IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO OE?A?INUeEI? IIAE

EIAAEAIEI Iaoae?y Aiaoie??aia

OAeE 808.3-313

E?iia??enueea iiiianoeea

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.15 – caaaeueia iiaiciaanoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? eaeneeieia??, oa?i?iieia?? oa iiiianoeee
?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee —eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

NO?EAEAE Ieaen?e Neeueaano?iae/, ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie,
a?aeae?e eaeneeieia??, oa?i?iieia?? oa iiiianoeee, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe —aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? EA?IAIEI
TH??e Ieaenaiae?iae/, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?.
Ia/ieeiaa, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae.

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

OEA*AIEI A?eoi? Aiae??eiae/,

?inoeooo iiaiciaanoaa ?i. I.I. Iioaai? IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e caaaeueiiai
iiaiciaanoaa, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a

caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa oa eeane/ii? o?eieia??,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ” 9 ” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14-00 aiae ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.173.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a-1, aoe.I. A?ooaanueeiai,4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a-1, aoe. I. A?ooaanueeiai,4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ” 6 ” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aaeithe E.A.

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe ? ii?ie, ui iaeaaeaoue aei iaeiiai c
iaeaeaai?oeo ia??iae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Aia?oa ia ci?io aaaaoueii
ia?iaeai, ye? canaeyee eieenue I?ai?/ia I?e/i?iiii?’y, ?iaia eio?eo
ao?a/ai? aeey ian ? ca?ac cai?iththoueny oiiaieie iicia/aiiyie
a?oaieia?/ieo eoeueoo?, i?eeoee iiaooi? ieaiaia, iacae yeeo cao?eniaai?
a aeanyoeao ienaiieo iai’yoie ? caa?aaeeny aeioaia?.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia oei, ui a iao /an cia/ii c?inea
oe?eaa?noue naia aei i?aoeue, ye? ?icaeyaeathoue aeeaeii?
aoiie?iaa?noe/i? oa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa, ye?
iia’ycai? c iio?aaaie noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, aea/aiiyi
?aiiueiai ia??iaeo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

Ii?i?/ia nenoaia caa??aa? aaaaoi ?ae?eoiaeo aeaiaio?a o iaci?iiiio
aeaeyae?, aeicaiey? aeine?aeeoe ?icaeoie iaaiiai ?aa?iio oa aeyaeoe
iaai? iiiianoe/i? oi?aa?nae??. Aeani? iacae – aoaeoeaiee can?a aeey
?aeiino?oeoe?? aoiiiiaii? ?noi???, oiio aiae?c iiiianoe/ieo oa?i?i?a
i?iaiaeeoueny a ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeoao (eaeneeieia?/iiio,
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio, aaia?ao?/iiio, naian?ieia?/iiio).

Iaoa??aee, c?a?ai? a aeena?oaoe??, oa?eaeooue aei neeaaeo “Neiaieea
aoiii?i?a Oe?a?ie”, yeee oeeaaea?oueny a a?oi? iiiianoeee ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? iiae IAIO a ?aieao ieaiiai? oaie “Oe?a?inueea
eaeneeia?ao?y”.

Iaoith iaoi? ?iaioe ? cae?aiiy oa nenoaiaoecaoe?y caaaeie i?i
e?iia??eoe?a o ??ciiiai?oieo aeaea?aeao, aeae?eaiiy e?iia??enueei?
iiiianoeee ? cae?eniaiiy ?? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co ?c caeo/aiiyi
a?aeiiinoae, ocyoeo c ?ioeo iaoe.

Iniiaia oaaaa ni?yiiaaia ia ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

— aeyaeoe iioiaeaeaiiy oa iiaoooaaiiy e?iia??enueei? iiiianoeee ca
ienaiieie aeaea?aeaie;

— eeaneo?eoaaoe aeani? iacae ca a?oiaie, i?iaiae?coaaoe ?oi? aaeeaaiiy a
ienaiieo aeaea?aeao ??ciiai oeio, a ??ciee /an, ia ??cieo oa?eoi??yo;

2

— aea/eoe ? aeine?aeeoe ye iniiaiee aoiii?i e?iia??eoe?, eiai a?aae
iioe?aiiy, aeeiai?eo aeei?enoaiiy, ae?aeaeoi? iniaeeaino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ?icaeyiooe eiai oiiaoeei-i?oia?ao?/i? aa??aioe,
i?ine?aeeoaaoe naiaioe/i? ci?ie, anoaiiaeoe iioiaeaeaiiy ii?ia;

— cae?enieoe anaa?/iee aiae?c aoiii?i?a ia?iae?a, ye? ? oa?eoi??aeueieie
a?aeaaeoaeaiiyie, ?noi?e/ieie eiioeioaioaie /e ?ioeie iacaaie
e?iia??enueeiai aoiino;

— ?icaeyiooe aeani? iacae ?ioi? a?oie (aio?iiii?i?y), iienaoe ?o ?
cae?enieoe eiiieaeniee e?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c;

— iiaeaoe iaai? oai?aoe/i? ianoaiiae aeey aiae?co aeaai?o aoiii?i?a.

Iniaeeai aaaeeeaa i?noea caeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoeiieia?? aiae?ciaaieo
ii?i?a, aaeaea c’ynoaaiiy iioiaeaeaiiy aeanieo iaca aeiiiiaaa? i?iaanoe
aoi?/io oa iiaio ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th ia?iaeo. Oeueiio ni?ey? ?aeiino?oeoe?y
i?aoi?ie neiaa, aiae?c eiai no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a, ciyooy
?noi?eei-oiiaoe/ieo iaoa?oaaiue, c’ynoaaiiy /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo i?ae
o?enaoe??th oa ?aeiino?oeoe??th, ia?aa??ea iiaeeeaiai aieeao
ia?iaeiiaoeiieia?/iiai oeoia/aiiy, iiooee oeiieia?/ieo ia?aeaeae.
Neeaaeiei, aea aoaeoeaiei ? iaiao?aeiei e?ieii ? ?aeiino?oeoe?y
ia?aeiiiai cia/aiiy neiaa oa iioeao aeey iii?iaoe??. O ?iaio?
i?inoaaeothoueny ci?ie naiaioeee ii?i?a, ?oi? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c
?aae?yie, i?e?iaeiei oa nioe?aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai, iaoa??aeueiith e
aeooiaiith eoeueoo?ith oa caaaeii na?oiaeyaeii oiai/anii? ethaeeie.

Aaaaoiieaiia?noue ? na?eici?noue iinoaaeaieo ia?aae iaie caaaeaiue
coiiaeee aeei?enoaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a: a?aaeueiiai, aaiaoe/iiai,
aeane?eioeaiiai, no?oeoo?iiai, oeiieia?/iiai, ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiai,
no?aoea?ao?/iiai, aoeiieia?/iiai oa ?i.

Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae acyoee iaie c oai??a Aiia?a, Aa?iaeioa, Aaneo?y,
No?aaiia, Ieooa?oa oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo aaoi??a, c A?ae??, aeiianaiue
anne??enueeeo ?ica?aeiee?a, aaa?eiinueeeo i?aeoe?a, o?a?onueeeo o?ii?e.
*anoeia iaoa??aeo caa?aaeany a ai?a?ao?/ieo iaienao. I?iaiae?ciaai?
aeaea?aea ioiieththoue oe?ieee i?ii?aeie /ano: a?ae XIII – XII no. aei
i.a. (iiaie Aiia?a, A?ae?y) aei VI – XI no. i.a. (Noaoai A?caio?enueeee,
I?ieii?e Eana??enueeee, ?anoao?e oa ?i.).

