?INOEOOO IAAe?AO??? , AEOOA?NOAA OA A?IAEIEIA?? AEAAeAI??

IAAeE*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

TH?*AIEI ??EIA A?EOI??AIA

OAeE : 616-007-053.1-053.31 :
618.33-084

Ee?i?/ia cia/aiiy aoaiii? ae?aaiinoeee i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo o
ae?oae a ioe?ioe? aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a uiaei ?o iiia?aaeaeaiiy

14.01.10 — iaae?ao??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiiecii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

I?ieia ?ai? Iao?iae/, iaoeiaee ea??aiee Aeeoy/iai
e?eoaaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/iiai Oeaio?a ?i. aeaae. A.ss. ?aci?ea, i. Iaeana

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: – aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeaoeaae/ Aaeaioeia ?aaeieei?aia, caa?aeoth/a aeooa?nueeei a?aeae?eaiiyi
aeno?aaai?oaeueii? iaoieia?? ?inoeoooo iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa
a?iaeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie

– aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ooiueei ?eecaaaoa ?aaai?aia, caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith iaiiaoieia??
Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea
IIC Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a, eaoaae?a iaae?ao??? ? 2

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 25 » n?/iy 2000 ?ieo i 1300 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.553.01 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe ca
niaoe?aeueiinoyie “Iaae?ao??y”, “Aeooa?noai ? a?iaeieia?y” i?e ?inoeooo?
iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie (04050, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Iaio?euenueeiai, 8 ).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa ? a?iaeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie (04050, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Iaio?euenueeiai, 8 ).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «01»eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
E.A.Eaaoi?ia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A inoaii? ?iee a?aei?/aii ca?eueoaiiy
ieoiii? aaae i?e?iaeaeaii? iaoieia?? a no?oeoo?? aeeoy/i?
caoai?thaaiino?, ?iaae?aeiino? oa aeeoy/i? nia?oiino?, ye? ? iaeiei c
iniiaieo iieaciee?a noaio caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy (I.I.Eoe’yiiaa, 1996;
A.ss.?aci?e,1996; I.C.Aiaoaeei oa ni?aaao., 1997).

I?e?iaeaeai? aiiiae?? ?icaeoeo iin?aeathoue 2-3 i?noea a
no?oeoo?? ia?eiaoaeueii? oa 2 i?noea a no?oeoo?? aeeoy/i? nia?oiino?
(?.A.Aiaaoe?ueiaa,1996; I.A.Aieaea, 1997). A?aei?/aii iioe?aiiy oe???
iaoieia?? na?aae aini?oaeueiciaaieo ae?oae, a oaeiae na?aae iiia?eeo
(?.I.I?ieia, 1995). Aaaeeeao ?ieue i?e?iaeaeai? aaaee a?athoue o
«o?ii?caoe??» iaoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a (I.I.Eoe’yiiaa oa ni?aaao.,1991)

A?ey 80% iaeaaeeoue i?e?iaeaeai?e iaoieia?? na?aae o??o?a?/ieo
caoai?thaaiue iiaiia?iaeaeaieo (O.E.Iai?eiaa oa ni?aaao. 1995 ).

Naia oiio, aaeeea cia/aiiy iathoue iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye?
ni?yiiaai? ia i?io?eaeoeeo ia?eiaoaeueii? caoai?thaaiino? oa nia?oiino?,
?ic?iaeo caoiae?a, uiaei ia?iaeaeaiiy caei?iai? aeeoeie
(A.I.Iiiiia?aiei,1994 ; TH.?.Aaeueo?u?a, 1995 ).

I?io?eaeoeea i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo iiaea aooe ia?aeiiith ?
aoi?eiiith ? i?iaiaeeoueny ia 3-o ??aiyo iioiaaiaco: i?iaia??iiaeueiiio,
aia??iiaeueiiio, i?aiaoaeueiiio ( A.A.Aieoaoeia oa ni?aaao.,1990 ;
I.A.?iiaae?ia, 1994 ).

Na?aae caoiae?a aoi?eiii? i?io?eaeoeee aaae ?icaeoeo aaeeea
cia/aiiy ia? i?aiaoaeueia ae?aaiinoeea. Iaeoi?aa?naeuei?oei oa aacia/iei
iaoiaeii c on?o iaoiae?a i?aiaoaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee, yeee ciaeoia
iaea?eueoa iioe?aiiy ? oeueo?acaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy ieiaea. Aeai?
aaaaoueio oao?aoe?a
(I.ss.A?a/ai?ia,1992-1995;?.TH.Ai?ae??iei,1992-1994;I.I.Aa?iiioaaeyi,199
2-1994; R.Romero,1994) na?ae/aoue i?i iiaeeea?noue aeyaeaiiy
i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo a ae?oaiio o?eiano?? aaa?oiino? , a a
aeayeeo aeiaaeeao c 10-11 oeaei?a aaa?oiino?.

O ?yae? aeiaaee?a iio??aii aeeiai?/ia oeueo?acaoeiaa ne?aeeoaaiiy ,
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca noaiii i?aai?a ieiaea oa aeiiiaiaiiy aei?iaeiai?
ae?aaiinoeee aaae ?icaeoeo ?ioeie iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aei?iaeiaa
ae?aaiinoeea aea? iiaeeea?noue cae?enithaaoe i?aiaoaeueio
aeeniaina?ecaoe?th oai?eo (?.I.Aaaaaeaeaiyi, 1997) . Ia i?aenoaa?
iaea?aeaieo aoia?ao?/ieo aeaieo ae??oo?oueny oaeoeea aaaeaiiy aaa?oiino?
? iieia?a , aecia/athoueny ieoaiiy ei?aeoe?? oa e?eoaaiiy aeyaeaieo
aaae.

A e?oa?aoo?? ? aaeeea e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e uiaei i?aiaoaeueiiai
aeyaeaiiy i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae o ieiaea, a oaeiae ?iciianthaeaeaiino?
i?e?iaeaeaii? iaoieia?? o ae?oae, yea aea/aia i?e i?iaaaeaii?
iii?oi?eiaa aaae ?icaeoeo. Aea ?nioth/? iaoa??aee i?i ni?anoaaeaiiy
aoia?ao?/ieo ? ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/ieo aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue noinothoueny
ie?aieo i?aai?a oa nenoai ieiaea. Iaaaaaoi/enaeuei? ioae?eaoe?? i?i
iine?aeiai?noue oa aca?iica’ycie ae?e i?ae aeooa?aie, iaiiaoieiaaie,
iaae?ao?aie, o??o?aaie oa ?ioeie oao?aoeyie a ae?aaiinoeoe?
??ciiiai?oieo oi?i aaae ?icaeoeo, ?o iinoiaoaeueii? ei?aeoe?? ? oa?ai??.

Naia oiio aei?aaaeaii aea/aiiy ee?i?/iiai cia/aiiy aoaiii?
aeiiieiaiai? ? i?neyiieiaiai? ae?aaiinoeee aaae ?icaeoeo oa ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a iaaeao iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? i?aoe?
«A?iaeaeaiiua ii?iee ?acaeoey e ianeaaenoaaiiua aieacie o aeaoae:
iiieoi?eia, eiiiuethoa?iue e aaiaoe/aneee aiaeec, i?aiaoaeueiay
aeeaaiinoeea , eiiieaen i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee» (iiia?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? ? 0194 U 019984 ).

Iaoa ?iaioe. I?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ae?aaiinoeee i?e?iaeaeaieo
aaae ?icaeoeo o ae?oae, aeeniaina?ieo ? i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a oeyoii
iaa?oioiaoaaiiy i?eioeeio aoaiiino? oa aecia/aiiy ?ie? e?ea?y-iaae?ao?a
ia eiaeiiio ?c aeae?eaieo aoai?a.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1. Aecia/eoe iniiai? aoaie ae?aaiinoeee i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo
o ae?oae, aeeth/ath/e aioaiaoaeueiee ia??iae.

2. Aea/eoe ia eiaeiiio aoai? /anoioo oa no?oeoo?o i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae
o ae?oae ia i?aenoaa? ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

3. Ii??aiyoe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe /anoioo ? no?oeoo?o i?e?iaeaeaieo
aaae ?icaeoeo ?c aaciaeie aeaieie ?aa?iiaeueiiai iii?oi?eiao.

4. Aea/eoe ao?ieia?/io no?oeoo?o i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo oa
nooi?iue cia/aiiy ie?aieo /eiiee?a uiaei ?o oi?ioaaiiy aeey iae?eo a
eiiieaen? i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a.

