IAOe?IIAEUeIA IOCE*IA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

?i. I.?.*AEEIANUeEIAI

OAA*OE IEAIA TH???AIA

OAeE 783 (477) (09)

EE?ANUeEEE IANI?A

O EIIOAENO? OeA?EIAII-IIIIAeE*IIAI NI?AO

OE?A?IE oa A?EI?ON?? OV?? – OV??? no.

(AeAEA?AEA, AEAI?E, ?ENE NOEE?NOEEE)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 17.00.03 – ioce/ia ienoaoeoai

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oai??? ioceee Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii?

aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ioani? AA?ANEIIAA-

IA?NEAeNUeEA I?IA IEAENAIAe??AIA

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a-

?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?en-

oeee oa aoiieia?? ?i
I.O.?eeuenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

IA?OIIAIEI ETH IEAENAIAe??AIA

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e

?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ioceee
Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii?

aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i.
I.?.*aeeianueeiai

AONA?*OE OAOssIA
AIEIAeEIE??AIA

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia eiina?aaoi??y
?i.A.A.Iaaeaeaiiai?,

eaoaae?a ?noi??? ioceee oa
ioce/ii? aoiia?ao??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 15 aiae.30 oa. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.005.01 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe o
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e ioce/i?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai ca
aae?anith: 01001, Ee?a — 1, aoe. A?o?oaeoi?a Ai?iaeaoeueeiai, 1-3/11,
2-e iiaa?o, aoae. 36.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai (01001, Ee?a — 1, aoe.
A?o?oaeoi?a Ai?iaeaoeueeiai, 1-3/11).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “26” na?iiy 1999 ?ieo

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,

aeioeaio
EIOAIEE ?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeoiee oea?eiaiiai ni?ao a Ee?a? nyaathoue /ano io?oe?eiiai i?eeiyooy
Aeaaiueith ?onnth o?enoeyinoaa – e?ioey O no., a iiaeeeai e ?O – /ano
iiyae a Ee?a? ia?oeo o?enoeyinueeeo oea?eia. sseui nii/aoeo iii?ith aeey
noa?iee?anueeiai ni?ao aoea a?aei-a?caio?enueea o?aaeeoe?y e ni?ai/ee
aeina?ae io?auaieo ?ai?oa neia’yi (aieaa?e, iaeaaeiioe?, ii?aae e ?i.),
oi ai?iaeiaae a?e?a a?i iaaoa ieoiieo aeaaiuei?onueeeo ?en. Aeia?a
iii?oiith ? noee?noe/ia ie?ai?oi?noue oe?a?inueeeo iani?a?a,
cao?eniaaieo o ia?oeo caa?aaeaieo iioie?i?eieo ??iieiyo e?ioey OV? no.
(oi/a oiae? aiia iaeaea ia aoea a?aeia?aaeaia o a?aeiia?aeieo iacaao).
I?ioyaii OV??-OV??? no. ?yae iiiiae?e io?eio? iiao aeey oiai /ano iacao
– IAIUeEO E??ANEIAI. Ee?anueeee iani?a (EI) iioe?th?oueny a Oe?a?i? e
A?ei?on??, a c na?aaeeie OV?? no. – ? a ?in?? (Ee?aneee ?aniuea), aea
o?eno?oueny ye o ciaiaiieo, oae ? a iioie?i?eieo ca??eao, a
iaeiiaieiniio e aaaaoiaieiniio aeaeyae?. Iei? EI oe?iei canoiniao?oueny
o no?aeiineia’yinueeiio aiaineoae?ii? (iniaeeai o aeaeyae? oi?iaeo
ia?iaie — aiii?iieo oa eiiiiceoi?nueeeo) a oaeiae iinooiiai aoiaeeoue
aei na?oiai? eiioea?oii? i?aeoeee (ii/anoe caaaeyee ae?y/ai eoeueoo?e ye
a Oe?a?i?, oae ? a ae?anii??).

C iiiaioo aeieeiaiiy o?aaeeoe?y aeaaiuei?onueeiai oea?eiaiiai ni?ao
ee?anueei? aaiace aoea aacia?a?aiith: oi iineethth/enue, oi neaaio/e,
aiia iino?eii a?ae?iaeaeoaaeany e iaaoaaea a ??ci? aiioe iiaeo yeinoae.
Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy a ?noi?e/i?e ia?niaeoea? ?icaeoeo ni?ai/iai ienoaoeoaa
ia? EI, yeee ? “i?noeii” i?ae eoeueoo?aie aeaaiueiai ? iiaiai /ano.
Aacia?a/ii, ui /a?ac aeine?aeaeaiiy EI OV??-OV??? no., cao?eniaaiiai
iyoee?i?eiith iioaoe??th, aeinooiiith aeey a??ia?aeiiai i?i/eoaiiy,
i?ieaea oeyo aei ii?aoethaaiiy ni?ai/eo iai’yoie Ee?anueei? ?on?. Ana
oea aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeai (ye ?noi?e/ieo, oae ? oai?aoe/ieo),
iiaycaieo ?c aeine?aeaeaiiyi ee?anueeiai ni?ao.

Iiyaa EI a ?oeiienao OV?? no. iaeaaeaea aei iiaaoe?e oiai/aniiai
ia??iaeo, yeiio aoee aeanoea? iino?ei? ci?ie a noa?? eoeueoo?e.
Iniaeeaino? o??? aiioe a?aecia/aeeny a aaaaoueio i?aoeyo – ye ?noi?e/ieo
? eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo (I.N.A?ooaanueeee, ?.ss.O?aiei, ieo?.?.Ia??iei,
Ae.N.Eeoa/ia, A.E.Aaaia? oa ?i.), oae ? niaoe?aeueieo iaae??a?noe/ieo
(i.?.Aicianainueeee, i.Ae.?acoiianueeee, i.A.Iaoaeeia, I.A.A?aaeieeia,
I.Ae.Oniainueeee, TH.A.Eaeaeeo, N.N.Ne?aaeia,
I.I.Aa?aneiiaa-Ia?neaenueea, O.O.Aeaaeeoaanueea, I.N.Na?ueia?ia,
N.A.O?ieia, A.I.Oeiae?i, E.I.Ei?i?e, I.N.Oeaeae-sseeiaiei,
TH.I.ssn?iianueeee, ?.?.Eiciaay oa ?i.). Na?aae aaaaoueio i?iaeai
?icaeoeo ioce/iiai ienoaoeoaa OV??-OV??? no. i?iaeaia naiiaooiino? EI
aeeeeeaea iino?eiee ?ioa?an – ye o O?O, oae ? a OO no. Iaea?eueoa aiia
aeine?aeaeaia ?in?enueeeie a/aieie (a aniaeo? c?noaaeaiiy EI ?c
?in?enueeei ciaiaiiei ?icni?aii) ? io?eiaea ae?ae noia?a/eeaa
?ica’ycaiiy – a?ae aecia/aiiy ie?aieo naiiaooi?o ?en EI
(i.?.Aicianainueeee) oa aeciaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae eiai
noee?noeee (N.Ne?aaeia) aei eiinoaoaoe?? ?aeaioe/iino? i?ci?o c?ace?a EI
? ciaiaiiiai ?icni?ao (I.Iiooeia, i.A.Iaoaeeia) oa aeaeea?oaaiiy
caeaaeiino? EI a?ae ciaiaiiiai (A.A.I?aia?aaeainueeee).

Oe?a?inuee? aeine?aeieee c ae?anii?e (I.Eioeoeue, I.Iaoeaiei) o?aeooaaee
EI ye ia?oiaeaea?aei noa?iai ciaiaiiiai ni?ao Ee?anueei? ?on? (oey
a?iioaca, ia aeaeue, ieie i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aooe ia iiaea — /a?ac
cina?aaeaeaiiy iioieo aeaea?ae noa?ioe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy a a?o?aao
?in??). ?ioeie oe?a?inueeeie a/aieie EI caaaeo?oueny aeioe/ii aei ??cieo
yaeu ni?ai/i? eoeueoo?e (I.N.Oeaeae-sseeiaiei, E.I.Ei?i?e,
TH.I.ssn?iianueeee, A.I.Aaneeue/aiei-Ieoii) aai a ca’yceo c iaienaiiyi
caaaeueieo iaeyaeiaeo i?aoeue c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ioceee
(i.I.Aaaeainueeee, I.A??i/aiei, A.Eoae?ee, I.Iaoeaiei, I.Aioiiiae/,
I.O?a??-Oea/aiei, I.Ai?iaee, E.Ei?i?e).

Iia?aeiee ?icaeyae EI a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, iayaia i?ioenoiyiiy iiceoe?e
a/aieo cana?ae/othoue iaaaeaeaaoia inieneaiiy ?noi??? EI, a oiio
aeathoue i?aai caa?iooeny aei ?? ?icaeyaeo. A?aoiaoth/e iniiaiee
aaeuei?aiee iiiaio aeey ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? aeoiee i?i EI – ianoa/o
aeaea?ae, – aaoi? aaaaeaa ca iaiao?aeia ?icaeyiooe oea yaeua ia oe?ieiio
iaoa??ae?. Aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee ii?aoeueiaai?
aaoi?ii de visu (o 1981-1998 ??.) 500 ??iiei?a ?c ?oeiienieo oiiae?a
oaeeo onoaiia, ye ?inoeooo ?oeiieno Iaoe?iiaeueii? A?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie
?i. A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai, Ee?a (aeae? ??); Euea?anueea Iaoeiaa A?ae?ioaea
?i. A.Noaoaieea; Iaoe?iiaeueiee Iocae Oe?a?inueeiai Ienoaoeoaa, Euea?a;
Oa?e?anueea Iaoeiaa A?ae?ioaea; ?in?enueea Aea?aeaaia A?ae?ioaea, Iineaa
(aeae? ?AeA), A?ae?ioaea Iineianueei? eiina?aaoi???; Iaoe?iiaeueia
A?ae?ioaea A?ei?on?, I?inuee; Biblioteka Narodova, Aa?oaaa (aeae? —
IAA); A?ae?ioaea *a?oi?eenueeeo, E?ae?a. C iaoith ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co
aeei?enoiaothoueny oaeiae ioae?eaoe?? iani?a?a o oaenei?eueiiio aeaeaii?
??iiei?a ?c c?a?aiiy Oeaio?aeueii? Aea?aeaaii? A?ae?ioaee a Aooa?ano?,
cae?eniaiiio ?.Oii/aaith, a oaeiae o ca??ieeao oa iiiia?ao?yo
i.?.Aicianainueeiai, I.Ae.Oniainueeiai, I.I.Aa?aneiiai?-Ia?neaenueei?,
E.I.Ei?i?e.

I?iaiae?ciaaiee ianya iaoa??aeo ae/a?iii i?aaenoaaey? ia?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?niani?ae OV??–OV??? no. ??cieo aeai??a ?c
??ciiiai?oieie iani?aaie ia oea?eiaii-neiayinuee? oaenoe, a oaeiae
?oeiiene, ui ?o i?noyoue. I?aaeiaoii ?icaeyaeo ? caycee i?ae EI oa
?ioeie nii??aeiaieie yaeuaie, anoaiiaeai? ia ??cieo ??aiyo iiaoooaaiiy
ni?ai/iai ienoaoeoaa – a no?oeoo?? ??iieith, o aeai?ia?e nenoai?
i?niani?a?a oa a oiiaao aaaaoiiani?aiino? (na?aae ?ioeo iani?a?a) –
ca’ycee, ui aeicaieythoue aeyaeoe niaoeeo?/i? ?ene EI.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee caeo/aiiai iaoa??aeo iaiaaeothoueny a?eii ??iiei?a
(e?iaoeue OV? – ii/aoie O?O no.).

Oa?eoi??aeueiee ianya aecia/a?oueny iaaeaie oe?a?inueei-a?ei?onueeeo
i?aaineaaieo ?ia?o?e oa ieo?iiie?e ia oa?eoi??? ?a/? Iiniieeoi? aei 1667
?., a?ae oeueiai /ano e o neeaae? Iineianueei? aea?aeaae, oiaoi a?ae
Neiaiaeaiueie aei Aa?oaae, a?ae A?eueia, O?ie ? Eiaia – aei Aei?no?a.

Aieiaiith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?icaeyae EI a oe?a?inuee?e
oea?eiaii-ni?ai/?e o?aaeeoe?? OV??-OV??? noie?oue, ?ic?iaea i?aai?/ii?,
aioo??oiuei ianoia?a/eeai? eiioeaioe?? eiai ?icaeoeo, yea ?ai?acaioo? EI
a oiiaao neeaaeii? i?ioeae?? ??cieo ?noi?eei-eiioan?eieo /eiiee?a.

