei ioe?iee oyaeeino?
ii?acie, aecia/eoe aea?? e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee ? i?iaiic o?aaie.

Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao ?aiueiaiai i?ioeano i?e
ii?eao IV nooiaiy iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoeny i?e e?eoaaii? iino?aaeaeaeeo a
on?o ia??iaeao ii?eiai? oai?iae.

?ic?iaeai? niiniae ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee iioeiaeaeaiiy i’yc?a ?
aeeaeie inoaiiae?ico caaacia/othoue ?aaeeeaeueia aeeiiaiiy iia?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue a ?aii? oa?i?ie i?ney ii?eo IV nooiaiy .

?ic?iaeai? niiniae aecia/aiiy ia’?io iioeiaeaeaieo oeaiei
aeicaieythoue ooi/ieoe ianooaa e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a ? i?iaiicoaaoe
iane?aeie o?aaie.

I?iaaaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa aeaea iiaeeea?noue
iaa?oiooaaoe canoinoaaiiy ia?ai?uaieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei, ui aeicaiey?
iie?aueoe ia?aa?a ?aia?aoeaieo i?ioean?a.

?ic?iaeai? niiniae ia?anaaeee oe??ii-i’yciaeo eeaio?a aeicaieeee
cieceoe /enei oneeaaeiaiue ? iie?aueoe aaciina?aaei? ?acoeueoaoe
e?eoaaiiy.

?ic?iaeaia nenoaia ?aii?o cania?a ae?aaiinoeee ? o??o?a?/ii?
oaeoeee aeicaieeea aeiaeoeny cieaeaiiy oneeaaeiaiue a 1,5-2 ?ace,
eaoaeueiino? a 1,5 ?ace ? iie?aueoe ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe
e?eoaaiiy o oai?eo c ii?eaie IV nooiaiy a 1,8 ?ac?a.

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo
ii?eiaeo a?aeae?eaiue ? oeaio??a Oe?a?ie iaoa??aee aeaio iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai eenoa.

?ic?iaeai? caniae ae?aaiinoeee ? i?iaiicoaaiiy oyaeeino?
o?aaie ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe Ee?anueeiai, Oa?e?anueeiai,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai, Oiaeueieoeueeiai, ??aainueeiai ii?eiaeo oeaio??a ?
i?ae?aeiiieo ii?eiaeo a?aeae?eaiue E?aiaoi?nueea, Iae??aee ?
Ia?eoiiey. Aeaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? «Iia?aoeaiia ea/aiea
aeoaieeo iaeiaia n ii?aaeaieai iiaeeaaeaueo oeaiae e eo iineaaenoaee.»
Ee?a, 1990?.; «Iia?aoeaia e?eoaaiiy iane?aee?a aeeaieeo ii?e?a caniaii
aea?iioaic??»Oa?e?a, 1998?., a oaeiae ?ioi?iaoe?eiee eeno «Aeei?enoaiiy
caniao ?aiiueiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy aeeaieeo ii?e?a», Aeiiaoeuee,
1997?. Iaoa??aee ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny a aeeeaaeaii? ia eaoaae?ao
aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? Aeiiaoeueeiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, eaoaae??
eiiaono?ieia?? ? niieo/aieo ii?acie Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo
oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a, eaoaae?? o??o?a?? oa ii?eiai? oai?iae
Ee?anuee?e aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.Iniaenoa o/anoue aaoi?a iieyaa? a
aecia/aii? iaoe ? caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeai?? iaoiaeee ?
cae?eniaii? iaoeiaeo, aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? ee?ie/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ianoaaeaii? iino?aaeaeaeeo no/anieie caniaaie ?ino?oiaioaeueii? ?
eaai?aoi?ii? ae?aaiinoeee, ?oi?o oeoia/aiue, ?ic?iaoe? eeaneo?eaoe??
ii?eiaeo ?ai, i?eioeeiiai iiaeo cania?a ae?aaiinoeee ? o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c ii?eaie IV nooiaiy, ?o i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaioii iniaenoi iia?iaaii aeecueei 85% oai?eo.

Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia eiiieaenia nenoaia ianoaaeaiiy ? e?eoaaiiy oai?eo
c ii?eaie IV nooiaiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaii ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo ? eiia?anao: «Iaaeeoeeia
eaoano?io» (Iineaa, 22-23 o?aaiy 1990?.), «?ioaineaia e?eoaaiiy
aaaeeiiaia/aieo» (Iineaa, 25-26 ethoiai 1992?.), «No/ani? caniae
e?eoaaiiy ?ai» (Ioueii, 15-18 a?oaeiy 1993?.), The International
congress of surgeons wounds, burns, dressing (Tel-Aviv, 1992),
International Congress of immunorehabilitation (Antalia, 1996?.),
Ia?oiio eiia?an? anioe?aoe?? o??o?a?a ?iai? A. ?. Ie?iaiaa (Oaoeaio,
1996?.), Iaii??aeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? iai’yo? i?ioani?a
?. ?. E?aoeoey (*aeyaeinuee, 2-5 a?oaeiy 1996?.), «Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
a?a??ie i?aoe?, i?ioiaoieia?? oa iaaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy» (Aeiiaoeuee,
4-5 eenoiiaaea 1995?.), Ainuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? ii i?iaeai?
«Ii?ee» (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 16-17 o?aaiy 1995?.), Ia?oiio c’?cae?
o??o?a?a Oe?a?ie (Euea?a, 5-7 aa?aniy 1995?.), ?? eiia?an? o??o?a?a
Oe?a?ie (Aeiiaoeuee, 6-9 aeiaoiy 1998?.), II iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an?
aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a, oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie, (Eoaainuee, 16-19
aa?aniy 1998?.), Iaii??aeuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 100
??/ieoe? c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy A. Ae. Aeiaayeei (Aeiiaoeuee, o?aaaiue
1998?.), nai?ia?ao caa?aeoth/eo ii?eiaeie a?aeae?eaiiyie ? oeaio?aie
Oe?a?ie (??aii, Ee?a, Eooeuee, Oiaeueieoeueeee, Iaie?ia, AEeoiie?, 1991,
1992, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997??.), can?aeaiiyo Aeiiaoeueeiai iaeaniiai
iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa o??o?a?a (1992,1994, 1995,1997, 1998??.)

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 37 ae?oeiaaieo
?iaioe, c ieo 6 ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo, 2 iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??,
?ioi?iaoe?eiee eeno, io?eiaia aaoi?nueea i?aai oa 5 na?aeioeoa ia
aeiaoiaee.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, i’yoe ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 238
noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 48 iaethie?a ? 20 oaaeeoeue.
Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue a nia? 368 iaca ?ia?o, c ieo 210 –
?in?enueeith oa oe?a?inueeith iiaaie ? 158 – ?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe .

Iaoa??aee ? caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaii aeai? ianoaaeaiiy ? e?eoaaiiy 326
iino?aaeaeaeeo a?ae ii?e?a IV nooiaith, a oaeiae aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaiiai ia 104 iaoetheao. E?eoaaiiy oai?eo
i?iaaaeaii a ii?eiaiio a?aeae?eaii? ee?i?ee aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? ?1
?i. A. I. Aiaineaanueeiai Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo a 1991-1997??. A ee?i?oe? iia?iaaii 321 iino?aaeaeaeiai,
aeeiiaii 1895 ??ciiiai?oieo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue a ??ci? oa?i?ie
i?ney ii?eo, ui noaei i?eaiaeii aeey aea/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a iia?aoe?e.
E??i oiai, ia eaoaae?? eiiaono?ieia?? oa niieo/aieo ii?acie
Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a i?iaaaeaii aea/aiiy
iiaeeeainoae ?iieaioaoe?eii? aea?iioaic?? a i?aaaioeai?e o??o?a??
ii?e?a IV nooiaiy o 30 oai?eo.

Ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo i?iaiaeeee a ee?i?/i?e, a?io?i?/i?e,
?ioiieia?/i?e, iaoiii?oieia?/i?e eaai?aoi??yo, a a?aeae?eaiiyo
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee ? ?aioaaio??o?a?? iaeaniiai
e?eoaaeueii-ee?i?/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy, a a?aeae?eaii? eiii’thoa?ii?
oiiia?ao?? Aeiiaoeueeiai ae?aaiinoe/iiai oeaio?o, a a?io?i?/iiio ?
ii?oieia?/iiio a?aeae?eao oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai-ee?ie/ii? eaai?aoi??? ?
ia eaoaae?? a?noieia?? Aeiiaoeueeiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Ii?iaoeae
aeey eiio?ieueiiai ii??aiyiiy i?e aeei?enoaii? ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiaeee
io?eiai? oeyoii ianoaaeaiiy 20 i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo aeia?iaieueoe?a.
Oai?ei c ii?eiaith oai?iaith i?iaiaeeee a?io?i?/ia aea/aiiy e?ia?, a
oiio /ene? – nenoaie cn?aeaiiy e?ia? oa aioeeiaaoeyioii? nenoaie,
a?eeiaeo o?aeoe?e, a oaeiae iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai nenoaie
ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (IIE). Ai?no i?iaeoeo?a IIE – ae??iiaeo
eii’thaao?a – aecia/aee caniaii Aaa?eeiaa A.A., Ieoei?oaeiy I.?.
?ioaineai?noue ia?aeeniiai aaiie?co a?eo?ioeeo?a aea/aee caniaii
No?ieiaa A. A.; iaoiaeii Ei?iethea I. A. aea/aee aioeieenethaaeueio
aeoeai?noue eaoaeace. Oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?ioiieiae/iiai noaoono
anoaiiaethaaee oeyoii aea/aiiy iieaciee?a ee?oeiiiai oa aoii?aeueiiai
?ioi?oaoo. Aecia/aiiy ieoiii? aaae iiioeyoe?? c??eeo O-e?ioioeeo?a
i?iaiaeeeinue ca aeiiiiiaith ?aaeoe?? niiioaiiiai ?icaoeiooai?aiiy. Ii
niiniao M.Jondal ia/enethaaee a?aeiiniee oa aaniethoiee ai?no ee?oei O-
? A-eaiee. ??aaiue oee?eoethth/eo ?ioiieo eiiiean?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia?
aeine?aeaeoaaany oioiaeaeo?ieaei?eiao?e/iei iaoiaeii. Aeoeai?noue
ne?iaaoiiai e?cioeeio a oinoaoiiio aooa?? aecia/aee iaoiaeii
Aei?io?e/oea A.Ae., noaiaea?oeciaaiiai Aooa??iei I.A. Eiioeaio?aoe?th
?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a G, A, M aecia/aee iaoiaeii i?inoi? ?ioiiaeeooc?? ii
Mancini G. Oaaioeeoa?ia aeoeai?noue eaeeioeeo?a aeine?aeaeoaaeanue
NST-oanooaaiiyi ii Park B.H. O 52 oai?eo i?iaaaeai? a?noieia?/i? ?
e?enoaeia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oeaiei. Iaoa??aeii aeey oeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoee a?iioaoe i’yeeo oeaiei (i’yce, nooiaeeeey, noaeeie,
ia?ae) ? aeoyaeee c ieo ? e?noie, ye? a?aeenue aei ? i?ae /an
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue (iae?ioanoe?ioii?e, iae?aeoii?e, inoaiiae?aeoii?e
oa ?i.).

I?e i?aeic?? ia iioeiaeaeaiiy iaa?no?aeueieo noaeei e?ioe?aie
aeeiioaaee oeueo?acaoeiao aeiiea?ia?ao?th, oeaaia?ao?th, a oaeiae
naeaeoeaio aia?ia?ao?th aia?ia?aoii o??ie «Siemens». ?aioaaiieia?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee i?e ii?eao IV nooiaith e?noie ? noaeia?a.

Ia’?i iioeiaeaeaieo oeaiei o oai?eo c ii?eaie IV nooiaiy
aecia/aany iaoaiaoe/ii ? ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aie «Volume»
eiii’thoa?iiai oiiia?aoo.

Ee?i?/iee iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?aeeyaaa eiii’thoa?i?e
ia?iaoe? ia ia?niiaeueiiio eiii’thoa?? c i?ia?aiith «Excel 7.0». I?e
aeeiiaii? ?iaioe nooi?iue a??ia?aeiino? a?aei?iiinoae na?aaei?o aaee/ei
a a?oiao, ui c?noaaeythoueny, aecia/aany oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy
iaia?aiao?e/iiai e?eoa??th O?eeieniia-Iaiia-O?oi?, e?eoa??th No’thaeaioa
? e?eoa??th (2. ?acoeueoaoe iieacaii a oaaeeoeyo.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia 104 iaoetheao.
I?e i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioo noai i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea i’yciai?
oeaieie ioe?ithaaee oeyoii a?ii?e?ineii??, aeeoo?caeaoi?noue i’yciaeo
aieieii aea/aee a a?iioaoao i?e ?o caaa?aeaii? ? a iiey?eciaaiiio
na?oe?. Ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai oe??ii-i’yciaiai eeaioy ioe?ithaaee oeyoii
aei??o ?I2 o?aineooaiiei aeao/eeii ? aecia/aiiyi oaciino? i?ina?oo
a?oa??ie.

