5

Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo aaieia?/ieo iaoe

Ieueooeinueea Ieaenaiae?a Iao??aia

OAeE 561. 26:551.77(477)

EAEIICIENUeEEE AOAI ?ICAEOEO

Ae?AOIIIAI? OEI?E OE?A?IE

(a?ino?aoea?ao?y, aaiethoe?y, iaeaiaeieia?y)

04.00.09

iaeaiioieia?y ? no?aoea?ao?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aaieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? no/aniiai ii?nueeiai naaeeiaioiaaiaco

?inoeoooo aaieia?/ieo iaoe Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio

Aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie

Naiaiaiei Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/,

?inoeooo aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aiae?aaaa-A?eai?iae/ A?aea
Na?a??aia,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i ?.O?aiea, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aaieia??.

Aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ooiaiei Noai?neaa
?aaiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a aaieia??, caa.
eaoaae?ith.

Aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe Oo?naae/ Aae?ia Eocueiei?/ia,

?inoeooo aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI A?ei?on?, i.I?inuee, caa. eaai?aoi???th

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a aaieia??, I?i?noa?noai aeui? ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 3 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.162.01 ?inoeoooo aaieia?/ieo iaoe
IAI Oe?a?ie,

252054, Ee?a, aoe. Ieany Aii/a?a, 55-a

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie

Ee?a, aoe. Ieany Aii/a?a, 55-a

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 28 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee________________________?yaieiiue O.A.

ANOOI

Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue no/anii? no?aoea?ao?? ? iaeaiioieia??
? anoaiiaeaiiy iaae?eieo e?eoa???a aeey ?ic?iaee, aeaoae?caoe?? ?
ei?aeyoe?? ?aa?iiaeueieo no?aoea?ao?/ieo oeae. I?e aaieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ieaai?/ieo inaaee?a aieiaio ?ieue o ae??oaii? oeeo
i?iaeai a?ae?a?a? ieaieoiiia a?ino?aoea?ao?y. Ii?yae c o?aaeeoe?eieie
ea?aiiaoieie a?oiaie ieaieoiio a /enei i?oino?aoea?ao?/ieo aeey
a?iciiaeueiiai ae?eaiiy ii?nueeeo inaaee?a oa?eoee a?oie e?aiaienoiai
o?oiieaieoiio, aieiaiei /eiii ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino?. Ciiaeuei?
ae?aoiiia? oeaee ?ic?iaeai? aeey aaaaoueio ?aa?ii?a Na?oiaiai ieaaio.
Aiaeii/an iiaeeeaino? ?o canoinoaaiiy aeey no?aoeo?eaoe?? a?aeeeaae?a
ai?eiioeiaioaeueieo ? ie?a?iieo aanaei?a iaiaaeai? ?aa?iiaeueieie
iniaeeainoyie. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy
?aa?iiaeueieo ? i?ia?ioe?eieo a?ino?aoea?ao?/ieo oeae oa ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie ?o ei?aeyoe?? c? noaiaea?oieie ieaai?/ieie i?ae?icae?eaie.
Iniiaith iiaoaeiae a?ino?aoea?ao?/ieo ae?aoiiiaeo oeae ? aea/aiiy
caeiiii??iinoae aaiethoe?? ae?aoiiiai? oei?e.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

A?ino?aoea?ao?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy y?onii? oeaee eaeiicith Oe?a?ie
aaco?oueny ia eiiieaenao oi?ai?i?oa?, iaiiieaieoiio, iiethneao,
iae?iiii?oao, ae?iioeaaaeyoao, iaioa — ia ae?aoiiayo, ?aae?iey??yo ?
aoaeao. ?aa?iiaeuei? ciiaeuei? oeaee ii ea?aiiaoieo a?oiao i?aai?/ieo
?aooie ? ae?iioeaaaeyoai aeey Oe?a?ie ?ic?iaeai?, nei?aeueiaai? ?
oni?oii aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iio?aa aaieia?/ii? neoaeae. Oaei? oeaee
ii ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoyo aei inoaiiueiai /ano ia ?nioaaei. ?ic?iaea
ciiaeueii? ae?aoiiiai? oeaee eaeiicienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie iaaoaa? iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? o ca’yceo ?c oe?ieei ?icaeoeii a
?aa?ii? aacea?aiiaoieo ? neaaiea?aiiaoieo inaaei/ieo ooai?aiue, ui
i?noyoue eiiieaene ae?aoiiiaeo, oa iicaaaeai? caeeoe?a ?ioeo ieaieoiiieo
a?oi i?aai?ci?a.

Iaiaeii??aei?noue oa iaaeinoaoi?noue aea/aiino? aeeiiieo aiaei?inoae
a?aeae?eo Bacillariophyta o a?aeeeaaeao eaeiicith Oe?a?ie, a?aenooi?noue
nenoaiaoecaoe?? ciaiue i?i caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo, aaieia?/io ?noi??th
? iaeaiaeieia?/i? iniaeeaino? oe??? a?oie a ?aa?ii?, a aieiaia —
a?aenooi?noue naii? ?aa?iiaeueii? ciiaeueii? a?ino?aoea?ao?/ii?
ae?aoiiiai? oeaee, — iaiao?aeii? eaiee a no?aoea?ao?/i?e noai? eaeiicith
Oe?a?ie, aecia/eee aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??. ?aoe?iiaeuei?noue
?? iinoaiiaee aeeeeeaia ye iio?aaaie ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, oae ? aeiiaaie ae?iaieoeoaa. ?ic?iaoe? oeeo aaaeeeaeo
oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue i?enay/aia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
?inoeoooo aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — aeeiii? ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? ?c ??cieo
ai?eciio?a inaaei/ieo eaeiicienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a Oe?a?ie.
Aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ?aeiie iioe?aiiy ii?nueeeo a?aeeeaae?a ia
ieaooi?iai?e /anoei? Oe?a?ie — Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueea caiaaeeia,
ieieeoe? Aeiiaano, i?aaeaii? ieieeoe? Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa,
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea caiaaeeia, I?e/i?iiii?nueea caiaaeeia, a oaeiae
E?einueeee i?aino??a, *i?iiii?nueea caiaaeeia ? oaeueo *i?iiai ii?y,
aeaye? ?aeiie Caea?iaooy ? Neeaiai? ciie Ea?iao. E??i oiai, aea/aeeny
iayai? iaoa??aee ii noi?aeieo oa?eoi??yo ?in??, i?ai?/ii-no?aeii?
Aieaa??? ? aieaa?nueeiio oaeueoo *i?iiai ii?y.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae iai?yieo e
aoai?a aaiethoe?? ae?aoiiiai? oei?e a ?aa?ii?, iine?aeiaiino? ciiaeueieo
ae?aoiiiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a, aeyaeaiiy a?ino?aoea?ao?/ieo ?aia??a ? ia
oe?e iniia? ?ic?iaea ciiaeueii? ae?aoiiiai? oeaee eaeiicith Oe?a?ie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue oae? iniiai? caaea/?.

1. Aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae aaieia?/iiai iioe?aiiy ?aooie ae?aoiiiaeo
aiaei?inoae o eaeiicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao Oe?a?ie.

2. Aiae?c nenoaiaoe/iiai neeaaeo ae?aoiiiaeo eiiieaen?a o eiie?aoieo
?ic??cao, aecia/aiiy aeeiai?ee oa ??ai?a ?o ci?ie a /an?.

3. Anoaiiaeaiiy a?ino?aoea?ao?/ieo e?eoa???a aeey aeae?eaiiy ciiaeueieo
ae?aoiiiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a o ??cieo no?aoea?ao?/ieo ?ioa?aaeao oa ??cieo
aanaeiao naaeeiaioaoe??, aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o ?o iine?aeiaiino? aeey
?ic?iaee a?ino?aoea?ao?/ii? oeaee.

4. Anoaiiaeaiiy ae?aiaciio iiaeeeainoae ae?aoiiiai? oeaee aeey
?ic/eaioaaiiy eaeiicienueeeo inaaei/ieo ii??ae. Aeyaeaiiy ei?aeyoeaieo
??ai?a aeey ei?aeyoe?? ae?aoiiiai? oeaee Oe?a?ie c ae?aoiiiaeie oeaeaie
?ioeo ?aa?ii?a ?, ii-iiaeeeaino?, c? oeaeaie ii ?ioeo a?oiao i?aai?/ieo
?aooie.

5. Aiae?c ?oaaae?a aaiethoe?eieo ci?i, anoaiiaeaiiy iniiaieo aoai?a
aaiethoe?? ae?aoiiiai? oei?e, caeiiii??iinoae ? iniaeeainoae ?? ?icaeoeo
a ?aa?ii? oa aea/aiiy oeyo?a aaiethoe?? aeayeeo no?aoea?ao?/ii aaaeeeaeo
oaenii?a.

6. ?aeiino?oeoe?y iaeaia?ae?ieia?/ieo oiia o aanaeiao naaeeiaioaoe?? ia
iniia? aeieiai-a?iaaia?ao?/ieo iniaeeainoae aeeiiieo ae?aoiiiaeo
oeaiic?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? ia?oei caaaeaiiyi, ui ocaaaeueith? aeai? ii
aeeiiiei ae?aoiiiaei aiaei?inoyi oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

1. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii ieaiii??ia ? oe?eani?yiiaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy
nenoaiaoe/iiai neeaaeo aeeiiieo ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae, ui ?nioaaee o
iaeaiaanaeiao ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie c ae?oai? iieiaeie na?aaeiueiai
aioeaio ii aieioeai aeeth/ii e io?eiai? iia? aeai? ii ?o ?iciiae?eo a
inaaeeao.

2. Aia?oa aeey eaeiicienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a Oe?a?ie ?ic?iaeaii
?aa?iiaeueio ciiaeueio a?ino?aoea?ao?/io ae?aoiiiao oeaeo.

3. Aecia/aii ei?aeyoeai? ??ai? aeey ei?aeyoe?? ?ic?iaeaii? oeaee c
ae?aoiiiaeie oeaeaie noi?aeieo aaieia?/ieo ?aa?ii?a, a oaeiae c? oeaeaie
aeayeeo ?aeii?a Na?oiaiai ieaaio. Anoaiiaeaii iiaeeeaino? ??
aeei?enoaiiy aeey ?ic/eaioaaiiy eaeiicienueeeo ooai?aiue.

4. Anoaiiaeaii ?oaaae? aaiethoe?eieo ci?i ? iaa?oioiaaii aaiethoe?eio
aoaii?noue o ?icaeoeo i?ciueieaeiicienueei? ae?aoiiiai? oei?e Oe?a?ie,
iieeaaeaii? a iniiao ?ic?iaeaii? ciiaeueii? ae?aoiiiai? oeaee. Aecia/aii
caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? e iniaeeaino? aaiethoe?? ae?aoiiiaeo
aiaei?inoae o ?aa?ii?. I?inoaaeaii oeyoe aaiethoe?? ie?aieo
no?aoea?ao?/ii aaaeeeaeo oaenii?a.

5. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii i?enooi?noue ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae o
oa?oainueeiio ? ea?aaainueeiio ?aa?iy?onao I?eaei?no?ia’y, eiienueeiio
?aa?iy?on? Noaiiaiai E?eio, ei?ie?anueeeo oa?ao i?aaeaiii? ieieeoe? OU ?
aea/aii ?o nenoaiaoe/iee neeaae. Aia?oa aeine?aeaeoaaany nenoaiaoe/iee
neeaae ae?aoiiiaeo eiiieaen?a ie?aioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a Oe?a?ie.

6. Aiae?c aeieia?/ieo no?oeoo? ae?aoiiiaeo oeaiic?a noaa i?aea?oioyi
aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? oiia ?nioaaiiy ae?aoiiae ? iaeaia?ae?ieia?/ieo
ianoaiiaie o aeine?aeaeoaaieo aanaeiao ia i?ioyc? a?ae na?aaeiueiai
aioeaio aei aieioeaio.

8. Aia?oa noai?aii aoean aeeiiieo ae?aoiiiaeo Oe?a?ie.

9. Aia?oa noai?aii eiii’thoa?io aaco aeaieo ii aeeiiiei ae?aoiiiaei
aiaei?inoyi Oe?a?ie, ui ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aaieo aeaieo ii aeeiiiei
i?aai?ciai e?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aa?eoee o noai?ai? I?aea?aeii/ei no?aoea?ao?/iei
eii?oaoii Oe?a?ie ii aaieia?? ? aeei?enoaiith iaae? ? Aeaaeai??th iaoe
Oe?a?ie «No?aoea?aoe/aneea noaiu oaia?iciy e aeieaia?ey Oe?aeiu.»
?icae?ee: «No?aoea?aoe/aneay noaia iaiaaiiauo ioeiaeaiee Oe?aeineiai
ueoa», «No?aoea?aoe/aneay noaia iaiaaiiauo ioeiaeaiee I?e/a?iiii?neie
aiaaeeiu e oaeueoa *a?iiai ii?y.» Eeaa, 1993. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ae?iaie/eie i?aai?caoe?yie i?e i?iaaaeaii?
aaieiai-ci?iaeueieo ? iiooeiaeo ?ia?o.

?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii ciiaeueia ae?aoiiiaa oeaea eaeiicith Oe?a?ie
aeicaiey? ae??ooaaoe iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? caaea/? a?ino?aoea?ao??
e?aiaienoeo oaoe?e eaeiicienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a, aeaoae?caoe??
no?aoea?ao?/ieo oeae, a oaeiae aaieia?/ii? c`eiiee ? iiooe?a ?iaeiaeu
i?ia?aeueii? ? aoae?aaeueii? ne?iaeie ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

Noai?aiee aoean ? aecia/ieeii aeeiiieo ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae.

?ic?iaeaia eiii’thoa?ia aaca aeaieo aeeiiieo ae?aoiiiaeo Oe?a?ie o
eiiieaen? c aoeanii ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
aaieo aeaieo ii aeeiiieo i?aai?ciao Oe?a?ie ? iiaea aooe iniiaith
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeeiai? nenoaie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

?ic?iaea ciiaeueii? ae?aoiiiai? oeaee, oa?aeoa?enoeea aaieia?/iiai
iioe?aiiy ae?aoiiae, aiae?c aaiethoe?? ? iaeaiaeieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae
ae?aoiiiai? oei?e aacothoueny ia i?ea?iaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
caeiaoaa/a c aeei?enoaiiyi ocaaaeueiaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo
TH.I.Oniainueei?, C.?.Aeaca?, I.?.No?aeueieeiai?, ?.A.Iaea?iai?,
O.O.Eice?aiei, I.N.Aiaeii`yi, Ae.Oaii?neiai? — Oiiaeiai?, A.I.AEoca ?
A.A.Ioo?ii? ii Oe?a?i? ? ii noi?aeieo aaieia?/ieo ?aa?iiao. Noai?aiiy
aoeano ? eiii’thoa?ii? aace aeaieo oe?eeii caniiaaii ia i?ea?iaeueieo
?iaioao caeiaoaa/a.

Iaoa??aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee c?acee a??ieo ii??ae, ui c?a?ai?
aaoi?ii i?ae /an aeniaaeeoe?eieo ?ia?o ?c 1974 ii 1992 ?., a oaeiae
eieaeoe?? c?ace?a ? i?aia?aoe, etha’ycii iaaeai? eieaaaie:
A.I.Naiaiaiei, A.TH.Cineiiae/ai, A.A.Eoe?/aiei, A.A.I?enyaeitheii,
TH.I.Naiueeianueeei, A.N.Aiae?a?aith- A?eai?iae/, O.O.Eice?aiei,
?.Ae.Eiiaieiaith, I.I.Oeeoioeueeith, A.I.?aae?iiiaith, eio?ei aaoi?
aeneiaeth? naith ue?o aaey/i?noue. Aoei aea/aii a?eueo ye 1100 c?ace?a
ii??ae ?c ??cieo aa?noa eaeiicienueeiai ?ic??co ?aa?iio.

Aaaaeath ca na?? i?e?iiee iaia’ycie iiaeyeoaaoe iaoeiaiio eiinoeueoaioo
A.I.Naiaiaiei, a oaeiae eieaaai C.?.Aeaca?, TH.A.Oaneaieo oa
A.TH.Cineiiae/o ca oe?ii? ii?aaee e ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui aoee iaaeai? iai?
i?ae /an ?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoe??th.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iaoa??aee e iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ?
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia YI ? X I?aeia?iaeieo neiiic?oiao ii aeeiiieo oa
no/anieo ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoyo (Aoaeaiaoo, Oai?ueia, 1980, Eiyino,
O?ieyiae?y, 1988), Ananithci?e iaeaiaeueaieia?/i?e ia?aae? (Ee?a, 1981),
Ananithci?e ia?aae? c i?e?iiaeaiioieia?? ieaai?a oa ii??a (Iaeana,
1981), Ananithciiio c’?cae? ieaaiieia?a (sseoa, 1982), Ananithcieo
oeieao ae?aoiiieia?a (Eai?ia?aae, 1982, I?inuee, 1985, 1995, Iaeana,
1987), Ananithci?e ? i?aeaea?aeaai?e eiioa?aioe?yo «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
no/anii? aeueaieia??» (*a?eane, 1987, Ee?a, 1999), Ananithciiio
neiiic?oi? «No?aoea?ao?y ? iaeaiieaaiieia?y Na?oiaiai ieaaio» (Iineaa,
1990), I?ia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? «I?iaeaii? neooaoe?? a noai?aii?
no?aoea?ao?/ii? noaie iaeaiaaio aeey oe?eae e?oiiiianooaaiiai
aaieia?/iiai ea?ooaaiiy Oe?a?ie ? noi?aeieo oa?eoi??e» (1992), nan?yo
Oe?a?inueeiai iaeaiioieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa (1995, 1996, 1997, 1998,
1999), can?aeaii? naeoi??a iaeaiioieia?? ? no?aoea?ao?? ? no/aniiai
ii?nueeiai naaeeiaioiaaiaco (1994, 1999), aeueaieia?/ieo nai?ia?ao
?inoeoooo aioai?ee ?i. Oieiaeiiai IAIO, XII I?aeia?iaei?e oeie? ii
ii?nuee?e aaieia?? (Iineaa, 1997).

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss, uI CAOEUATHOUeNss

1. ?aa?iiaeueia ciiaeueia a?ino?aoea?ao?/ia ae?aoiiiaa oeaea inaaei/ieo
eaeiicienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a Oe?a?ie.

2. Aoaii?noue ?icaeoeo ae?aoiiiai? oei?e Oe?a?ie a ca’yceo c
aeiaaeueieie aaieia?/ieie ? iaeaiaaia?ao?/ieie iiae?yie.

3. Aeieia?/i? no?oeoo?e eiiieaen?a aeeiiieo ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae ye
?iaeeeaoi?e iaeaia?ae?ieia?/ieo oiia ?o ?nioaaiiy.

Ioae?eaoe??

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 52 ?iaioe, o oiio /ene? ?icae?e o
eieaeoeai?e iiiia?ao??, 18 noaoae o iaoeiaeo /aniienao, 14 noaoae o
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 18 — o iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e, 1 —
o «No?aoea?ao?/ieo noaiao.»

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a
? aeiaeaoeo, ui ? Aoeanii iaeaiioieia?/ieo oaaeeoeue ae?aoiiiaeo
aiaei?inoae.

Ianya ?iaioe 330 noi?., ui aeeth/athoue 245 noi?. oaenoo, 10 noi?.
iaethie?a, 44 oaaeeoe?, 31 noi?. nieneo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, 326 iaca.
Aeiaeaoie ianyaii 83 noi?. i?noeoue 41 oioioaaeeoeth, ui aeeth/athoue
250 cia?aaeaiue 157 aeae?a oa ??ciiaeae?a ae?aoiiiaeo.

CI?NO

IAEssAe AEA*AIINO? EAEIICIENUeEI? Ae?AOIIIAI? OEI?E

OE?A?IE

?noi??y aea/aiiy aeeiiieo ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae Oe?a?ie ia?aoiao? a?ey
aeaio noi??/ ? ii/eia?oueny c ia?oiai iia?aeiieaiiy i?i iaeaiaaiia?
ae?aoiiia? o ?iaioao O.A.Ao?iaa (1883) ? I.Ionoiaeoiaa (1895) oa i?i
iaiaaiia? a ?iaio? J.Pantocsek (1902).Aeine?aeaeaiiyi ae?aoiiiaeo o
aeiai?ii? ? iiai?ii? ?iee caeiaeany TH.I.Oniaineay (1930 — 1950).
Aaeeeee aianie o aea/aiiy iaeaiaaiiai? ae?aoiiiai? oei?e Oe?a?ie iaaeaee
A.I.AEoca (1949, 1974, 1979), C.?.Aeaca? (1965-1996), I.?.No?aeuei?eiaa
(1979, 1987). Cia/i? caneoae o aea/aiiy i?ciueii?ioeaiiaeo ae?aoiiiaeo
E?einueeiai ?aa?iio iaeaaeaoue O.O.Eice?aiei, ?.A.Iaea?ia?e (1958, 1959,
1961, 1966) ? A.I.I?ioe?i?e -Eaa?aiei (1960, 1969). I??niiaiaei? aeeiii?
ae?aoiia? aea/aeeny A.N.Oaooeiaith-Ii?aoeueeith ? O.O.Eice?aiei a
I?e/i?iiii?’? (1970) oa A.?.Ii?na?aith ia Aeiiaan? (1980). Ia?o?
a?aeiiino? i?i i?ciueiie?ioeaiia? ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? Caea?iaooy
iioae?eiaai? I.I.Ien?the (1960). ?iaioe I.N.Aiaeiiueyi i?enay/ai?
ae?aoiiayi i?ciueiai i?ioeaio ? ie?ioeaio (1967, 1976, 1978, 1981, 1982,
1988) Caea?iaooy. A.A.Ioo?ia (1973), A E.Caa?e?ia ? O.A.Ua?aaeia (1975,
1978) aeine?aeaeoaaee ae?aoiiia? eiiieaene c aieioeaiiauo inaaee?a
ciai?oiueiai oaeueoo ? eiioeiaioaeueiiai noeeo *i?iiai ii?y, A.I.AEoca ?
A.A.Ioo?ia (1978, 1980) ca ae?aoiiayie no?aoeo?eoaaee a?aeeeaaee
ie?ioeaio ? ieaenoioeaio o ea?iao naa?aeeiaei aeeaieiaiaeiiai ao??iiy a
*i?iiio ii??.

