IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? ?.?.IA*IEEIAA

?eaeia Na?a?e Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 930.9.01.

AAeAIOAOe?ss ?AII?O IAEAIAIO?II?A AeI IAAEIEEOIUeIAI NA?AAeIAEUA
OeAIO?AEUeII? ?A?IIE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.02. — anana?oiy ?noi??y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? a?oaieia?? oa ioca?ciaanoaa
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeaaeeeo Ieoaeei ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?ith a?oaieia?? oa ioca?ciaanoaa

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?

Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaoeeaaie Eaii?ae Aai?a??ae/, caa?aeoaa/

a?aeae?eii ?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa

IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Euea?a).

— eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Nieioeia Ieaia Aaeaioei?aia, eaoaae?a

a?oaieia?? oa aoiia?ao?? Oe?a?ie
Iaeanueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie AI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny »_6_»_aeiaoiy_1999 ?ieo i 15 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.41.051.08 i?e Iaeanueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith: 270057,
i.Iaeana,aoe.Uaie?ia, 12, aoae. 9.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii »_21_»_na?iiy_ 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeioeaio
Eicianueeee A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

?noi??y ethaenoaa ?, cie?aia, ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa iaa?ae`?iii
iia`ycaia c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai. Iniaeeao ?ieue iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua a?ae?a?aaaei ia ?aii?o aoaiao aio?iiinioe?iaaiaco. Naia a
oe? /ane, eiee ii/aeiny oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ia?a?niiai
noni?euenoaa, aeiae?eey iaei cia/iee aieea ia nioe?aeueiee, aeiiii?/iee
? aeooiaiee ?icaeoie ethaenueeeo oa?oioaaiue.

Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy i?iaeaia aca?iia?aeiinei ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa
? aeiae?eey iaaoaa? a ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy oeo
ia??iae?a /ano, aea ienaii? aeaea?aea a?aenooi?, a aoiia?ao?/i? aeai? ia
iaaeathoue ia`?eoeaii? ea?oeie ieioeiai. Aeey noai?aiiy ?noi?e/ieo
?aeiino?oeoe?e ?aii?o ia??iae?a ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa caeo/athoueny
a?oaieia?/i?, aaieia?/i?, iaeaiaioai?/i?, iaeaiciieia?/i?,
iaeaiaio?iiieia?/i? aeaea?aea.

Aeoiaey/e c iniiaieo iieiaeaiue no/anii? aaiethoe?eii? oai???
a?ieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo oaa?eiiiai na?oo ? ethaeeie, ye a?ieia?/ii?
?noioe, aieiaia i?noea a i?ioean? i?e?iaeiiai aeiai?o a?ae?a?a?
aaeaioaoe?y. Ia nueiaiaei?, iiaeeeai i?inoaaeeoe aeaa iniiai? aeaee
i?enoinoaaiiy — a?ieia?/ia ? eoeueoo?ia.

Ua aeiiaaeaaia i?iaeaia ethaenueei? aaeaioaoe?? aei iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ?icaeyaeaeany eeoa c oi/ee ci?o a?ieia?/ii? aai niiaoe/ii?
aaeaioaoe??. O i?neyai?ii? ?iee a aoiai?oa?ieo iaoeao aaaaoueio e?a?i
na?oo c’yaeeiny aecia/aiiy eoeueoo?e ye iaaeniiaoe/ii? aai eoeueoo?ii?
aaeaioaoe?? aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Oaeei /eiii, caaaeueia
iiiyooy eoeueoo?e ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa ii a?aeiioaiith aei
ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua aecia/a?oueny ye aaeaioeaia a?aeiia?aeue ia
ci?ie a i?e?iaeiiio ioi/aii?.

Ca inoaii? aeaa-o?e aeanyoe??//y a eie? aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei aoai?a
noaiiaeaiiy ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa iaei??th c aieiaieo iinoa? i?iaeaia
aeae?eaiiy a?ieia?/iiai oeio Homo sapiens c aaiethoe?eii? a?eee aii?i?ae
aai ia?ao?ae a?ae iaeaiaio?ii?a aei iaaio?ii?a.

Aena?oeaiiy i?iaeaie iioiaeaeaiiy Homo sapiens iaa?ae?eaii iia’ycaia c
aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeoaea a?aeiii?, oae caaii?, «iaaiaea?oaeuenueei?
i?iaeaie». A?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeaiue aoea noieoniaaia ia o?iiieia?/iiio
a?ae??ceo /ano 70-35 oen. ?ie?a oiio. Ia iniia? aaaaoi/enaeueieo
??ciiiai?oieo oaeoe/ieo (a?oaieia?/ieo, iaeaiaio?iiieia?/ieo,
iaeaiioieia?/ieo, iaeaiaioai?/ieo oa ?i.) aeaieo naia a oeueiio /aniaiio
i?ii?aeeo a?aeaoaaany eoeueoo?iee ? a?ieia?/iee ia?ao?ae a?ae
iaeaiaio?ii?a aei iaiaio?ii?a. Aaieia?/ii oeae a?ae??cie /ano
a?aeiia?aeaa oieiaeiei ee?iaoe/iei oacai ia??iaeo inoaiiueiai
ceaaeai?iiy ia oa?eoi??? ?a?iie.

Iaioa oaaae i?eae?eyeiny iiia?aaeiueiio, a?aei?iiiio ca ee?iaoe/ieie
oiiaaie a?ae inoaiiueiai ceaaeai?iiy, ia??iaeo inoaiiueiai iioaie?iiy
ieaenoioeaio — 135-75 oen. ?ie?a oiio. Oeae ia??iae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
?nioaaiiyi a?ieia?/ieo aeae?a iaeaiaio?ii?a ? a ?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/iiio
ieai? ni?aiaaea? c ionoue??nueeith aiioith ? ia??iaeii na?aaeiueiai
iaeaie?oo. Ia no/aniiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy «iaaiaea?oaeuenueei?
i?iaeaie» ia oa?eoi??? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie c’yaeeany cia/ia e?euee?noue
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaiiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo. Aeieeea iiaeeea?noue ia
aac? oeueiai iaoa??aeo aeae?eeoe aaeaioeai? iniaeeaino? eoeueoo?iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, eiee
ee?iaoe/i? oiiae aoee aeoaea noiae? ia no/ani?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aea/aiiy aaeaioeaieo iiaeeeainoae ?aii?o
iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, ye? i?iaeeaaee a ia??iae inoaiiueiai
iioaie?iiy, aaaeeeaa o eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiethoe?? Homo sapiens:
aiii ?icoe?th? iao? ciaiiy i?i iaaiee aoai eoeueoo?iiai (o ?icoi?ii?
aaeaioeaii? a?aeiia?ae? ia ci?ie a ioi/aii?), a ioaea — ?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo ethaenoaa; ii-ae?oaa, aeiiiiaaa? o iiyniai? iiaaae?iee ?
no?aoaa?? aeeooy Homo sapiens o ianooii? ia??iaee, a oaeiae o aea/aii?
iiia?aaei?o ia??iae?a.