Ci?no ?iaioe.

C 326 oai?eo, ui niinoa??aaeenue, /ieia?e?a aoei 259 (79,4%),
ae?iie 67 (20,6%). A?e oai?eo eieeaaany a?ae 2.5 i?nyoe?a aei 85 ?ie?a.
C ieo aei?ineeo aoei 193 (58,1%), ae?oae 133 (41,9%). A?eueo?noue
aei?ineeo – 82,9% – iniae i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo. A?eueoa /anoeia ae?oae,
iino?aaeaeaeeo a?ae ii?e?a IV nooiaiy (51,9%) – i?aee?oee.

Iniiaieie ao?ieia?/ieie /eiieeaie, ye? aeeeeeathoue ii?ee IV
nooiaiy, ? iieoi’y (o 38% iino?aaeaeaeeo), aeaeo?e/iee no?oi (o 38,6 %),
aa?y/? aai ?icia/ai? i?aaeiaoe (19% iaoe??io?a) ? aa?aneai? ??aeeie (o
4,4% oai?eo).

Eiia?iiaaia o?aaia aoea o 16 iino?aaeaeaeeo: o 7 – ii?ee IV
nooiaiy ? ia?aeiie e?noie e?ioe?aie, o 9 – /a?aiii-iiceiaa o?aaia ?
ii?ee IV nooiaiy. Niieo/ai? ii?acee niinoa??aaee o 8 oai?eo, aeaia c
yeeo iino?aaeaeaee a?ae oa?iio?i?/ieo ii?e?a IV nooiaiy, 6 io?eiaee
i?inoi?? aeaeo?ioa?i?/i? ii?ee. Ua o 35 iino?aaeaeaeeo, 9 c yeeo –
ae?oe, ii?ee II-III-IV nooiaiy ii?aeioaaeenue c ii?eii aeeoaeueieo
oeyo?a (IAeO), a o 14 – ? c io?o?iiyi /aaeiei aacii. O?aaia ia
ae?iaieoeoa? a?aecia/aia o 58 iino?aaeaeaeeo, ui neeaaea? 30% a?ae
an?o aei?ineeo iaoe??io?a c ii?eaie IV nooiaiy. C 135 iino?aaeaeaeeo a
?acoeueoao? iiaooiai? o?aaie 51 (37,8 %) ciaoiaeeeenue a noai?
aeeiaieueiiai ni’yi?iiy. Oey ianoaaeia ia o?eueee ?iaeea a?eueo oyaeeith
ia?aa?a ii?eiai? oai?iae, aea /anoi, ca iaoith aeoieith, ? i?e/eiith,
yea i?eaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy ii?e?a IV nooiaith.

Ii?ee IV nooiaith, ye? aeieeee i?e a?oiiaeo ? ianiaeo o?aaiao,
niinoa??aaee o 9 c 56 iino?aaeaeaeeo a 4 a?oiao. Iaaii, iayai?noue
eiia?iiaaieo ? niieo/aieo, ye i?aaeei, i?inoi?eo ii?acie iineethaaea
oyaee?noue ? i?iaiic o?aaie.

I?ia?aoe aiae?c i?e/ei ? ianoaaei, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei ooai?aiiy
ii?e?a IV nooiaiy, aeae?eeee o?e /eiieea, ni?eyoeeaeo ?oiueiio
aeieeiaiith:

1.Yo?iiaoiaaiaoe/iee /eiiee, iia’ycaiee c iaoai?ciii ooai?aiiy
eiioaeoieo ii?e?a – oa?i?/ieo, aeaeo?e/ieo ? o?i?/ieo. Oea coiiaeaii
aenieith oaiia?aoo?ith i?e eiioaeo? oe??e c ?icia/aieie i?aaeiaoaie aai
?icieaaeaieie ?a/iaeiaie (iaoae, ieanoiana, oeae oa ?i.), ia?aoai?aiiyi
aeaeo?e/ii? aia?a?? a oaieiao aai i?iieeiaiiyi eiioeaio?iaaii? eeneioe
(eoao) a aeeaeio oeaiei.