3

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny oei, ui
aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oei eiiieaeniei aeine?aeaeaiiyi e?iia??enueei?
iiiianoeee. Iiia?aaei? aeine?aeieee iaiaaeoaaeenue iia?aeiei ?icaeyaeii
ie?aieo aoiii?i?a, ui ia aeaaaei iiaeeeaino? anoaiiaeoe aca?iica’ycee
i?ae ii?iaie oa ia’?aeiaoe ?o o iaaio nenoaio.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui e?iia??enueea i?iaeaia ia? ??ciiieaiiaee oa?aeoa?,
oiio aei aiae?co caeo/aeeny a?aeiiino?, caeiaoo? i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo
aaeocae iaoee. Ocaaaeueiaiiy oa ii?aeiaiiy ie?aieo oaeo?a, i?eiouaiue,
e?eoe/iee aiae?c ?ic?iaie ?ioeo a/aieo aeicaieeee noai?eoe iia?
aoeiieia?? iaca e?iia??eoe?, oaa?e, iaioe, oiiai-iaiaea, aaaae,
Ooaaeaiia / E?aaeai?n, Oaooia, Naiaeaeoao?a, aeyaeoe neaae? e neeuei?
noi?iie eiaeii? aa?n?? iioiaeaeaiiy ii?i?a, aecia/eoe iaeia?niaeoeai?o?
iai?yiee iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue, c?iaeoe aeniiaee uiaei iiaii? oa
aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino? e?iia??eoe?a.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y ? aianeii o
e?iia??iciaanoai, iiiianoeeo, aoiie?iaa?noeeo. O i?e i?aeaiaeyoueny
i?aenoiee caeiaooe?a iaoee o aea/aii? e?iia??eoe?a, nenoaiaoecothoueny
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aaaaoueio a/aieo, iii?oii ca?eueoo?oueny /anoea
e?iaa?noe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

?iaioa noaia aacith aeey iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ??
iaoa??aee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? neiaiee?a,
iaienaii? noaoae, iiiia?ao?e, niaoeeo?n?a oa nai?ia??a c ieoaiue
iiiianoeee, ?noi???, iiaiciaanoaa oa ?ioeo iaoe, iia’ycaieo ?c aea/aiiyi
aoiiaaiaoe/iiai oa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ia?iae?a.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaoaaeiny o aenooiao ia iaoeiaeo
nai?ia?ao “?aeiino?oeoeai? iiaeeeaino? iiiianoeee” (Ee?a, 1995),
“Iiiianoeea no?aeieo neia’yi” (Ee?a, 1996) “I?iaeaie iiiianoe/iiai
neiaioai?o” (Ee?a, 1996) oa VII Anaoe?a?inuee?e iiiianoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Ieoaiiy no/anii? iiiianoeee” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997).
Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo a?oie
iiiianoeee a?aeae?eo eaeneeieia??, oa?i?iieia?? oa iiiianoeee ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii a 6
ioae?eaoe?yo.

4

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo oiiaieo nei?i/aiue (ianya 179 noi??iie),
nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (412 iiceoe?e) oa aeiaeaoeo, yeee
i?noeoue nienie aiae?ciaaieo ii?i?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy
?iaioe, aeacaii ia aeaea?aea oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy, aeacaii ia niaoeeo?eo aea/aiiy e?iia??enueei? iiiianoeee,
i?aee?aneaii iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?? aiae?co,
?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy aca?iiaa?eo?eaoe??, aca?iiia?aa??ee iaoa??ae?a ??cieo
iaoe oa ??cieo /an?a, a?aecia/a?oueny iio?aaa ?icaeyaeaoe e?iia??enuee?
?ae?eoe c oi/ee ci?o aoiie?iaa?noeee.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “E?iia??enueea iiiianoeea” cae?eniaii eiiieaeniee
aiae?c aoiii?ia e?iia??eoe?. Iiaeaii iniiai? a?aeiiino? i?i
e?iia??enueeee aoiin, aeaco?oueny eiai i?aaaouee?aueia, eieae?caoe?y a
??ci? ia??iaee, oeyoe ia?ai?uaiue, o/anoue o iaaieo ?noi?e/ieo iiae?yo,
a?oaieia?/ia eoeueoo?a, ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy iiaii? oa aoi?/ii?
iaeaaeiino? ia?iaeo. Iio?aaaie e?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co coiiaeaii ?icaeyae
iiaii-ienaiii? neooaoe?? a i?noeaainoyo, aea ae?yee e?iia??eoe?. O
aeine?aeaeaii? i?ine?aeeiaaii i?ioean iiyae oiiaoeei-i?oia?ao?/ieo
iaoa?oaaiue ia ia?aeiio oi?io aoiii?ia, c?a?aii e i?iaiae?ciaaii
aoeiieia?? ii?ia, aeieeaaeii aeeeaaeaii aeanio eiioeaioe?th iioiaeaeaiiy
iacae. Aea/athoueny naiaioe/i? ci?ie cia/aiiy aoiii?ia, ?oiy
caeaaei?noue a?ae non?aeiueiai ioi/aiiy ia?iaeo, oa?aeoa?o ? oeio
aeaea?aea, a yeiio cao?eniaaii oo /e ?ioo oi?io aoi?/iiai ?iai?.

Iniiaiei ia’?eoii aea/aiiy a ?iaio? ? aoiii?i?y, oiio ie aaaaeaee ca
iio??aia iiaeaoe aeaye? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aoiii?i?ee, a iio?i
ia?aeoe aei aaciina?aaeiueiai aiae?co aoi?/ieo oa?i?i?a.

Aoiii?i?ea – iieiaea aaeocue iiiianoeee, oiio ?? oai?aoe/ia /anoeia
ia?aaoaa? a i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy. Aaaiiee aianie a ?? noai?aiiy c?iaeee
I.N. No?eaeae, A.O. Eiaaeueia, I.A. Iiaeieuenueea, I.?. Iiiia, A.Ae.
Aiiaeaeaoia oa ?i. O

5

nai?o i?aoeyo aiie ?icaeyaeathoue oae? iniiai? oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie:
aecia/aiiy aoiii?i?ee, aoiii?ia; iiae?e aoiii?i?a ca a?oiaie, iioeae
iii?iaoe?? ??cieo ia?iae?a, e?eoa??? oa i?eioeeie eeaneo?eaoe?? iaca,
oa?i?ie aeey iicia/aiiy ??cieo a?oi aoiii?i?a (aeei-, aeci-, aeoi-,
aiaei-, enaii-, aaoiaoiii?ie), ?ic??ciaiiy iaca ia?iaeo ? iaca eiai
ie?aieo i?aaenoaaiee?a (aoiii?ie oa aoiioi?ii?ie), i?noea aoiii?ia
na?aae ?ioeo aoi?/ieo iaeeieoeue, oeyoe oa iiaeeeaino? ia?aoiaeo ii?i?a
c iaeiiai ??ciiaeaeo aei ?ioiai (aoiioiiii?ie, aoiioi?ii?ie),
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aoiinii oa aoiii?iii.

Caoaaaeeii, ui aeey iaca, ye? ae?iaea ia?iae aeey ?iaioaaiiy naiiai
naaa, ie aeei?enoiaoaaoeiaii oa?i?i aaoiaoiii?i, a aeey an?o iaca,
noai?aieo aeey eiai iii?iaoe?? ?ioeie aoiinaie iica eiai iaaeaie, –
aeoiaoiii?i.

?icaeyae aoiii?ia e?iia??eoe? ii/eia?oueny c aiae?co o?enaoe?e ii?ia a
ienaiieo iai’yoeao.