5. Ia i?aenoaa? iaea?aeaieo iaoa??ae?a ?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aoaiii? ae?aaiinoeee, aeeniaina?ecaoe?? oa
i?io?eaeoeee i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo o ae?oae, a oaeiae ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa iaa?oioiaaii ee?i?/io ?ieue ? caaaeaiiy
e?ea?y-iaae?ao?a a aoaii?e ae?aaiinoeoe? i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo (
IA? ) o ae?oae. Iieacaii iaiao?aei?noue nenoaiiiai iaaee/iiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?oueie c IA?, ii/eiath/e c aioaiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo.
I?iaaaeaii aacaea??eiaa aea/aiiy aeiaaee?a ia?iaeaeaiiy ae?oae, ye? iaee
aaaee ?icaeoeo. Ia i?aenoaa? aaeeeiai ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai
iaoa??aeo ni?anoaaeai? iieacieee /anoioe aaae ?icaeoeo oa ?o no?oeoo?e
ia aeiiieiaiaiio aoai? ? o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ae?oae. I?iaaaeaii
ii??aiyiiy aaciaeo aeaieo iii?oi?eiaa IA? ?c iaoa??aeaie iioi/iiai
aea/aiiy. ?ic?iaeaii nenoaio aoaiiiai iaaee/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
oai?eie ae?oueie c IA? oa niin?a ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aioaiaoaeueiiai
aeyaeaiiy aaae ?icaeoeo, aeeth/ath/e aaaee ?icaeoeo oeaio?aeueii?
ia?aiai? nenoaie. Aea/ai? ? e?euee?nii ioe?iai? /eiieee ?eceeo noiniaii
oi?ioaaiiy aaae ?icaeoeo aeey i?iaaaeaiiy naeaeoeaiiai oeueo?acaoeiaiai
(OC) ne?ei?iao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a i?aeaeuaii? aoaeoeaiino?
eiiieaenieo caoiae?a uiaei iiia?aaeaeaiiy ia?iaeaeaiiy ae?oae c aaaeaie
?icaeoeo oeyoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie aoaiii? aeiiieiaiai? oa
i?neyiieiaiai? ae?aaiinoeee aaae ?icaeoeo ?c canoinoaaiiyi OC
ae?aaiinoeee. Aoai anoaiiaeaiiy i?aiaoaeueiiai ae?aaiico aeicaiey?
nai?/anii i?iaanoe ee?i?/ia, eaai?aoi?ii-?ino?oiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ae?oae, ii/aoe ei?aeoe?th IA? ia aeiee?i?/iiio aoai?.

Aeei?enoiaoaaiiy e?eoa???a ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?aiaoaeueii?
ae?aaiinoeee IA? a oe?eiio, ?, cie?aia aiiiae?e aieiaiiai iiceo,
aeicaiey? cia/ii ni?inoeoe nenoaio iae?eo oa aiae?co
caaaeueiiiiioeyoe?eieo /anoio aaae o ?aa?ii?, yeee aea/a?oueny.

?acoeueoaoe OC aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?iie, aeei?enoiaoth/e ?aeath
«cai?ioiueiai» ca’yceo, aeicaieythoue iae?/oaaoe a nenoai? iii?oi?eiao
IA? o? i?e?iaeaeai? aaaee, ye? aeyaeai? a i?ioean? i?aiaoaeueii?
ae?aaiinoeee oa ioe?ieoe ?? aoaeoeai?noue ia iniia? aa?eo?eaoe??
ae?aaiico ca aeaieie ee?i?ei-?ino?oiaioaeueieo ianoaaeaiue
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo /e aooiin?e (yeui aaa?oi?noue ae?i?iiaaii). Iniaeeaino?
no?oeoo?e i?e?iaeaeaieo aiiiae?e o ieiaea iaa?oioiaothoue i?aeaeuaiiy
oaaae aei aeyaeaiiy aaae iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo, ? oaeiae
na?oeaai-noaeeiii? nenoaie ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo eieuei?iai?
aeiiea?aoiea?ae?ia?ao??. Aeeniaina?ia niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ieiaeaie c
aeyaeaiith o?iaai?oaeueiith iaoieia??th aeicaiey? ii/eiaoe ianoaaeaiiy
ua a ?aiiueiio iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue ooi/ieoe
ae?aaiic oa i?iaanoe ?aiith o?ieia?/io ei?aeoe?th ia aeiee?i?/iiio
aoai?. Aeei?enoiaoaaiiy ioe?iee cia/aiiy oaeoi??a ?eceeo aeicaiey?
oi?ioaaoe a ?aii? no?iee aaa?oiino? eiioeiaaio ae?iie, ye? iaeaaeaoue
oe?eani?yiiaaiiio ianoaaeaiith ? niinoa?aaeaiith aeey aeyaeaiiy aaae
?icaeoeo a ?aa?iiao, aea ia i?iaiaeeoueny OC ne?ei?ia (n?euenueea
i?noeaa?noue ).

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iniiai? i?aeoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ye?
noinothoueny ae?aaiinoeee, aeeniaina?iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy,
?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a, aeaiaeiaoaaiiy oa i?io?eaeoeee aaae ?icaeoeo
a?aeia?aaeai? o 6-oe ?ioi?iaoe?eieo eenoao Iaeanueeiai oeaio?a
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa aeiiii?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??: “Eiiieaen iaaeeoeeineeo
i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieia
?acaeoey o aeaoae” (Iaeanna, 1997), “Iaoiaeeea iioi/ii? ?a?no?aoe??
o?iaeaeaieo aaae o ae?oae a nenoai? aaiaoe/iiai iii?oi?eiao” (Iaeana,
1997), “Niaaeei?ii?noue aoaiiiai iaaee/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?oueie c
i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo oa niaaeeiaeie oai?iaaie” (Iaeana,
1997), “I?eioeeiu anoanoaaiiiai anea?ieeaaiey aeaoae ia?aiai aiaea
aeecie” (Iaeanna, 1998), “Nia?aiaiiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii anoanoaaiiiio
anea?ieeaaieth aeaoae ia?aiai aiaea aeecie” (Iaeanna, 1998), “Ianniaue
oeueo?acaoeiaie ne?eieia – iaeia ec nia?aiaiiuo oi?i aeeniaina?ecaoeee
aeaoneiai ianaeaiey” (Iaeanna, 1998).

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? a ?iaioo
Iaeanueei? aeeoy/i? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i?, i?aeiaeaniiai
iaaeeei-aaiaoe/iiai oeaio?o i. Iaeane, i?nueeiai Aeeoy/iai
e?eoaaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/iiai Oeaio?o ?i. aeaae ?aci?ea, aeeoy/i?
iie?ee?i?ee ? 6 i. Iaeane. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? a
iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean eaoaae?e oieoaeueii? iaae?ao??? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a
ia??iae iaa/aiiy aaoi?ee a i/i?e ani??aioo??. C?iaeea
iaoaioii-?ioi?iaoe?eiee iiooe, aiae?c iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e c
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Iniaenoi i?iaiae?coaaea iia?aeiieaiiy i?i
ia?iaeaeaiiy aeeoeie c i?e?iaeaeaiith aaaeith ?icaeoeo oa o?iiiniiiith
iaoieia??th. A a?o?a? aeeoy/i? iaeanii? ia’?aeiaii? i?icaeoo?e
cae?enithaaea ca?? oa aiae?c iaoa??ae?a aooiin?e. Iniaenoi aea/eea
cae?i/aiiy aaa?oiinoae ae?iie, o yeeo i?ae /an aoia?ao?/iiai
ianoaaeaiiy aoa aeyaeaiee ie?ae c aaaeith ?icaeoeo.

?ic?iaeea noaio aeeniaina?iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?oueie c
i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie. I?iaiaeeea i?aea?? oaiaoe/ieo oai?eo,
caaacia/oaaea ?o anaa?/ia ianoaaeaiiy. Aeeiiaea ee?i?/i?, aiaiianoe/i?,
aaiaaeia?/i?, niiaoiaaiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c neiae?iiieia?/iei
aiae?cii i?iaaiae?a oa ?o n?iae. Naiino?eii i?iaiaeeea noaoenoe/io
ia?iaeo iaea?aeaieo aeaieo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? oa iaaiai?ai? ia I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aiaea e caei?iauea» (Iaeana, 1998,
1999), ia 1 Eiia?an? oao?aoe?a ii oeueo?acaoeiaue ae?aaiinoeoe? «Ie?ae-
ye iaoe??io» (Oa?e?a, 1997),ia ia?oiio Oe?a?inueeiio Eiia?an? oao?aoe?a
c oeueo?acaoeiai? ae?aaiinoeee (Ee?a,1999), ia 6 Iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
Anioe?aoe?? na?oeaai-noaeeiieo o??o?a?a Oe?a?ie ca o/anoth Anioe?aoe??
iaae?ao??a Oe?a?ie «Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy aeiiiiiae ae?oyi ?aiiueiai a?eo c
a?iaeaeaiith na?oeaai-noaeeiiith iaoieia??th» (Ee?a, 1998), ia
Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaaeeei-nioe?aeuei? aniaeoe noaio
caei?ia’y ae?oae ? i?aee?oe?a» (Oa?e?a, 1998), ia caeeth/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (naeoe?y
iieiaeeo a/aieo) (Iaeana, 1996-1997), ia can?aeaiiyo Iaeanueeiai
iaeaniiai iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa aeeoy/eo e?ea??a (Iaeana, 1997), ia
naeoe?? aeeoy/eo ea?ae?i?aaiaoieia?a (Iaeana, 1998), ia ee?i?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo eaoaae?e iaae?ao??? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (Iaeana, 1996-1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 ?ia?o, c ieo : 5
— noaoae, 3 – o ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 4 – a oacao eiioa?aioe?e ?
nai?ia??a, 1 – o iin?aieeo aeey e?ea??a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iieno iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, 4-o ?icae?e?a aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a, aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa
aeeiiaia ia 178 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, ?ethno?iaaia 40
oaaeeoeyie, 7 ?enoieaie, 9 oioiea?oeaie, 3 aeiaeaoeaie. Oaenoiao /anoeio
aeeeaaeaii ia 132 noi??ieao. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 237
aeaea?ae, ye? caeiathoue 30 noi??iie.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa aoea i?iaaaeaia o o?ueio
iniiaieo iai?yieao:

1)Ee?i?/ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aea/aiiy
?iciianthaeaeaiino? ? no?oeoo?e IA? o ae?oae, iaoeaioe?a
i?iieneiai?icaeiaiiai oeaio?o ? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?, i?iaiaeeeenue
iaie iaoiaeii iaia’yceiai? iioi/ii? ?a?no?aoe?? aeyaeaieo aaae o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo a iieiaiaeo aoaeeieao i. Iaeane, a?aooaaiiyi aaae a
aeeoy/?e ia’?aeiai?e i?icaeoo??, oa a 14-oe ?aeiiao Iaeanueei? iaeano?.
Cia/aiiy iieaciee?a ie?aieo aaae ?icaeoeo aoee iaea?aeai? i?e aiae?c?
iia?aeiieaiue o i?aeiaeaniiio iaaeeei-aaiaoe/iiio oeaio?? (ca 1993-1995
?.?.) ia iaoa??ae? 53568 ia?iaeaeaiue. Io?eiai? aeai? c?noaaeai? c
iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiue ieioeeo ?ie?a (1979-1991?.?.). Caaaeueia
/enaeuei?noue ae?oae, ye? aoee ioiieai? iii?oi?eiaii IA?, neeaea 150825
ae?oae. E??i caaaeueii? /anoioe, ?? aeeiai?ee ? aeeiai?ee an?o oi?i IA?,
aiae?coaaeeny “iiaeaeuei?» oi?ie, a naia: aiaioeaoae?y (AA),
nieiiiiceiaa eeea (NIE), ?icu?eeia aoae ? /aai i?aeiaa?iiy (?AI),
ao?ac?y no?aaioiaea ?/aai o?aoaino?aaioiaeiee naeu (AN ?/aai ON),
a?aenooi?noue e?ioe?aee aai ?? /anoeie (?A), iie?aeaeo?e?y (IAe),
a?iiniaae?y (A?I), ao?ac?y aiona ?/aai i?yii? eeoee (AA), oai?iaa
Aeaoia, iiiaeeii? IA? (IIA?).

Aiae?c naeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a noinoaaany 1042 aooiin?e ca ia??iae
1993-1994 ?.?. a c?noaaeaii? ?c iaoa??aeaie ieioeeo ?ie?a (1974-1990
?.?.). Anueiai aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii 9060 aooiin?e.

2)Aeey aea/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? aoia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
c’ynoaaiiy ee?i?/iiai cia/aiiy aoaiiino? aeiiieiaiai? ? i?neyiieiaiai?
ae?aaiinoeee oa i?aiaoaeueii? aeeniaina?ecaoe?? ae?oae c aaaeaie
?icaeoeo, aoei i?iaaaeaii ianoaaeaiiy 5720 aaa?oieo ae?iie a oa?i?i?
aaa?oiino? aei 22-24 oeaei?a ii i?ia?ai? ianiaiai OC ne?ei?iaa. A?e
ae?iie a?ae 17 aei 46 ?ie?a. OC aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny a
i?aeiaeaniiio iaaeeei-aaiaoe/iiio oeaio?? ca aeiiiiiaith aia?aoo » ALOKA
— SSD 630″, ui i?aoethaaa o ?aaeueiiio ianooaa? /ano c aeei?enoaiiyi
o?ainaaaeii?iaeueiiai e?i?eiiai, naeoi?iiai, eiiaaeniiai aeao/ee?a
(/anoioa 3,5 ? 5 Iaoe). A iane?aeie i?iaaaeaieo ianoaaeaiue aoea
aeae?eaia a?oia aaa?oieo ae?iie (66 ae?iee) c iaoieia??th ieiaea, yea
iaaeae? aoea i?ae iaoei niinoa?aaeaiiyi c iaoith i?inoaaeaiiy
aaa?oiinoae, ca?aeii c ?ic?iaeaiith iaie noaiith aeeniaina?iiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ieiaeii c IA?. Aeyaeaia iaoieia?y aa??o?eoaaeany c
o?aooaaiiyi aeaieo iaoa??ae?a iieiaiaeo aoaeeie?a ? aeeoy/eo iie?ee?i?e,
a oaeiae ?acoeueoao?a aooiin?e ia’?aeiaii? aeeoy/i? i?icaeoo?e.
Aoaeoeai?noue aeyaeaiiy i?e?iaeaeaii? iaoieia?? ia ??cieo aoaiao
ae?aaiinoeee aea/aeany i?e aiae?c? /anoioe ? no?oeoo?e IA? a 1662
aeiaaeeao aini?oae?caoe?? ae?oae a iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? ? a 3363
aeiaaeeao aini?oae?caoe?? ae?oae a?eii a?ae 1 aei 12 i?nyoe?a.
I?aiaoaeueio aeeniaina?io a?oio neeaee 32 aeeoeie c IA?.

3)A oiiaao ??ciiiai?oieo a?aeae?eaiue iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? aeeoy/i?
e?ea?i? ? iaaeeei-aaiaoe/iiai oeaio?o aoei i?iaaaeaii iiaeeaeaia
ianoaaeaiiy ae?oae c ??ciiiai?oieie oi?iaie IA?. Anueiai aoei
i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoa??aee ianoaaeaiiy 928 ae?oae. Iicieia?/iee ae?aaiic
IA? noaaeany ia i?aenoaa? ?aoaeueiiai aiae?co noeoiiino?
ee?i?ei-aaiaaeia?/ieo, aiaiianoe/ieo, oeeoiaaiaoe/ieo,
?ino?oiaioaeueii-aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo, oeueo?acaoeiaeo, aiaeineii?/ieo,
?aae?i-ioee?aeieo, ?aioaaiieia?/ieo iaoiae?a.

C iaoith aeeoa?aioe?aeueii? ae?aaiinoeee i?ae aiceiiiao?yie, ui
oaiioei?/ii iaaaaeothoue ?yae neiae?ii?a iiiaeeiieo aaae ?icaeoeo, a
oaeiae aeey ooi/iaiiy ae?aaiico aeayeeo niaaeeiaeo caoai?thaaiue, aoee
aeei?enoai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ioiieia?/iiai, ? a?io?i?/iiai oa
iieaeoey?ii-aaiaoe/iiai caniao aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeii iie?ia?acii?
eaioethaiai? ?aaeoe??. Aiae?c an??? ee?i?/ii? neiioiiaoeee o ae?oae aoa
i?iaaaeai ca aeiiiiiaith ae?aaiinoe/iiai aeai?eoio ( A.ss.?aci?e ?
ni?aaao.,1994 ).

C iaoith aea/aiiy ?ie? /eiiee?a ?eceeo c oi?ioaaiiy IA? o ae?oae
aoei i?iaaaeaii ee?i?ei-aiaiianoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy 928 aacaea??eiaeo
aeiaaee?a ia?iaeaeaiiy ae?oae c IA? (1 iniiaia a?oia) ? 760 aeiaaee?a
ia?iaeaeaiiy ae?oae aac IA? (2 eiio?ieueia a?oia).

A??ia?aei?noue a?aei?i aecia/aee ca e?eoa???i No’thaeaioa, iaoiaeii o2.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy. Ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy IA? o ae?oae a iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iieacaei, ui
caaaeueii?aa?iiaeueiee iieaciee /anoioe aaae ?icaeoeo neeaa 21,38 ( aai
1 aeiaaeie ia 46,8 ia?iaeaeaiue. I?e oeueiio /anoioa iiiaeeiieo IA?
(IIA?) neeaea 2,91( aai 1 aeiaaeie ia 343,3.

?ic?aoiaaiee iieaciee caaaeueii? /anoioe IA? ia ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/iiai
iieacieea a ?yae? ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i ( 25 : 1000 — 55 : 1000 )
(Arima M., 1988; Kurjak A. e.a., 1989; Czeizel A.,1989). Iaeiae,
a?aecia/aia eiai c?inoaiiy ii??aiyii c aeaieie aaciaiai iii?oi?eiao IA?
ieioeeo ?ie?a (15,70 : 1000 ia?iaeaeaiue ), ui iiaea aooe iiyniaii
a?eueo iiaiith ?a?no?aoe??th aiiiae?e ?icaeoeo o ae?oae.