Ona?aeiiethth/e neeaaei?noue iaoe, yei? iaiaaaeiny aeinyaoe ia iaeia
iieie?iiy a/aieo, aaoi? cae?enith? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaoaiii, ae??ooth/e
iine?aeiaii ?yae caaaeaiue:

– cae?enieoe aeaea?aeiciaa/ee aiae?c EI; anoaiiaeoe ianya iayaieo eiai
iaiyoie, ?o /aniao ? oa?eoi??aeueio ?iciianthaeaeai?noue, o?iiieia?th
iiyae iacae EI o OV??-OV??? no., i?e/eie iaaeaiiy iacae, ?ice?eoe
a?aaeaoe?? ci?noo iacae caeaaeii a?ae ianooaa?a c?noaaeaiiy EI ?c
??cieie iani?aaie;

– aeine?aeeoe aeai?iai-e?oo?a?/i? iniaeeaino? i?niani?a?a EI, ?ice?eoe
ci?io noee?noe/ieo iciae EI o i?ioean? eiai aaiethoe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue;

– noa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?ene noee?noeee EI /a?ac c?noaaeaiiy eiai c
iaee?anueeeie, aecia/eoe eiai eiioan?eio iaeaaei?noue, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c
iaeiiaieineie iani?aaie oa ia?oaniei aaaaoiaieinnyi.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniaia ?c canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaenii? –
aeaea?aeiciaa/i?, aeai?iai-e?oo?a?/ii? oa ioceeiciaa/i? – iaoiaeeee
aiae?co i?niani?a?a. Eiai iine?aeiai?noue – a?ae iiooeo, ao?eaooe??,
a?aeai?o, ca?iiaaeaeaiiy aii??e/ieo aeaieo aei aiae?co – aecia/eei
oe?iea canoinoaaiiy niaoe?aeueieo iaoiaeee aeiiii?aeieo ?noi?e/ieo
aeenoeeie?i, ye iaeaia?ao?y, o?e?a?aiiciaanoai, aeaea?aeiciaanoai, a
oaeiae (?c aeiiii?aeiith iaoith) aeaoeo?iaea ciaiaiii? iii?oii?
iioaoe??. Neio?ii?/ia e ae?ao?ii?/ia ii??aiyiiy iani?a?a — “o i?inoi??”
(aa??aioi? ?ica?aeiino?) ? “a /an?” (aaiethoe?ei? ci?ie) —
cae?enithaaeiny ca aeiiiiiaith oaenoieia?/ieo “ia?oeoo?ieo” c?noaaeaiue,
ai?iaiaaieo no/aniith iaae??a?noeeith. Eiiiiceoe?? iani?a?a
i?iaiae?ciaaii ca caaaeueii-ioceeiciaa/ith iaoiaeeeith.
Ooaeiaeiuei-eiiiiceoe?eia aeiaa?oai?noue iaea?eueo neeaaeieo iani?a?a
iai/ii iieacaia a iioiiio caien? /a?ac ?yaeeiai-a??oiaa ?icoaooaaiiy –
“aiae?oe/io iioaoe?th” (aia?oa aoea canoiniaaia ?.A?ii?onii o ioce/i?e
oieueeei?enoeoe?).

Ia?ao?ae a?ae aiae?co aii??e/ieo aeaieo ia ??aaiue oiiaeaiae?a ?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiei ca aeai?ii iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae ocaaaeueiaiue.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui caaaeueii-iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy a i?ioean? ?icaeyaeo
ooaeiaei?o yaeu aiioe na?aaeiueia?//y ia? niaoe?aeueiee
aeai?iai-e?oo?a?/iee i?aeo?ae (A.Aaeean, A.Aa?ia?, A.E.Aaaia?,
N.N.Aa???ioeaa, A.A.Ae/eia, Ae.N.Eeoa/ia oa ?i.). ?ice?eooy ia i?eeeaae?
a?caio?enueei? e aeaaiuei?onueei? e?oa?aoo?e e ienoaoeoaa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? eiaeiiai aeai?o, niaoeeo?ee “aeai?iaiai ioiaee?o”
oai?o (Ae.N.Eeoa/ia) iaaea? iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaoe iaoiaeeeo
aeai?iaiai aiae?co a i?ioean? ?icaeyaeo ni?ai/iai ienoaoeoaa.
A?aecia/aiee i?aeo?ae /anoeiai ai?iaiaoaaany a ie?aieo i?aoeyo
i.?.Aicianainueeiai, ?.A.Aa?aeia?a, i.A.I?eiea?aa,
I.I.Aa?aneiiai?-Ia?neaenueei?, O.O.Aeaaeeoaanueei?, ?.?.Eiciai?,
?.O.Aacoaeiai?, A.I.Aaneeue/aiei-Ieoii. Iaaooee aeine?aeieeaie aeina?ae
aeei?enoiao?ii a ?iaio? a i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy aeai?iaiai aiae?co
i?niani?a?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa o a?o/eciyiiio
ioceeiciaanoa? ?ic?iaeaii oe?e?nio eiioeaioe?th ?icaeoeo EI a OV??-OV???
no., ae??oo?oueny ?yae caaaeaiue, ye? ni?eythoue aeinyaiaiith iaoe:

– a?aeiaeaeaii iiooaeiee oa? ni?ai/i? eoeueoo?e OV??-OV??? no.,
inieneaii eiai nooi?noue (iane?eueee aeicaieythoue iayai? aeai?),
noai?ai? ?oeiieniee eaoaeia ii?aoeueiaaieo iai’yoie oa ca??iee iani?a?a
OV??-OV??? no., ?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeie ?oiuei? ao?eaooe??, caaaeyee /iio
anoaiiaeaii iioiaeaeaiiy aeayeeo ni?a?a (?c iacaaie oa aac?iaiieo);

– nooo?ai iiiaeaia iaoiaeeea aeai?iaiai aiae?co i?niani?a?a; aecia/aii
a?n?i e?eoa???a, ye? neeaaeathoue aioo??oiuei aca?iiiiaycaio nenoaio
iaia’yceiaeo iciae i?niani?ao;

– ?ic?iaeaia (aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e iaae??a?noeoe?) oeiieia?y aeae?a
aaaaoiiani?aiino?; i?iaiae?ciaai? noeeueia? “eii?aeeiaoe”, o yeeo
?nioaaa EI; ?ice?eoi eiai i?noea na?aae ?ioeo iani?a?a; aia?oa
aeiaaaeaii ??ciee /an iioiaeaeaiiy naiiai EI oa eiai iacae.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aaoi? aeei?enoiao? o
aoc?anueeiio niaoeeo?n? “Aeaaiy oe?a?inueea aeooiaia ioceea (O?-OV??
no.)” (Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee Oi?aa?neoao eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa);
aiie iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? ? a aeenoeeie?iao “Aiae?c ioce/ieo
oai??a” (iiiiae?y), “?noi??y oe?a?inueei? ioceee”, “Ioce/ia oaenoieia?y”
oa ?ioeo, niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ca oaiith aeaaiuei? a?o/eciyii? ioceee
(ienaiia o?aaeeoe?y).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe cae?eniaia a i?ioean? iaaiai?aiiy ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e oai??? ioceee Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? Aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie, a
oaeiae o aeiiia?aeyo aaoi?a ia Anaoe?a?inueeeo oa i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo a Oe?a?i? (Ee?a: 1987,1990, 1995, 1997, 1998), ?in??
(Iineaa: 1987, 1996), Iieueu? (Ethae?i: 1992).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??: anooi, o?e ?icae?ee, aeniiaee, nienie e?oa?aoo?e
(270 iiceoe?e), nienie ?oeiienieo aeaea?ae, ia?ae?e oiiaieo nei?i/aiue,
iioi? i?eeeaaee, aeiaeaoee (A-A). Iniiaiee oaeno aeena?oaoe?? aeeth/a?
178 noi??iie (aei iueiai aoiaeeoue 12 oaaeeoeue), caaaeueiee ianya –
…. noi??iie

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, oi?ioeththoueny iaoa,
caaaeaiiy ?iaioe e iniiai? i?aeoiaee aei aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai? eiai
ia?eo, i?aaeiao, oa?eoi??aeuei? e o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee. O i?ioean? aiae?co
e?oa?aoo?e ?icaeyaea?oueny ?noi??y ia?aii? i?iaeaiaoeee a oe?a?inuee?e
oa ?in?enuee?e iaae??a?noeoe?. Aeneiaeaii aeoieo, ui ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue ?in?enueeeie a/aieie ee?aneaai ?aniUeaa ca ?in?enueeeie
?oeiienaie e Neiiaeaeueieie aeaeaiiyie noinothoueny eeoa i?ci?o
?in?enueeeo ?aaeaeoe?e EI, i?ioa ia ?iciianthaeaeothoueny ia aaoaioe/iee
oe?a?inueeee EI OV??-OV??? no. I?aee?aneaia cia/aiiy iiiia?ao?e i?i EI
i.?.Aicianainueeiai oa ae-?a I.Iaoeaiea. Aeiaaaeaia iaaeinoaoiy
iciaeiieai?noue a/aieo O?O-OO no. ?c oe?a?inueeeie ?oeiienaie. ?ice?eoa
noia?a/eea?noue iiaeyae?a aeine?aeiee?a, yea noa? i?eaiaeii aei
cae?eniaiiy iiaeo ?ica?aeie. Oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/aiiy aaeeaaii?
oa?i?iieia?? (“iani?a”, “?icni?a”). ?ic’yniaia iiiaeeii?noue
i?oia?ao?/ieo ii?i iaienaiiy oea?eiaii-neia’yinueeeo oaeno?a
(a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaieo iniaeeainoae ??cieo iai’yoie)

?icae?e 1 – “EI o eiioaeno? ??iieith oeiiai? no?oeoo?e XVII-XVIII no.” –
ia? aeaea?aeiciaa/ee ci?no. ??iieie, ui aeine?aeaeoaaany a ieioeiio
(/anoeiai) ?.I.Naoa?iaei, I.A.Niieainueeei, i.?.Aicianainueeei, a a iao
/an – TH.I.ssn?iianueeei, ia oa?aeoa?ecoaaany c oi/ee ci?o ?ici?uaiiy a
iueiio i?noeaaeo iani?a?a (o oiio /ene? e EI). Oiio a 1.1 iiaea?oueny
noenea oa?aeoa?enoeea no?oeoo?e ??iieith oa aa??aio?a ?icoaooaaiiy
i?noeaaeo iani?a?a, yea ocaaaeueith? iiooeiaee aeina?ae aaoi?a.

??iieie – aaeueie i?ea?iaeueiee oe?a?inueei-a?ei?onueeee aeae
no?aeiineiayinueei? oea?eiaii? iioii? ca??ee. No?oeoo?? aoaeue-yeiai
?oeiieno aeanoeaa neioaoe/i?noue, yea ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac niieo/aiiy
/ioe?ueio i?eioeei?a oii?yaeeoaaiiy i?niani?a?a. Eiaeai aeii?io? a
iaei?e /anoei? aai a aeae?eueeio: e?oo?a?/iee, ca iine?aeiai?noth
a?aei?aae – a Iaeoiae? (1 /.); eaeaiaea?iee — o Noeoe?a??, O??iae?,
Iaeoiae? i?niiio (IV /.), iniiaeaniee — a Ieoi?oia?, Iiaeiaiao, ??iinao
Ieoi?oa (??, ??? //.), ??iinao nayoeiaeo oa o??iaeieo (?V /.); aeai?iaee
— ia ??ai? an??? ca??ee, a ?iiae? a iaaeao ie?aieo /anoei.
Aaaaoineeaaeia?noue ??iieith aea? i?aai aaaaeaoe eiai nai???aeiei
“aeai?iaei eiiaiethoii” — ia?aeiaiiyi /anoei, ??cieo ca ci?noii,
i?eioeeiaie oii?yaeeoaaiiy oa ??ciei ?noi?e/iei /anii oi?ioaaiiy
iani?a?a (iie?noaae?aeuei?noue).

Aea/aiiy ??iieith aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe nooiai? a??ia?aeiino?
?icoaooaaiiy i?noeaaeo iani?a?a o ?icae?eao ca??ieea. Cono??oe ?o iiaeia
(a?ae iaea?eueoi? aei iaeiaioi? a??ia?aeiino?): a Iaeoiae? i?inoiio,
Noeoe?a?? nayoeiaiio oa Iaeoiae? i?niiio, Ieoi?oia? e Iiaeiaiao, na?aae
??iin?a O??iae?; ia cono??any EI na?aae ??iin?a Ieoi?oa. A 1.1
?icaeyaeathoueny e iiaeeeaino? ?iciiae?eo ia?aienoaa/aie aeai?iaeo a?oi
i?ae ?icae?eaie ca??ee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui /a?ac aa??aioi?noue ?o
?icoaooaaiiy (ye ? /a?ac /anoa aeiienoaaiiy i?niani?a?a ia /enoeo
a?eooao iii?ae ?icae?eaie) cono??oe i?noeaa? iani?ae iiaeia ia
aoaeue-ye?e ae?eyioe? i?inoi?o ca??ee.

1.2. Iae/ano?oa ?c i?noeaaeie iani?aaie aaeeaaeeny iino?ei? i?niani?ae
Iaeoiaeo, yeei a?aeaiaeeee i?noea ia?aaaaeii ia ii/aoeo eieae. Ooo
?icoaoiaai? iaae?euei? (nayoeia?) Anaiiuia ? E?oo?a?y (a iiianoe?yo
E?oo?a?y uiaeaiia). E?euee?nii oeae ?icae?e ioiieth? iaaaeeeo /anoeio
??iieith (anueiai a?ae 2 aei 30 a?eoo?a ?c e?eueeio nioaiue), i?ioa a
ye?niiio a?aeiioaii? ?ieue oeeo ni?a?a aecia/ia: aiie neeaaeathoue
i?eaeecii iieiaeio a?aei?aa, ?o iaci?iio iniiao, eio?a caiiaith?oueny
uiaeiy ?ioeie ni?aaie, ci?iieie ca eaeaiaea?ai (aeea. ?icae?e 2).