E?iia??eoe? – ia?iae, yeee ia?aaoaaa ia oa?eoi??? I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y, Caeaaeaccy oa Ia?aaeiuei? ? Iaei? Ac??. An? aeaea?aea,
ye? caaaeothoue iacao e?iia??eoe?, iaeaaeaoue aei /oaeeo oeueiio aoiino
eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e, a oiio iiaeeeaa iaiaeiicia/ia noaaeaiiy aei
ia?iaeo ? ??cia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y a?aeiiinoae i?i iueiai, ui e coiiaeei
iiyao aaaaoueio aca?iii?ioeeaaeieo aa?n?e eiai aoiiaaiaco. Ie??i
oeueiai, nai? ienaii? iai’yoee iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo oei?a, ??cieo
eoeueoo?, iaienai? ??cieie nenoaiaie ienaiiino?.

An? oaenoe noai?ai? ia oa?eoi???, yea aoea ciiith aeoeaieo eiioaeo?a oa
i?a?aoe?e, aea ia?aie?oaeeny ?noi?e/i? aeie? aaaaoueio
iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo ia?iae?a. Aeaea?aea, ye? aeiianee aei ian aoiii?i,
aeoaea ??ciyoueny e o o?iiieia?/iiio ieai?. sseui ia?o? o?enaoe??, ui
ae?eoee aei ian, iiaeia aeaooaaoe VIII – VII no. aei i.a. (iiaeeeai,
XIII – XII no. aei i.a.), oi inoaii? — XII no. i.a., oi/a ? i?ney
oeueiai oa?i?i aeei?enoiaoaaany a ?iaioao ? oaenoao ?noi?e/iiai
oa?aeoa?o. Oie oaeo, ui oey iacaa caa?aaeany ia o?eueee a Aiia?a,
Aa?iaeioa oa ?ioeo aioe/ieo aaoi??a, a e o iai’yoeao Iaei? oa
Ia?aaeiuei? Ac?? ? Aeecueeiai Noiaeo, iacaia?a/ii na?ae/eoue, ui aiia
iaeaaeeoue aei aoi?/ii? iiiaieeaoo?e, yea aeoeaii ooieoe?iioaaea a
aeaaieio ? aoea caaaeueiia?aeiiith.

6

E?iia??eoe? ia caeeoeee i?ney naaa ienaiieo iai’yoie, oiio ie iiaeaii
ei?enooaaoeny ai?ciaee/ieie iia?aeiieaiiyie a?aei-?einueeeo aaoi??a oa
o?aaiaioaie no?aeieo oaeno?a. Aeaea?aea ia?iae?a Noiaeo iia’ycai?
ia?aaaaeii c iioiaeaie e?iia??eoe?a oa ne?o?a o Ia?aaeith oa Iaeo Ac?th,
Caeaaeaccy. ?oiueith aacia?a/iith ia?aaaaith ? oa, ui aiie neio?iii?
iiae?yi, ye? iienothoueny. Iia?aeiieaiiy aioe/ieo aaoi??a i?i iiae??
e?iia??enueei? ?noi??? a?aeie?aieai? a?ae ieo ia iaeiei noie?ooyi ?
iathoue oa?aeoa? ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai ia?aeaco, aea a ieo iii?oia i?aaiaiiy
iiaeaoe oe?e?nio ea?oeio aoiiaaiaco. A?ae??ciythoueny oe? aea? a?oie
oaeno?a ua e oei, ui anne??eoe? iaaiaeyoue aeieoiaioaeuei? oaeoe, a a
a?ae?a ? ?eieyi ie ciaoiaeeii iiene eaaaiaea?ii-i?oieia?/iiai oeio.
A?ae?ei? caaaeee i?i aoiin oaae eaaaiaea?ii caaa?aeai?. Aaaeeeai, ui
a?aoeuee? oa no?aei? na?ae/aiiy i?i e?iia??eoe?a ia?aaoeothoueny i?ae
niaith. A?aeiiino? i?i i?yi? eiioaeoe c oeei ia?iaeii ye aeeoae?a
aea?aeaa Aeaaiueiai Noiaeo, oae ? iaoeaioe?a ?ii?? oa iaeiac?enueeeo
caiaeue ia aeathoue i?aenoaa o?aeooaaoe i?aoe? aioe/ieo aaoi??a ye
a?aeoai?aiiy no?aeieo aeaea?ae, oiaoi aiie iathoue naiino?eia
iioiaeaeaiiy.

Oa?i?i e?iia??eoe? c’yaey?oueny a aeaai?o oaenoao c XIII – VIII no. aei
i.a. o oi?i?: K (aia?oa a “Iae?nna?” Aiia?a); aaea aeey Aa?iaeioa (na?.
V no. aei i.a.) e?iia??eoe? aoee cieeeei ia?iaeii. Ne?ae cacia/eoe ui
naia a oae?e oi?i? aoiii?i iino?eii iaaiaeeoueny a oai?ao a?ae?a ?
?eieyi.

Ienaiieie aeaea?aeaie Aeaaiueiai Noiaeo cana?ae/aii e?eueea aa??aio?a
iacae:

1. Gomer, Gomaer (o ia?aeeaae? Naiooa?aie oaeiae Gamer) – iaeaeaai?oa ca
o?iiieia??th o?enaoe?y aoiii?ia a A?ae?? (Eieaa Aoooy, “Oaaeeoey
ia?iae?a”, XIII –VIII no. aei i.a.).

2. Aee. Gamir(a) – o ?ica?aeoaaeueieo aeiianaiiyo oea?aa? Na?aiiia? II
(i?ae 721 oa 715 ?. aei i.a.).

3. Aee. Gimirri, Gimirraiu (oi?ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aeeaaenueei? oeaen??)
— aia?oa caaaeo?oueny 705 ?. aei i.a. An? i?ci?o? eeeiiieni? aa??aioe
ii?ia iathoue naia oeth oi?io. Oea ia?aaeon?i caieoe anne??enueeiai
oea?y Ana?oaaeaeiia aei i?aeoea, aeaoiaai? aeecueei 673 – 672 ?. aei
i.a.

7

A?aeiiinoae ienaiieo aeaea?ae caiaei aeey a?aeoai?aiiy iiaii? oa
oe?e?nii? ea?oeie e?iia??enueeiai aoiiaaiaco, oiio aeieea? i?e?iaeia
iio?aaa caeo/eoe aei ?icaeyaeo oaeoe oa a?iioace, iaaeai? ia eeoa
e?iaa?noeeith, y e a?oaieia??th, ?noi???th, aoiia?ao??th, aio?iiieia??th
oa ?ioeie iaoeaie. Aiie aeiiiiaaathoue aeiiiaieoe oa ooi/ieoe ienaii?
na?ae/aiiy aeaaieie, onoiooe noia?a/iino? a iia?aeiieaiiyo
ia?oiaeaea?ae. Oaeee eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae oe?iei i?aeoeeo?oueny
niaoe?ae?noaie c ?noi??? aeaai?o ia?iae?a ? oe?eeii aei?aaaeaiee.

E?iia??eoe? ia?aaoaathoue ia iaae? ?noi??? oa aei?noi???. Iniiaieie
aeaea?aeaie ?ioi?iaoe?? ? ienaii? oa a?oaieia?/i? iai’yoee, oiio
iniaeeai aino?eie ? i?iaeaie anoaiiaeaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
a?oaieia?/iith eoeueoo?ith oa aoiinii ? ienaiii? o?aaeeoe?? c
a?oaieia?/ieie ciao?aeeaie. C nai?ioe/ii? oi/ee ci?o iaiao?aeii aeyaeoe
a iaio oeiao aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i oioiaei? iiae?? e i?ioeane
aoii-eoeueoo?ii? ?noi???, ye? ia?aaeathoueny niaoeeo?/ieie aeey eiaeiiai
oeio caniaaie. Iiaa eaea i?i aca?iiaa?eo?eaoe?th, aca?iiia?aaeyae
iia?aeiieaiue, ye? ?aeaioe/i? ca ci?noii, aea ??ci? ca ieaiii
ae?aaeaiiy, ca nai?th eiaeiaith i?e?iaeith. Oiio i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
iaiao?aeii aea/aoe niiniae eiaeoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? ye o oaenoao, oae ? a
a?oaieia?/iiio iaoa??ae?.