A caaaeueii?aa?iiaeuei?e no?oeoo?? IA? i?ia?aeieie ca /anoioith
na?aae ?cieueiaaieo ? nenoaiieo (??N) aaae c’yaeeeny aiiiae?? neaeaoii?
nenoaie, na?oeaai-noaeeiii? ? na/iaeae?eueii? nenoaie (6,96 :1000 ;
3,56:1000 ; 2,93:1000 ).

I?e aea/aii? /anoioe ? no?oeoo?e IA? o ae?oae a oiiaao i?iieneiai
?icaeiaiiai i?noa a?aecia/ai? eieeaaiiy caaaeueii? /anoioe aaae a ie?ai?
?iee a?ae 8,3:1000 aei 23,2:1000. I?e oeueiio ca inoaii? 3 ?iee
niinoa??aa?oueny a?aeiinia noaa?e?caoe?y iieacieea caaaeueii? /anoioe ia
??ai? 20,54 ( aai 1 aeiaaeie ia 48,68 ia?iaeaeaiue.

Ii??aiyiiy no?oeoo?e IA? c iaoa??aeaie ieioeeo ?ie?a aeyaeei a??ia?aeia
ciaioaiiy aeiaaee?a aiiiae?e OeIN ( a?ae 12,6% aei 6,8%) ?
oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo ( OEO )( a?ae 14,6% aei 4,4%).

Na?aae ae?oae n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? caaaeueia /anoioa aaae neeaea
22,07 ( aai 1 aeiaaeie ia 45,3 ia?iaeaeaiue. I?e ?? ii??aiyii? c
iieacieeii /anoioe IA? na?aae ae?oae i?iieneiaiai oeaio?o a??ia?aeieo
a?aeciae ia a?aecia/aii ( ? (0,1). A c?noaaeaiiy iaoa??ae?a iioi/ii?
?a?no?aoe?? c aeaieie ieioeeo ?ie?a aeyaeei a??ia?aeia ca?eueoaiiy
caaaeueii? /anoioe aaae ?icaeoeo a inoaii? ?iee: a?aeiia?aeii 14,5% ?
22,07% ( ? (0,001). A oe?eiio ii ?aa?iio caaaeueia /anoioa ? /anoioa
«iiaeaeueieo» aaae (AA — 0,18(, NIE — 0,47(, IAe — 0,69(, A?I — 1,10( )
a?aeiia?aeathoue aeaiei, ye? iaaiaeyoueny a e?oa?aoo?? (Myrianthopoulus
N.C.,e.a.,1987; Stoll C.,e.a.,1988; Calzolari E.e.a.,1990;
Iaaecueaaaeue I.E.,1991 ). Ieae/a ieo aeyaeeeny /anoioe aiiiae?e: ?AI —
0,73(, ?A — 0,13(, AA — 0,07(, IIA? — 2,91(. Aeae?eueea aeua aeyaeany
iieaciee ?iciianthaeaeaiino? AN ? aai ON — 0,17(. Iaeaea /aoaa?oo
/anoeio a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? IIA? caeia? oai?iaa Aeaoia (a?ey 24%)
aai 1 aeiaaeie ia 1488 ia?iaeaeaiue, ui iaaeeaea?oueny aei aeaieo ?ioeo
aaoi??a (Baird P.A. e.a.,1988; Bell L. e.a.,1989; Eacthe A.?. 1991).
Ii??aiyiiy iaoa??ae?a iioi/ii? ?a?no?aoe?? c aaciaeie aeaieie
iii?oi?eiao IA? aeyaeei i?aeaeuaiiy ieoiii? aaae AA ( 0,30( i?ioe 0,07(,
? (0,05 ). Oei ia iaioa, na?aae ae?oae i?iieneiaiai i?noa /anoioa AA
ieae/a e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ( 0,33 — 0,38:1000 ) ? ?a?no?o?oueny aieiaiei
/eiii na?aae ae?i?iiaaieo ieiae?a. Aei iieacieea /anoioe IA? (
21,38:1000 ) a iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iaaeeaea?oueny iieaciee
caaaeueii? /anoioe aaae ?icaeoeo o ieiaea, yeee ca aeaieie
i?aiaoaeueiiai OC aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaa a na?aaeiueiio 18,0:1000 ?
?icoaoiaaiee a iaaeao eieeaaiue, icia/aieo ?ioeie aaoi?aie — 9,75:1000 —
25:1000 (A?a/ai?ia I.ss., 1992; Eoe’yiiaa I.I. oa ni?aaao., 1992;
Aiaaoe?ueiaa ?.A.,1995; Aeoae/aiei I.I.oa ni?aaao.,1995). Aeniea
ae?aaiinoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaoiaeo OC ae?aaiinoeee iieacaia i?e aeyaeaii?
iao?io??ia?ieo aiiiae?e (42,7%), aaae OeIN (24,3%), IIA? (11,7%). I?e
oeueiio iieacieee /anoio aaae OeIN ? ANN aeua a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?
(a?aeiia?aeii 4,37( ? 1,39 (; 7,69( ? 3,20(), a iieacieee /anoio
aiiiae?e NNN ? I?A a iinoiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? aeu?, i?ae a
i?aiaoaeueiiio (a?aeiia?aeii 4,50( ? 0,87( oa 5,08( ? 0,87() (?en.).

Ia aeyaeaii a?aei?iiinoae i?ae iieacieeaie /anoioe IA? OEO a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ? iinoiaoaeueiiio ia??iaeao ( a?aeiia?aeii 1,39(), ui
oaeiae iiaeeeai iiynith?oueny a/aniith ae?i?iaoe??th ieiae?a c oe??th
iaoieia??th. Aeiiieiaiaa aeyaeaiiy aaae OEO ia? iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue,
ine?eueee a?eueo?noue aiiiae?e a?aeiineoueny aei oeo, ye? ei?aaothoueny,
ui aeicaiey? ?aii aecia/eoeny o a?aeiioaii? oaeoeee aaaeaiiy aaa?oiino?,
i?iaanoe aaeaeaaoi? caoiaee i?e iieiaao, iaaeaoe ?aiith o??o?a?/io
aeiiiiiao a iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?.

A?aei?/aia ia?aaaaeaiiy iinoiaoaeueii? /anoioe aaae neaeaoii?
nenoaie ca’ycaii c ?a?no?aoe??th eieaeueieo ioeueoeoaeoi??aeueieo
aiiiae?e, ui ia ? oaiaoiaaieie, aea ui caeiathoue i?ia?aeia i?noea
na?aae ?ioeo nenoai, ye? aoiaeyoue a eiiieaen IIA?. C oeei iaaii
ca’ycaia a?eueo iecueea ieoiia aaaa iiiaeeiieo aiiiae?e a
aioaiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? ( 2,09( i?ioe 3,20(). Caaaeueiiiiioeyoe?eia
/anoioa IA? na/iaeae?eueii? nenoaie o ae?oae a?eueo, i?ae a 2 ?ace
ieae/a, i?ae i?e i?aiaoaeueiiio aeyaeaii? (3,20( ? 7,69( ).

I?iaiae?ciaaii eieeaaiiy iiioeyoe?eii? /anoioe AA i?ioyaii 20 ?ie?a.
Ine?eueee a 70-o? ? ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a i?aiaoaeueia ae?aaiinoeea ia
i?iaiaeeeany, oi an? aeiaaeee aaae aoee ae?aaiinoiaai? i?e ia?iaeaeaii?
( 0,22 : 1000 ). A inoaii? ?iee (1993-1994 ) an? AA a i. Iaean? aoee
aeyaeai? a aioaiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?, oi/a iieaciee /anoioe AA neeaa 0,7
:1000 ca aeaieie naeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a, ui a 2 ?ace ia?aaeuo?
iiioeyoe?eiee ??aaiue (Iaaecueaaaeue I.E.,1991,Stoll.C.e.a., 1988) ?
iiaeeeai ? iane?aeeii aeieia?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy na?aaeiaeua. Oaeei
/eiii, cieaeaiiy /anoioe AA iiaea aooe e?eoa???i ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a uiaei iiia?aaeaeaiiy ia?iaeaeaiiy ae?oae c
aaaeaie ?icaeoeo.

C iaoith aea/aiiy ? ioe?iee /eiiee?a ?eceeo uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
i?e?iaeaeaieo aiiiae?e o ae?oae i?iaaaeaii ee?i?/ia ianoaaeaiiy 928
aeiaaee?a IA? o ae?oae (1 a?oia) ? 760 aeiaaee?a ia?iaeaeaiiy ae?oae aac
IA? (2 a?oia).A?eueo 3/4 a?ae anueiai eiioeiaaioo ae?oae 1 a?oie neeaee
ae?oe ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy. ? ? N aaaee ?icaeoeo neeaee 55,8%, na?aae
yeeo iaea?eueo /enaeueiith ? a?oia aaae NNN ( 28,0%) ? na/iaeae?eueii?
nenoaie (22,0%). Aiiiae?? I?A caeiyee 16,8%, aaaee OEO -15%. Na?aae
iiiaeeiieo aaae (44,2%) aeiey neiae?ii?a o?iiiniiii? ao?ieia?? — 34,6%,
na?aae yeeo aeii?ioth/a iieiaeaiiy caeia? oai?iaa Aeaoia (54,2%), iio?i
neiae?iie Aaeaa?aena ? Iaoao (ii 10,6%), Oa?aoaanueeiai-Oa?ia?a
(9,9%).Iiiiaaii? neiae?iie neeaee 33% an?o aeiaaee?a IIA? iao?iiiniiii?
ao?ieia??, i?e oeueiio /anoea neiae?ii?a c aooiniiii-aeii?iaioiei ?
aooiniiii-?aoeaneaiei oeiii oniaaeeoaaiiy i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaa
(a?aeiia?aeii 37% ? 40%). Ianiaaeeia? neiae?iie neeaee 8,8%, a ieoiia
aaaa iaeeaneo?eiaaieo eiiieaen?a — 24% , ui iaaeeaea?oueny aei aeaieo
Eacthea A.?.? ni?aaao.(1983).