E??i oiai, caaaeath/e ia a?aee?eooy o 1974 ?ioe? oe?a?inueeeie
aeine?aeieeaie ia oa?eoi??? Caea?iaooy, ui ca aaia?ao?/iei iieiaeaiiyi
? /anoeiith Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, aaaaoioa?iaiai iinaeaiiy Ei?ieaaa c
?aooeaie iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e iaeaiaio?ii?a ? a?eueo aeaai?o i?aaee?a
no/anii? ethaeeie — a?oiao?ii?a, aeaia oaia aeooaeueia oaeiae c oi/ee
ci?o aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai
?a?iiaenueeiai eiioeiaioo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Cai?iiiiiaaia
aeena?oaoe?eia oaia ? /anoeiiith i?aeeaoaae?aeueii? (eaoaae?a a?oaieia??
oa ioca?ciaanoaa, eaoaae?a iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie) iaoeiai? oaie
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea
«?noi?e/iee aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ianaeaiiyi
Oe?a?ie».

Iaoa aeaii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o aecia/aii? iniiaieo oa?aeoa?ieo ?en
aaeaioaoe?? ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie ia i?ioyc? a?aeiinii oaieeo ee?iaoe/ieo oiia
?nioaaiiy.

Caaaeaiiy, ui aeieeaathoue c iinoaaeaii? iaoe: 1. — c’ynoaaoe
caeiiii??iino? aaia?ao?/ieo ? aaiii?oieia?/ieo oiiae ?icoaooaaiiy
iinaeaiue ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a; 2. — i?iaanoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
oaoi?noe/ieo, aioai?/ieo eiiieaen?a; 3. — aeae?eeoe oa?aeoa?i?
iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e iinaeaiue ?aii?o
iaeaiaio?ii?a; 4. — c`ynoaaoe oa?aeoa?i? ?ene no?aoaa?? aeeooy ?aii?o
iaeaiaio?ii?a: i?e/eie aeai?o i?noeue i?iaeeaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy
ne?iaeiieo ?ano?n?a, niaoe?ae?caoe?th a iiethaaii?; 5. — i?inoaaeeoe
i?iyae aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e; 6. — c`ynoaaoe oa?aeoa?i? ?ene a?ieia?/ii?
aaeaioaoe?? ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. A oe?a?inuee?e ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? iaaeinoaoiuei
oaaae i?eae?eyeinue aea/aiith i?iaeai aaeaioaoe?? aei iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?a — iaeia c ia?oeo ni?ia
aea/aiiy aaeaioaoe?? a oiae? iaeaeaai?oeo ?noi?e/ieo i?ioean?a, ye?
a?aeaoaaeeny ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ? non?aei?o oa?eoi??yo ?a?iiaenueeiai
eiioeiaioo.

Aia?oa c?a?aii ? iiaeaii a ocaaaeueiaiiio aeaeyae? aeaea?aeueio aaco
iinaeaiue ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii-?a?iiaenueeiai ?aa?iio
ia??iaeo inoaiiueiai iioaie?iiy. Canoiniaaii iiaee i?aeo?ae o
?ica’ycaii? i?iaeai ?noi?e/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa,
yeee aaco?oueny ia aea/aii? aaeaioaoe?? aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua,
ye ia i?e?i- oae ? ia iae?i?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?.

A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa a iiaiiio ianyc? aaiaeyoueny a iaoeiaee ia?a
aaoi?nuee? iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaiai oeaio?aeueii-?a?iiaenueeiai
iinaeaiiy iaeaiaio?ii?a ia oa?eoi??? Caea?iaonueei? iaeano? — Iaeee
?aeiaaoeue IV.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee iioae?eiaai?
iaoa??aee ?iceiiie ia oa?eoi??? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, a oaeiae iniaeno?
iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iinaeaiiy Iaeee ?aeiaaoeue IV ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?inueeiai Caea?iaooy.

Iniiaio a?oio aeaea?ae, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e iaienaii?
aeena?oaoe??, neeaee i?aoe? aeine?aeiee?a, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei
iaaiaeyoue na?ae/aiiy i?i iaoa??aeueio ? aeooiaio eoeueoo?o ?aii?o
iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeiai ?aa?iio. Oea ?iaioe
A.Aic?inueeiai, I.Eiia?aea, I.No??oa (Cao?aeia I?ia//eia); A.Aai-Aeaiea,
A.Oieioa?a, Ae.Iai?y, I.Oiie, O.Aaaa?a (No?aeia I?ia//eia); E.Aaeioa,
ss.O??ae??oa, ?.Naiaiaee, ?.Ion?ea (Ii?aa?y ? *ao?y); A.Ae/aea,
E.Aaiana, TH.Aa?oe, E.Eai?inueei? (Neiaae?y); E.Aa?oaoa, I.Aaai??,
O.A??i (Oai?ueia); A.I.Aeaaeee?ia, A.?.Neoeeaiai, E.A.Eoeaeianueei?,
TH.A.Aeai?aeaiei, A.?.On?ea (Oe?a?inueea Caea?iaooy).

A i?ioean? ?aeiino?oeoe?? iaeaieaiaeoaooo a aeena?oaoe??
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoeia? i?aoe? O.Oeaeia?a, E.Aoooea?a, E.A?oiaea?a,
E.Ioee?, A.Caaaaeia, O.Eieooioaia, I.Ia/?, ss.O?iea, A.Eoeee,
?.Ae.Aioooaeia, A.I.A?e/oea, A.?.Eacoeiaa, I.E.Caii??y, A.O.Iae??aa,
Aaeaiaiea I.I.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
caeiaooee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, eiiieaenia ?aeiino?oeoe?y oiia ?nioaaiiy
ethaeeie a ia??iae inoaiiueiai iioaie?iiy ieaenoioeaio ia oa?aiao
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, cae?eniaia ia i?aenoaa? iaoeiaeo aeaea?ae ?
iniaenoeo aeine?aeaeaiue, oa iaoeia? aeniiaee ? aeiaeaoeiaith
neeaaeiaith ciaiue c aeaaiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ? ?a?iie. Aiaeii/an aiie
?icoe?ththoue iaoeiao aaco aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeai ia?a?niiai
noni?euenoaa, a?oaieia??, aio?iiieia??. I?aeoe/iei ?acoeueoaoii
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? oaeiae caii/aoeoaaiiy o a?o/eciyieo ?noi?e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo iaoiaeieia?? iiaoaeiae ?aeiino?oeoeaieo iiaeaeae
ieioeiai c iiceoe?e aaeaioaoe?? noni?euenoaa aei i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniaia oeyoii ioae?eaoe?e
noaoae ? iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeae. Aeena?oaio i?eeiaa o/anoue o
i?aeia?iaeiiio a?oaieia?/iiio iieueiaiio nai?ia?? a n.Ei?ieaaa
Caea?iaonueei? iaeano? (1990 ?.), aenooiaa c aeiiia?aeyie ia
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?e a i.Ee?a? (1991 ?.) ? i.Oueii?iaai (O?I, 1992
?.).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny
?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e ? aeiaeaoe?a.
Ianya aeena?oaoe??: oaeno — 159 noi??iie, nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e
— 13 noi??iie (166 iaeiaioaaiue); i’youe aeiaeaoe?a (40 n.).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

O ANOOI? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/a?oueny eiai iaoa oa aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy, ie?aneththoueny
o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, oa?eoi??y oa eiei aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny nooi?iue ?ic?iaeaiiino? oaie.

Ia?oee ?icae?e ia? iacao »?NOI??IA?AO?ss AEA*AIIss I?IAEAIE
AAeAIOAOe?? OA IAEAIAEIEIA?? A ?AIIUeIIO IA?A?NIIIO NONI?EUeNOA?».