Aeine?aeieee ii-??ciiio ?icoi?thoue iia?aeiieaiiy aeaea?ae i?i
oa?eoi??th ia?aaoaaiiy aoiino. O caeaaeiino? a?ae oeueiai aiie
?ici?uothoue eiai ia caieyo a?ae Aei?no?a, i?aaeiy Aeoiath aei
Ea?/ainueei? i?ioiee, Oaiainueeiai i?aino?iaa (Ae. Naiieaania; I.
Oania?; A. A?aeia; I. Nie?iia; I. Oa?aiiaee?i). Aeaooi a?aeaeaaaa ?i
i?noea a?ae Eaaeaco aei no/anieo Oai?ueie oa Aieaa??? O. I?uaiei, N.
AEaaae?a

eieae?coaaee ia?iae o?eueee ia Ea?/ainueeiio ? Oaiainueeiio i?aino?iaao
? I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio Eaaeac?.

?nio? oe?eee ?yae i?eioeeiiai a?aei?iieo oa noia?a/eeaeo a?iioac i?i
i?aaaouee?aueio e?iia??eoe?a. A?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a ia?aeiiaia a
aeinoia??iino? iia?aeiieaiue Aa?iaeioa oa ?ioeo aaoi??a (I. A?oaiiiia;
I. Oa?aiiaee?i; A. ?ee?inueea), aea aeaye? a/ai? cian?i caia?a/othoue
aoaeue-yeo ?noi?e/io oe?ii?noue ?iciia?aeae a?ae?a ? iiaio ia?aaaao
a?aeaeathoue oaeoai eeeiiienieo aeaea?ae. Oae, O. Eioeie? i?eoiaeeoue
aei aeniiaeo, ui ?aiiy i?aaaouee?aueia e?iia??eoe?a aoea ia noiae? ?
i?ai?/iiio noiae? O?a?oo, iaaeaeaei a?ae e?a?ie Iaiio. I. Naeuea?i?

8

eieae?co? aoiin oa eiai e?a?io ia i?aaei? /e i?aaeaiiiio noiaeo ica?a
O?i?y; A. E?enoainai – a iaeano? Iaiia, oaei? ae oi/ee ci?o
aeio?eio?oueny A. ?aai/ee.

Aeioaia? iaoeiaoe? ia iiaeooue iaeiicia/ii aecia/eoe, yeo naia
a?oaieia?/io eoeueoo?o o?aaa ni?aa?aeiineoe c e?iia??eoeyie,
iae?iia??i?oa, ui oaeith ne?ae aaaaeaoe c?oaio eoeueoo?o.

No/ania iaoea iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae caa?oa? ia ieoaiiy aaaaoicia/iino?
aoi?/ieo iaca, oea noai?th? aeiaeaoeia? o?oaeiiu?. sse noaei c?icoi?ei
i?ney aiae?co

aeei?enoaiiy aoiii?ia aaoi?aie ienaiieo iai’yoie, o ??cieo o?aaeeoe?yo ?
iaa?oue o eiioaenoao iaei??? e o??? ae o?aaeeoe?? aoiii?i e?iia??eoe?
aeei?enoiaoaaany aeey iicia/aiiy ni?eueiio ??ciiai ia’?io ? ?aiao. O
no?aeieo aeaea?aeao oa?i?i canoiniao?oueny aeey iaceaaiiy:

1) aeania e?iia??eoe?a – ie?aiiai ieaiai?;

2) oe?ieiai eiea noaiiaeo ei/iaeo ia?iae?a – ne?o?a, nae?a, iannaaao?a.

O a?aoeueeeo oaenoao iacaa oaeiae iicia/aea ??ci? ia’?eoe:

1) aeania e?iia??eoe?a – ie?aia i?e/i?iiii?nueea ieai’y, yea iaaiee /an
caeiaei iai?aia noaiiaeua o a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiio ia’?aeiaii? ia?iae?a
I?e/i?iiii?’y;

2) i?o?/ieo e?iia??eoe?a – i?oieia?/ia ia?ainieneaiiy iacae aoiino, yeee
noaa aeaiaioii einiieia?/ii? aoaeiae na?oo oa oiniaeaiiyi anueiai
iioiea?/iiai oa i?ai?/iiai o na?aeiiino? aeaai?o aee?i?a;

3) ana i?e/i?iiii?nueea ia’?aeiaiiy ieaiai.

Ieoaiiy iiaii? oa aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino? e?iia??eoe?a caeeoa?oueny iaeiei
c iaeaeeneon?ei?oeo. ?o aaaaeaee eaeueoaie, eaaeacoeyie, aaaoe?naie,
neia’yiaie, oo?ei-oaoa?aie, oioa?aie, o?ea?eoeyie, o?ae?eoeyie,
??aioeyie. Iiae?aia ?icia?ooy aeoiie coiiaeaia a?aenooi?noth
eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei aoiiaaiaco ia?iaeo oa iaiaaeaiiyie o aeai??
iaoa??aeo aeey aiae?co.

Ienaii? iai’yoee aeathoue iai iaaaaaoi ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i e?iia??enueeee
aoiin. I?iaeaia oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui nai ia?iae ia?aaoaaa ia
oa?eoi??? I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, ?a?iie, Eaaeaco ? Caeaaeaccy,
Ia?aaeiuei? oa Iaei? Ac??. Aei oiai ae, nai? aeaea?aea ??ciiiiai?:
ooia?nuee?, aeeaaenuee?, aeainuee?, o?a?onuee?, aeaaiuei?a?aenuee?,
a?aoeuee?, eaoeinuee?. O a?eueoino? iacaaieo iia

9

aeei?enoiao?oueny e?eueea nenoai ienaiiino?. Ana oea coiiaeei
iaiao?aei?noue caeo/eoe aei aiae?co e?iaa?noe/iee iaoa??ae aaaaoueio
iia, a?aooaaoe iniaeeaino? ia?aaea/? ??cieo caoe?a ia ienuei? oa
anoaiiaeoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie.

Aeaai? ia?iaee Ia?aaeiuei? oa Iaei? Ac?? caaaey/othoue iiyaith nai??
ienaiiino? Ooia?o. Aeey aiae?co aoiii?ia e?iia??eoe? ia?aaeon?i
aeiaiaeeoueny caa?oaoeny aei oiiaoeei-i?oia?ao?/ieo iniaeeainoae
aeeaaenueei? iiae, aaeaea aiia aeeiioaaea ?ieue iina?aaeieoe? ? aoea
oeaio?ii, c yeiai eeeiiien iioe?thaaany a non?aei? e?a?ie, aaeaea c
na?aaeeie III oen. aei i.a. nii/aoeo ?acii ?c ooia?nueeith, a a II oen.
aei i.a. naiino?eii, aiia ooieoe?iioaaea ye ?aeeia io?oe?eia iiaa
Aaa?eii?? oa Anne??? ? aoea aeeieiiaoe/iith oa e?oa?aoo?iith iiaith
an??? Ia?aaeiuei? Ac??.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? aea/athoueny iiai? i?ioeane a Ia?aaei?e oa Iae?e
Ac??, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??ci? nenoaie ienaiiino?, anoaiiaeththoueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae caoeaie o ??cieo iiaao, iaaiaeyoueny niiniae
ia?aaea/? caoe?a ia ienuei?, c’yniaothoueny oaeoi?e, ye? iiaee ni?eyoe
aeieeiaiith ?ica?aeiinoae a iaienaii? a a?aoeuee?e oa aeeaaenuee?e
oi?iao aoiii?ia (cie?aia, ii/aoeiaa k- /e g).