Aiae?c cia/ouino? /eiiee?a ?eceeo iieacaa ianooiia. Na?aaei?e a?e
iaoa??a, ui ia?iaeeee ae?oae c IA? aoa aeaui aeuee, i?ae a?e iaoa??a a
eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? ( a?aeiia?aeii 26,8 ( 0,31 i?ioe 25,5 ( 0,24, ?
(0,01). I?eaeecii ??aia e?euee?noue iaoa??a aoea a 1 ? 2 a?oiao o a?oe?
aei 20 ?ie?a, ? iaeaea a 2 ?ace aoei a?eueoa iaoa??a a 1 a?oi? o a?oe?
noa?oeo 35 ?ie?a ( a?aeiia?aeii 12,8% i?ioe 5,4%, ?(0,001). Iaea?eueoa
cia/aiiy iaa a?e iaoa?? i?e oai?ia? Aeaoia ? a na?aaeiueiio neeaa 26,8 (
0,73.

A iniiai?e a?oi? /ano?oa iaee i?noea i?ioan?eii-ae?iaie/?
oe?aeeeaino? ( a?aeiia?aeii 12,7% i?ioe 6,8%, ? (0,05). Oaeiae a
iniiai?e a?oi? aeua /anoioa ia?a?no?iaaieo ? e??aii?iaeeiieo oetha?a (
9,3% i?ioe 4,9% i?e ? (0,05 ? 0,76% i?ioe 0,09% i?e ? (0,001). Oaeiae
a?eueo /anoa aeno?aaai?oaeueia iaoieia?y na?aae ae?iie iniiaii? a?oie
(29,1% i?ioe 28,6% i?e ?(0,1), aea a??ia?aeii a?eueoa aiaeie?eiiiao?e,
o?ii?/ieo caiaeueieo caoai?thaaiue na/iai? nenoaie, a?iaeieia?/ieo
ii?ooaiue (28,0% i?ioe 26,8% i?e ?(0,05).