Oeae ?icae?e no?oeoo?ii iiae?ey?oueny ia o?e i?ae?icae?ee: »Iiiyooy
aaeaioaoe??», »I?iaeaie eoeueoo?ii? aaeaioaoe?? ? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo
iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e iaeaiaio?ii?a», »I?iaeaie a?ieia?/ii?
aaeaioaoe?? iaeaiaio?ii?a».

Iiiyooy aaeaioaoe?y, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a no/ani?e ?noi??ia?ao??,
cie?aia i?e aea/ai? aeaaiuei? ?noi???, a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii?
aecia/a?oueny ye i?enoinoaaiiy ethaeeie aei oiia ?nioaaiiy ? eaaeeoue a
oi/oe? ia?aoeio i?ae aaiethoe?eiith ? aeieia?/iith oai??yie.

Nii/aoeo aaeaioaoe?y ?icaeyaeaeany ia?aaaaeii ye a?ieia?/ia aai
niiaoe/ia i?enoinoaaiiy aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Ianooiiei e?ieii
a ?icoi?ii? iiiyooy aaeaioaoe?? aenooia? aaea ia a?ieia?/ia (ia
aaiaoe/ia) aaeaioaoe?y, a a?eueo iiaooi?e aeae aaeaioaoe?? — «ia?aaeaia
iiaaae?iea». Ia?aaea/a aaeaioeaii? iiaaae?iee a?aeaoaa?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith i?ioeano iaa/aiiy. Naiai aiiaath aaeaioaoe?eia iiaaae?iea
iaaoea naia o no/aniiai Homo sapiens. Eiie?aoii oaea iiaaae?iea
a?aeia?aaea?oueny a noai?aii? iaoa??aeuei?e eoeueoo?e aai a iiaiio aeae?
aaeaioaoe?? — eoeueoo?ia aaeaioaoe?y.

Iaeiei c ia?oeo a/aieo, yeee i?aeo?eiaa, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea iiiyooy
eoeueoo?ii? aaeaioaoe??, aoa Eane? Oaaeo. Naia eiio iaeaaeeoue
aecia/aiiy, ui eoeueoo?a — oea aeno?aniiaoe/ia aaeaioaoe?y ethaeeie aei
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (White, 1959).

I?iaeaie eoeueoo?ii? ? a?ieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? a ?aiiueiio ia?a?niiio
noni?euenoa? ?icaeyaeathoueny ia oii? aeieia?? iinaeaiue ? ca
aeiiiiiaith aea/aiiy iaoa??aeueii? ? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e i?ciueiai
ieaenoioeaio.

Aea/aiiy a?aeiinei i?e?iaee ? ethaeeie a ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??
?aiiueiai ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa caeiaei i?ia?aeia i?noea. Aeeneon??
ei?eenue iaaeiei ?ie? aai aieeao nioe?aeueiiai oaeoi?o ia i?e?iaeia
na?aaeiaeua ? iaaiaee (Ai?iaeoeia, 1923; Caiyoiei, 1951; Ii?oiaa, 1955;
?iaa/aa, 1957; Aoeiaiei, 1958; Ai?eneianeee, 1974; Aeaaeeeei, 1974).

O aea/aii? aeaai?o noni?euenoa o iiai?ii? ?iee c’yaey?oueny iiiyooy
iaeaiaeieia?y, yea noi?ioaaeiny a iaeaiioieia?? ye iaeei c ??
i?ae?icae?e?a. Aieiaiith iaoith iaeaiaeieia?? ? aea/aiiy aca?iia?aeiinei
i?ae aeeaeie i?aai?ciaie aaieia?/iiai ieioeiai ? ioi/oth/ei
na?aaeiaeuai. Ia no/aniiio aoai? iiiyooy iaeaiaeieia?? aeei?enoiao?oueny
aeey c’ynoaaiiy niiniao oa oiia aeeooy aeeiiieo a?ieia?/ieo ?aooie, a
oaeiae aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?e aeinenoai aaieia?/iiai ieioeiai.

Aaaeeeaeie aeey ?icoi?iiy iiaaae?iee aii?i?ae, ye? i?iaeeaaee o
ieaenoioeaiiaiio ia??iae? ? i?iaeaie aaieia?/ii? o?iiieia??. Ia iniia?
aea/aiiy aaieia?/ieo ? aaiii?oieia?/ieo oiia ?icoaooaaiiy iinaeaiue,
oaoi?noe/ieo ? aioai?/ieo caeeoie, a oaeiae iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e
?ic?iaeythoueny aeieia?/i? iiaeae? ?icnaeaiiy ? i?iaeeaaiiy aeaaiuei?
ethaeeie ia ?a?iiaenueeiio eiioeiaio? (Mellars, 1969, 1976,1989; Bord,
Thibault , 1977; Binford L. Binford S., 1966; Binford L., 1976, 1980;
Gamble, 1979, 1986 1987; Dennell, 1983; Clark, 1989; Clark, Lindly,
1991; Rolland , Dibble , 1990; Roebroeks, Conard, Kolfschoten, 1992).

O no/ani?e aio?iiieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? i?iaeaie a?ieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe??
iaeaiaio?ii?a aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ?icaeyaeathoueny caaaeyee
aeine?aeaeaiiyi iaeaiaio?iiieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo. A?eueoa /anoeia
?a?iiaenueeeo i?ciueiieaenoioeaiiaeo aii?i?ae eeaneo?eo?oueny ye
aoaeue-yeee a?oa?/iee Homo sapiens, aei yeiai iaeaaeaoue: H sapiens
neanderthalensis, H sapiens sapiens (Hrdllicka, 1927; Howell, 1952;
Trinkaus, Howell, 1979; Heim, 1988).

Aieiai? ii?oieia?/i? ?ene ?a?iiaenueeiai iaaiaea?oaeuenueeiai oeio aoee
i?eaeaai? a ia??iae ??n-ath?inueeiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo. Ca i?ae?aooieaie
aio?iiieia?a aaiaoe/iee oeyo a?ae iaaiaea?oaeuenueeiai /a?aio aei /a?aio
Homo sapiens neeaaea? a?aenoaiue a 5 oen. iieie?iue. A?aoiaoth/e, ui
ethaeeia oiai /ano a na?aaeiueiio i?iaeeaaea 20-25 ?ie?a, oeae oeyo
caeiaa a?aenoaiue a 100-125 oen. ?ie?a. Oea aeaco? ia iaiiaeeea?noue
aiaoii?/iiai ia?aoiaeo a?ae iaaiaea?oaeueoe?a aei Homo Sapiens ca /an?a
inoaiiueiai aeyoe?aeo (Heim, 1988). sseui i?ae?aooiee
aio?iiieia?a-aiaoii?a a??i?, oi /an iiyae Homo Sapiens ia ?a?iiaenueeiio
eiioeiaio? iia’ycaiee c ia??iaeii e?ioey ia?aaeinoaiiueiai (??nnueeiai)
aeyoe?aeo ? ia??iaeii inoaiiueiai i?aeeueiaeiaee?a’y (??n-ath?i). Naia
ia iaae? inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo ??n-ath?i oa ia ii/aoeo ath?inueeiai
ceaaeai?iiy a?aeaoeiny inoaoi/ia oi?ioaaiiy aiaoii?/ii? aoaeiae
iaaiaea?oaeuenueeiai aeaeo. No?aei? c?acee iaaiaea?oaeueoe?a iathoue
aeecuee? ii?oieia?/i? ?ene c ?a?iiaenueeeie aeeiiieie ?aooeaie ia??iaeo
?ioa?aeyoe?aeo ??n-ath?io (Condemi, 1988).