2.Yeniiceoe?eiee /eiiee, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae o?eaaeino? aieeao
oa?i?/iiai aaaioa a caieiooiio i?inoi?? – i?e iiaeaaeao ?
aaoieaoano?ioao, a ?acoeueoao? aacii?aaeiino? iaeaiueeeo ae?oae, i?e
caiaeaii? iaeyao, aiane?aeie aeeiaieueii? ?ioieneeaoe??.

3.Aeiaeaoeiaee, aai /eiiee aca?iiiai iaoyaeaiiy, iia’ycaiee ?c
niieo/aiith ? eiia?iiaaiith o?aaiith ? noiooi?ie caoai?thaaiiyie
(oea?aa?aeueiee oa ia?eoa?e/iee aoa?ineea?ic, oeoe?iaee ae?aaao,
ai?eain?y oa ?i.).

A?aea?? oai?eo i?iaiaeeany a a?aeiia?aeiino? c iiaith
?ic?iaeaiith iaie eeaneo?eaoe??th ii?e?a ca aeeaeiith ii?acee, a ye?e
i?ae ii?eaie IV nooiaiy ?icoi?thoueny noaoanoe?aeuei? iioeiaeaeaiiy
oeaiei. Cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y ia? aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy, ui a?aeaeoa a iaca? eiaeiiai nooiaith: I no. –
ai?aea?iaeueiee ii?e; II no. – aea?iaeueiee iiaa?oiaaee ii?e; III no. –
aea?iaeueiee aeeaieee ii?e; IV no. – noaoanoe?aeueiee ii?e. A
cai?iiiiiaai?e eeaneo?eaoe?? ii?e?a ca Oaaeeoey 1.

Eeaneo?eaoe?ei? iciaee aeeaeie ii?eiaeo ?ai.

Nooi?iue ii?eo Aeeaeia iioeiaeaeaiy Iaoio?c?ieia?/i?, ii?oieia?/i? oa
aiaoii?/i? iaae? Ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?y Oaeoeea ? e?eoaaiiy Iane?aeie oa
i?iaiic

I Ii?ee ai?aea?iaeuei? Na?iciee iaa?ye oeaiei. ?iaiaee oa?
ai?aea?i?no. Aacaeueia iaia?aia oe??e. A?ia?ai?y, iaa?ye oe??e, ae??ai?
iooe?? c na?iciei ai?noii. Eiina?aaoeaia i?ae iia’yceaie aai a?aee?eoei
iaoiaeii Caaithaaiiy i?ioyaii 5-12 aei?a aac iaaii?iiy ? ?oaoethaaiiy.

II Ii?ee aea?iaeuei?

iiaa?oiaa? Iae?ic ai?aea?i?no ? aea?ie ia aeeaeio a?ae 0,05 – aei 0,5 ii
a niieo/aii? c aenoaeaoe??th. Oaca ?aaaia?aoe?? caaa?oo?oueny ca ?aooiie
caa?aaeaieo i?eaeaoe?a oe??e a cii? ia?aiae?ico. Iai?oaeai? oa
?ice?eo? iooe??, a?aeneieea ai?aea?i?no c ooai?aiiyi oiieiai no?oio:
na?oei-aeiaoiai, na?oei-a?oiaoiiai ? n??iai. Eiina?aaoeaia:
aeno-ooaaiiy no?oio (aea? aeiae). I?e ieiu? 15-20 ? ( % i.o. (o ae?oae
oa eth-aeae e?oiueiai a?eo 10 % ) i?ioeoieiaa oa?ai?y. Caaithaaiiy
a??ia?aeia i?ioyaii 2-6 oeaei?a. *anoi ooai?aiiy ?oaoe?a. I?e aaeeeeo
iioeiaeaeaiiyo ? iai?aaeeueiiio e?eoaaii? iiaeeeaa ?iaae?ae?caoe?y.