1.3. O i?ioean? ?icaeyaeo ??iiei?a aaoi?ii a?aeiaeaeaii 113 i?niani?a?a
EI (??ci? ni?ae i?aaenoaaeai? iaeeieoeyie, aeanyoeaie aai nioiyie
?oeiienieo aa?n?e). Aeaooaaiiy ca??ie (ca o?e?a?aiyie) aeicaieeei
anoaiiaeoe iine?aeiai?noue iiyae iacae “iaiueeo e??aneiai” i?ioyaii
OV??-OV??? no. a?ey ??cieo i?niani?a?a (oaae.1.3). Aaia?ao?y ??iiei?a
aeaco? ia iioe?aiiy iacae EI ia an?e oa?eoi??? i?aaineaaieo ?ia?o?e ?a/?
Iiniieeoi?: a?ae 1620-1630-o ??. — o Cao?aei?e oa Oeaio?aeuei?e Oe?a?i?,
a?ae 1650-o — o A?ei?on??, a oaeiae, a?ae na?aaeeie OV?? no., a ?in??
(iaie ?icaeyaeathoueny eeoa ??iiei?, oeeaaeai? oai oe?a?inueeeie
ni?aaeaie).

Ca oaenoieia?/iith ?ai?acaioiaai?noth iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e a?oie EI. 1)
Aeoaea oaeaeei — a?ae 1620-o aei 1650-o ??. — ie?aneeany oeaio?aeueiee
?aia?ooa? EI, ui cono??/aoeiaoueny o OV??-OV??? no. /anoi ? iianthaeii.
Oea iaeoiaei? i?niani?ae: “Aeaaineiae, aeooa iiy, Ainiiaea” e “Aeaaeai
ioae” ?c Anaiiuii? oa i?ni?-a?iie c E?oo?a?? a??ieo: “?aea oa?oaeie”,
“Ieeinoue ie?a”, “Aeinoieii ? i?aaaaeii”, “Nayo, Nayo, Nayo”, “Inaiia ai
aeoi?o” (aeaa iani?ae), “Aeaaineiaai a?yaeee”, “Aieiue”, “Ii?i Oy (“Oaaa
ii?i”); eeiiiee “Oaaeueoa Ainiiaea n iaaan”, cai?e/ania “Aeeeoey”,
aeoai??, eiiaeae “Aica?aiiie Ai?aiaeue” (Iaeoiae i?niee).

2) I?ioyaii OV??-OV??? no. “ee?anueeeie” ?iaioaaeeny aeaye? ni?ae, ui
c’yaeyeenue o oeeo naieo neoaeaao, aea /an a?ae /ano: “Nayoee Aiaea”,
“Aeinoieii ?noue”, “?aeei nayo”, “Ee?e?, aeaenii”. I?ae e?iaoeue OV??
no. ?ioaineo?eo?oueny i?ioean i?enai?iiy iacae EI o cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
?oeiienao — ye aeai?iaei oeeeeai (aiai?iaee/i? iiieiaeuei?, i?e/ani?,
aeaaeaiie, eaoaaan?y iieaaio ia 8 ae.), oae ? ie?aiei i?niani?aai
(“Anyei aeeoai??”, “Aica?aiiee Ai?aiaei”).

3) ?aooa ni?a?a ia? iiiaeeiie? aecia/aiiy EI a ie?aieo ?oeiienao,
aeyaeyth/e aeineoue oe?eaaee iiae?e ia aea? a?oie. A) — aeoaea c??aeea
aeienoaai? ni?ae Anaiiuii? oa E?oo?a?? EI, ui i?noyoueny a ?aii?o
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo ca??eao 1620-1670-o ??. (aeaye? ? a i?ci?o
oeaio?aeueiioe?a?inueeeo e?ioey OV??? no.), oea “I?eeae?oa, iieeiieiny”,
“Aaee/ae, aeooa iiy, Ainiiaea”, “Neaaa ai aeoi?o Aiao”,
“I?aaeaaineiaaiia ?ne”, “Ooaa?aee, Aiaea”, “Niiaeiae, Ainiiaee”,
“?aeeii?iaeiee Neia”, “Naueoa oeoee”. O a?ei?onueeiio ?oeiien? e?ioey
OV?? no. aeienaiee oeeee ?aaiaaeuenueeeo oa Ianoaeueieo noeoe?, ia?o? c
yeeo ? aeoaea ??aee?nieie aeey neeaaeo ??iieiy. Aeey an?o iacaaieo
ni?a?a a ?ioeo ?oeiienao iaeaea iaia? c?ace?a aeey oaenoieia?/ieo
c?noaaeaiue, oiio aiie ?, ia iaoo aeoieo, “oaenoieia?/ieie ?a?eoaoaie”.

A). Ae?oaa a?oia i?niani?a?a, iaeiaiiaaieo ee?anueeeie c??aeea, ?,
iaaiaee, iaaecae/aeii ?iciianthaeaeaiith e iayaiith a ia?aaaaei?e
a?eueoino? ?oeiien?a — aea aac ao?eaooe??. Iaeiaioaaiiy EI aiie
io?eiothoue a ie?aieo ??iieiyo, ia?aienaieo o ?in??, i?e/iio, a OV???
no. aiii i?inoaaey?oueny a?ey oeo i?niani?a?a, ye? a OV?? iei ia
icia/athoueny. Oea E?oo?a?y Ia?aaeinay/aieo Aea??a, noeoe?e iiaeiai?,
ie?ai? ni?ae nayo ? Iinoo (eiiaeae ??caeao, na?oeeai “Ieioeth onioa”),
noeoe?e ia iieaa?iue Aiai?iaeeoe? (aiie aoiaeyoue aei ca??ie ia/anoi).
Oey a?oia, ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiuei?, aeyaey? iaee?au? iiaeeeaino?
aeey oaenoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

1.4. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c cana?ae/ea, ui iniiao ?aia?ooa?o EI neeaee
aeaaiuei?onuee? i?niani?ae — ye iniiaeani?, oae ? iainiiaeani?.
Iaoii?noue aeae?eueea EI — a?aei-aaeeainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Oae, EI
na?oeeueia “Ieio?th onioa” iioiaeeoue a?ae aieaa?nueeiai “Neaaa e ieiue”
5 ae. oa aieaa?nueei? oa?oaeinueei? IAA aen.2932, 1631 ?.. Aieaa?nuee?
ni?ae aac iaca /anoi aeeth/athoueny aei E?oo?a?? EI (“Aea eniieiyony
onoa iaoa”, “Aeinoieii ?noue” oa ?i.). ? e aac?iaii? oe?a?inuee?,
iaeiaee/ii nii??aeiai? c iiaiaieaa?nueeeie, ye io iani?a “Aea iie/eo
anyea ieioue” (e?i.XVII — XVIII co.), iacaaiee “ee?anueeei”
i.?.Aicianainueeei.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? canoinoaaiiy iacae EI oaeoe/ii ca?aathoueny c /anii
?nioaaiiy naiiai ??iieith, oi/a e c? ci?uaiiyi ii/aoeiaiai aoaio ia aeaa
aeanyoee?ooy. Oea icia/a?, ui iaeaeaai?o? i?ei??ieee e?ioey OV? — ia?oeo
aeaio aeanyoee?oue OV?? no. ao?eaooe?? EI ia iathoue. Oa ana ae iiyaa
iacae EI a 1620-o ??. ia oioiaeia iiya? naieo i?niani?a?a: a?eueo?noue
?o i?noeeany a ?oeiienao aaea aei /ano iaaeaiiy ?i oe??? iacae
(iaaiaeyoueny i?eeeaaee). Ioaea, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iacae EI c 1620-o ??.
na?ae/eei ia oae i?i iiiiaiaiiy i?a/i? o?aaeeoe?? – aiia aoea aaea
noaeith – ye i?i oa?eoi??aeueia iioe?aiiy naiiai ia?iaioaaiiy (aeeiai?ea
e i?e/eie oeueiai i?ioeano iaa?oioiaothoueny a ?icae?e? 3).

?icae?e 2 – “AEai?ia? iciaee i?niani?a?a EI”. Aecia/aiiy aeai?o e
aeai?iaeo aeanoeainoae i?niani?ao ? ia?oei e?ieii aei ?icoi?iiy eiai
oea?eiaiino?, nayuaiii-e?oo?a?eiiai ci?noo. I?ioyaii aeae?eueeio
aeanyoee?oue oa?aeoa?enoeea ?o aoea oaaoeiaaiith, a ii a?aeiioaiith aei
oea?eiaii? ioceee caioi/oaaeeny aeeeth/ii anoaoe/i? i?aeoiaee.
“Naeoey?ecaoe?y” iaoiaeieia??, cae?enithaaia i?ioyaii aeae?eueeio
aeanyoee?oue, i?ecaaea aei oeaiiai ni?eeiyooy noee?noeee iani?ao ye
naiioe?iii? ooaeiaeiuei? ?aae??, a?aeiniaeaii? a?ae ae?eniiai ci?noo
i?niani?ao. Iani?aaae? ae aeai?iaa iniiaa oea?eiaiiai ienoaoeoaa, yea
ioi?iiy?oueny Onoaaii, aea? eiio i?aai a e?oo?a?/iiio nain? neoaoaaoe
/anoeith aiaineoaea, a a ooaeiaeiueiio ae?enii neeaaea? aaco aeey
oi?ioaaiiy ae?aciai-noee?noe/ieo cania?a.

O ?icae?e? 2 ?icaeyaeathoueny aeaa iniiaieo aeai?iaeo eiiieaene ni?a?a
EI. 1-e — iniiaeani?, ye? o neeaae? aa/??i? e oo?ai? (Anaiiuii?) ?
ci?iieie (eaeooue ca eaeaiaea?ai aai ni?aathoueny ia iio?aao). 2-e —
iaci?ii? c Anaiiuii? oa E?oo?a?? (/anoeiai iniiaeani?, caeaa?eueoiai
o.ca. iainiiaeani?).

2.2. Ia ??ai? eiaeiiai i?niani?ao ye e?oo?a?/ii-ooaeiaeiuei? ?aeiino?
eiai nae?aeueiee ci?no ao?eth?oueny /a?ac noeoii?noue iaiayceiaeo,
onoaaii-eaiii?/ieo iciae. Eiaeai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ca a?nueiiia iciaeaie
(?.O.Aacoaeiaith aoea cai?iiiiiaaia iine?aeiai?noue ?c oanoe iciae, yea
aeiiiaith?oueny a ?iaio? aei ??aiy aeyao nenoaiieo cayce?a i?ae
iaiayceiaeie aeanoeainoyie ni?a?a).

Ci?no oaeno?a caeaaeeoue a?ae aeai?o. Aeey ci?iieo ni?a?a oea oneaaeaiiy
nayoeo o aei? ?oiuei? iaiyo? (iiaeiaie), caaaeea iiae?e ?aaiaae?y a
iaae?eth ia oo?ai? (noeoe?e ?aaiaaeuenuee?), i?ineaaa nayoa (noeoe?e ?
o?iia? Ianoe, eiiaeae ??caeao, noeoe?a e eaiii o Aa?aio iaae?eth,
eiiaeae Aeao?noo Aiai?iaeeoe?). Ni?ae c iieaai?a iathoue iiaey/iee
oa?aeoa? (noeoe?e Aiai?iaeeoe?, eiiaeae ?nono Neaaeeiio), aai
aeaaaeueiee (eaoaaan?y); iaoii?noue iiieiaiiy i?noyoue iieeoae ca oiie?e
iiia?eeo.

Ci?no iaci?iieo i?niani?a?a ia iia’ycaiee c iaaiith iai’yooth ca
eaeaiaea?ai. Anaiiuia ia?aaea? ?noi??th ethaenoaa e Noa?icaa?oii?
Oea?eae a?ae iiiaioo noai?aiiy na?oo aei i?ia?nieoeoaa nian?iiy, a
e?iaoeue oo?ai? iaeaooiao? ia iieeoiaia iaeooioai?aiiy iia‘ycaia c
i/?eoaaiiyi aeecueei? ca /anii E?oo?a??; oea eoeuei?iaoe?y o?aiiaiai
ae?enoaa, yea iio?aao? a?ae ethaeeie niaoe?aeueiiai aeooiaiiai
i?aeaiooaaiiy, iniaeeaiai iano?ith, ui aeieea? ca o/ano? o Anaiiui?e.
Iaiiaoi?i?noue ? iaiiaoi?thaai?noue aoaeue-yeiai iiiaioo a aeeiai?/iiio
?icai?oaii? E?oo?a?? iaoiiaeththoue oa, ui eiaeiee iino?eiee i?niani?a,
aeeth/aiee aei ia?, ? iniaeeaei ca ci?noii ? onoaaii-e?oo?a?/iei
cia/aiiyi. Ia aoiaey/e aei aeai?iaeo a?oi (ie??i i?e/anieo), aiie ia
aei?noei iiaycai? c iniiaeannyi, oiio /anoi aecia/athoueny ye
iainiiaeani?.