Aea/aiiy aio?iiieia?/ieo ?aooie i?ciueiai ieaenoioeaio ?a?iie aiai?eoue
i?i iaiiaeeea?noue iiyae Homo sapiens sapiens c aiaoii?/ii? oi?ie Homo
erectus presapiens aac iiaeieaiiy i?ii?aeieo aoai?a o o?ce/i?e aoaeia?.
Ao?eeainuee? ?ene iaeaiaio?ii?a ?a?iie iinooiiai cieeathoue a ia??iae
e?ioey ia?aaeinoaiiueiai ceaaeai?iiy aai inoaiiueiai i?aeeueiaeiaee?a’y.
sse caoaaaeo? o?aioeocueeee aio?iiieia AE.Aaei, iiaeeeai naia a ia??iae
inoaiiueiai i?aeeueiaeiaee?a’y (noaa?euei? ee?iaoe/i? oiiae, ii??aiyii c
iiia?aaei?i ? ianooiieie iioieiaeaiiyie) ia oa?eoi??? ?a?iie aoee
noi?iiaai? iniiai? ii?oioeie iaeaiaio?ii?a, ye? iaee niaoeeo?/i?
ii?oieia?/i? ?ene a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaia?ao?/iiai ?icoaooaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, c a?ieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o, ?a?iiaenueeee Homo Sapiens ae??n
c Homo erectus presapiens, yeee ia?aeoia a iie?ii?oio oi?io Homo
presapiens. Oeth noaae?th ci?ieea ii?oieia?/ia oi?ia Homo presapiens
neandertalensis, c iaeiiai aieo, ? Homo presapiens sapiens — c ?ioiai, c
ieo aoa noi?iiaaiee aiaoii?/iee oei Homo sapiens fossilis ia??iaeo
i?ciueiai iaeaie?oo (Heim, 1988).

Aea/aiiy i?iaeaie iioiaeaeaiiy no/aniiai o?ce/iiai oeio ethaeeie
?icaeyaeathoueny ia oii? iaeaiaio?iiieia?/ieo ciao?aeie, ye?
cono??/athoueny ia ?a?iiaenueeiio eiioeiaio?. Oae noaeiny, ui
a?eueo?noue ciao?aeie i?ciueiieaenoioeaiiaiai ia??iaeo iioiaeeei c
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie (O?aioe?y, ?niai?y, Aaeuea?y, ?oae?y). Oiio an?
a?iioace aaiaceno oa oi?ioaaiiy a?oiooaaeeny ia cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiio
aio?iiieia?/iiio iaoa??ae?. Iaaaaaoi iaioa oaaae aoei noieoniaaii ia
aio?iiieia?/ieo ?aooeao aii?i?ae Oeaio?aeueii? ? No?aeii? ?a?ii,
iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui /anoeia c ieo aoea a?aee?eoa ua iai?ee?ioe?
XIX-ai — ia ii/aoeo XX-ai noie?ooy (Smith, 1982).

Aaciina?aaeiuei iaeaiaio?iiieia?/i? ?aooee oeaio?aeueii-?a?iiaenueeeo
iaeaiaio?ii?a aea/aeeny aio?iiieiaaie A.A?aee?/eith, ss.sse?iaeii,
Aai-Aeaiea, A.Ae/aeii (Hrdlicka, 1927; Behm-Blanke, 1958; Jlinek, 1969;
Vlcek, 1958, 1969, 1994).

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — »AeAEA?AEA AeEss A?AeOAI?AIIss EOEUeOO?II?
AAeAIOAOe?? ?AII?O IAEAIAIO?II?A OeAIO?AEUeII? ?A?IIE» —
?icaeyaeathoueny a?oaieia?/i? aeaea?aea ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a. Aeoiaey/e
c ianyao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aei ?icaeyaeo aoee caeo/ai? iaea?eueo
aea/ai? iai’yoee inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo. Ia?aaaaeia /anoeia c ieo,
ca i?ia?ao?/iei ?icoaooaaiiyi, a?aeiineoueny aei na?aaeiuei? nioae
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie. Iaaeaeue, /a?ac aein? ?nioth/? neeaaeiiu?,
iia’ycai? c aaniethoiei aeaooaaiiyi oeeo iinaeaiue, ia aaeaeiny
iiae?eeoe oe? iai’yoee ca ie?aieie o?iiieia?/ieie a?ae??ceaie /ano a
iaaeao inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo.

Ia oa?eoi??? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie iaea?eueoa /anoeia ciaeaeaieo
iinaeaiue iaeaiaio?ii?a inoaiiueiai i?aeeueiaeiaee?a`y iia`ycaia c
oaia??oi?ie oa?eoi??yie No?aeii? I?ia//eie (Oaoaao, A??ianaei?o,
Iieia?e-Ii?ae, ?aaoooe, Ea??iaai), *ao?? (Eoeueia, Aa/ia, Oaaaeoa Nooe,
Ioaaeiino? II) Neiaae?? (Aaiiaoea, Ai?ea-Iiae?ae), Oai?ueie (Oaoa).
A?eueo?noue oeeo iai`yoie ?icoaoiaaia o o?aaa?oeiiaeo ? ica?ieo
aaieia?/ieo a?aeeeaaeao. ?ioa /anoeia iinaeaiue, iia`ycaia ia?aaaaeii c
eaniaeie aaieia?/ieie iaoa?oaaiiyie, ciaeaeaia ia oa?eoi??? Cao?aeii?
I?ia//eie (?aeinueea iaeanoue — Aaea?oaei, Oii/anaa?a,
Ieaeaeoa?-Aoia??o, ?aeiaeaeai), ? Caea?iaonueei? iaeano? Oe?a?ie
(Ei?ieaai I, Iaeee ?aeiaaoeue IV).

Iaeaiaio?iiieia?/i? caeeoee iaeaiaio?ii?a inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo ia
oa?eoi??? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie iioiaeyoue c i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiue
A??ianaei?o, Oaoaao, Oaaaeoa Nooe, Aaiiaoea.

O ?icae?e? o?aoueiio — »AEIEIA?ss IINAEAIUe ? ??CIIAEAeE AAeAIOEAII?
IIAAAe?IEE ?AII?O IAEAIAIO?II?A OeAIO?AEUeII? ?A?IIE» — i?iaiaeeoueny
aiae?c aeaea?ae ? aeae?eythoueny iniiai? ?ene eoeueoo?ii? ? a?ieia?/ii?
aaeaioaoe?? ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie.