C 1973 ?. aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? aea/athoueny eaeiicienuee? ae?aoiiia?
aiaei?ino? Oe?a?ie, ui aeicaieeei canoinoaaoe oeth a?oio ieaieoiio aeey
no?aoeo?eaoe?? na?aaeiuei-aa?oiueiaioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a
i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ?aeii?a Oe?a?ie (1973, 1976, 1977, 1978), anoaiiaeoe a
ieaeiueiio ie?aioeai? Neeaiai? ciie Ea?iao i?ai?/iiaoeaioe/io ciio
Pyxilla aff. ?rolongata (1997), nei?aethaaoe iaioe/io ciio Cymatosira
savtchenkoi E?einueeiai ?aa?iio ?c neio?iiiei ??aiai ae?aoiiiai? oeaee
I?ai?/ii? Aoeaioeee (1995, 1996, 1997). Aeyaeaii oa aea/aii eiiieaene
ae?aoiiiaeo o na?aaeiueii?ioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaaeao I?eaei?no?ia’y (1992,
1995, 1996), ?aiiueii?ioeaiiaeo i?aaeaiiiai noeeo OU (1993) ?
ea?aaainueeeo E?eio (1996), anoaiiaeaii ciiaeuei? a?ino?aoea?ao?/i?
i?ae?icae?ee, ui cei?aeueiaai? c i?ae?icae?eaie ae?aoiiiai? oeaee
Oeaio?aeueiiai Ia?aoaoeno. C?iaeaii oaeniiii?/i? ? ii?oieia?/i? iiene
ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae (1993, 1994, 1995, 1996). C 1979 ?. aeena?oaioii
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny ?aooee ae?aoiiae ?c aeiiieo inaaee?a *i?iiii?nueei?
caiaaeeie (1979, 1981, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1997 oa ?i.).

Ia iniia? e?eoe/iiai aiae?co iioae?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?acoeueoao?a
aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaiee aeaoaeueiee
aiae?c aaieia?/iiai iioe?aiiy ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae, i?inoaaeaia
aaiethoe?y ae?aoiiiai? oei?e i?ioyaii eaeiicith ? ?ic?iaeaia ciiaeueia
ae?aoiiiaa oeaea eaeiicienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a Oe?a?ie (I.Ieueooeinueea,
1996, 1997).

IAOA??AE ? INIIAI? IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ii o?ueio iniiaieo iai?yieao:
a?ino?aoea?ao?/iiio, aaiethoe?eiiio, iaeaiaeieia?/iiio.

I?aeaioiaea e ia?iaea aaieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a aeeiioaaeenue a
eaai?aoi??yo ?inoeoooo aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAIO ia?aaaaeii c aeei?enoaiiyi
noaiaea?oieo iaoiaeee. Aea/aiiy ae?aoiiae cae?enithaaeiny ca aeiiiiiaith
na?oeiai? e aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaeo?iiieo
i?e?ineii?a, ui neaiothoue, JSM -35C «JEOL», JSM -25, «Fillips.
Ciiaeuei? a?ino?aoea?ao?/i? i?ae?icae?ee anoaiiaethaaeenue a?aeiia?aeii
aei aeiia “No?aoea?ao?/iiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie” (1997) ? «I?aeia?iaeiiai
no?aoea?ao?/iiai eiaeaeno» (1978).

*a?ac ia??aiicia/io iaeaiioieia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo ie?aieo no?aoii?a oa
?aa?iiaeueio niaoeeo?eo aanaei?a naaeeiaioaoe?? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
ae?aoiiiai? oeaee aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei anoaiiaeaiiy
ciiaeueieo a?aieoeue; o eiaei?i eiie?aoi?i aeiaaeeo aeae?aany eiiieaen
e?eoa???a, ui iaea?eueoa a?aeiia?aeaa oa?aeoa?o aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
iaoa??aeo. A?aoiaoaaeenue iaae? iiyae oa cieeiaiiy aeae?a, ?o ai?aie?,
aeii?ioaaiiy aai ao?aoa aeii?ioth/iai noaio, ?oaaae? ia?aaoaeia
oaeniiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e eiiieaen?a oa ?o aeo?eiai?noue ii ieiu?. I?e
iiaoaeia? ae?aoiiiai? oeaee iaie aoee anoaiiaeai? a?ino?aoea?ao?/i?
iaeeieoe? ??ciiai oeio: iniiai? — ciie, oa aeiiii?aei? — oa?e c oei?ith
ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae. Oaeei /eiii, ae?aoiiiaa oeaea eaeiicith Oe?a?ie
a aeaiee /an aeeth/a? ye a?ino?aoea?ao?/i? ciie ??ciiai ?aiao, oae ?
oa?e c oei?ith. Oeaea ia’?aeio? ye oia?oa aeae?eai? aaoi?ii ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie a?ino?aoea?ao?/i? i?ae?icae?ee, oae ? i?inoaaeai? a Oe?a?i?
ciie, ui anoaiiaeai? a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao.

Iniiaith aeey a?iciiaeueiiai iiae?eo eaeiicith Oe?a?ie ii ae?aoiiiaeo
aiaei?inoyo noaea aoaii?noue o ?o ?icaeoeo, ui iia`ycaia c aaiethoe??th
a?aeae?eo Bacillariophyta. E?eoa??yie aeey aeae?eaiiy aoai?a iineoaeeee
ye?ni? ci?ie a nenoaiaoe/i?i neeaae? ae?aoiiae o /an?, ui a?aeaeaathoue
?oaaae? aaiethoe?eieo ci?i oa iaoiiaeai? aaieia?/ieie e
iaeaia?ae?ieia?/ieie iiae?yie.

O aeai?e ?iaio? ca iniiao i?eeiyoa eeaneo?eaoe?eia nenoaia, ?ic?iaeaia
eieaeoeaii ?aaeyinueeeo aeine?aeiee?a ca o/anoth aaoi?a (Ae?aoiiiai?
aiaei?ino? N?N?, 1988, O. 2, /.1, 1992, O.2, /.2) c o?aooaaiiyi ?ic?iaie
caei?aeiiieo eieaa (Round F.E., Crawford R.M., Mann D.G, 1990), a oaeiae
?c aeayeeie aeiiiaiaiiyie e ooi/iaiiyie aaoi?a, caniiaaieie ia
aeine?aeaeaiiyo oeueo?ano?oeoo?e nooeie ae?aoiiae (Ieueooeinueea I.I.,
1990, 1992, 1993, 1994 1995, 1995a, 1998). Ii?oieia?/ia aoaeiaa iaioee?a
ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae aea/aeanue a?eueo i?ae ia 1000 i?ea?iaeueieo
i?e?ioioia?ao??e, c?iaeaieo aaoi?ii o NI ? NYI.

Iaeaiaeieia?/i? ?aeiino?oeoe?? aoaeoaaeeny ia aiae?c? aeaeiaiai neeaaeo
ae?aoiiiaeo oeaiic?a, e?euee?nieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue oaenii?a ??cii?
aeieia??, nooiaiy ?oiuei? noi?iiiino?, aeeiai?ee aeieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e
ae?aoiiiaeo eiiieaen?a o /an?.

NOENEEE NO?AOEA?AO?*IEE IA?EN EAEIICIENUeEEO A?AeEEAAe?A OE?A?IE

Oa?eoi??y Oe?a?ie iiae?ey?oueny ia ?yae no?oeoo?ii-oaoe?aeueieo ?aeii?a,
ui iathoue ??ciiiai?oi? oeie aaieia?/ieo ?ic??c?a. A inoaii? ?iee aeey
?ic/eaioaaiiy iaeaiaaiiaeo ? iaiaaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a aeei?enoiaothoueny
«?aa?iiaeueia no?aoea?ao?/ia oeaea iaiaaio ? iaeaiaaio Oe?a?ie» ?
«No?aoea?ao?/i? noaie oaia?icith ? aeieaia??th Oe?a?ie», caoaa?aeaeai?
O?INE. Oe? noaie, ui ia’?aeiothoue ?aa?iiaeuei? oa i?noeaa?
i?ae?icae?ee, a?aeiia?aeii ei?aeththoueny i?ae niaith ?
ci?anoaaeythoueny c ?a?iiaenueeith no?aoea?ao?/iith oeaeith. O aeai?e
?iaio? ca iniiao i?eeiyo? «No?aoea?ao?/i? noaie oaia?icith ? aeieaia??th
Oe?a?ie» 1993 ?. A?aeeeaaee /aoaa?oeiii? nenoaie i?ae?icae?eythoueny
a?aeiia?aeii aei «Caaaeueii? no?aoea?ao?/ii? oeaee /aoaa?oeiieo
a?aeeeaae?a Oe?a?ie» (No?aoea?ao?/iee eiaeaen Oe?a?ie, 1997), “I?iaeoo
oi?o?eiaaii? noaie ?iciiae?eo iaiaai — aio?iiiaaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a” 1986.

O ?iaio? iaaiaeeoueny oa?aeoa?enoeea no?aoea?ao?/iiai iieiaeaiiy
iaeaiaaiiaeo, iaiaaiiaeo ? aio?iiiaaiiaeo ?aa?iy?on?a, ?o e?oieia?/ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea e aaiethoe?y iiaeyae?a ia a?e a?aeeeaae?a. Iniiaia oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny oei ?aa?iiai ? oei ?ioa?aaeai ?ic??c?a, aea i?noyoueny
?aoee ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae.