Iacaa e?iia??eoe?a, i?oieia?/ii ia?ainieneaia, iia’ycoaaeany a a?ae?a c
oyaeaiiyi i?i e?aeith i?ai?/, i?i e?a?io ii/?, aea ciaoiaeeoueny ao?ae
aei A?aeo /e Aaaeano, c ?i’yi o?eaieiaiai ooii?/iiai ina Ea?aa?a. O VI
no. o ca’yceo c iioe?aiiyi ?ii?enueeeo ai?/ieo ia?aeac?a ii no?aeiiio ?
cao?aeiiio Na?aaecaiiiii?’th oeae ia?iae c?noaaeyee c iaaeath na?oo
aeeaeo ? ia?oaeo, oiaoi aiie iicia/aee e?iaoeue a?aoeueeiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o.

C iiae?aieie ae iiiyooyie iia’ycai? e ni?iae aoeiieia?coaaoe aoiii?i.
Eiai oeoia/eee ye “o?, ui eaaeaoue o iiaeeao” (a?ae aeneiao ’??’???
??oae “eaaeaoe a caie?”; “i?aecaii?” ?iyae ?anss ’cnssa eaeiYiioae ’c
?anss ’Ynai); a oaeiae caeeaeoaaee c neiaii ?aeiYneie “ceiia?”, oiaoi
aaa/aee a ieo ethaeae “oieiaeieo”, “ao?oeeaeo”, “aei?noieeo” oa
?aiiYneie “i?oueia”. Iiae?ai? ia?ainieneaiiy iia’ycai? c oei, ui eiee
c’yaeeeny ia?o? o?enaoe?? aoiii?ia, ia?aeiia cia/aiiy ii?ia aoei aaea
ao?a/aia, ? a?aee ni?iaoaaee a?aeiaeoe eiai caeeoee, uia ciaeoe aeey
e?iia??eoe?a i?noea o aeani?e na?oiaeyaei?e iiaeae? na?oo.

O inoaii?e /anoei? ia?oiai ?icae?eo aeieeaaeii ?icaeyaeathoueny
aoeiieia?? aoiii?ia e?iia??eoe?, c’yniaothoueny ?oi? ia?aaaae ?
iaaeie?ee. Na?aae aaoi??a

10

iaeaaaii?oeo oa iaeaeieeaaei?oeo eiioeaioe?e ne?ae caaaeaoe A.
E??noainai, I. O?oaa/iaa, ?. Aeueyeiiiaa, I. No?eaeaea. Iaie ?ic?iaeaii
aeanio aoeiieia?th aoiii?ia e?iia??eoe?. Cacia/eii, ui iai ia aaeaeiny
ciaeoe iiyniaiiy iioiaeaeaiiy aoiii?ia oeyoii iiooeo iaaiiai neiaa, c
yeei iiaeia aoei a eiai caeeceoe oi?iaeueii oa naiaioe/ii, oiio aa?oi
ni?iaoaaoe ?icaeyiooe iacao ia?iaeo ye eiiiiceoia ooai?aiiy, ui aaea e
ii/aa ?iaeoe I. O?oaa/ia. Ia iaoo aeoieo, a aoiii?i? ne?ae aeae?eeoe
/anoeie ?ei-|gi-|ga- oa ?an-|mir-|mar-|mer-.O ca’yceo c ia?oei
eiiiiiaioii oaaao i?eaa?oa? neiai *dh(e)ghom “caiey”, yea nii??aeiaia c
a?aoe. ethi “caiey” oa oaoo. tekan ? oox. A tkam c oaeei aea cia/aiiyi.
Ie iaaiaeeii a?aeiia?aeieee oe??? eaenaie a ??cieo iiaao, i?inoaaeo?ii
?icaeoie caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? iacae caie?, aea/a?ii oiiaoe/i?
i?ioeane a iniiaao ooai?aieo a?ae oeueiai ei?aiy, aeiaiaeeii ?nioaaiiy
oi?ie kim- ?c cia/aiiyi “caiey, noai”.

Aeey iiyniaiiy ae?oaiai eiiiiiaioa aeioe?eueiei ? caeo/aiiy aei aiae?co
oe?ei? a?oie ne?a oeio ?.-?.*mer – “thiae, /ieia?e”, ae.-?iae. marya –
“ethaeeia, /ieia?e”, ae.-ia?n. martiya – “/ieia?e”, no.-aee. mer’um
“nei”.

O i?ioean? iiooe?a iaie ciaeaeaii oaoonueeee aiaeyoea kim(ma)ra- “noai,
iiea”, eiai eea?enueeee ei?aeyo im(ma)ra/i “noai, iiea” oa oaii?i
Immarni – aiaeanoai iiey, noaio, ? aeiaaaeaii oi?iaeueio oa naiaioe/io
oioiaei?noue aeacaieo eaenai e aiae?ciaaiiai aoiii?ia.

Oaeei /eiii, aoiii?i e?iia??eoe? ia? i?ioi?io kimmer/ *kimmar- ? ?
eiiiiceoiei ooai?aiiyi aeey ia?oiai eiiiiiaioa yeiai ?aeiino?oth?oueny
cia/aiiy “caiey”, a aeey ae?oaiai – “ethaeeia, nei”. O na?aaeiaeu?
aeaai?o ia?iae?a aoea oaiaeaioe?y aeaiaeeoe ?iaeia?ae naiai ia?iaeo a?ae
ia?oiai i?aaeea, a naith iacao – a?ae eiai ?iai?, oiio a aeena?oaoe??
?icaeyaea?oueny ca’ycie aoi?/iiai oa?i?ia oa oaii?ia Immarni/*Kimmarni,
yeee iaa naiaioeeo “ethaeeia; nei caie?”, “caiiee”, “noaiiaee”, eiee ae
ii?i ii/aa aeei?enoiaoaaoeny o ooieoe?? aoiii?ia, oi oa?i?i iaaoa a?eueo
ocaaaeueiaiiai cia/aiiy “ethaee; ethaee caie?”, “noaiiaeee”, a oea
aeicaiey? a?aeianoe iacao ia?iaeo aei iaeaeaai?oiai oa iaeiioe?ai?oiai
oeio iii?iaoe?? aoi?/ieo ni?eueiinoae. Aoiii?i iio?aeiee a?ae
aio?iiii?ia, oiio ia aeeaii ui a?i ? eiiiiceoii, aaeaea neiaineeaaeaiiy
i?e oai?aii? ?iai aoei oeiiaei aeey

11

iia aaaaoueio ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a, oa e nai? aoiii?ie c aeaai?o
/an?a iiaee ooai?thaaoenue naia oaeei niiniaii. Na?aae aoiii?i?a,
ooai?aieo oeyoii neiaineeaaeaiiy, iiaeia caaaeaoe oae? ii?ie:
‘?neaiaioie (*arya-zantu- “a??enueea ieai’y”), Aryaspai (*arya-aspa- “o?
ui aieiae?thoue a??enueeeie e?iueie”), ‘Aianieie (ne?o. ama-adaka
“ne?i?aee”), ‘?eaiinoie (ne?o. allan-ors – “a?e? aeaie”), ?aiaeaneie
(?iae.-??ai. dan-dar “o?, ye? aieiae?thoue ??eith”).