Aea/aiiy aaia?ao?/ieo, ee?iaoe/ieo ? aaieia?/ieo oiia ?nioaaiiy
iinaeaiue ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie iieacaei, ui
a?eueo?noue iinaeaiue inoaiiueiai i?aeeueiaeiaee?a’y ?nioaaea ia
a?aee?eoeo noaiiaeo ? e?ninoaiiaeo i?inoi?ao c iayai?noth oe?ieieenoiai
e?no, ia?aaaaeii c aeoao oa a?aao. Na?aae ?ineeiiino? /an a?ae /ano
o?aieyeeny iethu ? aino?ieenoee iaaeoa. A aa?aaiaeo aeieeiao c?inoaea
a?ea yeeoey. ??aaiue ii?y iaaeeaeaany aei ??aiy ii/aoeo aieioeaiiaiai
(no/aniiai) ia??iaeo. Ieaai?/iee ee?iao aoa iioe?aiee ia a?eueoino?
oa?eoi??? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie. Acaaae? ee?iao aoa iiae?aiee aei
oaia??oiueiai, a iiaeeeai oaie?oee. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai oa
a?ae no/aniiai iioaie?iiy a o? /ane i?ioiaeeei a?eueo no??iea c?inoaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iinaeaiue ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a iieacaei, ui a ia??iae
inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo ? ia ii/aoeo inoaiiueiai aeyoe?aeo ia
oa?eoi??? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie ?nioaaee aocuee? i?ioiaee — Ii?aanuee?
ai?ioa, Iaiaaeaaeenuee? ai?ioa, Aeaeeianuee? ai?ioa, Oononuee? ai?ioa, —
ye? c`?aeioaaee iniiai? ??aieie Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie. *a?ac oae?
ae?eyiee i?ioiaeeee i?a?aoe?ei? oeyoe oaa?ei ?acii c ieneeaoeyie, a
oaeiae /a?ac ieo o?ainii?ooaaeany ne?iaeia.

Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae aeai?o i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiue ?aii?ie iaeaiaio?iiaie
aiai?eoue i?i iayai?noue aeaio a?oi iai`yoie: iinaeaiiy a ?aeiiao
eieeoiuei? aoeeai?/ii? ae?yeueiino? (Oii/anaa?a, Ieaeaeoa?-Aoia??o,
Ei?ieaaa, Iaeee ?aeiaaoeue); iinaeaiiy iiaeeco aeoiae?a i?ia?aeueieo
aeaea?ae (A??ianaei?o, Oaoaao, Aaiiaoea, Ai?ea-Iiae?ae, Oaoa, Oaaaeoa
nooe, Ioaaeiino? II).

Aeeiii? oaoi?noe/i? ?aooee c iinaeaiue ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie aeacothoue ia ?o iaaiee aaia?ao?/iee ?iciiae?e:

— ia eaniaeo iai`yoeao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie iae/ano?oa o?aieythoueny
aeeeee e?iue oa eaiue. I?ioyaii inoaiiueiai i?aeeueiaeiaee?a’y ? ia
ii/aoeo inoaiiueiai ceaaeai?iiy ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue oe??? oaoie
cono??/a?oueny ia iinaeaiiyo ?aeinueei? iaeano? (Oii/anaa?a,
Ieaeaeoa?-Aoia??o, Aaea?oaei). Ia iniia? oeeo aeaieo iiaeia aiai?eoe, ui
ia i?ioyc? inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo ? ii/aoeo inoaiiueiai aeyoe?aeo a
cao?aei?e /anoei? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie ia noaiiaeo ? /anoeiai
e?ni-noaiiaeo i?inoi?ao ia?aaaaeath/eie ??ciiaeaeaie, aeinooiieie aeey
iiethaaiiy, aoee aeeeee e?iue oa eaiue. Eania? iinaeaiiy No?aeii?
I?ia//eie na?ae/aoue i?i ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia oe?e oa?eoi??? a ia??iae
inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo aeaaiueiai neiia, coa?a, noaiiaiai ? e?niaiai
iini?iaa, a?ciia, a?aaionueeiai ieaiy a oaeiae eai?;

— aeey o?aaa?oeiiaeo iinaeaiue ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii?
?a?iie ia??iaeo inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo i?eoaiaii? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene,
ye? i?iyaeythoueny o a?aei?iiino? (a?ae ?ioeo i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiue)
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa iiaaae?ioe? ?o iaoeaioe?a. Iae/ano?oa a
iaoa?oaaiiyo oeeo i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiue o?aieythoueny e?oii? nnaaoe?, ye?
i?iaeeaaee a e?ni-noaiia?e cii? — iini?ia, coa?, neii; ??aeoa —
aeaai?iaeiee ieaiue, einue, e?iue, eaaai. Acaaae? o?aaa?oeiiaei ?
ia/a?iei i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiyi ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie
i?eoaiaiiee a?eueo oe?ieee ae?aiacii ? ??ciiiai?oi?noue oaoie oa oei?e,
i?ae ia aiaeia?/ieo eaniaeo iinaeaiiyo oeueiai ia??iaeo;

— ia/a?i? i?noeaia?aaoaaiiy iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie i?noyoue
iaea?eueo oe?ieee ae?aiacii oaoi?noe/ieo ? aioai?/ieo ?aooie. Na?aae
oaoi?noe/ieo ?aooie /ano?oa cono??/athoueny oieiaeiethaia oaoia —
iaiiio, oa?noenoee iini?ia, ia/a?iee aaaei?aeue, ia/a?ia a??ia. Ia
caaaeath/e ia oa, ui iaiiio ? oa?noenoee iini?ia i?aaenoaaeai? a
iaaaeee?e e?eueeino?, aiie i?enooi? a a?eueoino? ia/a?ieo i?eooee?a. A
ia/a?? Eoeueia a 11 oa?? ia?aaaaeathoue ?aooee eiiy, einy, aeaai?iaeiiai
ieaiy. Aeeiii? ?aooee ??ciiaeae?a a?aee?eoiai o?aa’yiiai eaiaeoaooo
ia?aaaaeathoue a ia/a?? Oaoa, aea i?e oeueiio cono??/a?oueny ia/a?iee
eaa, ia/a?ia a??ia. Oaeei /eiii, iaoeaioe? ia/a? iaee ciiao iiethaaoe ia
o?eueee ia eiieoieo oaa?ei, a e ia oieiaeiethaio oaoio, aea i?e oeueiio
eai’yiee ?iaaioa? a?eueoino? ia/a?, ye ? ia o?aaa?oeiiaeo
i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiyo, a?aeiia?aeaa i?e?ie?oe/iei ?iaeono??yi.

Iaea?eueo iioe?aiith ne?iaeiith a oeae ia??iae aenooia? eaa?oe,
eaa?oeeo. I?ioa ia iinaeaiiyo No?aeii? I?ia//eie ia?aaaaea? ne?iaeia c
ii?aiii? e?ai?iii? aaeueee. Ia i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiyo ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a
Oe?a?inueeiai Caea?iaooy ia?aaaaeathoue aoeeai?/i? ii?iaee — aiaeaceo,
ianeae?ai.

Oa?aeoa?i? ?ene aaeaioeaii? iiaaae?iee iaeaiaio?ii?a inoaiiueiai
?ioa?aeyoe?aeo i?inoaaeothoueny o o?ainii?ooaaii? ne?iaeie ? cia?yaeue
i?aoe? ia aaeee? a?aenoai? (?aeinueea iaeanoue).