2.3. C? ci?noii ni?ao iiaycaia eiai ooieoe?y. Ci?ii? iniiaeani? ni?ae ?
ia?aaaaeii iaeiiooieoe?eieie, oiaoi ia aeeiiothoueny a ?ioeo a?aei?aaao
o yeiionue ?ioiio cia/aii?. Ui ae aei iino?eieo, aiie ca ooieoe?eieie
iciaeaie iiae?eythoueny ia a?oie. Ie?ai? iino?ei? oaenoe aoiaeyoue
o?eueee aei iaei??? a?aei?aae — aai aei Anaiiuii?, aai aei E?oo?a?? e
iathoue o eiaei?e c ieo nai? aeania, niaoeeo?/ia cia/aiiy, oiaoi ?, ye ?
ci?ii?, iaeiiooieoe?eieie. Aeaye? oaenoe ni?euei? aeey iaio a?aei?aa,
i?e/iio c iaeiaeiaith ooieoe??th — iieeoae “o?enayoa”, “Io/a iao”,
ioiono, oa ?i.

Na?aae iino?eieo ni?a?a ? e aaaaoiooieoe?ei? – o?, ye?, ia?aoiaey/e c
a?aei?aae aei a?aei?aae, aeaui ci?iththoue nai? i?ecia/aiiy, a ?iiae? e
aeai?iao iacao. Oae, iaiaeii?aciai a aeiaiaiio eie? aeeiio?oueny aaaaoi
inaei?a: “Aeaaineiae, aeooa iiy, Ainiiaea” (ye 1-e aioeoii
?cia?aceoaeueiee E?oo?a?? – ? ye “i?aaeia/eiaoaeueiee” inaeii
Anaiiuii?); “Aeaaineiaeth Ainiiaea” (ioiono Anaiiuii? e E?oo?a?? – ?
i?e/aniee E?oo?a?? Ia?aaeinay/aieo Aea??a); “Oaaeueoa Ainiiaea n iaaan”
(oaaeeoiee inaeii aei noeoe? Oo?ai? – i?e/aniee E?oo?a?? o iaae?eth) oa
?i. (oaae. 2.1).

Ie??i inaei?a, a ??cieo oeeeeao aeeiioaaee ? aeaye? aaaaoiooieoe?ei?
oaenoe a?aei-a?caio?enueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy: “I Oaaue ?aaeo?ony”
(n?aeaeueia 8 ae. ?c Ieoi?oa – caaeinoieiee E?oo?a?? na. Aanee?y
Aaeeeiai); “Aica?aiiie Ai?aiaeue” (iieeoaa iai?ee?ioe? 1 /ano a Aaeeeee
I?no – eiiaeae Aeao?noo Aiai?iaeeoe? a noaioo 5-ai oeaeiy Aaeeeiai
Iinoo); “Nayoee Aiaea” (/anoeia neaaineia?y Aaeeeiai oo?ai? – a?ii o
E?oo?a?? a??ieo; cono??/a?oueny ? a ?ioeo a?aei?aaao); “Aeinoieii ?noue”
(a?ii i?ney eaiiio oo?ai? – a?ii o E?oo?a?? a??ieo) oa ?i. Oea oaenoe
iniaeeai ?iiiai ci?noo, ye? i?ecia/aeeny Onoaaii aeey aeeiiaiiy
aeae?eueea ?ac?a i?ioyaii oea?eiaii? aeiae ? neoaoaaee ia?ic?eaiiio
aioo??oiueiio aca?iicayceo aeiaiaiai oeeeeo.

2.4. *anoioa aeeiiaiiy i?niani?ao no?iai cae??ieaia ca aeai?ii ? i?yii
aieeaa? ia eiai caeaoi?noue aei aaiethoe?eieo ci?i. *anoioa aeeiiaiiy
ci?iieo ni?a?a iaaaeeea. Oeiiaei aeey iniiaeanny ? aeeiiaiiy i?niani?ao
?c ia??iaee/i?noth “noieia” Ieoi?oa — iaeei ?ac ia 8 oeaei?a, 6 ?ac?a ia
??e. Iae??aeoa aeeiiothoueny ni?ae nayo ? Aaeeeiai Iinoo — iaeei ?ac ia
??e (oea ia noino?oueny E?oo?a?e i?niiai oeeeeo), /ano?oa eaeooue ni?ae
“ia iiaeiaai”. Iieaaie oa iaiaoeaee a?aei?aaeythoueny i?eiaa?aeii
(anaeainuee? a?iiaaeyinuee? iaiaoeaee — aei 8 ?ac?a ia ??e).

Iino?ei? i?niani?ae aeiaiaiai eiea aeeiiothoueny iae/ano?oa ca ?io?:
E?oo?a?y — uiaeiy aai uioeaeiy oa a nayoa, Anaiiuia — uinoaioe oa ia?aae
nayoaie, ia iaio ye 52 ?ace ia ??e. Oi/a iaci?iieo ni?a?a (o ii??aiyii?
c? ci?iieie) iaei, iino?eia iayai?noue o aiaineoae?ii? coiiaeth? ?oith
aaeeeo ieoiio aaao, iia’ycaio ?c “iicaeaeaiaea?iith”,
“iaaeeaeaiaea?iith” ooieoe??th aeai??a aeiaiaiai oeeeeo.

2.5. Aeaai? niiniae aeeiiaiiy ci?iieo i?niani?a?a, ae?iaeai? i?ioyaii 1
oen. i.a. ? ?ai?oa, nie?athoueny ia ae?aeia?/io iniiao (aioeoii, ai?oii,
?iioii, ?aniiini??e oa ?i.). Oea ??ciiiai?oi? ianooaai? eiiiiceoe??
caieiaii? aoaeiae, aea /a?ao?oueny /eoaiiy e ni?a aai “ni?a c? ni?aii”
(ii/a?aiaa aeeiiaiiy oi?aie — “eeeaie”). Oae aeeiiothoueny noeoe?e ?c
inaeiaie, eaiii oa ?i.

Niin?a aeeiiaiiy iaci?iiiai i?niani?ao — a?ae ii/aoeo aei e?ioey — ?
aacia?a?aiei, iiae?aiei aei i?ni?, ? ia? iacao “a?ii?/iee” aai
“iueniaiiee” (oa?oaeinuee?, “Aeinoieii ?noue”, i?e/ani?, ?i.). Oiio aei
aaaaoueio iino?eieo i?niani?a?a o iaae??a?noeoe? canoiniaothoue iacae
“i?ni?” aai “a?iie”, ye? ? (ye aeai?iaa iacaa, ui aeaco? ia niin?a
aeeiiaiiy) oioiaeieie. Oeae niin?a ia?aaeaa/a? ia aeeth/aiiy i?niani?ao
aei ae?aeia?/ii? eiiiiceoe?? caieiaiiai oeio, a aoiaeaeaiiy eiai aei
eiioaenoo an??? a?aei?aae ye ae?enoaa ae?aeia?/ii-iane??ciiai.

2.6. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy “oaeno — iani?a”. Caeaaia eaiii?ciaaiei o nenoai?
iniiaeanny (na?aae ci?iieo ni?a?a) ? aeeiiaiiy “ia iiaeiaai”, yea
cae??ieth? aeae?eueea oaeno?a ca iaeiei — “oeiiaei” — iani?aii (noeoe?e
iiaeiai?). Oe?iei i?aaenoaaeai? iacaith EI ? naiiaeani?, a yeeo
iniiaeaniee iani?a i?ecia/aiee eeoa aeey iaeiiai oaenoo. “Naiii?niaii?”
EI (ooo aei oaenoo i?ee??ieth?oueny iaeei iainiiaeaniee iani?a, oaeeie ?
na?oeeueie) cono??/athoueny ??aeoa. Iniaeeao ?ieue o ?aia?ooa?? EI
a?ae?a?athoue iiaeiaie — caaaeyee ?i EI ioiiethaaa cia/ii a?eueoo
e?euee?noue oaeno?a nayoei, ai?ae ? a naiiio oeeee?, ioaea ? cao/aa a?i
oi?iaeiaae ?ieo a aei? iaiyo? nayoeo aeineoue /anoi.

Noinoiee “oaeno — iani?a”, oeiia? aeey iino?eieo ni?a?a, — ?io?:
eiaeiiio iaci?iiiio oaenoia? iaeaaeeoue eiai aeaniee iani?a, /a?ac ui
iniiai? ni?ae E?oo?a?? ?, ca aecia/aiiyi Onoaao, naiiiueniaiieie aai
naiiiuenieie. Nai???aeiei ?icaeoeii oeueiai i?eioeeio ? ?icni?aoaaiiy
oaeno?a i?e/anieo an?o aei?a oeaeiy ia iani?a i?e/aniiai iaae?e?
“Oaaeueoa Ainiiaea n iaaan” EI.

2.7. Nooi?iue ?icni?aiino? a?eueoino? iniiaeanieo ci?iieo ni?a?a EI
eieeaa?oueny i?ae neeaa?/iei (?a/eoaoea, neeaai-iaeiaeeea) oa
iaaiaoe/iei. I/aaeaeii, ianooaai?noue caieiaieo oeeee?/ieo ae?aeia?/ieo
eiiiiceoe?e, caaaeaia aeua, yeiaee?aua ocaiaeaeo?oueny c eiiiaeoi?noth
ni?a?a, ui aei ieo aoiaeyoue. O nayoeiaeo ni?aao ia ie?aieo neeaaao
cono??/athoueny e iaeiaeeciaai? “anoaaee”, o?oi? ?icni?ae Noeoe?e
?aaiaaeuenuee?).

Aeae ?icni?aiino? oaenoo a a?eueoino? iaci?iieo ni?a?a EI oaeiae
ia?aaaaeii ianeeaaeiee — neeaaiiaeiaee/iee aai iaaiaoe/iee
(noeoe?a?iee), yeee caeeoeany oaeei, a??ia?aeii, c aeaai?o /an?a.
Iaaaeeea /anoeia iino?eieo oaeno?a EI Anaiiuii? e E?oo?a?? ?icni?aaia,
iaaiaee, aeoaea oe?iei. ?oiy cia/ia i?ioyae?noue coiiaeaia ooieoe?eii
(noi?ia?ae aeiaaeo ai?ciae?a ae?enoaa) ? aoea ia?aaeaa/aia ua aeaai?ie
Onoaaaie (oa?oaeinuee?, i?e/ani? ?c i?eni?aii “aeeeoey”, iieeoae
E?oo?a?? na. Aanee?y Aaeeeiai oa ?i.). A aeayeeo iaeoiaeieo EI i?enooi?
an? aeaee ?ioiioaaiiy (ci?oaiee aeae).

2.8. Eiiiiceoe?y. Neeaa?/ia, iaaiaoe/ia e ia?ao?aeia neeaai-iaaiaoe/ia
aoaeiaa aeanoeaa oi?iioai?/ei aeaiaioai ci?iieo iniiaeanieo ni?a?a —
iini?aeai, ye? ii-??ciiio ocaiaeaeothoueny c? neiaaniei ?yaeeii. Ie??i
ii?iaoeaii? aeey iniiaeanny iini?aeiai? no?oeoo?e, ?icaeyaea?oueny e
a?aei?iiee oei iiaoaeiae naiiaeaniiai EI — iane??ciee (noeoe?a “Aeianue
aeaaiaeaoue”).

Eiiiiceoe?y eiaeiiai iino?eiiai iaeoiaeiiai ni?ao aeineoue i?ea?iaeueia,
ui aeyaey? i?aaiaiiy oea?eiaieo eiiiiceoi??a i?ciueiai na?aaeiueia?//y
noai?eoe aeooeai?, aeniei ienoaoeuee?, eiiiiceoe?eii iaiiaoi?thaai?
iaeoiaei? ni?ae ia ??ci? oaenoe. Aeey eiaeiiai i?niani?ao aoea
?ic?iaeaia naiy nenoaia a?i/iino? eiiiiceoe?eieo iaeeieoeue, yeeie
iiaeooue aooe iae??ciiiai?oi?o? ianyae — iioeae, iini?aee e ?icai?iai?
“?ioiiaoe?ei? aeiee” (oa?i?i E.Iaco?eaae/). I?eioeeie eiiiiioaaiiy
iainiiaeanieo ni?a?a ii/anoe ?icaeaaee o?aaeeoe?? oi?iioai?aiiy, ui
aecia/eeeny a iniiaeann? (ae?aieaiiy o iini?aeiao no?oeoo?o aeiaaeo
o?oieo “ia?aeea?a”). O oeueiio iai?yi? aeinyaa?oueny cia/ia
??ciiiai?oi?noue eiiiiceoe?eieo no?oeoo? (aiia iaee?aua iii?oia i?e ?o
iicia/aii? e?oa?iniieo/aiiyie).

2.8. Aaiethoe?y ci?iieo iniiaeanieo ni?a?a a?aeiinii iia?eueia, oiaoi,
aiie iathoue aeineoue eiina?aaoeaio i?e?iaeo. Ie??i ??aee?niiai
aeeiiaiiy, ia oea ni?aaey? aieea ? ?oiy iaeaaei?noue aei iniiaeanny:
ii?ie aoaeiae iniiaeanieo ni?a?a ia aeiioneathoue cia/ii? ci?iiino?, yea
ae ii?ooeea aecia/ai?noue aeaniaeo oa?aeoa?enoee. Iia?eueia aaiethoe?y ?
iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei aeai?iaei /eiieeii, yeee aea? i?aenoaae aeey
i?eiouaiiy i?i aeaai? iioiaeaeaiiy noieiiaeo iaeiae?e (iniaeeai —
neeaa?/iiai neeaaeo).