III Ii?ee aea?iaeuei? aeeaie? Oioaeueiee iae?ic oe??e ? i?aeoe??ii?
ee?oeiaeie aei iiaa?oiaai? oanoe?? (ciia ia?aiae?ico). Oiaueia
ia?aeiiiai iae?ioe/iiai no?oio io 0,5 aei 1,2 ii. Oaca ?aaaia?aoe?? ia
caaa?oaia. Ia?aeiia oi?ioaaiiy iae?ioe/iiai no?oio: nooee, u?eueiee,
oaiii-a?oiaoiee aai /i?iee. Eie?eaaoe?eiee o?noiaaoi? eiinenoaioe??,
na?oeee, c o?eaeaie ai?aea?i?no. O??o?a?/ia. A ia??iae oieo aeeiio?oueny
aeaeiii?an?y. I?ney cae?i/aiiy oieo – iae?aeoii?? oa aooiaea?iiieanoeee.
Caeaaeeoue a?ae ieiu? ii?eo, a?eo, noiooieo caoai?thaaiue, oaeoeee
e?eoaaiiy. I?e aaeaeaaoi?e oa?ai?? e?eoe/iith ? ieiua 20-40% i.o.

IV Ii?ee noaoanoe?aeuei? Oa?aeoa?ia ia?aeiia ii?acea, /ano?oa
iia’ycaia c eiioaeoieie, aeaeo?i- ? oa?i?/-ieie ii?eaie; ia??aiii??ia
iioeiaeaeaiiy neaeaoieo i’yc?a, iiaeeea? o?iiaice iaa?no?aeue-ieo
noaeei. A?aenooi?noue ie?noy ? noaeiaiai? eainoee i?ecaiaeeoue aei
caaeaae? e?noee aai noaeiaa. Iaea?eueo /anoa ? iaaacia/ia eieae?caoe?y
– aieiaa oa e?ioe?aee. ?aie aaeaaeai?, e?aoa?iia?aci?. Ae?aaeaiee
ia?inoath/ee iaa?ye e?ioe?aie. Naiino?eia a?aeoi?aiaiiy inoaiiae?ico
aeiaai/ania aei 3-8 i?nyoe?a. Ia oii? i?ioeoieiai? oa?ai?? iieacai?
iaa?aeeeaaei? ao?o/aiiy: iae?ioii?y, oanoe?i-oii?y, ?aii? iae?aeoi-i??.
A eiiieaen i?aaai-oeaieo iia?aoe?e iiaei-i? aooe aeeth/ai? ia?anaaeee
neeaaeieo eeaio?a. I?e nai?/aniiio ? aaeaeaaoiiio e?eoaaii? i?iaiic
ni?eyoeeaee, ?iaae?ae?caoe?y /ano?o iia’ycaia c iioeiae-aeaiiyi
nooiaeeeue oa i’yc?a e?ioe?aie. I?aaeeueia oaeoeea aeicaiey? oieeiooe
aaaeeeo oneeaaeiaiiue iaa?oue i?e e?ai?iiae?ic?.

aeeaeiith ii?acee a?aoiaai? iaoio?c?ieia?/i? i?ioeane, ui
?icaeaathoueny, ? aiaoii?/i? aca?iia?aeiineie oeaiei, ui aeicaiey?
ia’?eoea?coaaoe ee?i?eo, oaeoeeo ? i?iaiic o?aaie. Ia i?aenoaa? oeeo
iciae neeaaeaii aeeoa?aioe?eii-ae?aaiinoe/io oaaeeoeth (oaae.1.), yea
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a ? e?ea??a. Oey eeaneo?eaoe?y
noaaeaia ia can?aeaii? naeoe?? eiiaono?ieia?a II eiia?ano o??o?a?a
Oe?a?ie (Aeiiaoeuee, 6-9 aeiaoiy 1998a.). Ia eeaneo?eaoe?th ? oaaeeoeth
io?eiaii «Na?aeioeoai i?i aea?aeaaio ?a?no?aoe?th i?aa aaoi?a ia oa??»
IA ? 640 a?ae 28 eeiiy 1997 ?ieo.