Aiae?c oaoi?noe/ieo eiiieaen?a i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiue ia oa?eoi???
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue niaoe?ae?caoe?? a
iiethaaii?. Oae, ia oa?eoi??? ?aeinueei? iaeano? a ia??iae inoaiiueiai
?ioa?aeyoe?aeo ? ia ii/aoeo inoaiiueiai aeyoe?aeo ?nioaaei
niaoe?ae?ciaaia iiethaaiiy ia eiiy ? aeea (Aaea?oaei II (oa? D),
Oii/anaa?a, Ieaeaeoa?-Aoia??o), a oaeiae naeaeoeaia iiethaaiiy ia a?ciia
oa iini?iaa ? eiiy (Aaea?oaei I). Ia iinaeaii? Iieia?e-Ii?ae
i?iaiaeeeiny niaoe?ae?ciaaia iiethaaiiy ia eaiue.

ssne?aaa na?ae/aiiy i?i iiethaaiiy ia neiia aeathoue caeeoee a?ae
i?noeaiiethaaiiy Ea??iaai. Ooo ?acii c ?aooeaie aaeoiai neiia caa??any
aea?aa’yiee (oeniaee) nien. Iayai?noue oeueiai nieno na?ae/eoue i?i
aeinoaoiuei aeoeaio aeeoo?ae?yeueio iiceoe?th ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a a
i?ioean? i?enoinoaaiiy aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Iayai?noue iaaieo nioe?aeueieo eiiiiiaio?a a oa?oioaaiiyo ?aii?o
iaeaiaio?ii?a ? ?o ?icoiii? iiaaae?iee a i?ioean? iiethaaiiy
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue oaeoe a?aeie?aieaiiy ? naeaeoeaiiai o?ainii?ooaaiiy
caeiae/? ia i?noea i?iaeeaaiiy ia iinaeaiiyo Oii/anaa?a (oa? 2A) oa
Iieia?e-Ii?ae.

Oa?aeoa?i? ?ene eoeueoo?ii? aaeaioaoe?? i?inoaaeothoueny o
??ciiiai?oiino? ?iciiae?eo eai`yieo ?iaeono??e. Ia oa?eoi???
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie i?inoaaeothoueny iaai? oa?aeoa?i? eoeueoo?i?
aa??aioe:

— iaea?eueo iioe?aiee aa??aio — i?e?ie?oe/i? ?iaeono???, a?eueo?noue
yeeo a?aeiineoueny aei oaoaaonueeeo. Aiie ?nioaaee ia oa?eoi??? No?aeii?
I?ia//eie (Oaoaao, ?aaoooe), Ii?aa?? (Eoeueia -11 oa?, Ioaaeiino? II)
Neiaae?? (Aaiiaoea, Iiae?ae-Ai?ea), Oai?ueie (Oaoa). Aeey oeeo
?iaeono??e i?eoaiaii? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene aaieiai-aaiii?oieia?/iiai
?icoaooaaiiy. A?eueo?noue c ieo iia`ycai? c o?aaa?oeiiaeie a?aeeeaaeaie
? aeoiaeai i?ia?aeueieo aeaea?ae;

— ia oa?eoi??? ?aeinueei? iaeano? a ia??iae inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo
aeae?ey?oueny a?oia iai`yoie (Oii/anaa?a — oa? 2A; ?aeiaeaeai — A1;
Aaea?oaei — oa? D), yeei i?eoaiaii? iciaee i?ciueiiaeaie?oe/ieo
?iaeono??e — cia?yaeaey i?aoe? ia ieanoeiao c i?eooieaiei e?a?i. Ia
iinaeaii? Ieaeaeoa?-Aoia??o i?iyaeythoueny aeaiaioe i?ciueiai i?eieo;

— oa?eoi??y Caea?iaooy iaaea? na?ae/aiiy i?i ?nioaaiiy a ia??iae
inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo ? ia ii/aoeo aeyoe?aeo aeaio aa??aio?a
eai’yieo ?iaeono??e — ionoue? cae/aeia c aeei?enoaiiyi eaaaeoacueei?
oaoi?ee ia?iaee (Ei?ieaaa I — oa?e IVa, IV, III, IIa; Iaeee ?aeiaaoeue
IV — oa? II) oa aeaia?/ia ionoue? (i?eie — oa? IIa).

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaoa??aee iinaeaiue ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, iiee ui ia aeathoue iiaeeeaino? i?inoaaeeoe
ca’ycie eai’yieo ?iaeono??e c oaoi?noe/ieie ?aooeaie. Nei??o ca ana,
?icia?ooy eai`yieo c?a?aiue ia caeaaeaea a?ae niaoe?ae?caoe?? a
iiethaaii? ia iaai? aeaee oaa?ei.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui ia oa?eoi??? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie a ia??iae
inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo ia ?icia?ooy eai`yieo ae?ia?a aieeaaee oae?
oaeoi?e: nioe?aeueiee, aaia?ao?/iee, ne?iaeiiee.

Aea/aiiy oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo iaoa??ae?a na?ae/eoue i?i ca`ycie
i?ae ?icoaooaaiiyi aeoiae?a i?ia?aeueieo aeaea?ae ? i?e?ie?oe/ieie
eai`yieie ?iaeono??yie.

Ie?ai? ?ene aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii?
?a?iie aeyaeai? ia i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiyo Oaoaao, Eoeueia (11 oa?), Oaoa,
Iieia?e-Ii?ae, Ioaaeiino? II. Aaaaoi/enaeuei? caeeoee ?ia?a
aeaai?iaeiiai ieaiy ia iinaeaiiyo Oii/anaa?a oa Ieaeaeoa?-Aoia??o c
iaeiiai aieo, iiaeooue aeacoaaoe ia ca?eueoaiiy oeeo aeae?a oaa?ei a
a?eueo i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, c ?ioiai aieo, oea iiaei
aooe iia’ycaii c iaaieie eoeueoo?ii-neiaie?/ieie iciaeaie ?aii?o
iaeaiaio?ii?a i?ai?/ii-cao?aeieo ?aeii?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie.

Ia/a?i? ia?aaoaaiiy ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a aeacothoue ia aeei?enoaiiy a
ia??iae inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo i?e?iaeieo i?eooee?a oa, iiaeeeai,
aeeoae. Aeaye? aeaiaioe aeeoeiaeo nii?oae ?aeaioeo?eiaai? ia iinaeaii?
?aeiaeaeai a ?aeinuee?e iaeano?. I?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy Ioaaeiino? II iaei
i?e?iaeiee caoeno o aeaeyae? aaiiyeiai? neae? A?aae?nei.

Ia a?eueoino? iinaeaiue ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a o?enothoueny aiaieua. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy aiaith a ia??iae inoaiiueiai
?ioa?aeyoe?aeo ye a ia/a?ieo i?eooeeao, oae ? ia iinaeaiiyo i?inoi iaaa.

Ieoaiiy a?ieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii?
?a?iie iio?aao? iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy. Ca no/anieie iiaeyaeaie (Vlcek,
1994) a ia??iae inoaiiueiai ?ioa?aeyoe?aeo ia oa?eoi??? Oeaio?aeueii?
?a?iie ?nioaaee aea? ii?oieia?/i? a?oie iaeaiaio?ii?a —
i?aiaaaea?oaeueoe?, aai iaaiaea?oaei?aee (Oaoaao, Aaiiaoea, Oaaaeoa
Nooe, Ooaathe), ye? iathoue aiaeiae ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?, a oaeiae ?aii?
a?oa?/i? nai??ine A??ianaei?oo. Iiaeeeai, i?aiaaiaea?oaeueoe? aaiaoe/ii
iia`ycai? c A??ianaei?onueeeie ?aii?ie nai??ioieie oi?iaie. Oeiia? oi?ie
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai iaaiaea?oaeueoey ia oa?eoi??? Oeaio?aeueii?
?a?iie ia cono??/athoueny.