Ae?AOIIIA? AIAeI?INO? O EAEIICIENUeEEO A?AeEEAAeAO OE?A?IE (AAIEIA?*IA
?ICIIANTHAeAEAIIss, A?INO?AOEA?AO?*IEE AIAE?C)

Ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? o a?aeeeaaeao iaeaiaaiiai? nenoaie

Ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? o a?aeeeaaeao iaeaioeaio. Ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? a
iaeaioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaaeao Oe?a?ie cono??/athoueny ??aeei. O aa?oiueiio
iaeaioeai? i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai oaeueoo *i?iiai ii?y iaie aeyaeaii eeoa
cai?uai? nooeee ae?aoiiae.

Ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? o a?aeeeaaeao aioeaio. Na?aaei?e aioeai. O
a?aeeeaaeao ee?anueeiai ?aa?iy?ono i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo oa no?aeieo
iaeanoae Oe?a?ie ciaeaeaii /eneaii? ?aooee ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae.

O e??ae? oinoi?eoiaeo i?ne?a ee?anueeiai ?aa?iy?ono i?noeoueny
ca?aeiaiee eiiieaen ae?aoiiae, iniiao yeiai neeaaeathoue Paralia
grunovii, P. crenulata, P. polaris, Pseudopodosira westii, Pyxidicula
turris, Distephanosira architecturalis, Coscinodiscus obscurus. An?
aeaee iaeaaeaoue aei o?aiceoieo e a?aeii? a aioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaaeao
??cieo ?aa?ii?a.

Oa?e c Paralia sulcata var. biseriata — Hyalodiscus sp. aeae?eai? a
na?aaei?e /anoei? ee?anueeiai ?aa?iy?ono (aa?o ia?oi? iieiaeie). O
eiiieaen? aeii?iothoue Paralia sulcata var. biseriata oa Hyalodiscus
sp., /eneaii? Pseudopodosira pileiformis, P. bella, P. modesta,
Actinoptychus intermedius, a?eueo ??aee?ni? Actinoptychus undulatus,
Anuloplicata ornata, Pyxidicula weissflogii, P. charkoviana, Pyxilla
oligocaenica, Trinacria subcoronata.

Oa?e ?c Stictodiscus kossutii aeae?eai? a aeeiynoi-ia?aaeenoeo
a?aeeeaaeao aa?oiuei? /anoeie ee?anueeiai ?aa?iy?ono. I?aeioaa
anoaiiaeaia ii iiya? aeaeo-?iaeaeno, ca?eueoaiith ?icia?oino? ae?aoiiae,
e??aey — ii iiya? aeaeo-?iaeaeno oa??a, ui caeyaathoue aeua.
Aeii?iothoue aeaee ?iae?a Noscinodiscus, Paralia, Hemiaulus,
Pseudopodosira. C’yaeythoueny Stephanopyxis crenata, Cosmiodiscus
breviradiatus, Hemiaulus subacutus, Craspedoporus retinevis, Porodiscus
nitidus var. excentricus, Pseudostictodiscus ovetschkinii, Trinacria
cubcapitata, Rutilaria grevilliana, Mastogloia rutilans, Diploneis
poretzkii. O ?aeiiao i?aeiyoue ? a e?aeiaeo ae?eyieao aanaeio
i?inoaaeaii cai?uaiiy ii i?inoyaaiith eiiieaeno c? S. kossutii
eiiieaenii ?c P. sulcata var. biseriata — Hyalodiscus sp.

Oa?e c P. sulcata var. biseriata — Hyalodiscus sp. oa S. kossutii ii
iiceoe?? a ?ic??c? a?aeiia?aeathoue oa?ai ?c H. polymorphus var.
charkovianus ae?aoiiiai? oeaee i?ai?/ii? i?aeoe? (I.E.No?aeueieeiaa,
1992). Inoaii? ei?aeththoueny c iaeiieiaiiei eiiieaenii ?c na. 390 A ia
ieaoi Aeaee Aaaaia, yeee aeaoo?oueny ii noi?nieo ciao?aeeao ?c
iaiiieaieoiiii cii Nannotetrina fulgens (=NP 15 Chiphragmalithus alatus)
— Reticulofenestra umbilica c?aaeiaai aioeaio. Oa?e c P. sulcata var.
biseriata — Hyalodiscus sp oa ?c S. kossutii a?aeiia?aeathoue oa?ai c
Hemiaulus gondolaformis ? Brightwellia imperfecta oeaee i?ai?/ii?
i?aeoe? (J. Fenner 1984). Oa?e ?c S. kossutii a?aeiia?aeathoue aa?oi?e
/anoei? i?aeciie Stephanopyxis crenata ? cii? Cosmiodiscus senarius
-Coscinodiscus praenitidus ae?aoiiiai? oeaee I?ai?/ii-No?aeiiai
I?eeani?th (C.E.Aeaca?, 1996).

Ciio Cristodiscus succinctus aeyaeaii o a?aeeeaaeao aa?oiuei? /anoeie
ee?anueeiai ?aa?iy?ono. I?aeioaa ciie anoaiiaeth?oueny ii iiya?
ciiaeueiiai aeaeo oa aeae?a Cristodiscus duplex, Actinoptychus
hyllabianus var. corralinus, Asterolampra marilandica, Auliscus
actinoptychoides, Hemiaulus klushnicovii, H. perlongus, Endictia
oceanica, Peponia barbadense oa ?i., e??aey — ii i?aeioa? oa??a ?c
oei?ith, ui caeyaathoue aeua. O eiiieaen? aeii?iothoue Paralia grunovii,
Coscinodiscus obscurus var. obscurus, C. decrescens, Anuloplicata
ornata, Pseudopodosira bella, Pyxidicula turris var. intermedia.
Oa?aeoa?ia iiyaa ?iae?a Cristodiscus oa Endictia. Ciia Nr. succinctus
a?aeiia?aea? oa?ai ?c Coscinodiscus succinctus (I.E.No?aeueieeiaa,
1992), no?aoea?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy yeeo ia ieaoi Aeyee Aaaaia a?aeiia?aea?
ciiai Discoaster saipanensis iaiiieaieoiio oa Globigerina turkmenica
ieaieoiiieo oi?ai?i?oa?, a oaeiae ieaei?e /anoei? i?aeciie «b»
ae?aoiiiai? ciie A. marilandica (J. Fenner, 1984).

Oa?e c Paralia sulcata var. biseriata — Hyalodiscus sp, Stictodiscus
kossutii ? ciia Cristodiscus succinctus a?aeiia?aeathoue
na?aaeiueiaioeaiia?e cii? Coscinodiscus senarius, C. succinctus, C.
praenitidus oeaee aeey ii?nueeeo ai?eiioeiaioaeueieo aanaei?a
ai?aaeueii? iaeano? (C.E.Aeaca?, 1994).

Aa?oi?e aioeai. O a?aeeeaaeao aa?oiueiai aioeaio i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ?
no?aeieo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie i?noyoueny /eneaii? ?aooee ae?aoiiiaeo
aiaei?inoae.

Oa?e c Plagiogramma paleogena aeae?eai? o e?aiaienoi-aeeienoeo
a?aeeeaaeao iaooianeiai ?aa?iy?ono. I?aeioaa anoaiiaeaia ii iiya? aeaeo
— ?iaeaeno, e??aey ia anoaiiaeaia /a?ac a?aenooi?noue ae?aoiiae o
a?aeeeaaeao, ui caeyaathoue aeua. Aeey oeueiai ??aiy oa?aeoa?ia iiyaa
?iae?a Actinocyclus, Plagiogramma, Caloneis, Progonoia, Eunotia oa
aeae?a Aulacodiscus kelleri f. fasciculatus, A. fasciculatus, A.
mastoidens, Actinoptychus leptomitos f. spinulosus, Coscinodiscus
grossheimii, Craspedoporus actinoptychoides, Diploneis incurvata, D.
nitescens, Navicula aff. omega, N. uspenskiana, Pinnularia antiqua,
Sceletonema ornata, Progonoia margine-lineata, Caloneis margine-lineata,
C. progone- lineata, Actinocyclus sp. A oa?ao cieeathoue aeaee ?iaeo
Monopsia oa Lisitzinia inconspiqua, Craspedodiscus oblongus, Hemiaulus
perlongus, Rutilaria grevilliana, Auliscus trigemmis, A. cf. pruinosus,
Rattrayella inconspiqua, Eupodiscus oculatus, Sheshukovia obessa,
Trinacria aff. exculpta. Oa?e c P. paleogena a?aeiia?aeathoue
i?ciueiaioeaiiaei oa?ai ?c Triceratium subcapitatum — Rutilaria
limoniformis (No?aeueieeiaa I.E., 1992), ui ei?aeththoueny ?c aa?oaie
iaiiieaieoiiii? ciie Chiasmolithus oamaruensis (NP18) — ieaeiueith
/anoeiith Isthmolithus recurvus (NP 19). Oa?e c P. paleogena
a?aeiia?aeathoue i?ciueiaioeaiia?e cii? Bipalia oamaruensis,
Cosmiodiscus aff. radiatus (Aeaca? C.E., 1994) oa aa?oi?e /anoei?
i?aeciie «b» ? i?aecii? «a» ciie Asterolampra marilandica (J. Fenner,
1984).

Ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? o a?aeeeaaeao ie?aioeaio. Caeeoee ae?aoiiiaeo
aiaei?inoae ie?aioeaiiaiai a?eo a?aeii? a Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?. Ciio
Pyxilla aff.prolongata aeyaeaii o ae?aoii?oao ieaeiueiiai?e?oiai?
i?aena?oe Neeaiai? ciie Ea?iao. O eiiieaen? aeii?iothoue Paralia
grunovii, P. nrenulata, Sceletonema barbadensis. Noaaeii?iaioi? —
Pyxilla aff. prolongata, Actinoptychus undulatus, Pyxidicula turris,
Xantiopyxis globosa, Pseudopodosira aff. modesta, Rhizosolenia aff.
hebetata. Cono??ioo? Eucampia balaustrium, Actinoptychus thumii,
Cocconeis vitrea, Actinocyclus octonarius, Actinocyclus sp.,
Thalassiosira sp. oa ?io?. Ca nenoaiaoe/iei neeaaeii eiiieaen aeecueeee
aei ieaeiueiai eiiieaeno ieaeiueiiai?e?oiai? i?aena?oe Iieuenueeeo
Ea?iao (E.Ea/ia?nea, 1982) oa eiiieaeno ?aiiueiie?aioeaiiai? ciie
Pyxilla aff. prolongata Ii?aacueeiai ii?y (Schrader, Fenner, 1976) ?
aeaoo?oueny ii/aoeii ?aiiueiai ie?aioeaio.

Ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? o a?aeeeaaeao iaiaaiiai? nenoaie

Ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? o a?aeeeaaeao i?ioeaio. Ieaei?e i?ioeai. O
a?aeeeaaeao ieaeiueiai i?ioeaio ?aooee ae?aoiiiaeo iioe?ai? a
E?einueeiio ?aa?ii?, ia i?aaeaiiiio noee? Oe?a?inueeiai Ueoa e o
I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’?.

E?einueeee ?aa?ii. Oa?e c Craspedodiscus elegans — Navitatus jouseanus
aeae?eai? o aa?oiueiiaeeiinueeeo aeeiao E?einueeiai i-iaa. Ae?aoiiiaee
eiiieaen ?c Cr. elegans- N. jouseanus iioe?aiee o a?aeeeaaeao iaeeiia
Eoaainueei? caiaaeeie (E.A.Iaea?iaa, 1961, A.N. Oaooeiaa-Ii?aoeeay ?
C.E.Aeaca?. 1962, O.O.Eicu?aiei e ?i. 1966). Aeaeiaa ?icia?ooy
i?eoaiaiia ?iaeai Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Xantiopyxis, Actinocyclus.
Oa?aeoa?ieie, e??i iii?iaoeaieo, ? aeaee Craspedodiscus moelleri var.
maicopensis. Coscinodiscus grossheimii, Actinocyclus kisselevii,
Actinoptychus undulatus var. tamanica, Clavicula polymorpha, nii?e ?iaeo
Xantiophyxis. I?enooi?noue aeae?a Cr. elegans oa Cr. coscinodiscus
aeicaiey? c?noaaeoe oe? oa?e c /anoeiith aeaaoi??aeueii? ae?aoiiiai?
ciie Rossiella paleaceae oa ciiith Cr. elegans. Eiiieaen ?c Cr. elegans-
N. jouseanus aeecueeee eiiieaeno ciie Melosira hispanica yaaaiao?a?y
Oeaio?aeueiiai Ia?aoaoena (Rhehakova Z., 1975, 1977, Hajos M., 1980,
1986), a?ae yeiai a?ae??ciy?oueny aenieei ??aiai aiaeai?/iino?.

I?ai?/ia I?e/i?iiii?’y ? i?aaeaiiee noee Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa. Ciio
Delphineis subtilissima aeyaeaii a ei?ie?anueeeo oa?ao iaeeiineie na???.
Iniaeea?noth ae?aoiiae ? iaeiiiai?oiee ?iaeiaee neeaae oa aenieee
??aaiue aiaeai?/iino?. Aeii?iothoue aeaee ?iae?a Actinocyclus oa
Aulacosaira, ?io? ciaeaeai? iiiaeeiieeie aecaiiey?aie. Oa?aeoa?ieie
aeaeaie ? Actinocyclus aff. gorbunovii, A. kozyrenkoi, A. aff.
tubulosus, Aulacoseira praegranulata f. praegranulata et f. curvata, A.
praedistans, Ellerbeckia arenaria, Istmia szaboi, Delpineis
substillisima, Sceptroneis sp. Caaaeyee i?enooiino? ciiaeueiiai aeaeo oa
ca oaeniiii?/iei neeaaeii ae?aoiiiaeo ciia Delpineis substillisima
a?aeiia?aea? cii? Cocconeis subtilissima ieaeiuei? /anoeie ae?oai?
iieiaeie iooiaia?y Oeaio?aeueiiai Ia?aoaoena (Hajos M., 1986) ?
aeaoo?oueny e?ioeai ?aiiueiai i?ioeaio.

Na?aaei?e i?ioeai. O a?aeeeaaeao na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio ?aooee ii?nueeeo
ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae iioe?ai? ia Aieeii-Iiae?ee?, o Caea?iaoo? e
E?einueeiio ?aa?ii?. I??niiaiaei? ae?aoiiia? a?aeii? o Aieeii- Iiae?ee?,
Caea?iaoo? e ia Aeiiaan?.

Aieeii–Iiae?eey. Ciio Lancineis parilis ciiaeueii? oeaee Oeaio?aeueiiai
Ia?aoaoeno aeyaeaii o a?aeeeaaeao ieaeiuei? /anoeie iiae?euenueei? na?oe
I?eaei?no?ia’y, yea c?noaaey?oueny ?c oa?oainueeei ?aa?iy?onii. O
eiiieaen? iaea?eueo aaaaoeie ? ?iaee Rhaphoneis, Mastogloia, Diploneis.
Oa?aeoa?ieie aeaeaie, e??i ciiaeueiiai, ? Rhaphoneis scalaris, Rh.
obesula, Hyalidiscus planus, Thalassionema obesula, Biddulphia
elegantula, Delphineis penneliptica, Diploneis szontaghii, Cocconeis
vetusta, Denticulopsis aff. lauta, Macrora stella. No?aoea?ao?/ia
iieiaeaiiy ciie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny noi?nieie ciao?aeeaie ae?aoiiae ?c
oi?ai?i?oa?aie ciie Quinqueloculina distrata, iaiiieaieoiiii ciie NN 4,
iiethneaie ? nii?iai-ieeeiaei niaeo?ii (I?enyaeithe A.A., Etheue?aa
N.A., Nya?ye N.A., Ieueooeinueea I.I., 1997).

Ciio Actinocyclus ingens (i?aeciia “a”) aeyaeaii o a?aeeeaaeao aa?oiuei?
/anoeie iiae?euenueei? na?oe I?eaei?no?ia’y. O eiiieaen? aeii?iothoue
Pseudopodosira bella, Trochosira spinosa, Paralia sulcata, noaaeii?iaioe
— Actinocyclus ingens, Rhaphoneis amphyceros, Paralia crenulata,
Pyxidicula turris, Coscinodiscus sp., Actinocyclus sp. Oa?aeoa?ieie ?
Actinocyclus ingens, ie?eaoia oi?ia Coscinodiscus sp., Actinoptychus
thumii, Istmia squianabollii, Triceratium condecorum, Cestodiscus sp.,
Macrora stella, /eneaii? nii?e ae?aoiiiaeo. Ciiaeueiee eiiieaen
a?aeiia?aea? eiiieaeno ciie Actinocyclus ingens na?aaeiuei? /anoeie
aaaeai?y Oeaio?aeueiiai Ia?aoaoeno, ei?aeth?oueny ?c iaiiieaieoiiieie
ciiaie NN 6-7 na?aaeiueiai aaaeai?y, (Hajos I., 1986) aai NN 5-6
i?ciueiai ea?iao?y — ?aiiueiai aaaeai?y (Rhehakova Z. , 1975).

Oa?e c Anaulus mediteraneus aeae?eai? o aa?oi?e /anoei? na?aaeiueiai
i?ioeaio Aieeii-Iiae?eey. O eiiieaen? aeii?iothoue Sheshukovia spinosa,
Hyalodiscus subtilis, Pseudopodosira westii, Cerataulus turgidus,
Anaulus mediteraneus, Asterolampra marilandica, Cocconeis scutellum,
noaaeii?iaioi? — Cocconeis dirupta, Navicula rudis var. tenuistriata, N.
peregrim, N. jarrensis, (Ii?oiyaeia-Ioaie/iay E.A., 1961). Oa?aeoa?ieie
? Sheshukovia spinosa oa Hyalodiscus subtilis.

I?ciueiaaaeainueeo ciio Navicula pinnata aeyaeaii o a?aeeeaaeao
iiae?euenueei? na?oe Aieeii-Iiae?eey. O eiiieaen? aeii?iothoue aeaee
?iae?a Actinocyclus, Pseudoauliscus, Paralia, Navicula oa Stauroneis. Ca
neeaaeii oa?aeoa?ieo aeae?a eiiieaen a?aeiia?aea? cii? Navicula pinnata
oeaee Oeaio?aeueiiai Ia?aoaoena (Hajos I., 1986). Eiai no?aoea?ao?/ia
iieiaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ni?eueieie ciao?aeeaie c
i?ciueiaaaeainueeeie iiethneaie Potamides schaueri, P. nodosoplicatum,
Bittium deforme, Cerastoderma praeplicatum, Congeria sandbergeri,
ca?aeiaieie eiiieaenaie oi?ai?i?oa? ? eieie?oioi?eae (Ieueoouineay A.I.,
I?enyaeithe A.A., 1994).

Caea?iaooy. Ciio Actinocyclus ingens (i?aeciia “a”) aeyaeaii o
a?aeeeaaeao na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio Nieioaeinueei? caiaaeeie Caea?iaooy. O
eiiieaen? ??ciiiai?oi? ?iaee Actinoptychus, Rhaphoneis, Coscinodiscus,
Diploneis (Aiaeiiueyi I.N., 1981). Aeii?io? ciiaeueiee aeae,
noaaeii?iaioe — Paralia sulcata, Actinocyclus octonarius, Rhaphoneis
amphiceros, Rh. hungarica, Pseudopodosira wittii, Coscinodiscus nitidus,
Thalassionema nitzschioides, Th. obtusa, Diploneis szontaghii.Ciiaeueiee
eiiieaen aeecueeee aei eiiieaeno ciie Actinocyclus ingens na?aaeiuei?
/anoeie aaaeai?y Oeaio?aeueiiai Ia?aoaoeno oa aa?oiuei? /anoeie
iiae?euenueei? na?oe Aieeii-Iiae?eey.

Ciio Navicula pinnata aeyaeaii o a?aeeeaaeao aanoaanei? na?oe
Nieioaeinueei? caiaaeeie Caea?iaooy. Aeii?iothoue Eunotia pectinalis,
Pinnularia gibba, Pinnularia. sp. , Gomphonema angustata, G. intricata.
var. pumilum, cono??ioo? Tetraciclus lacustris, Navicula amphibola,
Eunotia polyglyphoides, Meridion cyrculare var. cyrculare, Aulacoseira
granulata (I.N.Aiaeii`ueyi,1981).

E?einueeee ?aa?ii. Ciio Actinocyclus ingens (i?aeciia “a”) aeyaeaii o
ea?aaainueeiio ?aa?iy?on? na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio ??aieiiiai E?eio.
Oa?aeoa?i? /eneaii?noue ciiaeueiiai aeaeo e i?enooi?noue Actinocyclus
octonarius, Denticulopsis hustedtii, Coscinodiscus cf. tabularis ?
Azpeitia sp. Ca nenoaiaoe/iei neeaaeii eiiieaen a?aeiia?aea? aa?oi?e
/anoei? ciie A. ingens oeaee Oeaio?aeueiiai Ia?aoaoeno. A?e ae?aoiiiaeo
eiio?ieth?oueny ni?eueieie ciao?aeeaie c oeiiaeie aeey ea?oaaeuenueeeo
oa??a oi?ai?i?oa?aie Quinqueloculina ex. gr. consobrina Orb., Q. indet.
, Cassidulina? bogdanowiczi Konen., Discorbis sp., D. kartvelicus
Krash., a oaeiae eiiieaenii oi?ai?i?oa? ciie Bulimina-Bolivina eiieniai
?aa?iy?ono, ui ia?ae?eaa? oe? aa?noae (Eiiaieiaa E.Ae., Ieueoouineay
A.I.,1996).