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “E?iia??enueea aoiii?i?y”
?icaeyaeathoueny ?io? iacae e?iia??enueeiai aoiino oa iacae ia?iae?a,
ye? aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo e?iia??enueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy e anei?ethaaee a
nia? caeeoee e?iia??eoe?a oa noaee ?oi?i i?iaeiaaeaiiyi. Aiae?ciaai?
ii?ie iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo o?iiieia?/ieo ia??iae?a, ??cieo ienaiieo
o?aaeeoe?e. Iniiaiith no?oeoo?iith iaeeieoeath ?icae?eo aoaea ie?aia
noaooy aeey eiaeiiai aoiii?ia, a ye?e cae?enith?oueny eiai eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Cacia/eii, ui iacae aa??, aaaae, a?iiaiieae, oa aaeaeoioaae
aeei?enoiaothoueny a eiiieaen?. Eiiaioaoi?e oa aeine?aeieee ia
caia?a/othoue ?oiueiai aacia?a/iiai ca’yceo, a oiio eaeooue ca Aiia?ii ?
aaaaeathoue oe? oa?i?ie iacaaie iaeiiai ? oiai ae ia?iaeo. Iaeaeaai?oa
o?enaoe?y cae?eniaia a XIII – VIII no. aei i.a. Aia?oa aiie
caaaeothoueny a ai?/i?e iiai? Aiia?a “?e?aaea”.

?iia??ii, ui any ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i aeeooy aeacaieo aoiin?a ocyoa c iaeiiai
aai e?eueeio aeaea?ae, aaeaea iia?aeiieaiiy aioe/ieo aaoi??a ia
a?aecia/athoueny iniaeeaith ??ciiiai?oi?noth ? ??ciiieaiia?noth, a ? a
ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aeine?aiei ia?aeacii a?eueo ?aii?o aeaea?ae ?c
iacia/ieie ? ia/anoeie aeii?oeaie aeanieo aeoiie oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e.
Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui anthaee aea?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?y oa ?icaeoie aeineoue
?aae?noe/iiai oeio.

*eiaei noia?a/ie na?aae a/aieo aeeeeea? ieoaiiy aoi?/ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
oeeo ia?iae?a. Ia aa?oi aeaaaoe iaeiicia/io aoi?/io ao?eaooaoe?th iacaai
iiae?aiiai oeio, aaeaea aiie iiaee iicia/aoe aoaeue-yeo ethaenueeo
ni?eueiioo, eio?a iaea iacae/iee aeey a?ae?a niin?a aeeooy oa
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. ?iia??i?noue iaceaaiiy oaeeie oa?i?iaie e?iia??eoe?a
aeiaaaeaii. Aa?oi aoei a caaeoiaoenue i?i i?noea iiyae iiae?aieo
iaeiaioaaiue. Aacia?a/ii, ui aeieeee aiie a a?aoeueeiio na?aaeiaeu?
aiane?aeie ciaeiinoaa c a?aeiia?aeiei ainiiaea?nueeei eaaeii. Naia oe?

12

iacae ooieoe?iioaaee ye aoiii?i aeioe, aeiee a?aeai ia noaa a?aeiiee
oa?i?i e?iia??eoe?. Iio?i aoa ia??iae ni?a?nioaaiiy ii?i?a, i?ney /iai,
?iaia oaeiai oeio iiaoaeoaaee nei??oa ye aeiaeaoee aei
caaaeueiia?aeiiiai aoiii?ia.

Ia aeeeeea? noii?ao a?aoeueea iioiaeaeaiiy aoiii?i?a, aiie iathoue
i?ici?o aoeiieia?th. Ia iaoo aeoieo, aeioe?eueii aeaiaeeoe ii?i aa?? c
a?aoe. ‘?aeiae “aac cania?a aei aeeooy, a?aeiee”, iacaa aaeaeoioaae
ooai?aia niiniaii neiaineeaaeaiiy a?ae a?aoeueeeo ne?a ?aea, aaeaeoiae,
eao. lac “iieiei” oa ?aaiae “iaiaaea?a, ?aeaoeue”, a a?iiaiieae – a?ae
a?aoeueeeo eaenai ‘???iae “e?iue” oa ‘?iaeau “aei?oe”. Aoiii?i aaaae
aeoeoia/othoue c a?aoe.?aayiae “aeinoieiee caeeaoaaiiy, neaaiee,
aeaai?iaeiee”.

Iiaeeeai, ui oa?i?i aaaae “aeeaiaeaei?, neaai?, aeaai?iaei?” o?aaa
?icoi?oe ye eaeueeo, ia?aeeaae oe?ieia?aeiiiai aoiii?ia *arya-, a ia
i?inoi ye ?aeaae?caoe?th iaeiiai c i?ai?/iiiiio?enueeeo ieaiai.

O noaoo? “Oaa?e” iiaeathoueny iniiai? a?aeiiino? i?i eieae?caoe?th,
iniaeeaino? ainiiaea?nueeiai eaaeo oa ?ae?a?eieo a??oaaiue, iaaiaeyoueny
o?enaoe?? aoiii?ia oa iio?aeieo a?ae iueiai ooai?aiue o ??cieo
aeaea?aeao, aiae?cothoueny eiioeaioe?? iioiaeaeaiiy iacae. Ia iaoo
aeoieo, ?.-?. eaenaia *trH a?ae ter-//tr – “ ia?aiaaaoe, caoiiethaaoe”
noaea iniiaith aeey oai?aiiy iacae oaa??a ? ia?aeiii aoiii?i iaa aeaeyae
tara-//*tura – ? icia/aa “neeuei?, iiaooi?, ia?aiiaeoe?”. Iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeniiaie ui iacaa iaeaaeaea aei aaoiaoiii?i?a. Naiaioe/ii oe?eeii
aei?aaaeaiei ? iaceaaiiy ia?iaeii naiiai naaa ca iiceoeaieie yeinoyie oa
iciaeaie. I/aaeaeii, oaa?e aoee ieaiaiai ?iaeia??enueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

O ienaiieo iai’yoeao neiae?a /anoi ieooaee c ?ioeie ieaiaiaie,
iaiaaaeeny anoaiiaeoe ?oith aoi?/io iaeaaei?noue. Ie aiae?co?ii
iia?aeiieaiiy aioe/ieo aeaea?ae oa cae?enith?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy o?enaoe?e
aoiii?ia.

Iaioe – ca??ia iacaa iecee ieaiai, ye? aeeee a I?eacia’? oa ia Eoaai?.
Oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui iaionuee? ieaiaia ia aoee ?aeei? ca iioiaeaeaiiyi
oa iiaith. Aoiii?i ? ni?eueiith iacaith ?ae?a?eii-eoeueoiaiai oeio aeey
iii?iaoe?? ia?iae?a, ui niia?aeothoue iaeei ? oie aea eoeueo. Ii?i
aeoeoia/o?oueny ye “iaoa?einuee?” c maiat-||ma-it-. Caaaea?ii a oeueiio
ca’yceo e ?i’y aiaei? ?iaeth/ino? o o?ae?eoe?a –?a, oiaoi aoiii?i iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ? ye iacao aeey oeo, ooi iieeiiy?oueny aiaei? ?a, — “ethaee
Ia, ethaee iaoa?? (Aaeeei? Aiaei?)”.

13

Oa?i?i oiiai-iaiaea cana?ae/aiee a anne??enueeeo oa aaa?eiinueeeo
aeaea?aeao. Eiai iiaeia a?aeianoe aei e?oa?aoo?e i?aeoeuenueeeo
ia?aaeaa/aiue. O iiae?aieo oai?ao, ie?ai? c yeeo aeaoothoueny III oen.
aei i.a., a oaeiae caaaeii o oaenoao “aenieiai noeeth” iaaiaeeeeny ia
no/ani? aaoi?ia? /e ia?aienoaa/aa? aaia?ao?/i? oa iie?oe/i? iacae, a
a?eueo aeaai?. A anne??enueeeo oaenoao VII no. aei i.a. aoiii?i
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey iaceaaiiy i?ai?/ieo ia?iae?a, cie?aia,
e?iia??eoe?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeieeaaeii ?icaeyaeathoueny iiaeeea? aoeiieia?? aoiii?ia,
i?inoaaeothoueny aieeae ia iueiai non?aei?o ia?iae?a, aaeaea iacaa
o?eaaeee /an iiaoooaaea a na?aaeiaeu? i?aaenoaaiee?a e?eueeio iiaieo
n?iae, oiaoi ia i?e iiaeooue aooe ??ciiiai?oi? naiaioe/i? oa oiiaoe/i?
iaoa?oaaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe “E?iia??enueea aio?iiii?i?y”
aeine?aeaeothoueny ?iaia e?iia??enueeeo oea??a (Ooaaeaiia/E?aaeai?n,
Oaooia, Naiaeaeoao?a).