Oaeei /eiii, ia no/aniiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/ai? oa?aeoa?i?
?ene eoeueoo?ii? ? a?ieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie. Oe? ?ene aeacothoue ia neeaaei? aca?iia?aeiineie
i?ae i?e?iaeiei na?aaeiaeuai ? nioe?aeueieie a?oiaie ia?a?nieo
eieaeoea?a.

A oeae ?noi?e/iee ia??iae i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua iaei cia/iee aieea ia
iiaaae?ieo ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a, aea caaaeyee iayaiino? eoeueoo?ii?
(aeno?aniiaoe/ii?) aaeaioaoe?? iaeaiaio?iie ?icnaeythoueny i?aeoe/ii ia
a?eueoino? oa?eoi??? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, a?euei?e a?ae eueiaeiaeeiaiai
iie?eao. Iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aaea ca /ane inoaiiueiai iioaie?iiy
ieaenoioeaiiaiai ia??iaeo o ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie
aeyaeythoueny oa?aeoa?i? ?ene eoeueoo?ii? ? a?ieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? Homo
sapiens. Ia?o ca ana, aiie aeyaeythoueny o aeai?? i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy, o
niaoe?ae?caoe?? iiethaaiiy ia oaa?ei, o aeei?enoaii? ne?iaeiieo ?ano?n?a
oa a ie?aieo i?iyaao iaoa??aeueii? ? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e.

O AENIIAEAO ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aenoieiaei
?acoeueoaoii aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo a ?aieao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
a?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaieo a i?e oe?eae ? caaaeaiue, ? aecia/aiiy
oa?aeoa?ieo ?ene eoeueoo?ii? ? a?ieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? aei i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a ??cieo aaia?ao?/ieo ?aa?ii?a
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. The late middle palaeolithic of Malyj Rakovets IV in Transcarpathia
// Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt 22. Mainz: Verlag des RUmisch —
Germanischen Zentralmuseums. — 1992. — P. 301-314. (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
Neoeeaei A.?.).

2. ?aaiou o neaeu Ae-Eay // A?oaieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey —
Neioa?iiieue: Oaa?ey. — 1994. N. 146-150 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c Eieiniaei
TH.A., Eooa?/oeii TH.A.).

3. Ai?aeaoiaea — i?eiueyeieaeiue iaeaieeo ia Ai?iii Oeee/a //
A?oaieiae/aneee aeueiaiao. 4. — Aeiiaoee. — 1994. — N. 217-226 (o
ni?aaaoi?noa? c Aeaaeeeo I.?., Nooiaei I.I.).

4. Iiaee aa??aio i?ciueiiaeaie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e ia *a?eauei? //
A?oaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia *a?eauei?. — *a?eane: N?y/. — 1995. —
N.16-24 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c Aeaaeeeo I.?., Nooiaei I.I.).

5. Enneaaeiaaiey a E?aniie Aaeea // A?oaieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey a
E?uio. — Neioa?iiieue. — 1997. N. 143-150 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c Eieiniaei
TH.A., Eooa?/oeii TH.A.).

6. Eaa?oeaaua i?oaeey iicaeiaiaeaieeoe/aneiai iinaeaiey Ai?aeaoiaea 1
// A?oaieiaey e yoiia?aoey Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu. Iaoa?eaeu enneaaeiaaiey. —
Iaeanna. — 1997.- N.57-68 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c Aeaaeeeo I.?., Nooiaei
I.I.).

7. Ionoue??nueea ianeae?aiiaa noiyiea I.?aeiaaoeue IV ia Caea?iaoo? //
A?oaieia?y. ?4. 1998 ?. N.99-114.

8. Iaeioi?ua aniaeou ia?aaioee eaiiy ia ionouea?neie noiyiea I.?aeiaaoe
IV a Caea?iaooue? // Vita Antiqua. — 1999.- ?1 — N.3-15.

9. Aaeaioaoe?y ? iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua a ia?a?niiio noni?euenoa? //
A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo — 1999. — ?40. — o ae?oeo.

?eaeia N.I. Aaeaioaoe?y aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ?aii?o
iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino? 07.00.02 —
anana?oiy ?noi??y, ?oeiien, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
?.?.Ia/ieeiaa.

Ia iniia? a?oaieia?/ieo, iaeaiaaia?ao?/ieo, iaeaiaioai?/ieo,
iaeaiciieia?/ieo aeaieo ia??iaeo inoaiiueiai aaeeeiai iioaie?iiy
ieaenoioeaiiaiai ia??iaeo a ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? oa?aeoa?i?
?ene eoeueoo?ii? ? a?ieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a.

?aii? iaeaiaio?iie Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie aeaiiino?othoue ??ciiiai?oio
aaeaioeaio iiaaae?ieo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icoaooaaiiy iinaeaiue inoaiiueiai
aaeeeiai iioaie?iiy eueiaeiaeeiaiai ia??iaeo aeaco? ia oaiaeaioe?th
aeai?o i?noey iaoeaiiy a ?aeiiao aaia?ao?/ieo ia?aoiae?a ? a ?aeiiao
iia’ycaieo c aoeeai?/iith ae?yeuei?noth. Oaoi?noe/i? eiiieaene iinaeaiue
?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie aeacothoue ia ia?aaaaeath/a
iioe?aiiy aeeeiai eiiy ? eai?. O oie aea /an, oaoi?noe/i? caeeoee
na?ae/aoue i?i ?nioaaiiy iiethaaiiy ia eiiy, aeea, eaiue, a oaeiae
naeaeoeaiiai iiethaaiiy ia a?ciia, iini?iaa ? eiiy.

Eai’yi? c?a?aiiy aeineoue ??ciiiai?oi? ? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aaeaioeaio
ieanoe/i?noue ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a. O ia??iae inoaiiueiai iioaie?iiy a
i?ioean? aeaioiaeaiiy cia?yaeue i?aoe? iaeaiaio?iie a?aeaeathoue
ia?aaaao oae?e ne?iaei? ye eaa?oe, eaa?oeeo oa e?ai?iue. Oa?aeoa?i?
aaeaioeai? ?ene i?inoaaeothoueny a o?ainii?ooaaii? ne?iaeie ia aaeee?
a?aenoai?.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? aea/aiiy oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo iaoa??ae?a
inoaiiueiai iioaie?iiy ieaenoioeaiiaiai ia??iaeo iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe
aca?iica’ycie i?ae aeoiaeaie i?ia?aeueieo aeaea?ae ? i?e?ie?oe/ieie
?iaeono??yie ?aii?o iaeaiaio?ii?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?a?nia noni?euenoai, iaeaiaio?iie, aaeaioaoe?y,
eoeueoo?ia aaeaioaoe?y, a?ieia?/ia aaeaioaoe?y, iinaeaiiy, noiyiea,
cia?yaeaey i?aoe?, i?e?iaeia ioi/aiiy, ieaenoioeai, eioa?aeyoe?ae.