Aa?oi?e i?ioeai. O aa?oiueii?ioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaaeao Oe?a?ie ?aooee
ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae iioe?ai? ia Aieeii-Iiae?ee?, o Caea?iaoo?, ia
E?einueeiio i-ia? oa o *i?iiii?nuee?e oeiaiaei?.

Na?iao. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith na?iaonueei? ae?aoiiiai? oei?e ? ?? aeniea
aeaeiaa ?icia?o?noue a oe?eiio e nooo?a? ?icoiaeaeaiiyo o nenoaiaoe/iiio
neeaae? eiiiean?a ?c ??cieo i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiue.

Ciio Mastogloia szonthaghii-Cymatosira biharensis ciiaeueii? oeaee
i?ai?/ii-no?aeii? Aieaa??? (Oaiieneiaa-Oiiaeiaa Ae., 1994) aeyaeaii o
aieeinueeiio ?aaeii?ae’y?on? I?eaei?no?ia’y, Caea?iaooy, Caii??cueei?
iaeano? ? Oa?oaieoonueeiai i-iaa. Aeaeiaith ?icia?o?noth
a?aecia/athoueny ?iaee Navicula, Amphora, Diploneis ? Mastogloia. O
a?oio oa?aeoa?ieo aeae?a aoiaeyoue Anaulus simplex, A. minutus,
Coscinodiscus doljensis, Dimidiata saccula, Achnanthes baldjikiani,
Caloneis liber, Camphylodiscus fastuosus f. baldjikii, Grammatophora
insignis, Pseudopodosira westii, Rhaphoneis amphyceros, Dimerogramma
borianum, Dictioneis mastogloidea. Ciia M. szonthaghii-C. biharensis
Oe?a?ie ni?anoaaey?oueny c ciiith Achnanthes baldjikii-Cymatosira
biharensis ieaeiueiai na?iaoo Oai?ueie (Hajos,1976), ?aiiueina?iaonueeei
ae?aoiiiaei eiiieaenii Iieaeiae (Eicu?aiei O.O.,1982). Ciiaeueiee
eiiieaen a?aeiia?aea? eiiieaeno c Corethron podolicus, Anaulus
birostratus, Plagiogramma pulchellum, Mastogloia entoleia ieaeiueiai
na?iaoo i?aaeiy N?N? (Iaea?iaa E.A., Eicu?aiei O.O.,1966, 1974).

Ciio Achnanthes baldjikii var. podolica ciiaeueii? oeaee
i?ai?/ii-no?aeii? Aieaa??? (Oaiieneiaa -Oiiaeiaa Ae., 1994) aeyaeaii o
aanna?aanueeiio ?aa?ii?aey?on? E?eio e i?inoaaeaii o Caii??cuee?e
iaeano? ? ia Caea?iaoo?. Aeaeiaith ?icia?o?noth a?aecia/athoueny ?iaee
Grammatophora, Cocconeis, Achnanthes, Rhopalodia, Navicula, Diploneis. A
a?oio oa?aeoa?ieo aoiaeyoue Actinocyclus (?) podolicus, Achnanthes
baldjikii var. podolica, Rhopalodia gibberula var. gibberula et var.
protracta, Caloneis liber, Cocconeis scutellum var. inequalepunctata et
var. pulchra. Eiiieaen ciie A. baldjikii var. podolica a?aeiia?aea?
eiiieaeno c Actinocyclus (?) podolicus, Achnanthes baldjikii var.
podolica, Cocconeis scutellum var. inequalepunctata et var. pulchra
na?aaeiueiai na?iaoo i?aaeiy N?N? (Iaea?iaa E.A., Eicu?aiei O.O.,1966,
1974).

Ciio Navicula zichii ae?aoiiiai? oeaee i?ai?/ii-no?aeii? Aieaa???
(Oaiieneiaa-Oiiaeiaa Ae, 1994) aeyaeaii o oa?niinueeiio ?aaeii?ae’y?on?
E?einueeiai i-iaa oa o aeiiieo inaaeeao *i?iiii?nueei? oeiaiaeie.
Aeaeiaith ?icia?o?noth aecia/athoueny ?iaee Navicula, Amphora,
Nitzschia, Achnanthes, Rhopalodia, Cocconeis. Aeii?iothoue aeaee
Achnanthes brevipes, Navicula zichii, Rhopalodia gibberula, Entomoneis
gigantea, Nitzschia romanoviana, N. granulata. A?oio oa?aeoa?ieo
neeaaeathoue Achnanthes brevipes, Licmophora ehrenbergii, Navicula
zichii, N. andrusovii, Entomoneis gigantea var. gigantea, E. alata var.
alata, Nitzschia romanoviana, Surirella maeotica. Ciiaeueiee eiiieaen
a?aeiia?aea? eiiieaeno c Licmophora ehrenbergii var. ehrenbergii et var.
ovata, Achnanthes brevipes var. brevipes, Navicula zichyi var. zichyii,
var. leontis et var. ursina, N. andrusowii, Entomoneis gigantea var.
gigantea, Nitzschia romanoviana aa?oiueiai na?iaoo i?aaeiy N?N?
(Iaea?iaa E.A., Eicu?aiei O.O.,1966, 1974).

Iaioen. O iaioe/ieo a?aeeeaaeao ia Oe?a?i? ?aooee ae?aoiiiaeo
aiaei?inoae iioe?ai? a no?aei?e /anoei? E?eio, ia Ea?/ainueeiio ?
Oaiainueeiio i-iaao.

Ciia Thalassiosira delicatissima anoaiiaeaia a ieaei?e /anoei? iaioe/ieo
a?aeeeaae?a No?aeiiai E?eio ? i?inoaaeaia ia Ea?/ainueeiio i-ia?. ??
i?aeioaa anoaiiaeaia ii iiya? ciiaeueiiai aeaeo, e??aey — ii eiai
cieeiaiith. Oa?aeoa?ieie ? Thalassiosira maeotica, T. tenera, T.
coronifera, Actinocyclus variabilis, A. curvatulus. Ciiaeueiee eiiieaen
a?aeiia?aea? eiiieaeno ae?aoiiae ?c Th. delicatissima, Th. tenera oa
Thalassiosira (Actinocyclus) curvatulus iec?a iaioeno No?aeiiai ?
Noaiiaiai E?eio oa Oaiainueeiai i-iaa (Eicu?aiei O.O., Iaea?iaa E.A.,
1966).

Oa?e c Lyrella pigmea anoaiiaeai? a ieaei?e /anoei? iaioe/ieo
a?aeeeaae?a. O i?aeioa? oa?o c’yaey?oueny Lyrella (Fallacia) pigmea,
ci?ith?oueny aeaeiaee neeaae ?iae?a Thalassiosira e Actinocyclus. A
e??ae? cieeathoue Actinocyclus miocenicus. Oa?aeoa?ieie ? aeaee
Actinocyclus cf. octonarius (sp. 1), A. miocenicus, Coscinodiscus
obscurus. *an ooai?aiiy oa??a a?aeiia?aea? /anoeie ?aiiueiai iaioeno.

Oa?e c Amphitetras sp. anoaiiaeai? o a?aeeeaaeao ieaeiueiai iaioeno. O
i?aeioa? oa??a c’yaey?oueny iii?iaoeaiee aeae, a oaeiae Navicula
reinhardtii, e??aey ia i?inoaaeaia. *an ooai?aiiy oa??a a?aeiineoueny
aei ae?oai? iieiaeie ?aiiueiai iaioeno.

Ciia Actinoptychus senarius var. tamanica anoaiiaeaia a ieaei?e /anoei?
aa?oiueiai iaioeno ii iiya? /eneaiieo nooeie ciiaeueiiai aeaeo.
Oa?aeoa?ieie ? Hyalodiscus frenquelli, Endictia oceanica, Amphitetras
antediluvianum, Nitzschia panduriformis, i?enooi? Thalassiosira aff.
convexa. Ciiaeueiee eiiieaen iioe?aiee o No?aeiiio E?eio e ia Ea?/aineii
i-ia?, a?i a?aeiia?aea? eiiieaeno c Hyalodiscus frenguellii ?
Triceratium (Amphitetras) antediluvianum ii/aoeo ae?oai? iieiaeie
iaioeno i?aaeiy N?N? (Iaea?iaa E.A., Eicu?aiei O.O, 1966) ? ? aeecueeei
aei ae?aoiiiaiai eiiieaena aa?oiueiai iaiiiio Oai?ueie (Hajos M, 1970).

Ciia Cymatosira savtchenkoi anoaiiaeaia a ieaei?e /anoei? aa?oiueiai
iaioeno ii iiya? /eneaiieo nooeie ciiaeueiiai aeaeo ? i?inoaaeaia ia
E?einueeiio ? Oaiainueeiio i-iaao. Aeii?iothoue C. savtchenkoi,
Rhabdonema adriatica, Endictia oceanica. Oa?aeoa?ieie ? Lithodesmium cf.
undulosum, Pseudotriceratium cinamomeum, Nitzschia separanda.
Iniaeea?noth ? aaeeea /enaeuei?noue C. savtchenkoi ? L. cf. undulosum,
ui cieeathoue o iie??ae? ciie, ? i?enooi?noue Denticulopsis lauta. Ciia
C. savtchenkoi ei?aeth?oueny c aa?oiueii?ioeaiiaith ciiith Cymatosira
«biharensis» I?ai?/ii? Aoeaioeee (Schrader H. , J. Fenner J, 1976),
ni?anoaaey?oueny c /anoeiith iaiiieaieoiii? ciie NN 11, /anoeiith
oi?ai?i?oa?iai? ciie N 17 ? a?aeiia?aea? ae?aoiiiaiio eiiieaeno c
aeii?iaioiei C. savtchenkoi i?aaeiy N?N? (Eicu?aiei O.O, Iaea?iaa E.A.,
1966). Ciiaeueiee eiiieaen ?iciianthaeaeaiee o a?aeeeaaeao aa?oiueiai
i?ioeaio Ii?aacueeiai ii?y (Aeaeeii?eaeca ?.I., 1979).