Ui ae aei iino?eieo ni?a?a, /anoa aeeiiaiiy ni?e/eiy? ?ioaineai?noue
?oiuei? aaiethoe??, a oaeiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei canoinoaaiiy aaaaoueio
iaeoiaeieo oaeno?a ?c aeae?eueeiia iani?aaie (?icae?e 3). Ci?iiino?
iaeoiaeieo i?niani?a?a o /an? ni?eyee oaeiae ineaaeai? ?o caycee c
iniiaeannyi. Ie??i oeueiai, aei ci?i oyae?a neeaaeiee iaein ?iceiaeo
i?niani?a?a: OV?? noie?ooy noaei ii/aoeiaei aoaiii ?oiueiai ni?iuaiiy oa
oi?o?eaoe??.

Ioaea, ?acoeueoaoe aeai?iaiai aiae?co aeiaiaeyoue, ui i?niani?ae c aeaio
aeai?iaeo eiiieaen?a EI iathoue oe?eeiaeoi ??ci? onoaaii-e?oo?a?/i? e
ioce/i? iniaeeaino?. Eiaeia iniiaeania aeai?iaa a?oia aeeth/a? iaaio
e?euee?noue ni?a?a, ui iathoue iaeiaeia? ooieoe?? e iaeii??aei?
iiaoeei-ioce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Oea icia/a?, ui a oae?e aeaai?e oi?i?
?nioaaiiy aeai?o ye aeai?iaee oeeee aai aeai?iaa a?oia ?iaeia? iciaee
iaiothoue iaae ?i–aeea?aeoaeueieie, a eiaeiee i?niani?a iniiaeaniiai
oeeeeo ia? ii??aiyii aea?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaiee oa?aeoa?. Ui ae aei
iino?eieo i?niani?a?a, ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue ci?noo, ooieoe?? (ooieoe?e),
iani?ao, eiiiiceoe?? aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe eiaeiee c ieo naiino?eiei
i?niani?aii-aeai?ii.

sseith ae i??ith i?aaenoaaeai? ee?anueeei iani?aii oe? aeai?ia?
eiiieaene? ?acoeueoaoe oaenoieia?/iiai aiae?co cana?ae/othoue, ui
ii-??ciiio. Aei ci?iieo i?niani?a?a iacaa EI aeiieno?oueny a oe?eiio
ia/anoi, a ie?aieo ?oeiienao, oiio oe? aeiaaeee ? a iaaiiio ?icoi?ii?
aeiyoeiaeie. Aei iaci?iieo ni?a?a Anaiiuii? e E?oo?a?? — iaaiaee,
iino?eii (eeoa aei ie?aieo c??aeea, aeea. 1.3), aiie ? noaa?eueiei
?aia?ooa?ii a ??iieiyo ? oae naii /anoi io?eiothoue ao?eaooe?th EI.
Aaaeeeai, ui ye iniiaeanny, oae ? oeeee “Anaiiuia — E?oo?a?y” ia
i?aaenoaaeai? ee?anueeei iani?aii iiai?noth, ae/a?iii. Oea icia/a?, ui
iacao EI ni?aai iaaeaaaee ia eeoa c iaeyaeo ia aeai? aai ia i?e/aoi?noue
aei iaaii? a?aei?aae, a aeey oeueiai ?nioaaee e ?io? i?e/eie.

?icae?e 3 — “Ee?anueeee iani?a o eiioaeno? aaaaoiiani?aiino?”.
Aaaaoi-iani?ai?noue — iiaeeea?noue ?nioaaiiy aeae?eueeio iani?a?a ia
iaeei ? oie naiee oaeno — oea oeiieia?/ia aeanoea?noue a?o/eciyiiai
oea?eiaii-i?a/iai ienoaoeoaa, oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaia o /an eiai ?icea?oo —
2-e iieiaei? OV?-OV?? no. (o aeaaiuei?onueeee ia??iae — cia/ii iaioith
i??ith), yea ioiieth? ia?aaaaeii ni?ae Iaeoiaeo — Anaiiuii? e E?oo?a??.
O neeaaei?e aaaaoi??aiaa?e nenoai? aaaaoiiani?aiino? iaeoiaeieo oaeno?a
ooieoe?iioaaee iani?ae, ??ci? ca /anii ? i?noeai iioiaeaeaiiy. Oeiiaee
aeya oeueiai oaeee, ui iaeei ? oie aea i?niani?a aeienoaaany a ?oeiienao
aea?/?-o?e/? i?ae?yae ?c ??cieie iaeiae?yie; na?aae oaeeo a?oi /anoi
cono??/a?ii e EI. ?ice?eaath/e i?e/eie ?icni?aoaaiiy iaeiiai oaenoo
??cieie iani?aaie, i?iiiio?ii ianooiio eeaneo?eaoe?th aeae?a
aaaaoiiani?aiino?.

Ooieoe?eia aaaaoiiani?ai?noue (OA) i?aaenoaaey? ??ci? o?aaeeoe?ei?
iani?ae aeey iaeiiai e oiai ae oaenoo o ??cieo eiai ooieoe?yo.

Oa?eoi??aeueia (neio?ii?/ia) aaaaoiiani?ai?noue (OA) ?ai?acaioo?
aeecuee? o?aaeeoe?ei? iani?ae aeey iaeiiai e oiai naiiai i?niani?ao a
iaei?e ? o?e nai?e eiai ooieoe??.

*aniaa (ae?ao?ii?/ia) aaaaoiiani?ai?noue (*A) ia?aeio? ??ci?
iao?aaeeoe?ei? iani?ae aeey iaeiiai i?niani?ao a iaei?e ? o?e aea
ooieoe??.

O ?icae?e? 3 aaeeoi niaoe?aeueio oa?i?iieia?th. Ca aecia/aiiyi aaoi?a,
aa??aioe — aeecuee? iani?ae, ui a?ae??ciythoueny ie?aieie aeaoaeyie
iaeiaee/iiai ?icai?oaiiy. ?aaeaeoe?? — a?oie iani?a?a, ui ia?aeiothoueny
ca no?eeei eiiieaenii iciae, oa a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ?ioeo a?oi naia ca
eiai iayai?noth (?aaeaeoe?th iiaea i?aaenoaaeyoe e iaeei iani?a).
Iaeioei (iaeiaee/iee, iaeiaeeei-i?a/ee, iaeiaeeei-ni?ai/ee oei) —
onoaeaiee iaeiaeeei-?eoi?/iee eiioo?, ni?eueiee aeey aa??aio?a,
?aaeaeoe?e.

3.1. OA, yea ia’?aeio? ??ci? iaeioeie iaeiiai oaenoo a?aeiia?aeii aei
??cieo eiai ooieoe?e, oiia canoinoaaiiy, o?nii iiaycaia ?c
aeai?iai-eaiii?/iith i?e?iaeith ni?a?a. Oea iaeei c iaeaeaai?oeo aeae?a
aaaaoiiani?aiino?, yeee aeiee ia a?o/eciyiiio ni?ai/iio a?oio? (ie?ai?
“ia?e” oaeno?a a?aeiaeaeai? iaie o ciaiaiieo ??iieiyo OV? no.) ?
onoaeeany o o?aaeeoe?? eiaeiiai o?aio.

Iaie aecia/aii aeaa aeiaaeee aeieeiaiiy OA. 3.1.1. Iaeei ? oie naiee
oaeno io?eioaaa ??ci? iani?ae ca oiiae aeeth/aiiy eiai aei ??cieo
a?aei?aa (i?i oea eoeiny o 2.2). Iniaeea?noue aeeiiaiiy iie?ooieoe?eiiai
oaenoo iieyaaea a oiio, ui aeoaea /anoi a iaei?e a?aei?aa? a?i
aeeiioaaany ?a/eoaoeaii, a a ?io?e — iani?aii (cia/ii ??aeoa — iani?aii
a iaio a?aei?aaao, aeaeiee — ?a/eoaoeaii a iaio). ?a/eoaoeai?
i?niani?ae, i?i ye? cia?ii ?c ci?noo a?aei?aa, a ??iieiyo aeienoaaeeny
??aeei, iiaoooth/e a oni?e o?aaeeoe??. Iaeiae?? ae, iaaiaee, o?enoaaeeny
/anoi, ine?eueee neeaaei?oa i?aeaeaaaeeny caiaiyoiaoaaiith. Aaaeeeai, ui
?icni?aai? aa?n?? aaaaoiooieoe?eieo oaeno?a /anoi ?iaioaaeeny
“ee?anueeeie”. Ioaea, aeac?aeo ia EI ia?aienoaa/ i?a iaaeaoe
iaeiaeeciaai?e aa?n?? c iaeyaeo ia oie ?a/eoaoea, c yeei aeaiee oaeno
aeeiioaaany a ?ioee /an.

3.1.2. ?ioee aeae OA iiaycaiee ?c aeeiiaiiyi iaei??? a?aei?aae o ??ci?
aei? — aoaeaii?, iaae?euei? oa nayoeia?. Canoinoaaiiy aa?n?e
a?aeiia?aeaei i?ino?e caeiiii??iino?: aeey iianyeaeaiiiai aaeeoeo
i?ecia/aee ?a/eoaoeaio (neeaai-iaeiaee/io) aa?n?th ni?ao, aeey iaae?eue
oa nayo — o?i/enoo iani?aio. Iaeiioe?ai?oei i?eeeaaeii ci?iiino?
iani?a?a ? oa?oaeinueea i?niy (aeea. 3.3), a oaeiae inaeii-o?iia? “Aia
Ainiiaeue”, aeey yeiai a oe?a?ii-a?ei?onueeeo ca??eao ?iiae? iiaea?oueny
aeaa iaeioeie — neeaa?/iee oa iani?aiee. Aiie cono??/athoueny ? aac
iaca, ? c iacaaie (a?aeiia?aeii): ?onei? — aeeainei?, aei?ai?e —
i?inoie, aoaeaii?e — i?inoee, i?inoi? — ee?aneee, aei?ai?? — aine?aniee,
iae?e — iian?aei?aiee oa ?i. Ioaea, ao?eaooe?th EI ia? ?icni?aaiee oaeno
“Aia Ainiiaeue”, i?aaenoaaeaiee oaeiae ?ioeie iacaaie, ii/anoe,
aeac?aeith aee?inei?, yea na?ae/eoue i?i ?iciianthaeaeaiiy caaaeueiiai
iaeioeio EI ? o A?eueii.

3.2. OA ioiieth?, ye ? OA, eeoa o?aaeeoe?ei? i?niani?ae. Eiaeai ?c ieo
aoa ?ai?acaioiaaiee o ??cieo ni?ai/eo ina?aaeeao nai?ie aa??aioaie.
3.2.1. *ioe?e ni?ae c Iaeoiaeo — inaeie “Aeaaeai ioae” oa “Aeaaineiae,
aeooa iiy, Ainiiaea”, caaeinoieiee “I Oaaue ?aaeo?ony” oa eiiaeae
“Aica?aiiie Ai?aiaeue” — iaee a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? aeanio ?aaeaeoe?th –
ino?icueeee (II) oa aeecueeee aei iueiai ?onueeee iani?ae, aeaui
a?aei?ii? a?ae EI. No?eeith aeai?iaith ?enith eiaeiiai c /ioe?ueio
ni?a?a aoea eiai eiiiiceoe?y, iaoii?noue noee?noe/i? a?aei?ie i?ae EI oa
II i?iyaeyeeny /a?ac aeaoae? iaeiaee/iiai ioi?ieaiiy no?oeoo?e.
Aaaeeeai, ui eiaeai i?niani?a aeyaeya nai? aeani? ??ai? ?aae?caoe??
?aaeaeoe?eieo ?icoiaeaeaiue, ui caeaee ?ac aeiaiaeeoue
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue eiaeiiai iaci?iiiai “i?niani?ao-aeai?o” c Iaeoiaeo.

A?aei?iaie i?ae II oa EI inaeio “Aeaaeai ioae” ?: 1) caieiai?noue a II
(?ic?ieiai?noue o EI) 3 e 8 iini?aie, 2) iayai?noue a II ae?aciiai
ioieoe?iiai cai?ioo ia ii/aoeo i?eni?aa “Aeeeoey” (nai???aeia “a?ceoea”
II), 3) aeiaeaoeia? cai?ioe a II ia e?ioe? aeiaaeo iaei?yaee?a a??oa e
i?eni?aa.

E?eoa??yie aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? II oa EI eiiaeaea “Aica?aiiie Ai?aiaeue” ?:
1) ?eoi /a?aoaaiiy eaaeainiaeo iini?aie ia e?ioe? aeiaaeo iaei?yaee?a,
a?aeiia?aeii AAAAAA oa AAAAAA; 2) ??cia eaaeiaa ioi?ieaiiy ii/aoeiaeo
iini?aie o 2-io oa 4-io iaei?yaeeao.

sseui ??cieoey i?ae II oa EI o inaei? “Aeaaeai ioae” i?inoaaeo?oueny
eeoa ia ??ai? aeaoaeae ioce/iiai neioaeneno, oi o eiiaeaeo e ni?aao
“Aeaaineiae, aeooa iiy, Ainiiaea” oa “I Oaaue ?aaeoaony”, ie??i oeueiai,
iii?oia ? cia/ia ??cieoey o i??? ?icai?iaiino? iani?a?a: II oeeo o?ueio
ni?a?a cia/ii ei?iooee ca EI oa a?eueo iaeii??aeiee o ?eoi?/iiio
a?aeiioaii?, a ca?aene e aeuee nooi?iue ceeoino? iaeiaee/ii? e?i??.
Eiioeioaeuei?noue II iaeaea ia aea? i?aenoaa aeey ae/eaioaaiiy ?c
nooe?eueiiai iaei?yaeea ie?aieo eiino?oeoeaieo aeie?a (oiio noiniaii II
iiaeeeaa eeoa oeeaaeaiiy ocaaaeueiaieo eiiiiceoe?eieo noai).