O 326 iienaieo oai?eo aoei 787 ?ai ??ciiiai?oii? eieae?caoe??
? ao?ieia??, a oiio /ene? – niieo/aieo ? eiia?iiaaieo. Ie
i?iaiae?coaaee iaoai?ci ia?aa?ao ?aiueiaiai i?ioeano 258 ?ai o 201
oai?iai, o yeeo aoee ii?ee o?eueee IV nooiaiy. Iae?ioe/iee no?oi i?e
ii?eao IV nooiaith iieoi’yi, o?i?/ieo ? eiioaeoieo o?eniaaiee aei
i?aeeyaath/eo oeaiei, a?i ieae/a ??aiy iaaeieeoiuei? oe??e ? aeaeyaea?
cciai?, yeui iaia? ?ic??aaiiy aai iaaoaeaiiy, oae naii, ye ? i?e ii?eao
??? nooiaiy. Aaciina?aaeiuei a i?noe? eiioaeoo c aeaea?aeii no?oio
aeniei? iai?oae ? ?icia/aiei iaoaeii o 19 iino?aaeaeaeeo a?aecia/ai?
iaaoaeaiiy ? ioi?o?eaoe?y oeaiei, o 9 – ?ic??aaiiy i’yc?a, nooiaeeeue,
noaeiaiaeo noiie, o 7 – a?ae?ea naaiaio?a e?ioe?aie.

Aea/ai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iae?ico ? iae?ioe/iiai no?oio
i?e ii?eao IV nooiaith ??cii? ao?ieia?? o 201 oai?iai.Ia?aaaaea?
eiaaoeyoe?eiee oa?aeoa? iae?ioe/iiai no?oio (o 79,6% oai?eo).
Eiaaoeyoe?y a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e o?eaaeiio eieaeueiiio oa?i?/iiio aieea?,
oiae? ye ii?ee, ye? aeeeeeathoue a?eueo i?inoi?? ii?acee, /ano?oa
i?ecaiaeyoue aei ooai?aiiy ci?oaiiai (o 8% iaoe??io?a) aai ia?aeiii
aieiaiai iae?ico (o 12,4% oai?eo). I?e ci?oaiiio ? aieiaiio iae?ic?
no?oi /anoi eonea?oueny, iaiethth/e oanoe??, nooiaeeeey, i’yce. Eiai
oi?ioaaiiy i?e aeaeo?iii?eao, iniaeeai aenieiaieueoieo, coiiaeaia ia
o?eueee eiaaoeyoe??th aiane?aeie aecioa?i?/ii? ?aaeoe?? a oeaieiao, aea
? ia?aeiiei i?e?io?iiaiooai?aiiyi. Ianooiia i?ia?anoth/a ?oai?y
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?a?iciiae?eo ee?oeiii? ? iicaee?oeiii? ??aeeie c
oi?ioaaiiyi ?ioa?noeoe?eiiai iaa?yeo.

Eieaeueiee iaa?ye aeieeaa aaea /a?ac 3-4 aiaeeie i?ney o?aaie ?,
ye i?aaeei, noi?iaiaeaeoaaa aeaeo?iii?ee ? eiioaeoi? oa?iiiaoai?/i?
ii?ee. Aeey a?noioiiia?ao?? iaa?yeo oa?aeoa?iee noaoanoe?aeueiee oei
?icaeoeo, ui iiaea i?ecaanoe aei i?ia?anoaaiiy eai?ey?inoaco, ? ye
iane?aeie – ii?ooaiiy aeeaeaiiy oeaiei aae aei iae?ico. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui
i?e iiae?aieo iioeiaeaeaiiyo ia?oa oaca caiaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii caaaeaee
caaoaeueiaaia ? cciai? ?aia aeaeyaea? nooith, iaeaea aac aeae?eaiue.
Iaaaciaea iiae?aiiai o?eoeaiiai aeaaiiieo//y a ?aiao iiaeiia aooe
a?aeiia ? ianoi?iaeoaaoe o??o?a?a, a caoiaee, ui aaeeaathoueny, iieyaaoe
a i?iaaaeaii? iae?ioanoe?ioii??.

I?e ii?eao iieoi’yi, eei’yoeii aai o?i?/ieo ii?eao IV nooiaith
ae?aaeai?noue i?noeaaiai iaa?yeo i?yii i?iii?oe?eia ?icaeoeo caiaeaiiy ?
aeyaey?oueny a a?eueo i?ci? oa?i?ie ye ?acoeueoao ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
ciie a?ia?ai?? (iiaiie??a’y). Ii i??? oi?ioaaiiy iae?ioe/iiai no?oio
i?e oee?eoey?ieo ii?aceao iaa?ye i?ia?ano? cae/aeii ia 2-3 aeiao i?ney
o?aaie, ui oaeiae aeiaaa? iaaaeiiai ?icn?/aiiy no?oio.