A?ey 40% ae?iie 1 a?oie iaee ooo/ia ia?a?eaaiiy aaa?oiino? a
aiaiiac? ? caaaeueia /anoioa ieiia?eueieo aai?o?a o ae?iie iniiaii?
a?oie o 1,5 ?ace a?eueoa. Cia/ii /ano?oa a aiaiiac? ae?iie iniiaii?
a?oie ? aeac?aee ia ia?iaeaeaiiy ae?oae c i?e?iaeaeaiith iaoieia??th
?ai?oa aai aeiaaeee aeeoy/i? nia?oiino?, ia?oaiia?iaeaeaiiy (1,7% ? 5,9%
i?ioe 0,26% ? 0,66%, ? ( 0,05 ? ? ( 0,001). I?e aaa?oiinoyo ieiaeaie c
IA? a 2 ?ace /ano?oa niinoa??aaany oieneeic 1 iieiaeie (33,4% i?ioe 16%,
?(0,05). Caa?ica ia?a?eaaiiy aaa?oiino? niinoa??aaeany o 21% ae?iie
iniiaii? a?oie i?ioe 17,1 % ae?iie eiio?ieueii? a?oie. *anoioa
?ioaeoe?eieo caoai?thaaiue a 1 iieiaei? aaa?oiino? a 3 ?ece /ano?oa a 1
a?oi? ae?iie (15,6 % ? 5,7 %, ?<0,01). A?eueo i?ae a 3 ?ace /ano?oa a 1 a?oi? a?aecia/aeeny ia?aae/ani? iieiae. I?e i?iaaaeaii? iaoieiai-aiaoii?/iiai aiae?co /anoioe ? no?oeoo?e IA? o ae?oae anoaiiaeaii, ui caaaeueia /anoioa IA? na?aae iiia?eeo ae?oae ca ia??iae 1993-1994 ??. neeaea 24,57 %. Oeae iieaciee ? noaa?eueiei o ii??aiyii? c aeaieie ieioeeo ?ie?a (1974-1985 ??.), aea ia?aaeuo? caaaeueiiiiioeyoe?eio /anoioo IA? o ae?oae (20,54 ‰). A no?oeoo?? ? ? N IA? i?ia?aeieie ca /anoioith ? aaaee NNN, OeIN, OEO, ia /anoeo yeeo iio??aii a?eueo 3/4 an?o aeiaaee?a ? ? N IA?. A inoaii? ?iee ia?oa i?noea iin?aeathoue aiiiae?? na?oey ? noaeei, ye? neeaee 32,9 %, a c 1 i?noey a 70-o? ?iee ia 2 i?noea a inoaii? ?iee ia?aeoee IA? OeIN c iieacieeii 26,8 %. Na?aae caaaeueiiai /enea IIA? a?eueo 1/3 aeiaaee?a caeia? o?iiiniiia iaoieia?y, aea aaaeo/a – oai?iaa Aeaoia (a?eueo 90 %). Ae?oe ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy na?aae iiia?eeo ae?oae neeaee 93,1 %, a o 85,3 % aeiaaee?a IA? ? iniiaiei caoai?thaaiiyi a iaoieiai-aiaoii?/iiio ae?aaiic?. Iaea?eueoa nia?oi?noue aeyaeaia a ia?o? 3 i?nyoe? aeeooy (74 %). Aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?aiaoaeueii? OC ae?aaiinoeee i?iaiae?ciaaii iane?aeee 66-oe aaa?oiinoae (64,1 %) ieiaeaie c aeyaeaieie IA?. A 40 aeiaaeeao (60,6 %) aaa?oiino? aoee ia?a?aai? ca iaaee/ieie iieacaiiyie a oa?i?iao aei 24-25 oeaei?a. A 24-o aeiaaeeao (36,4 %) a?aecia/aii ia?iaeaeaiiy ae?oae (16,7 % - ia?aae/ani? iieiae, 83,3 % - oa?i?iia? iieiae). 3 % caeiyee ieiia?euei? aeeeaei? a i?ci?o oa?i?iao aaa?oiino?. I?aiaoaeueii iinoaaeaiee ae?aaiic aaaee i?e i?iaaaeaii? ianiaiai OC ne?ei?iao aaa?oieo ae?iie aoa i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee o 87, 9 % aeiaaee?a. Ca aeaieie Eoe’yiiai? I.I. oa ni?a. (1992 ?.) iiaiee aai /anoeiaee ca?a ?acoeueoao?a i?aiaoaeueii? OC ae?aaiinoeee ? iinoiaoaeueiiai ianoaaeaiiy a?aecia/a?oueny a 91 % aeiaaee?a. Aeeiai?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy ae?oae c IA? iiaeiii ii/eiaoeny c aioaiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo ? i?iaeiaaeoaaoeny a iaiiaoaeueiiio ? iinoiaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iaeao, ui aeicaieeoue aeeoa?aioe?eiee ?iciiae?e iiaiia?iaeaeaieo aei a?oi caei?ia’y ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/io oaeoeeo ia iinoiaoaeueiiio aoai?. Iaie cai?iiiiiaaii aeai?eoi iaaee/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?oueie c IA?. Ia ia?oiio aoai? aoei aeae?eaii 4 aeeniaina?i? a?oie: iiaiia?iaeaeai? – 1) yeei iio??aii i?iaaaeaiiy ?aai?iaoe?eieo caoiae?a i?e iaa?aeeeaaeiiio noai?; 2) yeei iio??aii ooi/ithaaiiy ae?aaiico ? oa?ai?th a i?aaeiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?; 3) yeei iaiao?aeii iae?aoeaio ei?aeoe?th aaaee; 4) yeei iio??aii aeeiai?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeiia?aeia e?eoaaiiy. Ia 2 aoai? (iaiiaoaeueiiio) aeey aeyaeaiiy IA? i?iaiaeeany ianiaee OC ne?ei?ia an?o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ? aeiaeaoeiaa ianoaaeaiiy iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ?c aeeniaina?ii? a?oie aeey ooi/ithaaiiy aioaiaoaeueiiai ae?aaiico. Ia 3 aoai? (iinoiaiiaoaeueiiio) ae?aaiinoeea aaae ?icaeoeo cae?enithaaeany oeyoii ianiaiai OC ne?ei?iaa ae?oae ia?oeo i?nyoe?a aeeooy, naeaeoeaiiai OC ne?ei?iaa ae?oae ?c a?oi ?eceeo. Ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie iaaee/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?oueie i?iaiae?ciaaii /anoioo ? no?oeoo?o IA? o ae?oae 1-ai ?ieo aeeooy oa aoaeoeai?noue aeyaeaiiy i?e?iaeaeaii? iaoieia?? ia ??cieo aoaiao. *anoioa aaae a iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? cia/ii aeua caaaeueiiiiioeyoe?eii?: 12,15% i?ioe 1,9%, ui na?ae/eoue i?i aaaeeeao ?ieue IA? a caoai?thaaiino? ae?oae iaiiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo. sse iniiaiee iaoieia?/iee i?ioean aeii?iothoue IIA? (4,93%), aaaee NNN (1,8%), OEO(1,74%). Na?aae ae?oae a?eii a?ae 1 aei 12 i?nyoe?a /anoioa IA? neeaea 7,99 %. A no?oeoo?? aaae /anoioa aiiiae?e OeIN, OEO, IIA? a??ia?aeii cieaeo?oueny, c?inoa? e?euee?noue ANN, ui iaoiiaeaii iiaeeaeaiei ae?aaiinoe/iei ianoaaeaiiyi ae?oae a?ae 1 aei 12 i?nyoe?a, na?ae/eoue i?i aeineoue oe?ieo ?o iioe?ai?noue na?aae ae?oae ?aiiueiai a?eo. Iaeaea 50 % ae?oae ia aeiee?i?/iiio aoai? ia?aa?ao oai?iae na/iaeae?eueii? nenoaie ia iaee aoaeue-yeeo neiioii?a, a 1/3 iaee iacia/i? ci?ie aiae?co na/?. Na?aae ae?oae, ye? neeaee i?aiaoaeueio aeeniaina?io a?oio, o 12 ae?oae aaaee ?icaeoeo aoee aeyaeai? a aioaiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? a oa?i?i? aaa?oiino? aei 24 oeaei?a. A 20-oe aeiaaeeao ae?aaiinooaaiiy IA? a?aei?/aeiny a a?eueo i?ci? no?iee (25-35 oeaei?a) aai i?e iiaoi?iiio neaioaaii?. Aeii?ioth/eie ca /anoioith aeyaeeeny aaaee na/iaeae?eueii? nenoaie, OeIN, OEO, NNN, ui ?noioii ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae no?oeoo?e IA? o ieiaea. Na?aae iiaiia?iaeaeaieo, ye? neeaee aeeniaina?io a?oio c ANN ianoaaeaiiy a ia?o? oeaei? aeeooy iaoiaeii OC aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?ie ? na/iaea?aeieo oeyo?a ?aeaioeo?eoaaei ae?aaiic o 6-oe ?c 9-oe ae?oae, aeicaieeei i?iaanoe nai?/anio o?ieia?/io ei?aeoe?th ? iiia?aaeeoe ?icaeoie oneeaaeiaiue. Ae?oyi c iaoieia??th OEO, yea ei?eao?oueny, ooi/ithaaiiy ae?aaiico aeicaieeei cae?enieoe eiiieaenio aeiiia?aoe?eio i?aeaioiaeo oa o??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy a ia?oo aeiao i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy, iiia?aaeeoe ?icaeoie ani??aoe?eieo iiaaiii?e, ia?eoii?oo, ?ic?iaeoe i?neyiia?aoe?eio e?eoaaeueii-icaei?ia/o oaeoeeo. Canoinoaaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaiia?iaeaeaiei c i?aiaoaeueii? aeeniaina?ii? a?oie ni?eyei aeai?o iioeiaeueii? oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy ae?oyi c aaaeaie NNN, ui noaa?e?coaaei iieacieee ea?ae?iaaiiaeeiai?ee ? aeicaieeei nai?/aniee ia?ao?ae ae?oae aei niaoe?ae?ciaaieo caeeaae?a. Ioaea, nenoaia iaaee/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?oueie c IA? iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia i?eioeei? aoaiiino?, yeee aeicaiey? nai?/aniee ia?ao?ae a?ae aioaiaoaeueii anoaiiaeaiiai ae?aaiico aei aoaio ee?i?/iiai oa eaai?aoi?ii-?ino?oiaioaeueiiai ianoaaeaiiy aeeoeie a iaiiaoaeueiiio ? iinoiaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iaeao. Oeae i?eioeei ni?ey? ?aii?e ae?aaiinoeoe? IA? aei iai?oanoaoe?? oai?iae, a oaeiae ?iciiae?eaiith iiaiia?iaeaeaieo aei a?oi caei?ia’y. AENIIAEE 1. Ae?aaiinoeea i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo cae?enith?oueny ia ??cieo aoaiao - aioaiaoaeueiiio (aei 28 oeaei?a aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo), iaiiaoaeueiiio, iinoiaiiaoaeueiiio. Anoaiiaeaiiy aoaiiino? aeicaiey? aeeoa?aioe?eii ?iciiae?eyoe ae?oae aei a?oi caei?ia'y a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o aaaee ?icaeoeo oa aecia/aoe e?eoaaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/io oaeoeeo. E?ea?-iaae?ao?, yeee ae?aaiinoo? aaaee a iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?, ioe?ith? aoaeoeai?noue i?aiaoaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee, neeaaea? eiiieaeniee ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee ieai aeeniaina?ieo, e?eoaaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/ieo oa icaei?ia/eo caoiae?a, aecia/a? iine?aeiai?noue ? oa?i?iia?noue ?o i?iaaaeaiiy. 