Ciia Rhizosolenia bezrukovii aeae?eaia o aa?oi?e /anoei? iaioe/ieo
a?aeeeaae?a ia Ea?/ainuee?i i-ia? ? i?inoaaeaia a aeiiieo inaaeeao
*i?iiii?nueei? oeiaiaeie. I?aeioaa ciie anoaiiaeth?oueny ii iiya?
ciiaeueiiai aeaeo, e??aey — ii i?aeioa? ciie, ui caeyaa? aeua. Na?aae
oa?aeoa?ieo — Thalassiosira maeotica, Cyclotella castracane, C.
praekutzingiana, Actinocyclus octonarius, Coscinodiscus perforatus,
Grammatophora marina, Nitzschia doliensis, Rhaphoneis maeoitica,
Chaetoceros danicus. O iie??ae? ciie i?noeoueny iaeiiiai?oia anioe?aoe?y
c Actinocyclus octonarius.

Iiio. O a?aeeeaaeao iiioo caeeoee ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae
cono??/athoueny ??aeei ? a?aeii? o iaiaaeai?e e?eueeino?
ianoeaciaoiaeaeaiue, ia?aaaaeii ia Ea?/ainueeiio e Oaiainueeiio i-iaao
oa o aeiiieo a?aeeeaaeao *i?iiai ii?y.

Ciia Stephanodiscus proprius anoaiiaeaia o ieaei?e /anoei? iiioe/ieo
a?aeeeaae?a ia Ea?/ainueeiio i-ia?. ?? iioe?aiiy i?inoaaeaia ia
Oaiainueeiio i-ia?, a oaeiae o *i?iiii?nuee?e oeiaiaei?, o iecao
i?ioa?eo XII, ui aeae?ey?oueny ooo o ea?iao naa?aeeiaei 380 ? 381 (AEoca
A.I., Iooeia A.A., 1980). I?aeioaa ciie anoaiiaeth?oueny ii iiya?
ciiaeueiiai aeaeo, e??aey-ii iiya? Stephanodiscus multifarius o iniia?
ciie, ui caeyaa? aeua. Na?aae aeii?iaio?a- Actinocyclus stockesianus,
Coscinodiscus granii, Cyclotella proshkina ? C. praekutzingiana,
oa?aeoa?iith ? iiyaa Aulacoseira papilio.

Ciia Stephanodiscus multifarius anoaiiaeaia o aa?oi?e /anoei? iiioe/ieo
a?aeeeaae?a *i?iiii?nueei? caiaaeeie, o aa?oao i?ioa?eo XII naa?aeeiaei
380 ? 381 (AEoca A.I., Iooeia A.A.,1980). O i?aeioa? ciie ianiai
c’yaey?oueny ciiaeueiee aeae, o e??ae? eiai /enaeuei?noue ??cei
cieaeo?oueny. Oa?aeoa?iith ? iiyaa ia?oeo i?aaenoaaiee?a ?iaeo
Cyclostephanos: C. ponticus, C. stelliformis, C. pliocenicus, aeae?a
Aulacoseira bellicosa, A. elegans e cieeiaiiy A. stockesianus ?
Coscinodiscus granii.

Ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? o a?aeeeaaeao ie?ioeaio. Caeeoee ae?aoiiiaeo
aiaei?inoae o a?aeeeaaeao ie?ioeaio No?aeiiai Ia?aoaoeno a?aeii? o?eueee
ca iaoa??aeaie ao??iiy a *i?iiio ii?? a ea?iao naa?aeeiaei 380 ? 381
(AEoca A. I, Iooeia A.A., 1978, 1980). Ciiaeuei? a?ino?aoea?ao?/i?
i?ae?icae?ee o a?aeeeaaeao ie?ioeaio aeae?eai? iaie ia iniia? aiae?co
ae?aoiiiaeo eiiieaen?a ?c aeiiieo inaaee?a *i?iiai ii?y. Ae?aoiia?
ie?ioeaio a?ae??ciythoueny aenieei ??aiai aiaeai?cio.

Ciia Cyclostephanos pontica anoaiiaeaia a ieaei?e /anoei? ie?ioeaiiaeo
a?aeeeaae?a *i?iiii?nueei? caiaaeeie, o i?ioa?eo XI (AEoca A.I., Iooeia
A.A., 1980). O ?? i?aeioa? a ian? c’yaey?oueny ciiaeueiee aeae,
ciaiueoo?oueny /enaeuei?noue Stephanodiscus proprius. O e??ae?
cieeathoue C. pontica, St. proprius ? c’yaey?oueny Cyclostephanos
marginatus. Oa?aeoa?i? aeaee eiiieaeno — Aulacosaira hibschii,
Cyclostephanos stelliformis, C. pliocenicus, C. pantocsekii ? C.
marginatus.

Ciia Cyclostephanos pantocsekii anoaiiaeaia o aeiiieo a?aeeeaaeao
*i?iiai ii?y, o i?ioa?eo X, ui ci?anoaaey?oueny c eoyeueieoeueeei
ai?eciioii aa?oiueiai ie?ioeaio (AEoca A.I., Iooeia A.A., 1980).
I?aeioaa ciie ia?eo?oueny ianiaith iiyaith ciiaeueiiai aeaeo oa aeae?a
Cyclostephanos pigmea, C. marginatus, Stephanodiscus digitatus. O e??ae?
cieeathoue oe? ? a?eueo?noue ?ioeo aeae?a ?iae?a Stephanodiscus ?
Cyclostephanos. Ciiaeueiee eiiieaen a?aecia/a?oueny aeaeiaith
?icia?o?noth ?iae?a Cyclostephanos, Stephanodiscus, Aulacoseira.

Ciia Cyclotella servant-vildary anoaiiaeaia a aeiiieo a?aeeeaaeao
*i?iiai ii?y, o i?ioa?eo IX, ui ci?anoaaey?oueny c ao??ai (AEoca A.I.,
Iooeia A.A., 1980). I?aeioaa ciie ia?eo?oueny iiyaith ciiaeueiiai aeaeo
? cieeiaiiyi a?eueoino? aeae?a ?iae?a Cyclostephanos ? Stephanodiscus,
e??aey — cieeiaiiyi ciiaeueiiai aeaeo. O aa?oi?e /anoei? ciie
c’yaeythoueny /eneaii? nooeee Actinocyclus (Coscinodiscus) hungaricus.

Ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? o a?aeeeaaeao /aoaa?oeiii? nenoaie

Caeeoee ii?nueeeo ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae ieaenoioeaiiaiai a?eo a?aeii?
ca iaoa??aeaie ao??iiy o *i?iiio ii??, no?aoeo?eaoe?y ?ic??c?a ii
ae?aoiiayo i?iaaaeeeany A.I.AEoca ? A.A.Ioo?iith c iaaiei nooiaiai
oiiaiino? (1980). I?ciueiieaenoioeaiia? ? aieioeaiia? ae?aoiiia? oe?iei
iioe?ai? o aeiiieo a?aeeeaaeao *i?iiii?nueei? caiaaeeie.

Ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? o a?aeeeaaeao ieaenoioeaio. Oa?e c Cyclotella
corona aeae?eai? a ea?i? na. 380 A, o a?aeeeaaeao i?ioa?eo VIII, ui
ci?anoaaey?oueny c /aoaeeinueeei ?aa?iy?onii (AEoca A.I., Iooeia A.A.,
1980). I?aeioaa oa?o anoaiiaeth?oueny ii iiya? oa?aeoa?iiai aeaeo,
e??aey aecia/a?oueny cieeiaiiyi ae?aoiiae o a?aeeeaaeao, ui
ia?ae?eaathoue oa?e. Eiiieaen oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aieaieeth C. corona.

Oa?e c Actinocyclus normanii anoaiiaeai? a ea?i? na.380A, o i?ioa?eao
VII, VI, V ? IV, ui ci?anoaaeythoueny c ae?aaiueiaaeneinueeei ?
ocoiea?nueeei ai?eciioaie na?aaeiueiai ieaenoioeaio (AEoca A.I., Iooeia
A.A., 1980). I?aeioaa oa?o ia?eo?oueny iiyaith iii?iaoeaiiai aeaeo,
ciiaeueiee eiiieaen oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eiai ai?aieeth, /eneaiieie
Coscinodiscus perforatus, Cyclotella caspia, Thalassiosira coronifera ?
i?enooi?noth Actinocyclus divisus. O aa?oi?e /anoei? oa?o c? neeaaeo
eiiieaeno cieeathoue Actinocyclus ochotensis ? A. divisus.

Oa?e c Cyclotella caspia- Thalassiosira oestrupii anoaiiaeai? a ea?iao
na. 379 ? 380, o a?aeeeaaeao i?ioa?eo III, ui ci?anoaaey?oueny c
ea?aiaaonueeei ?aa?iy?onii (AEoca A.I., Iooeia A.A., 1980). O eiiieaen?
aeii?io? Cyclotella caspia, /eneaiieie ? Thalassiosira oestrupii, Th.
baltica, Coscinodiscus janischii, C. perforatus, Thalassionema
nitzschiodes, i?enooi? aeaee ?iaeo Chaetoceros.

Ciia Stephanodiscus robustus aeae?eaia o a?ae?io?i?e?oiaeo ioeao
aa?oiuei? /anoeie aa?oiueiai iiaiai aaeneio *i?iiii?nueei? caiaaeeie.
Aeaeiaith ?icia?o?noth oa?aeoa?ecothoueny Stephanodiscus, Diploneis,
Aulacoseira, Thalassiosira ? Cyclotella. Iniaeea?noth eiiieaeno ?
aeii?ioaaiiy ?iaeo Stephanodiscus, ia?aaaaeii aeae?a S. robustus, S.
rotula ? S. hantzschii. Noaaeii?iaioe — Aulacoseira granulata,
Cyclotella kutzingiana, Diploneis domblittensis, Cymatopleura solea.
I?aeioaa ia i?inoaaeaia, e??aey ciie aecia/a?oueny ii ??ce?e ci?i?
neeaaeo ae?aoiiae.

Ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino? o a?aeeeaaeao aieioeaio. Ciia Rhizosolenia
setigera aeae?eaia o a?aeeeaaeao ae?aaiuei/i?iiii?nueeiai ai?eciioo
*i?iiii?nueei? caiaaeeie ? i?ae?icae?ey?oueny ia aea? i?aeciie. O
i?aeioa? ieaeiuei?, ui a?aeiia?aea? aoaacnueei-aeoyc?anueeei
a?aeeeaaeai, c’yaeythoueny Rhizosolenia setigera ? Asteromphalus
robustus, aeii?iothoue Thalassiosira oestrupii, Th. eccentrica, /eneaii?
Cyclotella caspia, Coscinodiscus radiatus, nii?e Chaetoceros, i?enooi?
Stephanodiscus robustus ? St. rotula. O aa?oi?e i?aecii?, ui
a?aeiia?aea? eaeai?onueeei a?aeeeaaeai, aeii?iothoue Rhizosolenia
setigera ? Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, cieeathoue St. robustus ? St.
rotula, c’yaey?oueny Bacteriastrum hyalinum. ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ciie
i?inoaaeaii o aeiiieo a?aeeeaaeao *i?iiii?nueei? caiaaeeie.