A?aeiii, ui i?iyaii aeano?oeoe?? oeaiei i?e ii?eao ? neiae?ii
aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??, iaeiae, a ye?e i??? oeae i?ioean caeaoai
a?aeaeaaoe ??aaiue i?iaeoeo?a ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a(IIE) a
e?ia? – ia anoaiiaeaii. Iaie i?iaiae?ciaaia aeeiai?ea IIE a e?ia? o 13
oai?eo i?ney ii?eo ? aeeiiaiiy ?i iae?aeoii??. O oai?eo c aeeaieeie
ii?eaie a?aecia/aii i?aeaeuaiiy e?eueeino? a?ae?iia?aeen?a, ui
a?aeia?aaeo?oueny a iaeiie/oaaii? ye ?o ia?aeiieo, oae ? e?ioeaaeo
i?iaeoeo?a ia oe? cieaeaiiy caaaeueii? aioeieenethaaeueii? aeoeaiino? oa
?? eiiiiiaio?a. I?ney aeeo/aiiy iae?ioe/ieo oeaiei niinoa??aaee
cieaeaiiy ??aiy ooai?aiiy a?ae?iia?aeen?a, iniaeeai e?ioeaaeo ?o
i?iaeoeo?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ciaioaiiy /enea iioeiaeaeaieo ee?oei.
Iaeiae, ia?aaeuaiiy iieaciee?a IIE iaae ii?iaeueieie a ii?aeiaii? c
aeenooieoe??th aioeieenethaaeueieo i?ioean?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue oaeo
iaiiaiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy ?aia?aoeaieo i?ioean?a ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai?.

O 11 oai?eo i?e ii?eao III – IV nooiaith aea/aii noai ee?oeiii?
oa aoii?aeueii? eaiie ?ioi?oaoo a ?aii?e i?neyii?eiaee ia??iae ? i?ney
i?iaaaeaiiy iae?aeoii??. Aeey io?eiaiiy ia’?eoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
aieea ii?eiai? ?aie ia ?ioiio a?aeiia?aeue aeine?aeaeai? aeai?
c?noaaeai? c aiaeia?/ieie iieacieeaie ?ioi?oaoo o 20 caei?iaeo
aeia?iaieueoe?a i?eaeecii a?aeiia?aeieie iaoe??ioai ca a?eii ?
noaooth.

A ?aii?e ia??iae i?ney o?aaie (iaa?oue o oai?eo aac ?icaeoeo
ii?eiai? oai?iae) a?aecia/ai? yaeua ?ioiiaeao?oeeoo ye a nenoai?
eeeoeiii?, oae ? aoii?aeueii? eiai eaiee. Oea iaaii iia’ycaia c oei, ui
a ?aii?e ia??iae e?eoe/iiai cia/aiiy aeinyaathoue aeueoa?aoeai? oa
aenoaeaoeai? i?ioeane. *eiieee aieeao i?iaeoeo?a oeaieiii? aeano?oeoe??
oa caiaeaiiy coiiaeai? ?icaeoeii ?ioaeoe?eieo i?ioean?a ? noathoue
aecia/aeueieie iiae?acieeaie ?ioiii? niaoeeo?/ii? ?aaeoeaiino? ia a?eueo
i?ci?o aoaiao ia?aa?ao ii?eiai? oai?iae. Oaeei /eiii,
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeo ?icaeoeo aino?iai aoi?eiiiai ?ioiiaeao?oeeoo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ney aeeaieiai ii?eo ?iaeaen oaaioeeoa?ii?
aeoeaiino? iaeo?io?e?a aeyaeany iaeaea a 2 ?ace iaio ieaeiuei? iaae?
ii?ie. I?ney o??o?a?/iiai aeaeaeaiiy iae?ioe/ieo ae?eueieoeue aeaiee
iieaciee ia o?eueee ii?iae?coaaany, aea iaa?oue ia?aaeuoaaa iaaeo
iaeneiaeueieo eiai cia/aiue (p

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