??ciee ianooaa o?ueio i?niani?a?a II oa EI yeithnue i??ith a?aeaeaa?
niaoeeo?eo ia?iaeii-i?naiiiai ?icni?ao o Cao?aei?e oa Oeaio?aeuei?e
Oe?a?i? (I?eaei?i?ia?): o Cao?aei?e a?i a?eueo a?oa?/iee, noeneee, o
Oeaio?aeuei?e — i?iaiaioiaaiee, ?icaeiai?oee. Iniaeeaei aaaaonoaii
a?aecia/a?oueny ?ioiiaoe?eiee ci?no EI “Aeaaineiae, aeooa iiy, Ainiiaea”
oa “I Oaaue ?aaeoaony”, aea neioaciaai? a) ?ioiiaoe?? aeaaiuei?onueeiai
oea?eiaiiai ?a/eoaoeao e iini?aeiaiai iniiaeanny, a) noee?noeea
a?aei-aaeeainueei? aciaoe/ii? eaeioii??, a) ?aa?iiaeueiee
ia?iaeii-i?naiiee noeeue i?iaiaioaeueiiai ?icoea?/oaaiiy iniiaiiai
eiioo?o iani?ao. O ii??aiyii? c EI II aeaeyaea? ye a?oa?ciaaiee, no?iaee
(iiaeeeai, a?eueo aeaai?e) eiai ??ciiaeae.

A?aei?ie i?ae EI oa II, ye aa/eii, ia?aaeuothoue ??aaiue aa??aioieo
?ica?aeiinoae ? aeathoue i?aai aaaaeaoe ?o ?aaeaeoe?yie iaeioei?a.
Eiaeia c ieo ia?aeio? ?yae aa??aio?a. Aei II ca eiiiiceoe?eieie iciaeaie
oyae?thoue cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? aac?iaii? (cie?aia, ao/aoeuee?),
a?ei?onuee?, aeaye? euea?anuee? (?c noa?iae?oe?a) oa ?onueeee iani?ae. A
oe?eiio ia e?iaoeue OV?? no. II iaaoa cia/ii a?eueoiai iioe?aiiy, ai?ae
EI — iaaooue, caaaeyee eiai “i?ino?oiio” iaeiaeeciia?. C 2-? iieiaeie
OV?? no. ii/aee cyaeyoeny iani?ae ?c ci?oaiiyi iciae EI oa II (ca iaoei
aecia/aiiyi — ee?ai-ino?icuee?), /anoi i?ae iacaith “ee?anueeee”
cono??/a?ii II (“Aica?aiiie Ai?aiaeue”, “Aeaaeai ioae”).

Ee?anueeiio iani?aia? ca eiiiiceoe?eieie iciaeaie aeecuee? aeaye?
oeaio?aeueiioe?a?inuee? aac iaca, noi?aneuenuee? (NI) oa iaaeea??nuee?
(II).

3.2.2. Iani?ae Iaaeea??nueeiai iiianoe?y ?? 112/645N, na?aae. OV?? no.,
?icoaoiaaiiai ia i?ai?/ a?ae Ee?aa, a?aaeathoue oe?ieith
iaeiaeeciaai?noth, yea ca ianooaaaie ia?aaeuo? e EI. I?eeiie ?icoe?aiiy
iniiaiiai eiioo?o aeacothoue ia ?ioaa?oaaiiy a iaaeea??nueeiio iani?a?
i?eioeei?a aeaio ?aa?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e — i?iaiaioaeueiiai iie?nueeiai
noeeth (iiianoe? ?icoaoiaaiee a a?aae? Iie?nny) ? iai?iaiaioaeueiiai
iaaeaei?i?yinueeiai. II ? iaeiaee/ii iaeaaaaooei i?noeaaei aa??aioii EI.

Aacnoii?aiei ? caycie EI c ia/a?nueeei (II), yeee ?iiae? aeyaey?oueny ?
a ceeoo? iaca (ee?ai-ia/a?nueeee). ?acii ?c oei, oea iicia/aiiy ??ciiai
??aiy: II ? iiianoe?nueeei, EI — caaaeueii?iciianthaeaeaiei. Oaeei
/eiii, II, aoaeo/e a O no. ?noi?e/iei aeaea?aeii EI, noa? o OV?? no.
eiai /anoeiith. Iaie a?aecia/aii aeaa aeiaaeee ?oi?o aca?iei — ii-ia?oa,
ca?a (nii??aeiai?noue), ii-ae?oaa, a?aei?ii?noue. sseui aeeeth/eoe
iiaeeea?noue iiieeee a iaeiaioaaii? II, iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui o
Ee?ai-Ia/a?nuee?e Eaa?? — iiaooiueiio oeaio?? i?aaineaaii? eoeueoo?e —
II i?aeeyaaa a?eueo aeoeaiiio ?icaeoeo e aeaeici?iai, iaoii?noue
oe?iei?iciianthaeaeaiee EI onoaethaaany ? eiina?aaoecoaaany o
a?aeaeaeaieo i?noeaainoyo (i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ae?aeaeoeee noinoie?a
“ia?eoa??y — oeaio?”).

3.2.3. Iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey i?iyniaiiy aaiace EI iathoue
eiai nii??aeiai?noue ? ca?a (ie?aieo i?niani?a?a) c? ni?aaie iiianoe?y
Noi?aneuenueeiai (Cao?aeia A?ei?on?y, iei? Iieueua). Caniiaaiee
aeo?aeoeyie c Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueei? Eaa?e, a?i ?icaeaaa o?aaeeoe??
ee?anueeiai iiianoe?nueeiai ni?ao, oiio noi?aneuenuee? iani?ae e?ioey
XVI no. ? o?iiieia?/ii ia?oeie a?aeiieie iai aa??aioaie e ?aaeaeoe?yie
EI, cao?eniaaieie iioie?i?eiith iioaoe??th. ?aia?ooa? iiianoe?nueeiai
ca??ieea ?? 1-5391 a?aeaeaa? iiaio noi?iiaai?noue ioce/ii? eiiiiiaioe
aiaineoae?iiy o aeai?iai-noee?noe/iiio nain?: ?ic?iaeaia iaeiaeeea e
eiiiiceoe?eia no?oeoo?a i?niani?a?a, nenoaia cayce?a i?ae ni?aaie
Anaiiuii? oa E?oo?a??, iniiaeannyi ? iainiiaeannyi. Ioi?ieai?noue NI oa
?o iiae?ai?noue aei EI aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe /an oi?ioaaiiy ye oeo,
oae ? ?ioeo ye OV? no. Noai?thaaeeny ae iaeoiaei? iani?ae Anaiiuii? EI
oa nii??aeiaii? c iath E?oo?a?? EI, ii/eiath/e c na?aaeeie OV no. —
i?ney oaaaeaiiy ia ?on? ??onaeeinueeiai Onoaao, ca yeei aei
aiaineoae?iiy aoea aeeth/aia Anaiiuia.

3.3. Aeey *A oa?aeoa?ia canoinoaaiiy a ni?ai/?e i?aeoeoe? OV??-OV??? no.
iiaeo iani?a?a (II) — iao?aaeeoe?eieo, yeeie ?icni?aoaaany ia?aaaaeii
oaeno oa?oaeinueei? i?ni? (cia/ii ??aeoa — i?e/anieo). Oi/a II
ia/eneththoueny iaeeieoeyie (a o?aaeeoe?ei? ni?ae — nioiyie e oeny/aie),
naia ?o iiyaa e?aniiiiaii na?ae/eoue i?i oaiaeaioe?? aeaiie?aoecaoe??
oea?eiaii-iiiiaee/iiai ni?ao. I?i oea ae aiai?youe ? oae? noeeueia?
iciaee II, ye oiiaeueia eaaeiaa nenoaia, eoieaoia oi?ia, /anii i?naiia
iaeiaeeea. O 3.3. oa?aeoa?ecothoueny o?e a?oie II, ye? i?aeo?eiothoue
??ci? caycee a nenoai? i?a/i? eoeueoo?e oiai /ano: 1) iiaycai? ?c EI oa
a?aei-aaeeainueeeie, 2) i?naii? iaeiae??, aeei?enoiaoaai? o ia?oanieo
eiioea?oao oa 3) iani?ae c “Aiaiaeanieea”.

Nii??aeiai?noth c EI a?aecia/athoueny iiiaeeiie? II 1-? iieiaeie —
na?aaeeie OV?? no. — neeonueei??AeA 379-90, neooeueei? e iiaeai?nueei?
?? 1-3367, aac iacae a ?? AeA E 91, 2 /a.XVII no. oa?oaeinueeeo. Inoaiiy
iaaeeaea?oueny, uii?aaaea, o ia?oo /a?ao, aei a?aei-aaeeainueei?
eaeioii??, a aaea /a?ac ia? aei EI, ui nie?athoueny ia oo naio iniiao.

Ae?oaa a?oia II, a?aeiieo c 2-? iieiaeie OV??-OV??? no., ia? yne?aai
ae?aaeaiee i?naiiee oa?aeoa? (o ?oeiienao aiie iaeaea caaaeaee
aac?iaii?). *a?ac ynio naeaaioe?eio iiaoaeiao (ia?oi? iieiaeie iani?ao)
aiie eaaei i?aeaeaaaeeny aa?iii?caoe??, /a?ac ui e aeei?enoiaoaaeeny o
ia?oanieo oai?ao.

O?aoy a?oia II — iaeiae?? aeooiaieo i?naiue OV??-OV??? no., aeaeaieo
caiaeii oi?aonueeeie /aioeyie-Aanee?yiaie o “Aiaiaeanieeo” (Ii/a?a,
1791). ?o canoiniaoaaee aeey ?icni?aoaaiiy oa?oaeinueei? o i?aaineaaieo
o?aiao ua ia ii/. O?O no. (?? ?-5386). Aeiiiaithth/e o?aaeeoe?eiee
ni?ai/ee ?aia?ooa?, iani?ae aeooiaieo i?naiue o noeeueiaiio ieai? c iei
ia noeeaeeny.

Cia/ia ??cieoey i?ae aeaai?i ? iiaei ni?aii ana ae ia aeeeth/a? iaaieo
aca?iei i?ae ieie o nenoai? aaaaoiiani?aiino?. ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ye
?iiiaoe?iiaeueieo, oae ? II aecia/eei iio?aao ia?iaioaaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo
— aeey oaeaeeiai aeie?aieaiiy ?o o ca??oe? na?aae ?ioeo. Aeey oeueiai
canoiniaoaaee iacae ii ae??ai?io i??aeai?th, ii i??aeai?th oea?eiaiiio,
noa?iaeeoiee, i?inoee (oiaoi cae/iee, ocae/a?iee, na?e). “Aiaeaiith”
naiai noaea e iacaa ee?anei?, yea ca nai?i cia/aiiyi neiii?i?/ia
iiia?aaei?i.

O oe?eiio, ca ??aee?nieie aeiyoeaie, ? II, ? oe?a?inueei-a?ei?onueea
ia?oania oai?/?noue, yea eoeueoeaoaaeany caeaa?eueoiai o ie?nueeiio
ia?ao?yeueiiio na?aaeiaeu? i?aaineaaieo a?aonoa ?c aaeeeeo i?no,
i???ioaoe?? ia aeaaith o?aaeeoe?eio iiiiae?th ia aeyaeythoue, /a?ac ui
?ioiiaoe?ei? caycee i?ae aaaaoiaieinnyi oa EI a?aenooi?. Oiio iaeaaeeoue
?ic??ciyoe EI oa ?io? ?aae?? XVII-XVIII no. ?c “ee?anueeith
ao?eaooe??th” (“ee?anuee? a?aiaoeee”, “ee?anuee? ainiueaaee”, “ee?anueea
oeiea ioceee”), ye? canoiniaoaaeeny ia?aaaaeii aei noa?e oai??? e
i?aeoeee iiaiai ia?oaniiai ni?ao. Iacao ae EI iaaeaaaee i?ioyaii
OV??-OV??? no. aeeeth/ii o?aaeeoe?eiei iiiiaee/iei ni?aai i?aaineaaii?
aaiace (oi/a oaeeaaany a?i ? Oi?aonueeith Oea?eaith — o OV?? no. — o
A?ei?on?, o OV??? no. — ? a I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i?). I?eeeaaee iaaeaiiy
iacae EI i?niani?aai ?ioeo noee?a iiiaeeiie? (eieaeuei?) e ia
caaaeueiiio oe? ? aeiyoeaie.