2. Ia ??cieo aoaiao ae?aaiinoeee /anoioa ? no?oeoo?a IA? iaiaeiaeia?. O ae?oae a iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? ca iaoa??aeaie ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a ?aa?ii?, yeee aea/aany, /anoioa aaae ?icaeoeo neeaea 21,38 ia 1000. I?ia?aeieie ca /anoioith aoee ?cieueiaai? ? nenoaii? aaaee ?icaeoeo iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo, na?oeaai-noaeeiii? nenoaie, na/iaea?aeii? nenoaie, a oaeiae iiiaeeii?. A aioaiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? caaaeueia /anoioa aaae neeaea 18,0 ia 1000. Aeiiieiaiaa aeyaeaiiy aaae ?icaeoeo ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey nai?/anii? ae?i?iaoe?? ieiae?a c oyaeeeie eaoaeueieie aaaeaie aei 24 oeaei?a aaa?oiino?, cae?eniaiiy ?aiiuei? aeiee?i?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee aaae o ae?oae ia?oeo i?nyoe?a aeeooy, a oaeiae nai?/anii? o??o?a?/ii? ei?aeoe?? aiiiae?e aei oi?ioaaiiy oyaeeeo aoi?eiieo oneeaaeiaiue. 3. Ee?i?ei-aaiaoe/iee aiae?c ao?ieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e IA? iieacaa, ui na?aae ?cieueiaaieo ? nenoaiieo aaae i?ia?aeieie ca /anoioith ? ioeueoeoaeoi??aeuei? aaaee - 78,6 %, a ?ieue aaiaoe/ieo aaae iaaaeeea - 3,8 %. Na?aae iiiaeeiieo aaae aeii?iothoue o?iiiniii? neiae?iie - 34,6 %, a oaeiae niaaeeia? neiae?iie c ??ciei oeiii oniaaeeoaaiiy - 32,7 %. Ieoiia aaaa ianiaaeeiaeo oi?i aaae ia ia?aaeuo? 9 %, a iaeeaneo?eiaai? eiiieaene aaae neeaaeathoue a?ey 24 %. Aeai? ao?ieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e iiaeii? aooe iieeaaeai? a iniiao iaaeeei-aaiaoe/iiai eiinoeueooaaiiy ? caoiae?a uiaei iiia?aaeaeaiiy IA?, aeeth/ath/e aeiiieiaiao ae?aaiinoeeo. 4. Iaoieiai-aiaoii?/iee aiae?c iieacaa, ui i?e?iaeaeaia iaoieia?y a?a? cia/io ?ieue a oaiaoiaaiac? o ae?oae. *anoioa IA? neeaea a na?aaeiueiio 24,7 %. Ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue na?aae iiia?eeo c aaaeaie ?icaeoeo neeaee ae?oe ia?oiai ?ieo - 93,1 %, a a 85,3 % aeiaaee?a IA? c'yaeeeny iniiaiei caoai?thaaiiyi a iaoieiai-aiaoii?/iiio ae?aaiic?. 5. Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a ii iiia?aaeaeaiith aaae ?icaeoeo o ae?oae iiaeiia aooe i?iaaaeaia ia iniia? iioi/ii? ?a?no?aoe?? IA?, iae?eo oa aiae?co caaaeueii? /anoioe, no?oeoo?e oa ieoiii? aaae ie?aieo " iiaeaeueieo " oi?i. 6. Aoaiiee iaoiae ae?aaiinoeee IA? i?eionea? canoinoaaiiy nenoaie niaaeei?iiino? iaaee/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ia aoaiao c ianooiiith ioe?ieith aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a, ye? cae?eniththoueny. I?AEOE*I? ?AEIIAIAeAOe?? A?aoiaoth/e aenieo ieoiio aaao IA? a no?oeoo?? aeeoy/i? caoai?thaaiino? ? nia?oiino?, iaiao?aeia ?aii? aeyaeaiiy oe??? iaoieia?? a aei?iaeiaiio ia??iae? (1 aoai) c aeei?enoaiiyi ianiaiai 3-o ??aiaaiai OC ne?ei?iao ae?iie ?c 100%-iei ioiieaiiyi. Ia eiaeiee aeiaaeie aeyaeaiiy IA? o ieiaea iaiao?aeii caiiaieoe ea?oo-niia?uaiiy, yea aiae?co?oueny oa caa??aa?oueny a iaaeeei-aaiaoe/iiio oeaio??. Aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?aiaoaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee iaiao?aeia aa?eo?eaoe?y ae?aaiico ca aeaieie iieiaiaeo aoaeeie?a aeeoy/eo iie?ee?i?e, aooiin?e. Ia 1 aoai? iaiao?aeii aeae?eeoe 4 aeeniaina?i? a?oie iiaiia?iaeaeaieo:1) yeei iio??aii i?iaaaeaiiy ?aai?iaoe?eieo caoiae?a i?e iaa?aeeeaaeiiio noai?; 2) yeei iio??aii ooi/ithaaiiy ae?aaiico ? oa?ai?th a i?aaeiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?; 3) yeei iaiao?aeii iae?aoeaii ei?aaoaaoe aaaeo; 4) yeei iio??aii aeeiai?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeiia?aeia e?eoaaiiy. Ianoaaeaiiy iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ae?oae ?c i?aiaoaeueii? a?oie iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe a iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? (2 aoai). Ae?oyi ye? ia aoiaeyoue aei a?oie ?eceeo, iaeaaeeoue i?iaiaeeoe ianiaee OC ne?ei?ia a ia?o? 3 i?nyoe? aeeooy aeey aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeaeo aaae ?icaeoeo aioo??oi?o i?aai?a ? iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo (3 aoai – iaiiaoaeueiee). Aeey io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aoaeoeai?noue i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a uiaei iiia?aaeaeaiiy oi?ioaaiiy IA? o ae?oae iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe iii?oi?eia aiiiae?e ?icaeoeo oeyoii iioi/ii? ?a?no?aoe?? aeiaaee?a ia?iaeaeaiiy ae?oae ea?oith aeno?aiiai niia?uaiiy. Neeaaeia ae?aaiinoeea i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae na?oey i?e OC aeine?aeaeaii? coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy eaa?iao?a aioaiaoaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee ea?ae?iaaneoey?ii? iaoieia?? c canoinoaaiiyi caniao eieuei?iai? aeiiea?aoiea?ae?ia?ao??. IA?AE?E IOAE?EAOe?E CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Niaaeei?ii?noue i?aiaoaeueii? oeueo?acaoeiai? oa iinoiaoaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo o ae?oae // Iaae?ao??y, aeooa?noai oa a?iaeieia?y.-1997.- N 4.-n.17-18. 2. I?aiaoaeueiay oeueo?acaoeiaay aeeaaiinoeea a i?ioeeaeoeea ii?ieia ?acaeoey o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo aeaoae // Oeueo?acaoeiaa ia?eiaoaeueia ae?aaiinoeea.-1997.- N 8-9.-n.64-71 / niaao.A.ss. ?aciee, E.I.Ieieia, I.A.Ii?ic / 3. I?iaeaia i?io?eaeoeee i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo o ca'yceo c caa?oaeiaiiyi iaaeieeoiueai na?aaeiaeua //Iaeanueeee iaaee/iee aeo?iae.-1998.- N 2.-n. 25-27 / ni?aaao. ?.I.I?ieia/ 4. ?iciianthaeaeai?noue i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo na?aae ae?oae iaeiiai c i?aaeaiieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie // Iaae?ao??y, aeooa?noai oa a?iaeieia?y.-1998.- N 4.-n.30-32 / ni?aaao. A.ss.?aci?e, ?.I.I?ieia / 5. Aaii? oai?iae: no/ani? i?aeoiaee aei ae?aaiinoeee oa i?io?eaeoeee niaaeeiaeo aaiieo caoai?thaaiue. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a o/aiaee i?ioean aeey oi?ioaaiiy iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy ciaiue nooaeaio?a - iaaeee?a // Iia? oaoiieia?? o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, oai?aoe/i?e oa ee?i?/i?e iaaeeoeei?. Aeiaeaoie aei Iaeanueeiai iaaee/iiai aeo?iaeo. - Iaeana : *i?iiii?'y , 1999.-n.105-106 / ni?aaao. ?aci?e A.ss., Noa?aoeue I.I., Aeaion ?.A., Eiiiiaiei I.A., Aeaaoy? I.TH. 6. Aeeniaina?iia iaaethaeaiea e iaaeeoeeineay ?aaaeeeoaoeey aeaoae a iieeeeeieea: i?eia?iay noaia / Iiniaea aeey a?a/ae. Iiae ?aae. E.I.Ieieiaa.- Iaeana: Ano?ii?eio,1998.- 75 n. / niaao. N.N.Ieia?aeia, O.A.Ianaithe, E.I.Oaa/aiei, A.I.Eiaai, E.N.Aoaeye, I.A.Ieaae, E.A.Na?aaea, Y. A. Aeaion / 7. Eiiieaeniay eioaineaiay oa?aiey aeaoae n a?iaeaeaiiuie ii?ieaie na?aeoea neiaai oeia ia yoaia aei oe?o?ae/aneie ei??aeoeee / Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue 6 Iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? Anioe?aoe?? na?oeaai-noaeeiieo o??o?a?a Oe?a?ie ca o/anoth Anioe?aoe?? iaae?ao??a Oe?a?ie.- Ee?a, 1998.- n.196-199 / niaao. A.ss.?aciee, E.I.Ieieia , A.E.Ainaiei, I.A.Noaiiaa, O.A. Einthaa, I.Ae.Aayceoiaa, I.E.Cao?iaa, E.A.Eocueiaiei, I.A.Eaaeoeeee, E.E.Oi?aeineay, E.I. Oaa/aiei, A.E.*aoioeeee/ 8. Aiaea e caei?iauea aeaoae : aiaeec iiieoi?eiaa a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieia ?acaeoey // Nai?iee iao/iuo noaoae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee " Aiaea e caei?iauea - 98 ".- Iaeanna.-1998.-n. 21-23 / niaao. E.I.Ieieia, Y.A.Aeaion / 9. Aiaeii-yeieiae/aneea oaeoi?u e iiieoi?eia iaeioi?uo iieacaoaeae ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai caei?iauey // Nai?iee iao/iuo noaoae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee “Aiaea e caei?iauea – 99”. – Iaeanna. – 1999.- n. 267-270. / Niaao. E.I.Ieieia, C.I..AEeaaoe, I.A.Ii?ic, AE.A.Iioeioiaa, A.E.Eocueie/?a, Y.A.Aeaion, A.A.Oaiiaaeiaa, A.E.Ieieia /. 10. I?aiaoaeueia ae?aaiinoeea a nenoai? i?io?eaeoeee o?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo // Iaoa??aee 65 I?aenoieiai? nooaeaionueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? - Iaeana, 1996.- n.71 /ni?aaao. I.A.Ii?ic/ 11.Iine?aeiai?noue aoaiii? nenoaie iaaee/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?oueie c i?e?iaeaeaieie aaaeaie ?icaeoeo // Iaoa??aee 65 I?aenoieiai? nooaeaionueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??.-Iaeana,1997.- n.66 12. Ianniaue oeueo?acaoeiaie ne?eieia - iiaay oi?ia aeeniaina?ecaoeee aeaoneiai ianaeaiey // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? " Iaaeeei-nioe?aeuei? aniaeoe noaio caei?ia'y ae?oae ? i?aee?oe?a.