Eiaeai aoiin ia? na?e aio?iiii?i?eii. Aio?iiii?ie, iniaeeai iniaia?
?iaia ? caniaaie ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? eiaeii? ie?aii? iniae. A iaaeao
iaeiiai aoiino ?iaia iiaeooue iiaoi?thaaoeny, ui iaaiith i??ith noe?a?,
ciaioo? ?oith nai???aei?noue, aea ia ??ai? aoiino, yeee ae?ya o /oaeiio
eoeueoo?iiio na?aaeiaeu?, ye ie ia?ii o aeiaaeeo c e?iia??eoeyie, eiee c
onueiai aio?iiii?iiiai aaaaonoaa oa ?icia?ooy aei ian aeioiaeeoue eiai
e?eo?oia /anoeia, eiaeia ?i’y noa? iaioe?iaiiei nea?aii, iniaeeai ca
oiiae ui oe? ii?ie ia caiice/ai? a?ae ?ioiai aoiino, a aeoai?ai? o
aeaniiio eoeueoo?iiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Naia aio?iiii?ie iiaeooue aeiiiiiaoe i?e aecia/aii? aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino?
ieaiai?, eiai eoeueoo?iiai ??aiy. Nooo?ai, ui aei ian ae?eoee naia
oea?nuee? e?iia??enuee? ?iaia, aaeaea aiie o oie ia??iae iaeaea ia
iiaoi?thaaeenue, o eiaeiiai i?aaeoaey i?aee?anethaaeeny ye?nue iniaeeai
yne?aa? ?ene, eiaeiiio iaiaaaeeny aeaoe yeiiiaa a?eueo iiaooiueiai
iie?iaeoaey. Ana oea coiiaeei ??ciiiai?oi?noue oei?a ? iiaeaeae
noai?aieo ?iai.

Aioe/i? aeaea?aea o?enothoue aio?iiii?i Ooaaeaiia//E?aaeai?n o oi?i?
?oaaeaieae, a no?aei? oaenoe – Dug-dam-me-i / Tug –dam-me-i. Caeaaia
oaaao i?eaa?oaa oaeo ??ciiai iaienaiiy ?iai? a aeaio ienaiieo
o?aaeeoe?yo. C iaeiiai aieo, ie ia?ii

14

a iueiio a?aei?iiino? o cao/aii? oa iaienaii?, ye? aaaeei iiynieoe, a c
?ioiai – yne?aai ae?aaeaio oioiaei?noue oi?i. C oe??? i?e/eie ?i’y ua e
aein? caeeoa?oueny aeey a/aieo caaaaeeiaei, a ni?iae iiynieoe eiai
iioiaeaeaiiy iaia’yceiai iia’ycai? c iaiao?aei?noth ia?aoe oo /e ?ioo
eiai oi?io. Aeine?aeieee iaiaaaeeny i?eionoeoe, ui aa??aioe iaienaiiy
aio?iiii?ia ? ?acoeueoaoii iienee, oiio aiie i?iaoaaee ?ic?iaeoe
aoeiieia?? eeoa ia iniia? iaei??? oi?ie. O ?iaio? a?aeoai?th?oueny
iiaeeeaee ?icaeoie aeoiie a/aieo, i?iaiaeeoueny ia?aa??ea ?oi?o
eiioeaioe?e. C iaoi? oi/ee ci?o, aeiaeia c eiioeaioe?e iioiaeaeaiiy
iacae ia iiaea aooe iacaaia aaeaeith. Ie i?inoaaeo?ii aieea ia iaienaiiy
ii?ia ??cieo i?oia?ao?e oa ienaiieo o?aaeeoe?e ? aeiaiaeeii iiaio
oi?iaeueio oioiaei?noue iaio oi?i ?iai?. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ci?ie a
iaienaii? aoee iia’ycai? ? c aeayeeie oiiaoe/ieie i?ioeanaie, ye?
a?aeaoaaeeny a na?aaeiaeu? iin??a iacae oa ?oi?o non?ae?a.

Iaie ?ic?iaeaia aeania eiioeaioe?y iioiaeaeaiiy aio?iiii?ia. O i?aenoieo
ie i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo, ui a?i ? eiiiiceoiei ooai?aiiyi, ia?oee
eiiiiiaio yeiai o?aaa aeaiaeeoe c ae.-??ai. sauka- “aiaiiue”, a ae?oaee
c?noaaeoe c ae.-??ai. da- “noai?thaaoe, oai?eoe, anoaiiaethaaoe” ?c
aeiaeaiiyi noo?ena –mi-, -ma- /e –man-, ii?.??ai dami “oai??iiy,
oai?aoeue”, daman “oai??iiy”. Ioaea aio?iiii?i iaaoaa? caaaeueiiai
cia/aiiy “noai?aiee aiaiai; oai??iiy aiaith”.

?iaia Oaooia oa Naiaeaeoao?a iaeaea ia i?eaa?oaee aei naaa oaaao
aeine?aeiee?a, oiio aeiaiaeeoueny eeoa aeacoaaoe ia caoe?eaaeaiiy ieie
aeayeeo a/aieo. Ei?ioei ?icaeyiaii ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiue.
Aio?iiii?i Oaooia ?aeiino?oth?oueny o oi?i? *Turusupa ? iaaoaa? cia/aiiy
“neeueiee /enoioith”, ii?i ia? ?iaei?a?iiaenueea iioiaeaeaiiy, aea ia?
iaai? ia?aaeiueiac?enueei-caeaaeacuee? iaoa?oaaiiy. ?i’y Naiaeaeoao?a
aeoeoia/o?oueny ye “iiaaeeoaeue aeeneaaee” (a?ae ae.-?iae. ksatria-h
“iai” oa a??i. santh- “aeeneaaea”). Ne?ae aeiaeaoe, ui ia?oee eiiiiiaio
?iai? iiaeia aeaiaeeoe c ae.-??ai. zantu- “ieai’y”, oiae? ?i’y iaaoaa?
cia/aiiy “iiaaeeoaeue ieaiai?”.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy:

Ocaiaeaeai? oa nenoaiaoeciaai? a?aeiiino? ??cieo iaoe aeiiiiiaee
c’ynoaaoe iiaio oa aoi?/io iaeaaei?noue ia?iae?a, na?ae/aiiy i?i ye?
ae?eoee aei ian o?eueee /a?ac iiene non?ae?a, a aiie nai? ia caeeoeee
i?ney naaa i?yeiai e?iaa?noe/iiai

15

iaoa??aeo, ie??i iaaaeeei? e?eueeino? aeanieo iaca. Ca oaeeo oiia
iniaeeai aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue aeniiaee e?iaa?noe/iiai
oa?aeoa?o, aiie iathoue ae??oaeueiee oa ocaaaeueithth/ee oa?aeoa?.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co iiiianoeee e?iia??eoe?a iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
nai? e?iia??eoe? oa ?io? ia?iaee, aoiii?ie yeeo ?icaeyiooi a ?iaio?,
aoee ?iaei?a?iiaeoeyie, a?aeiia?aeii, ?oi? iiae iaeaaeaee aei
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? iiaii? n?i’?. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui e?iia??eoe? iaee
??ainueea iioiaeaeaiiy ? ei?enooaaeeny ??ainueeith iiaith. Aiie aoee
iai?aiei aoiinii ia’?aeiaiiy ??cieo ia?iae?a, ia yea iioe?eeany ?oiy
iacaa. Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui ia’?aeiaiiy aoei iie?aoi?/iei, aea eiei
ieaiai, ye? aoiaeeee aei iueiai, aa?oi iaiaaeeoe ?iaei-??aioeyie oa
aeii?oeaie o?ae?eoe?a. Ne?ae?a ia?aaoaaiiy a eiai neeaae? ?ioeo aoiin?a
ia cana?ae/aii.