*anoi cae?enithaaee iaeiaioaaiiy ee?anueeei aeey eiai a?aeiaaeoaaiiy
a?ae a?aoeueeeo, i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo, aaeeei?in?enueeeo iani?a?a, c
yeeie a?i c?noaaeyany ye caaaeueiioe?a?inueeee. Oeiiaei ? ?ici?uaiiy
ii?o/ E?oo?a?? EI na.?iaiia Ceaoionoiai e E?oo?a?? aieaa?nueei?
na.Aanee?y Aaeeeiai (/anoi aiia aac?iaiia e i?aaenoaaeaia iaeiei
i?niani?aii, /a?ac ui aaaeei i?aeaea?oueny ao?eaooe??).

Aaia?ao?y iacae aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe, ui “ee?anueeee” — ia oae aeac?aea
ia i?noi, ye aoii-eiioan?eii-oa?eoi??aeueia iicia/aiiy, aaeaeaaoia ca
nainii oa?i?io “Ee?anueea ?onue” e a?aeiia?aeia ca ??aiai iiiyooyi
aieaa?nueeee, a?aoeueeee, ?i. Aeaaith aaiaco EI i?aeoaa?aeaeo? eiai
aeecuee?noue ni?aai e?ioey OV? — ii/. OV?? no. Ee?anueea oa
noa?ina?oeueea oa?oaeinuee? (2 /a. OV??) — oea iaeei ? oie naiee
i?niani?a, aeecueeee noi?aneuenueeiio (1598-1601). Ioaea, ?noi??y
iaeoiaeieo ni?a?a EI, caiene yeiai ii/aee cyaeyoeny c 2-? /aa?o? OV??
no., ii/eia?oueny i?eiaeii? o OV? no., eiee a?i ia iaa i?yeeo iaca aai
iicia/aany ii-?ioiio.

O aeniiaeao i?aenoiiaothoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icaeyae EI,
cae?eniaiee (aia?oa a ?noi??? ioce/ii? iaae??a?noeee) ia oe?ieiio
aeaea?aeiciaa/iio iaoa??ae?., aeicaieea aecia/eoe /an iiyae iacae EI,
nooi?iue eiai ?iciianthaeaeaiino?, ?noi?e/ii? oyaeino? e aaiethoe?eii?
ci?iiino?, a oaeiae eiioan?eio iaeaaei?noue oa nooi?noue aca?iei ?c
?ioeie iani?aaie. Noenei aeeeaaea?oueny eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo EI o
OV??-OV??? noie?ooyo.

1. Eoeuei?iaoe?eiee aoai ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyiiai iiiiaee/iiai ienoaoeoaa,
ui iciaiaioaaa inoaii? eiai i?aeianaiiy, aoa iiaycaiee ii/anoe c
i?aai?caoe?eiith ?aoi?iith Oea?eae — oaaaeaiiyi ia ?on? o OV no.
??onaeeinueeiai Onoaao, ca yeei aei aiaineoae?iiy oa?eoea Anaiiuia.
I?ioyaii 2-? iieiaeie OV-OV? noie?oue a?aeaoeiny oi?ioaaiiy iniiaieo
iani?a?a Iaeoiaeo — ye Anaiiuii?, oae ? iiaycaii? c iath E?oo?a??. O
oeae aea ia??iae aoa oaaaeaiee ? ?aia?ooa? Ieoi?oa (iaae?euei? ?
oeaeiaa? ni?ae).

2. Iaeoiaei? i?niani?ae noaee (a ii??aiyii? c aeaaiuei?onueeeie
iniiaeanieie) ye?nii iiaei aeai?iai-noee?noe/iei yaeuai. Eiaeiee
iaeoiaeiee ni?a ia? aeaniee eiiieaen ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?en ? iiaea
aaaaeaoeny naiino?eiei “i?niani?aii-aeai?ii”. Iiyaa ?o, aeeeeeaia
iio?aaith caaaa/aiiy ni?ai/iai ienoaoeoaa, aecia/eea noee?noe/iee ceai o
aeaai?e o?aaeeoe??, “ocaeiiaiiy” ii?o/ ?c noa?ei ciaiaiiei ni?aii iiaeo
ooaeiaeiuei-noee?noe/ieo ii?i.

3. Ni?ae, ye? i?ieoee ?ioiiaoe?eio e?enoae?caoe?th o OV? no., aei 1620-o
?ie?a eeoaeeny o ca??eao aac?iaiieie, io?eioth/e eieaeueii-i?noeaao
iacao eeoa o aeeeth/ieo aeiaaeeao (iiianoe?y noi?aneuenueeiai).
Ii/eiath/e c 1620-o ??. o?aaeeoe?ei? i?niani?ae iaeiaiiaothoueny EI (?
ii-?ioiio) — a cayceo c ?ioaineaiei ?icoe?aiiyi aaaaoiiani?aiiai
eiioaenoo. Oea iiyaa iiaeo iaeiae?e, oa?eoi??aeueieo ?aaeaeoe?e ? iiaeo
ia?ao?ac aeaai?o ni?a?a, oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a?aei-aaeeainueeeo, a
oaeiae ia?oaniiai aaaaoiaieinny. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue EI iaea ia
i?aeoeoe? “aea?eiee?a” — ?io? iani?ae ia o? ae eaiii?/i? oaenoe.
O?aaeeoe?ei? ni?ae io?eioaaee ??ciiiai?oio ao?eaooe?th (noa?ee,
ae?aaiee, EI oa ?i.) aeey oaeaeeiai aecia/aiiy ?o o ca??eao na?aae
inoaii?o. Aaaeeeai, ui iaaeaiiy iaca i?eiaaea? ia oie /an, eiee
i?niani?ae aaea aoee iiai?noth noi?iiaaieie — ioaea, iiyaa iaeiaioaaiue
“ni?cieeany” ca ?o oi?ioaaiiyi ? aoea coiiaeaia ciai?oi?i /eiieeii.

4. Iae?icaeiai?o? a iaeiaee/iiio nain? noi?aneuenuee?, iaaeea??nuee? oa
EI ?ioaa?oaaee ?ioiiaoe?? 1) iani?aii? iainiiaeanii? oea?eiaii?
?a/eoaoe?? oa aeaaiuei?onueeiai iini?aeiaiai iniiaeanny, 2)
a?aei-aaeeainueei? eaeioii?? aciaoee?a oa 3) i?eeiie oe?a?inueeiai
?aa?iiaeueiiai (iie?nueeiai) ia?iaeii-i?naiiiai i?iaiaiooaaiiy.

5. Iaiiaiee aeai?iaee neeaae iniiaeanieo ? iainiiaeanieo EI iiaycaiee ?c
aeiaaeeiaei iaai?ii aeai??a i?niani?a?a iaee?anueeeo iani?a?a, ye?
cyaeyeeny ia i?aeoeoe? ? “o a?aeiia?aeue” yeei iaeiaiiaoaaeeny EI.
Ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? ieoiieo a?o/eciyieo ni?a?a oeth iacao oae ? ia
aoei iaaeaii. Ii/anoe oea iioeao?oueny a?aenooi?noth ciai?oiueiai
?iioeueno – iiyae “aea?eieea”, yeee ni?iaieoaaa ae i?inoaaeaiiy iacae
a?ey o?aaeeoe?eiiai i?niani?ao.

6. Ao?eaooe?y “ee?anueeei” a?aeaoaaeany o OV??-OV??? no. aea??eiai —
?iiae?, iaa?oue ca iayaiino? ia?e, iacao a?aeiia?aeiiio oe?a?inueeiio
ni?ao ia iaaeaaaee. A?aeiia ia nueiaiaei? e?euee?noue EI (aei 120)
cia/ii iaioa, iai?eeeaae, iayaieo a?aei-aaeeainueeeo (aei 300). *anoeia
o?aaeeoe?eieo ni?a?a acaaae? ia aoea caienaia a ca??eao /a?ac ?oi? onia
iiaoooaaiiy (iacao?eniaaiee EI). Iioiaai? ae ni?ae /anoi ia ?iaioaaeeny
– /a?ac iaiaiayceia?noue oeueiai, naio niaith c?icoi?eo ?o a?o/eciyio
aaiaco. Ioaea, iicia/aiiy EI iaaeaia cia/ii iaio?e e?eueeino?
i?niani?a?a, ai?ae iiaei aooe.

7. Aeey /ioe?ueio iaeoiaeieo i?niani?a?a o Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? aoea
noi?iiaaia aeania ?aaeaeoe?y iaeioei?a — ino?icueeee iani?a. Ie?ai?
oaenoe a Oe?a?i? e A?ei?on?? aaeeaaeeny c aeae?eueeiia iaeiae?yie. ?aooa
ni?a?a i?aaenoaaey? ?aeeio oea?eiaii-ni?ai/o o?aaeeoe?th i?aaineaaieo
?ia?o?e ?a/? Iiniieeoi?. ??cieoey i?ae aa??aioaie iani?a?a ia ni?inoiao?
?oiuei? ni?eueiino?, yea iaea i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy
iiiie?oiino? iiiiaee/ii? eoeueoo?e o neeaaeiee aeey I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae
?noi?e/iee /an. sse niaaeei?iaoeue caeiaooe?a ioce/iiai i?ioan?iiae?cio
Ee?anueei? ?on? oe?a?inueeee oea?eiaii-iiiiaee/iee ni?a iiaea iaceaaoeny
ee?anueeei ni?aii, ia?iaiiaaiith /anoeiith yeiai ? ee?anueeee iani?a
OV??-OV??? noie?oue.

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. I i?iyaeaiee caeiiiia?iinoae n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
iuoeaiey a aeeaiiene e iocuea (ia iaoa?eaea ioa/anoaaiiiai
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai eneonnoaa OV-OV?? aaeia) // Iocueaeueiia iuoeaiea:
nouiinoue, eaoaai?ee, aniaeou enneaaeiaaiey. — E.: Ioc. Oe?a?ia, 1989. —
N.133-141 (0,5 ae?.a.).

2. Aei ieoaiiy i?i naiiaooi?noue ee?anueeiai ?icni?ao (ca iaoa??aeaie
iioieo ?oeiien?a e?ioey OV??-OV??? no.) // Oe?a?inueea ioce/ia eoeueoo?a
ieioeiai ? no/aniino? o i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo cayceao: Ca. noaoae iieiaeeo
ioceeiciaaoe?a Oe?a?ie. — E.: Ee?anueea aea?ae. eiina?aaoi??y, 1989. —
N.16-45 (1,1 ae?. a.).

3. Uberblick uber die altrussischen Notationen // Altrussische Music.
Einfuhrung in ihre Geschichte und Probleme / Grazer
Musicwissenschaftliche Arbeiten. B.10; hrsg. von N.
Gerasimova-Persidskaia. — Graz: Akademische Druck und Verlagsanstalt,
1993. — P. 57-70 (1 ae?.a.).

4. Ee?anueeee iani?a o eiioaeno? aaaaoi?icni?aiino? (ca iaoa??aeaie
i?a/eo eiea OV??-OV??? no.) // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo
i?aoeue eaoaae?e oieueeei?o oa aoiia?ao??. — E.: Ee?anueeee aea?ae. ?i-o
eoeueoo?e, 1995. — N. 86-107 (0,7 ae?.a.).

5. Ia ao?eaooeee eeaaneiai ?iniaaa a iiiai?iniaaiii eiioaenoa oe?aeineie
iaa/aneie eoeueoo?u OV??-OV??? aa. // Ee?anueea ioceeiciaanoai: Ca.no. —
Aei.1. — E.: Ee?anueea aea?ae. aeua ioce/ia o/eeeua ?i. ?.I.Ae???a,
1998. — N. 14-27 (0,6 ae?.a.).

6. AEa?o?aeeaa aiein?iiy (iioaoee iaae??a?noa) // I?iaeaie
aoiiioceeieia??: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue / Oii?yae. I. Io?ceia. — Aei.1. — E.:
Aeae-ai Iaoe?ii. ioc. aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i.I.?.*aeeianueeiai, 1998. — N.
222-228 (0,3 ae?.a.).

Oaa/oe I.TH. Ee?anueeee iani?a o eiioaeno?
oea?eiaii-iiiiaee/iiai ni?ao Oe?a?ie oa A?ei?on?? XVII-XVIII no.
(aeaea?aea, aeai?e, ?ene noee?noeee). -?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 17.00.03 — Ioce/ia ienoaoeoai. —
Iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?i.I. ?. *aeeianueeiai, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?icaeyaeo i?niani?a?a ?c iacaith “ee?aneiai
iaiueeo” (EI) o eiioaeno? oea?eiaii-iiiiaee/iiai ni?ao OV??-OV??? no. a
Oe?a?i? e A?ei?on??. Aia?oa a oe?a?inueeiio ioceeiciaanoa? EI iinoa? a
aaaaoiiai?oiino? eiai ca’yce?a, anoaiiaeaieo ia ??cieo ??aiyo ?nioaaiiy
ni?ai/iai ienoaoeoaa — o eiioaeno? ??iieith, o aeai?ia?e nenoai?
i?niani?a?a oa a oiiaao aaaaoiiani?aiino?. Aeine?aeaeaia no?oeoo?a
??iieith i?ae eooii ci?o ?ici?uaiiy o iueiio i?noeaaeo iani?a?a,
anoaiiaeaia o?iiieia?y iaaeaiiy iacae EI ??ciei ni?aai i?ioyaii
XVII-XVIII no. Nooo?ai iiiaeaia a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaeeea aeai?iaiai
aiae?co ni?a?a, nenoaiaoeciaaii e?eoa??? oea?eiaii-ni?ai/iai aeai?o,
aecia/ai? aeai?e an?o EI. Oia?oa ?ic?iaeaia oeiieia?y aeae?a
aaaaoiiani?aiino?; ?ice?eoi ?ene noee?noeee EI /a?ac c?noaaeaiiy eiai c
?ioeie iani?aaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oi?ioaaiiy EI (Iaeoiae)
o OV? no. i?ney i?eeiyooy ia ?on? ??onaeeinueeiai Onoaao e iaaeaiiy
iacae EI o OV??-OV??? no. eeoa o?aaeeoe?eiei a?o/eciyiei ni?aai
i?aaineaaii? aaiace c iaoith ?oiueiai a?aeiaaeoaaiiy a?ae i?niani?a?a
?ioiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? ioceee, aeaaiuei?onueea iiiiae?y,
i?ciueina?aaeiueia?/ia i?ioan?eia ioce/ia ienoaoeoai, a?iiia?ao?y.