?uaeia N.I. Aaeaioaoeey e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea ?aiieo iaeaiaio?iiia
Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 anaiauay
enoi?ey, ?oeiienue, Iaeanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao
ei.E.E.Ia/ieeiaa.

Ia iniiaa a?oaieiae/aneeo, iaeaiaaia?aoe/aneeo, iaeaiaioaie/aneeo,
iaeaiciieiae/aneeo aeaiiuo ia?eiaea iineaaeiaai e?oiiiai iioaieaiey
ieaenoioeaiiaiai ia?eiaea a ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony iniiaiua oa?aeoa?iua
/a?ou eoeueoo?iie e aeieiae/aneie aaeaioaoeee ?aiieo iaeaiaio?iiia.

?aiiea iaeaiaio?iiu Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu aeaiiino?e?otho ?aciiia?aciia
aaeaioeaiia iiaaaeaiea. Enneaaeiaaiey iano ?aniieiaeaiey noiyiie
iineaaeiaai eioa?aeyoeeaea oeacuaaao ia oaiaeaioeeth auai?a ianoa
i?iaeeaaiey a ?aeiiao aaia?aoe/aneeo ia?aoiaeia (ai?io) e a ?aeiiao
aoeeaie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaoienoenoe/aneea eiiieaenu iinaeaiee
?aiieo iaeaiaio?iiia Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu oeacuaatho ia i?aiaeaaeathuaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea a ia?eiae iineaaeiaai eioa?aeyoeeaea aeeeie eioaaee e
eaie. A oi aea a?aiy, oaoienoe/aneea inoaoee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
nouanoaiaaiee ioiou ia eioaaeue, auea, eaiue, a oaeaea naeaeoeaiie ioiou
ia aeciia, iini?iaa e eioaaeue.

Eaiaiiua nia?aiey aeinoaoi/ii ?aciiia?aciu e iiaeoaa?aeaeatho
aaeaioaoeeiiioth ieanoe/iinoue ?aiieo iaeaiaio?iiia. A ia?eiae
iineaaeiaai eioa?aeyoeeaea a i?ioeanna ecaioiaeaiey i?oaeee o?oaea
iaeaiaio?iiu ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea oaeiio nu?ueth eae eaa?oe, eaa?oeeo
e e?aiaiue. Oa?aeoa?iua aaeaioaoeeiiiua /a?ou i?ineaaeeaathony a
o?ainii?oe?iaea nu?uey ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey.

Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia eco/aiey oeaio?aeueiiaa?iiaeneeo iaoa?eaeia
iineaaeiaai eioa?aeyoeeaea iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo
auoiaeaie ieia?aeueiuo enoi/ieeia e iee?ieeoe/aneeie eiaeono?eyie ?aiieo
iaeaiaio?iiia Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?aiauoiia iauanoai, iaeaiaio?iiu, aaeaioaoeey,
eoeueoo?iay aaeaioaoeey, aeieiae/aneay aaeaioaoeey, iinaeaiea, noiyiea,
i?oaeey o?oaea, i?e?iaeiia ie?oaeaiea, ieaenoioeai, eioa?aeyoeeae.

Ryzhov S.M. Adaptation to the environment by early paleoanthropoids of
Central Europe.

The thesis of candidates degree in history of the speciality 07.00.02.
— General History, manuscript, Odessa I.I.Mechnikova State University,
Odessa, 1999.

On the basis of archaeological, paleontological, paleogeografical and
paleozoological evidence from the last interglacial of the pleistocen,
this thesis examines the basic characteristic features of the cultural
and biological adaptation of early paleoanthropoids in Central Europe.

The geographic, climatic and geologic conditions of early
paleoanthropoid settlements in Central Europe indicate on existence of
open steppe and forest steppe spaces with presence of broad-leaved
forest in last interglacial period, mainly from to oak and to hornbeam.
In that time a oceanic climate was widespread on majority of territory
of Central Europe. Generally the climate was identical to present
conditions, and it is possibly more warm.

Early paleoanthropoids of Central Europe illustrate that their
adaptation included a variety of behavior and not a single strategy for
subsistence. Analysis of the location paleoanthropoid settlements of the
last interglacial has demonstrated a tendency to settle in areas of
geographical transition (Moravian, Napajedlski, Vuskov, Hust gates) in
places of volcanic activity (Eifel region, Transcarpathian region) and
settlement not far from outcomes of spas (Eringsdorf, Taubach, Ganovce,
Gorka-Ondrey, Predmosti, Tata).

The faunal complexes from open sites of the early paleoanthropoids of
Central Europe specify a primary distribution of wild horse and
fallow-deer. In that time, fauna of theis sites indicated the existence
of specialization in the hunting of bison, rhinoceros, horses and
fallow-deer. In that time the cave sites of Central Europe contain the
most wide range of faunal and botanical .remains. Mammoth, woolly
rhinoceros, spelaean bear and hyaena meet among faunal remains in the
cave more frequently.

The lithic assemblages are diverse, suggesting flexible patterns of
adaptation by early paleoanthropoids. During the last interglacial,
paleoanthropoids manufacturing tools preferred quartz, quartzite and
flint. Individual features of adaptation could traced by the
transportation of raw materials and tools over the large distances.

On the territory of Central Europe the cultural adaptation featured in
distribution variety of stone industries. The microlithic industry is
the most widespread variant. They existed on the territory of East
Germany (Taubach, Rabutz), Slovakia (Ganovce, Ondrey-Gorka) Moravia
(Kulna -11 layer, Predmosti II), Hungary (Tata). For these industries
intrinsic individual features could be traced in geologic disposition.
Majority from them associated with travertin deposit and with outcomes
of spas. Recent studies of deposits in Central Europe have established a
correlation between outcrops of spas and microlithic stone industries.

On the territory of Rhine region in period of the last interglacial
stemed the group of the sites — Tonchesberg (2A); Rheindahlen (A1);
Wallertheim (D), with the intrinsic signs of Upper Palaeolithic
industries which are the labour implements on blades with backed edge.
On the Plaidter Hummerich settlement the elements of late micoquian are
displaed.

In Transcarpathian region into period of last interglacial and on the
beginning of the last glacial are presented two variants of stone
industries – simple mousterian with use of levaluos technic (Korolevo-
IVa, IV, III, IIa; Malyj Rakovets IV — II layer ) and bifasial
mousterian (Korolevo — IIa).

The several lines of spiritual culture of early paleoanthropoids of
Central Europe are expressed on some locations — Taubach, Kulna (11
layer), Tata, Neumark-North and Predmosti II.

The rock shelters of early paleoanthropoids indicate the use of natural
roofs and, it is possible, dwellings (Rheindahlian). On majority of
settlements these hominids have fixed the hearths. It is witnessed the
use of wide fire in the period of the last interglacial both in rock
shelter and on settlements on the open area.

In this historic period natural environment has a little considerable
influence on distribution of early paleoanthropoids but due to presence
of cultural adaptation they have settled apart practically on majority
of territory of Central Europe. One can be affirmed that already for
times of last becoming warm pliestocen period among early
paleoanthropoids Central Europe appeared individual features of cultural
and biological adaptation of Homo sapiens.This could be traced in choice
of inhabitation places, hunt specialization on animals, utilization of
resources and in material and separate representations of spiritual
cultures.

Key words: primeval society, adaptation, paleoanthropoid, cultural
adaptation, biological adaptation, settlement, site, tools, environment,
pleistocen, interglacial.

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