Caoaaaeeii, ui an? ii?ie, ye? oa?eoee aei ?iaioe, iathoue
?iaei?a?iiaenuee? aoeiieia??, an? aiie iiyniththoueny ca aeiiiiiaith
eaene/iiai iaoa??aeo oa oiiaoe/ieo i?ioean?a ?iaei?a?iiaenueei? iiaii?
n?i’?, aea caciaee aieeao iia ia?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a, ui
coiiaeaii ?oi?i ooieoe?iioaaiiyi a /oaeeo iiaii-ienaiieo nenoaiao.

Aio?iiii?ie oa aoiii?ie ca nai?th no?oeoo?ith oa naiaioeeith iieacia?
aeey oiai/anii? iiiianoe/ii? nenoaie, aiie ao?eththoue o nia? iniiai?
i?eioeeie iii?iaoe?? oa no?oeoo?i? iiaeae?, i?aai?/ii aienothoueny o
na?oiaeyae aeaaiuei? ethaeeie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiii?i?? iieacaei, ui aeoiaoiii?ie caciathoue iaioa
ci?i, ? ?oiy i?ioi?ia ?aeiino?oth?oueny eaaoa, a aeey oiai, uia ia?aeoe
aei ae?iaeaiiy aoeiieia??, aaoiaoiii?i?a, aeiaiaeeoueny nii/aoeo
c’yniaoaaoe oa?aeoa? ? nooi?iue /oaeiiiaieo iaoa?oaaiue.

Ii??aiyiiy aaoiaoiii?i?a oa aeoiaoiii?i?a i?aeoaa?aeeei o?aaeeoe?ei?
a?aei?iiino? aeai?o iioeao iii?iaoe?? aoiino.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo iioae?eiaaieo
i?aoeyo:

1. Eiaaeaiei I.A. E?iia??eoe?: Aoiin oa aoiii?i.-Oa?e?a: Iniiaa,
1998.-104n.

16

2. Eiaaeaiei I.A. A?iioace iioiaeaeaiiy aoiii?ia na?iaoe || Eoeueoo?a
neiaa. – 1996.-Aei.48-49.-N.91-95.

3. Eiaaeaiei I.A. Ne?oe: Aei aoeiieia?? iacae ||
Iiaiciaanoai.-1995.-?2-3.-N.34-38.

4. Eiaaeaiei I.A. Aei aoeiieia?? aoiii?ia e?iia??eoe? || ?aeiino?oeoeai?
iiaeeeaino? iiiianoeee: Oace aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue iaoeiaiai
nai?ia?o .-E.,1995.-N.27-29.

5. Eiaaeaiei I.A. E?iia??enueea aio?iiii?i?y || I?iaeaie iiiianoe/iiai
neiaioai?o: Oace aeiiia?aeae iaoeiaiai nai?ia?o.-E.,1997.-N.27-28.

6. Eiaaeaiei I.A. Oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie aoiii?i?ee || VII Anaoe?a?inueea
iiiianoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y (1-3 aeiaoiy 1997 ?.): Ieoaiiy no/anii?
iiiianoeee : Noaoo? oa oace ca iaoa??aeaie
eiioa?aioe??.-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,1997.-N.91.

17

Eiaaeaiei I.A. E?iia??enueea iiiianoeea.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.15 – caaaeueia iiaiciaanoai. – ?inoeooo
oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy oa aiae?co oai?aoe/ieo ?ia?o, ienaiieo oa
a?oaieia?/ieo iai’yoie iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy
nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei e?iia??enueei? i?iaeaie. ?ic?iaeaii iia?
aoeiieia?? aoiii?i?a oa aio?iiii?i?a (oaeeo ye e?iia??eoe?, oaa?e,
iaioe, oiiai-iaiaea, Ooaaeaiia / E?aaeai?n, Oaooia, Naiaeaeoao?a oa
?ioeo). Aeine?aeaeothoueny ??ci? oi?ie iaca, ?oiy naiaioeea oa
eiiiiceoe?eia no?oeoo?a, oiiaoe/i? oa i?oia?ao?/i? aieeae, niaoeeo?/i?
iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i aoi?/io
?aeaioeo?eaoe?th oa iiao e?iia??eoe?a oa ?ioeo ia?iae?a. Cae?eniaii
nenoaiiee eiiieaeniee aiae?c e?iia??enueeiai ?ae?eoo. I?iiiio?oueny
iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae aei canoinoaaiiy oeueiai aiae?co.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiiianoeea, aoiii?i, aio?iiii?i, aoeiieia?y, aoiiaaiac,
iiaa.

Eiaaeaiei I.A. Eeiia?eeneay iiiianoeea.- ?oeiienue

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10-02-15 – iauaa ycueiciaiea Einoeooo
oe?aeineiai ycuea IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Ia iniiaaiee eco/aiey e aiaeeca oai?aoe/aneeo ?aaio, ienueiaiiuo e
a?oaieiae/aneeo enoi/ieeia iainiiauaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiaiaiey
nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea e eeiia?eeneie i?iaeaia. ?ac?aaioaiu iiaua
yoeiieiaee yoiiieiia e aio?iiiieiia (oaeeo eae eeiia?eeoeu, oaa?u,
iaiou, oiiai-iaiaea, Ooaaeaiia / Eeaaeaien, Oaooia, Naiaeaeoao?a e
ae?oaeo). Enneaaeothony ?aciua oi?iu iacaaiee, eo naiaioeea e
eiiiiceoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a, oiiaoe/aneea e i?oia?aoe/aneea aeeyiey
niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Aeaeaaony auaiae i
yoie/aneie eaeaioeoeeaoeee eeiia?eeoeaa e ae?oaeo ia?iaeia. I?iaaaeai
nenoaiiue eiiieaeniue aiaeec eeiia?eeneiai ?aeeeoa. I?aaeeaaaaony
iaoiaee/aneee iiaeoiae e i?eiaiaieth yoiai aiaeeca.

18

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiiianoeea, yoiiiei, aio?iiiiei, yoeiieiaey,
yoiiaaiacen, ycue.

Kovalenko N.A. Cimmerian onomastics.-Manuscript.

The thesis is presented for Candidate’s degree acceding to the specialty
10-02-15 – “General linguistics”. – Institute of the Ukrainian Language
of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, 1998.

The necessity to apply system – based approach to Cimmerian problem is
grounded on the basis on research and analysis of theoretical works,
written and archaeological sources. The new etymologies of the ethnonyms
and anthroponyms are elaborated (such as Cimmerian, Taurian, Meotian,
Umman-manda, Tugdamme /Lygdamis, Teushpa, Sandakshatra and other).

The different forms, semantics and composition structure phonetically
and orphografical influences, specific features of functioning of the
names are investigated. A conclusion is made about the ethnical
identification and language of the Cimmerians and other nations. The
dissertation gives a system complex analysis of the Cimmerian relict.
Methodical approach to apply its analysis is proposed.

Key words: onomastics, ethnonym, anthroponym, etymology, ethogenesis,
language.

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