Shevchuk O.Yu. Kievan Chant in the Context of the Church-Monodic
Singing of Ukraine and Byelorussia in the 17th-18th Centuries (sourses,
genres, stylistic traits). — Manuscript.

Ph.D. (Nandidate) Dissertation in Music, speciality 17.00.03 — Musical
Art. — The National Tchaikovsky Musical Academy of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation examines chants, called “kievsky naspiv (‘‘napil’’)”
(KN) in the context of church monodic singing of the 17th-18th centuries
in Ukraine and Byelorussia. For the first time in the Ukrainian
musicology, the KN are shown in their multifaceted connections with
church music, established on the basis of the existence of different
levels of church vocal art: in context of the Heirmologia, according to
the genre system of chants and the church multy-chant conditions. The
structure of Heirmologia is investigated in accordance with the presence
of local chants there; the chronology of the giving the name KN to
various chants during the 17th-18th cent. is established. The
dissertation considerably restores the method of the chant’s genre
analysis, systematizes the criteria for the church chant’s genre,
determines all the genres of KN chants. For the first time, the typology
of multi-chant church singing is elaborated; the KN’s stylistic traits
are uncovered through their correlation with other local church tunes.
The investigation confirms that KN (Obyhod) were formed in the 16th
cent., after the establishment of the Jerusalem Typicon in Russia and
proves, that during the 17th-18th centuries the name KN was acquired
solely by traditional native Orthodox chants in order to distinguish
them from chants of different origin.

Keywords: The History of the Ukrainian Music, The Old-Russian Monody,
The Late-Mediaeval Professional Music Art, The Hymnography.

Oaa/oe A.TH. Eeaaneee iaiaa a eiioaenoa oea?eiaii-iiiiaee/aneiai iaiey
Oe?aeiu e Aaei?onnee XVII-XVIII aa. (enoi/ieee, aeai?u, /a?ou
noeeenoeee). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa eneonnoaiaaaeaiey
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 17.00.03 — Iocueaeueiia eneonnoai. — Iaoeeiiaeueiay
iocueaeueiay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu ei. I.E. *aeeianeiai, Eeaa, 1999.

?aaioa iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth EI a iiiaiia?acee aai naycae,
onoaiaaeeaaaiuo ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo nouanoaiaaiey iaa/aneiai eneonnoaa —
a eiioaenoa e?iieiy, a aeai?iaie nenoaia e oneiaeyo iiiai?iniaaiinoe.
Aia?aua nouanoaaiii ?anoe?yaony enoi/ieeiaaae/aneay aaca enneaaeiaaiey
EI (500 ?oeiieniuo eiea ec a?oeaia Oe?aeiu, Aaei?onnee, ?innee,
Iieueoe).

A aeaaa 1 enneaaeothony niaea?aeaiea e no?oeoo?a e?iieiaa n oi/ee
c?aiey ?aciauaiey ianoiuo iaiaaia. Ii?aaeaeaia noaiaiue aa?iyoiinoe eo
?aniiei-aeaiey a ?acee/iuo /anoyo e?iieiy. Aiaeec ?oeiienae iicaieee
auyaeoue 113 ianiiiaiee EI, ii-?aciiio oa?aeoa?ecothueony n oi/ee c?aiey
aiciiaeiinoe eo oaenoieiae/aneiai aiaeeca (io iaeiie aei ianeieueeeo
nioai aa?nee). Onoaiiaeaia o?iiieiaey i?enaiaiey iacaaiey EI ?aciui
ianiiiaieyi n 1620-o aa. aei ia/aea O1O aaea.

A aeaaa 2 niaea?aeeony aeai?iaue aiaeec ianiiiaiee EI. Oa?aeoa?ecothony
aeaa aeai?iauo eiiieaena EI — eciaiyaiua a /eia aa/a?ie e oo?aie
(iniiaeaniua) e iaeciaiyaiua ec Anaiiuiiai Aaeaiey e Eeoo?aee
(aaeeie/iua iniiaeaniua e o.iac. iainiiaeaniua). Aaoi?ii iaiiaeaia
iaoiaeeea aeai?iaie ao?eaooeee ianiiiaiee (ia iaoa?eaea EI), eioi?ay
inouanoaeyaony niia?acii 8 e?eoa?eyi: niaea?aeaiea oaenoa, ooieoeey /
ooieoeee, /anoioiinoue eniieiaiey, niinia eniieiaiey, aeae ?iniaaiinoe,
ioiioaiea “oaeno — iaiaa” (iiaeiaiu, naiiaeaniu, naiiianiua),
eiiiiceoeey, eioaineaiinoue yaiethoeeiiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee. ?acoeueoaou
aiaeeca iieacaee y?eia ?acee/ea onoaaii-eeoo?ae/aneeo e iocueaeueiuo
naienoa ianiiiaiee ec aeaoo aeai?iauo eiiieaenia EI. Ii-?aciiio
oa?aeoa?ecothony iie e oaenoieiae/anee: anee eciaiyaiua i?aaenoaaeaiu
aaeeie/iuie neo/ayie iaeiaiiaaiey EI, oi iaeciaiyaiua yaeythony aai
oeaio?aeueiui ?aia?ooa?ii.

A oi aea a?aiy e onoaaiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue “Anaiiuiay — Eeoo?aey”
e, oai aieaa iniiaeanea, ia ?ai?acaioe?othony eeaaneei iaiaaii
en/a?iuaathua: a ninoaaa Iaeoiaea anoue o?aaeeoeeiiiua ianiiiaiey aac
ao?eaooeee EI, oi aea eanaaony auai?a e ninoaaa ioaeaeueiuo iniiaeaniuo
aeai?iauo oeeeeia. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ioianaiea e neoaeaa eee aeai?iaiio
oeeeeo naii ii naaa ia auei aeaenoaeoaeueiie i?e/eiie i?enaiaiey
aeaiiiai iacaaiey, a aeey yoiai eiaeenue ae?oaea i?e/eiu.

A aeaaa 3 onoaiaaeeaaaony, /oi iauaeoeaiui iniiaaieai aeey iaeiaiiaaiey
ianiiiaiee “eeaaneeie” aue iiiai?iniaaiue eiioaeno. ?ac?aaaouaaaony
oeiieiaey aeaeia iiiai?iniaaiinoe, aaiaeyony iiiyoey ooieoeeiiaeueiay
(OI), oa??eoi?eaeueiay eee neio?iie/aneay (OI) e a?aiaiiay eee
aeeao?iie/aneay iiiai?iniaaiinoue(AI). OI i?aaenoaaeyao ?acee/iua
o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaiaau — neeeaae/aneee e ?aniaaiue — aeey iaeiiai e oiai
aea oaenoa, eniieuecoaiiai a ?aciuo neoaeaao. Ae?oaay ?aciiaeaeiinoue OI
aeeth/aao ?acee/iua iaiaau iaeiiai e oiai aea ianiiiaiey aeey
naaeie/iiai eee i?acaeie/iiai aeiy. Ec ia?u iaiaaia ia iaeei oaeno a
nai?ieeao oeene?iaaeny, eae i?aaeei, iaeiaeece?iaaiiue, eioi?ue e
iieo/ae iaeiaiiaaiea EI.

OI iauaaeeiyao aa?eaiou e ?aaeaeoeee iaeiiai e oiai aea ianiiiaiey.
Aaoi?ii inaauaii niioiioaiea EI e ino?iaeneiai eae
oeaio?aeueiioe?aeineie e caiaaeiioe?aeineie e ?aaeaeoeee iaeiiai
iaeioeia (iie nouanoaiaaee aeey 4 iaeoiaeiuo ianiiiaiee). Iaiaa
Iaaeeai?neiai iiianou?y (ia Eeaaueia) i?aaenoaaeyao iaeaieaa aiaaoue a
iaeiaee/aneii ioiioaiee ianoiue aa?eaio EI. Ia/a?neee iaiaa
aeaiiino?e?oao ?acee/iia ioiioaiea e EI (a caaeneiinoe io ianiiiaiey) —
io aoeaaeueiiai aei aaeaa oeaaeeaaaiiai noiaenoaa. Aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea
eiaao niaiaaeaiea e noiaenoai EI n iaiaaaie Noi?aneueneiai iiianou?y
(eii.XVI a.): eo ?iaenoai iicaieyao ioianoe oi?ie?iaaiea EI e XVI aaeo —
a?aiaie iaeiaee/aneiai ioi?ieaiey ianiiiaiee Anaiiuiiai Aaeaiey
(aaaaeaii niaeanii Ea?onaeeineiio Onoaao a XV aaea) e ?iaenoaaiiie aio a
iaeiaee/aneii ioiioaiee Eeoo?aee.

AI aeeth/aao “iiaua” iaiaau (II) XVII-XVIII aa. ia oaeno oa?oaeineie
ianie (?aaea — i?e/anoiuo), nicaeaiiua ia iniiaa: 1/ a?aei-aaeeaineeo e
EI (neeoneay, neooeeay, iiaeai?neay oa?oaeineea), 2/ ianaiiuo iaeiaeee
(aacuiyiiua) e 3/ iaiaaia aeooiaiuo ianai, aioaaeoeo aiineaaenoaee a
“Aiaiaeaniee” (1791). Eae i?aaeei, II ia iieo/atho a XVII-XVIII aa.
iacaaiey EI; ianiioiineii iii e n ia?oaniui oe?aeinei-aaei?onneei
oai?/anoaii, ?acaeaathueiny ia ia iniiaa o?aaeeoeeiiiie iiiiaeee.
Ao?eaooeey EI — eae e ?aia?ee “noa?ue”, “ae?aaiee” e o.i. — aeaaaeanue a
Oe?aeia a XVII-XVIII aa. i?aeiouanoaaiii iiiiaee/aneei o?aaeeoeeiiiui
ianiiiaieyi. Eniieueciaaeny EI e A?aei-Eaoiee/aneie Oea?eiaueth, iaeiaei
e a oieaoneeo e?iieiyo iacaaiea EI i?enaaeaaeinue eneeth/eoaeueii
ianiiiaieyi i?aaineaaiiai aaiacena. I?eia?u i?enaiaiey iacaaiey EI
ianiiiaieyi ae?oaeo noeeae aaeeie/iu (eieaeueiu) e ia iauai oiia
yaeythony eneeth/aieyie.

Iaeiaiiaaiea EI inouanoaeyeinue n oeaeueth ioee/ey aai e io a?a/aneeo,
thaeiineaayineeo, aaeeei?inneeneeo, n eioi?uie ii niiinoaaeyeny eae
iauaoe?aeineee. *anoi iaaethaeaaony ?aciauaiea ?yaeii Eeoo?aee EI
na.Eiaiia Ceaoionoiai e Eeoo?aee aieaa?neie na.Aaneeey Aaeeeiai
(ia?aaeei iia aacuiyiia).

Auai?i/iinoue aeai?iaiai ninoaaa EI, ioia/aiiay a aeaaa 2, iauyniyeanue:
1/ ia?aie/aiiinoueth ?aia?ooa?a oao iaeeaaneeo iaiaaia, “a ioaao”
eioi?ui ii eiaiiaaeny; 2/ oaeie iniaaiiinoueth e?iieiaa, eae ionoonoaea
a ieo oaenoia iiiaeo o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ianiiiaiee (i?aeiouanoaaiii
neeeaae/aneiai e neeeaai-iaaiaoe/aneiai neeaaea), auoothueo a onoiie
o?aaeeoeee (iacaoeene?iaaiiue EI); 3/ iaiaycaoaeueiinoue iaeiaiiaaiey (a
i?eioeeia). A nayce n oeacaiiuie i?e/eiaie aacuiyiiui inoaeinue
aieueoeinoai o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iaiaaia. A ?aaioa i?aaeeaaaaony n/eoaoue
anth niaieoiiinoue oe?aeineeo iiiiaee/aneeo ianiiiaiee eeaaneei ?iniaaii
(“ee?anueeee ni?a”), iaeiaiiaaiiie /anoueth eioi?iai yaeyaony eeaaneee
iaiaa XVII-XVIII no.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: enoi?ey oe?aeineie iocuee, ae?aaia?onneay iiiiaeey,
iicaeian?aaeiaaaeiaia i?ioanneiiaeueiia iocueaeueiia eneonnoai,
aeiiia?aoey.

Похожие записи