- Oa?e?a, 1998.- n.61-62 / niaao. E.I.Ieieia, E.N.Aoaeye, ?.A.Aeaion, I.TH.Iaethoaiei / 13. ?ieue i?aiaoaeueiie aoia?aoee a i?ioeeaeoeea ii?ieia ?acaeoey OeIN o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo aeaoae // Iaoa?eaee 1 Oe?a?inueeiai eiia?ano oao?aoe?a c oeueo?acaoeiai? ae?aaiinoeee.-Ee?a, 1999.- n. 45 /Niaa. I.A.Ii?ic, E.I.Ieieia/. 14. Niinia ioeaiee i?aiaoaeueiie aeeaaiinoeee ii?ieia ?acaeoey iicaa // ?aoe.i?aaeeiaeaiea ? 1722.-15.11.1995.-a. Iaeanna / niaao. E.I.Ieieia , I.A.Ii?ic /. 15. Niinia ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?aiaoaeueiie aeeaaiinoeee a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieia ?acaeoey o aeaoae // ?aoe.i?aaeeiaeaiea ? 1766.- 10.06.1996.- a. Iaeanna / Niaao. E.I.Ieieia / Aiioaoe?y A aeena?oaoe?? iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy ee?i?/iiai cia/aiiy ? ?ie? aoaiiino? aeiiieiaiai? ? i?neyiieiaiai? ae?aaiinoeee aaae ?icaeoeo a nenoai? iaaee/ieo caoiae?a uiaei aei ?o iiia?aaeaeaiiy o ae?oae. Iieacaia iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy oeueo?acaoeiaiai ianoaaeaiiy ae?iie c aeei?enoaiiyi ?aea? “cai?ioiueiai” ca’yceo. Aea/ai? iaoa??aee i?aiaoaeueii? oeueo?acaoeiai? ae?aaiinoeee aaa?oieo ae?iie o no?iee aaa?oiino? aei 24 oeaei?a aacaea??ii i?iaiae?ciaaii iane?aeee aaa?oiinoae ieiaeaie, o yeeo aoei ae?aaiinoiaaii aaaee ?icaeoeo. Ia aaeeeiio ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/iiio iaoa??ae? i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy iieaciee?a /anoio aaae ia i?aenoaa? aeiiieiaiai? oa i?neyiieiaiai? ae?aaiinoeee, ? ?o ?aa?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e. Anoaiiaeaii, ui caaaeueia /anoioa i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo o ae?oae ?aa?iio neeaaea? a na?aaeiueiio 21,38 ‰, a o ieiaea 18,0 ‰. Iniiaieie oi?iaie aaae ca aeaieie iii?oi?eiao i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ? aiiiae?? iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo, na?oeaai-noaeeiii? nenoaie, na/inoaoaai? nenoaie, iiiaeeii? aaaee. A no?oeoo?? aaae ?icaeoeo o ieiaea aaaeo/? aaaee na/inoaoaai? nenoaie, OeIN, iiiaeeii? aaaee. Ioe?iaii aoaeoeai?noue aeyaeaiiy i?e?iaeaeaii? iaoieia?? ia ??cieo aoaiao. Aecia/aii ae?aaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy nenoaie aacia?a?aiiai iaaee/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?oueie c i?e?iaeaeaiith iaoieia??th, ii/eiath/e c aioaiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo. Aiiioaoeey A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa eco/aii eeeie/aneia cia/aiea e ?ieue yoaiiinoe aei?iaeiaie (aioaiaoaeueiie) e iinea?iaeiaie (iaiiaoaeueiie, iinoiaiiaoaeueiie) aeeaaiinoeee a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieia ?acaeoey o aeaoae. Iieacaii, /oi iineaaeiaaoaeueiay aeeaaiinoeea a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieia iiauoaao yooaeoeaiinoue auyaeaiey yoie iaoieiaee o aeaoae ?acee/iiai aic?anoa, niinianoaoao eo aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth a a?oiiu caei?iauey, ii?aaeaeyao iai?a?uaiinoue, n?i/iinoue e iauai ea/aaii-icaei?iaeoaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Eniieueciaaiea aei?iaeiaiai oeueo?acaoeiaiai ianeaaeiaaiey aeaiuei n eniieueciaaieai eaeae “ia?aoiie” nayce iicaieeei noi?ie?iaaoue a?oiiu aeeniaina?iiai iaaethaeaiey iiai?iaeaeaiiuo aeaoae: ioaeaeathueony a ?aaieiaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoeyo; a ooi/iaiee aeeaaiica e aeiiia?aoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee; a iaeeeaoeaiie ei??aeoeee ii?iea; a aeeiaie/aneii iaaethaeaiee e niioaaonoaothuae oa?aiee. Ia iniiaa aeai?eoia iai?a?uaiiai iaaeeoeeineiai iaaethaeaiey eco/aiu iaoa?eaeu aioaiaoaeueiie oeueo?acaoeiaie aeeaaiinoeee aeaiuei, ianeaaeiaaiiuo a n?iee aa?aiaiiinoe aei 24 iaaeaeue. Ia aieueoii eeeieei-yieaeaieieiae/aneii iaoa?eaea i?iaaaeaii n?aaiaiea iieacaoaeae /anoio a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieia e eo no?oeoo?u o aeaoae. Auyaeaii, /oi iauay /anoioa ii?ieia ?acaeoey o aeaoae a iaiiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea ninoaaeei a n?aaeiai 21,38 ‰. A aioaiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iauay /anoioa ii?iea ninoaaeea 18,0 ‰. Iniiaiuie oi?iaie ii?ieia ?acaeoey ii aeaiiui iiieoi?eiaa ii?ieia ?acaeoey yaeeenue aiiiaeee iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa, na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu, ii/aauaeaeeoaeueiie nenoaiu, iiiaeanoaaiiua ii?iee ?acaeoey. A no?oeoo?a ii?ieia ?acaeoey ieiaea aaaeouea – ii?iee ii/aauaeaeeoaeueiie nenoaiu, OeIN, aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa, /oi eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea aeey naiaa?aiaiiie yeeieiaoeeiiiie oaeoeee a neo/aa auyaeaiey oyaeaeuo eaoaeueiuo ii?ieia aei 24 iaaeaeue aa?aiaiiinoe, inouanoaeaiea ?aiiae aeieeeie/aneie aeeaaiinoeee ii?ieia o aeaoae ia?auo ianyoeaa aeecie, a oaeaea naiaa?aiaiiie oe?o?ae/aneie ei??aeoeee ii?ieia aei ?acaeoey oyaeaeuo ineiaeiaiee. Auyaeaii, /oi /anoioa ii?ieia ?acaeoey o aeaoae, ainieoaeece?iaaiiuo a iaiiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao iauaiiioeyoeeiiioth: 12,5% i?ioea 1,9%. Eae iniiaiie iaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann aeiieie?otho iiiaeanoaaiiua ii?iee ?acaeoey (4,93%), ii?iee na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoie nenoaiu (1,8%), aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa (1,74%). N?aaee ainieoaeece?iaaiiuo aeaoae a aic?anoa io 1 aei 12 ianyoeaa /anoioa ii?ieia ?acaeoey ninoaaeea 7,99%. Aic?anoaao aeiey ii?ieia ii/aauaeaeeoaeueiie nenoaiu, /oi iaoneiaeaii aieaa oe?ieei aeeaaiinoe/aneei ianeaaeiaaieai aeaoae yoiai aic?anoa. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi nenoaia iaaeeoeeineiai iaaethaeaiey ca aeaoueie n a?iaeaeaiiie iaoieiaeae aeieaeia aace?iaaoueny ia i?eioeeia yoaiiinoe, eioi?ue iicaieyao naiaa?aiaiiue ia?aoiae io yoaia aeeaaiica aioaiaoaeueiiai ia?eiaea e yoaio eeeie/aneiai e eaai?aoi?ii-eino?oiaioaeueiiai ianeaaeiaaiey ?aaaiea a iaiiaoaeueiii e iinoiaiiaoaeueiii ia?eiaeao, /oi niinianoaoao ?aiiae aeeaaiinoeea ii?ieia ?acaeoey aei iaieoanoaoeee aieacie. Eeeieei-aaiaoe/aneia eco/aiea yoeieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u ii?ieia ?acaeoey iieacaei, /oi n?aaee eciee?iaaiiuo e nenoaiiuo ii?ieia aaaeoueie yaeythony ioeueoeoaeoi?eaeueiua ii?iee. N?aaee iiiaeanoaaiiuo ii?ieia aeiieie?otho o?iiiniiiua aieacie, ianeaaenoaaiiua neiae?iiu n ?aciui oeiii ianeaaeiaaiey. Aeieacaii, /oi a?iaeaeaiiay iaoieiaey ea?aao cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a oaiaoiaaiaca aeaoae. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai n?aaee oia?oeo aeaoae n ii?ieaie ?acaeoey ninoaaeee aeaoe ia?aiai aiaea aeecie, a 85,3% neo/aaa ii?iee yaeeenue iniiaiui caaieaaaieai a iaoieiai-aiaoiie/aneii aeeaaiica. SUMMARY The results of study the clinical significance and the role of stages of prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of congenital abnormalities in medical measures at their prevention are presented. The necessity of ultrasound examination of women with use the idea of “reverse“ link is shown. The results of ultrasound examination of 5720 pregnant women in term before 24 weeks are studied. The issues of 66 pregnancies with abnormal fetuses are analysed. The comparision of freguences of abnormalities and their regional structure on the base of prenatal and postnatal diagnosis is made. It is counted that the total freguency of congenital abnomalities in children is 21,38‰, in fetuses 18,0‰, Main abnormalities in children according to their monitoring are anomalies of sceleton, cardiovascular and urinary tract systems, multiple abnormalities. Main abnormalities in fetuses are anomalies of urinary tract system (42,7%), central nervous system (24,3%), multiple abnormalities (11,7%). Comparison of freguency and structure of congenital abnormalities in fetuses and new-borns bears witness about the great significance of succession of prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of anomalies for opportune elimination of fetuses with lethal abnormalities and for early diagnosis of anomalies in children during the first monthes of life in the stage of preclinical manifestation of disease.

Похожие записи