Ciia Chaetoceros peruvianus aeae?eaia a eieie?oiaeo ioeao
iiai/i?iiii?nueeiai ai?eciioo *i?iiii?nueei? caiaaeeie. Eiiieaen
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny /enaeuei?noth ciiaeueiiai aeaeo ? aeae?a Cyclotella
caspia, Proboscia alata, Thalassiosira oestrupii, iiyaith Hemiaulus
hauckii. ?icia?o?noue oa?aeoa?ia aeey ?iae?a Thalassiosira,
Coscinodiscus, Diploneis ? Navicula. Aenieo /enaeuei?noue caa??aathoue
Thalassionema nitzschioides, Thalassiosira oestrupii, Paralia sulcata.

?acoeueoaoii aea/aiiy eaoa?aeueiiai ? aa?oeeaeueiiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
?aooie ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae o eaeiicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao Oe?a?ie
noaea ?ic?iaeaia iaie i?ia?ioe?eia a?ino?aoea?ao?/ia ciiaeueia
ae?aoiiiaa oeaea (aeea. oaaeeoeth).

NENOAIAOE*IEE NEEAAe Ae?AOIIIAI? OEI?E EAEIICITH OE?A?IE ? INIAEEAINO?
?? AAIETHOe??

Aea/aiiy nenoaiaoe/ii? no?oeoo?e ae?aoiiiai? oei?e, aiae?c aeeiai?ee
ci?i ?? neeaaeo aeicaieeee i?inoaaeeoe iai?yiie aaiethoe?? ae?aoiiiaeo o
?aa?ii?. Anoaiiaeaii aoaii?noue o ?icaeoeo ae?aoiiiai? oei?e, ui
a?aeaeaa? iniaeeaino? aaiethoe?eiiai i?ioeano o i?aaenoaaiee?a a?aeae?eo
Bacillariophyta a aeine?aeaeoaai?e iaeaia?iaaia?ao?/i?e i?ia?ioe?? ?
iia’ycaia c? cia/ieie aaieia?/ieie ? iaeaia?ae?ieia?/ieie iiae?yie.
E?eoa??yie aeey aeae?eaiiy aoai?a noaee ye?ni? ci?ie oaeniiii?/iiai
neeaaeo ae?aoiiiaeo oeaiic?a ? ?oaaae? iaea?eueo ?noioieo aaiethoe?eieo
ci?i ?o no?oeoo?e, ui i?iyaeyeenue o iiya? oa cieeiaii? oaenii?a
aenieiai ?aiao, a oaeiae aaiethoe?eieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo ii?oieia?/ieo
aeaiaio?a iaioee?a. Iniiai? aoaie aeeth/athoue i?aeaoaie aai aoaie
ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo. Aeae?eaii oae? aoaie: na?aaeiuei-i?ciueiaioeaiiaee,
?aiiueiie?aioeaiiaee, ?aiiueii?ioeaiiaee, na?aaeiueii?ioeaiiaee,
na?iaonueeee, iaioe/iee, i?ciueii?ioeaiiai-ie?ioeaiiaee,
ieaenoioeaiiaee, aieioeaiiaee. Oa?aeoa?enoeea aoai?a ? i?aeaoai?a
?icaeoeo ae?aoiiiai? oei?e aaco?oueny ia i?ea?iaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
aaoi?a c o?aooaaiiyi e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ii Oe?a?i? oa ii noi?aeieo
oa?eoi??yo.

Na?aaeiuei-i?ciueiaioeaiiaee aoai. Aaiethoe?eiee i?ioean o ae?aoiiiaeo o
?aa?ii? i?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie na?aaeiueiai ? onueiai i?ciueiai
aioeaio oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ni?eueiith ni?yiiaai?noth oa oaiaeaioe??th aei
noaa?e?caoe??, oeaiice — caaaeueieie a?aaeaie oa aeaea?aeaie oi?ioaaiiy.
Aei ii/aoeo aoaio a neeaae? oei?e aaea ?nioaaee an? n?i ii?yaee?a
oeaio?e/ieo ae?aoiiae ? iaeaeaa ii?yaeee iaiaoieo, ui aecia/a? aenieee
??aaiue ?? c??eino?. A?aeiii 240 aeae?a ? ??ciiaeae?a ae?aoiiae, 212 c
ieo iaeaaeaoue aei eeano Nentrophyceae, 28 -Pennatophyceae. ?c 84 ?iae?a
70 iaeaaeaoue aei eeano Centrophyceae, 14 — Pennatophycea. I?ioyaii
aoaio a?aeaoaaeanue aaiethoe?y ii?oieia?/ieo aeaiaio?a: oi?ioaaiiy
e?oiieo o?oaeiaeaeieo ae?ino?a (Porodiscus), aeieeiaii? aeaiaoaeo
ae?ino?a iiaiai oeio (Cristodiscus, Actinocyclus), ci?ie ia?en?a
iaioee?a, ca?iaeaeaiiy iiaeo ?iae?a eeano Pennatophyceae.

Ae?aoiiiaa oei?a na?aaeiueiaioeaiiaiai i?aeaoaio a?aecia/aeanue
aeoeaieie aaiethoe?eiei ? i?a?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie. ?? a?aeiiaeaiiy
a?aeaoaaeinue ia aenieiio oaeniiii?/iiio ??ai?, o ?aa?ii? c’yaeeiny
o?noue iiaeo n?iaenoa: Asterolampraceae, Eupodiscaceae, Istmiaceae,
Cymatosiraceae, Rhaphoneiaceae, Naviculaceae, 25 ?iae?a, o oiio /ene?
Pseudostictodiscus, Brightwellia, Auliscus, Diploneis, Porodiscus,
Cristodiscus ? a?eueo i?ae 100 aeae?a. Aeaeiooai?aiiy a?aeaoaaeiny a
?iaeao Sheshukovia, Coscinodiscus, Pyxidicula, Hemiaulus, Trinacria,
Actinoptychus, Pseudopodosira. O na?aaeiueiio aioeai? a?aeiii 203
aeaeiaeo oaeniie ?c 68 ?iae?a oa 24 n?iaenoa. Na?aae ieo 22 n?iaenoaa,
ui aeeth/athoue 62 ?iaee oa 191 aeae a?aeiinyoueny aei eeano
Centrophyceae, aeaa n?iaenoaa, o?noue ?iae?a e 12 aeae?a – aei
Pennatophyceae.

Ae?aoiiiaa oei?a i?ciueiaioeaiiaiai i?aeaoaio a?aecia/anue aenieei
??aiai niaaeeiaino? a?ae na?aaeiueiaioeaiiai? oa cieaeaiiyi aeoeaiino?
aaiethoe?eiiai i?ioeano. Ia ii/aoeo i?aeaoaio a eean? Centrophyceae
c’yaeeenue n?iaenoai Chaetoceraceae oa ?iaee Chaetoceros, Cerataulus,
Craspedoporus, Ethmodiscus, Trochosira; o eean? Pennatophyceae —
n?iaenoaa Diatomaceae, Tabellariaceae, Achnanthaceae, Eunotiaceae e
?iaee Plagiogramma, Pinnularia, Caloneis, Fragillaria, Grammatophora,
Cocconeis, Progonoia. Aeaeiooai?aiiy a?aeaoaaeiny aieiaiei /eiii o
?iaeao Coscinodiscus, Aulacodiscus, Pyxidicula, Hemiaulus, Sheshukovia.
Navicula, Diponeis. Iai?ee?ioe? i?aeaoaio c’yaeeinue n?i. Hemidiscceae,
??ae Actinocyclus ? aeaee Actinocyclus sp., Aulacodiscus fasciculatus,
Ethmodiscus sp., Progonoia margine-lineata oa aeia?ee ?iaee Monopsia,
Acanthodiscus, Lepidodiscus e aeaee Lisitzinia inconspiqua, Hemiaulus
perlongus, Peponia barbadensis, Stictodiscus kossutii,
Pseudostictodiscus ovetschkinii. O i?ciueiio aioeai? a?aeiii 234 aeaee ?
??ciiaeae?a ae?aoiiae ?c 83 ?iae?a e 31 n?iaenoaa. C ieo 206 oaenii?a ?c
69 ?iae?a ? 24 n?iaenoa iaeaaeaoue aei eeano Centrophyceae, 28 aeae?a ?c
14 ?iae?a e n?iio n?iaenoa — aei eeano Pennatophyceae.

?aiueiie?aioeaiiaee aoai. Iniaeea?noue aoaio aeyaeeanue o aenieiio ??ai?
niaaeeiaino? ?iaeiaiai neeaaeo ae?aoiiae a?ae aioeaiiaeo oei?. Aiaeii/an
aaiethoe?eiee i?ioean aeoea?coaaany, c’yaeyeenue iia? ii?oieia?/i?
aeaiaioe e eiia?iaoe??, aeieeea oaiaeaioe?y aei caiyooy eeanii
Pennatophyceae iai?aiiai iieiaeaiiy. Ci?ieeiny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaenii?a
aenieiai ?aiao — eean?a, ii?yaee?a ? n?iaenoa; a?aeaoaaeiny ooai?aiiy
iiaeo oaeniiii?/ieo a?oi. Ii/aany ?icea?o ii?yaeeo Thalassiosirales oa
n?iaenoaa Hemidiscaceae, c’yaeeeny n?iaenoaa Aulacosiraceae,
Thalassiosiraceae, Achnanthaceae. Ae?aoiiiaee oaiaoioeaiic oeueai aoaio
iiaeaiee a?eueo i?ae 240 aeaeaie ? ??ciiaeaeaie, a?eueo i?ae ?c 30
?iae?a. Aei ii/aoeo ie?aioeaio aeia?ee ?iaee Brightwellia, Bipalia,
Cristodicus, Craspedoporus, Kittonia, Peponia, Porodiscus,
Pseudostictodiscus, Radialiplicata, Torulosa, Strangulonema oa ?io?,
c’yaeeeny Aulacosaira, Ellerbeckia, Thalassiosira, Cocconeis, Eucampia,
Pseudodimerogramma, Leptocylindrus e Dictioneis. I?iaeiaaeoaaeanue
aaiethoe?y ?iae?a Actinocyclus, Goniothecium, Cymatosira, Rhaphoneis e
Sceptroneis. Ci?ieany aeaeiaee neeaae Actinoptychus, Asterolampra,
Eunotogramma, Hemiaulus, Biddulphia, Pyxidicula. A?aeiiaeany ?icea?o
aioeaiiaiai aeaeo Distephanosira architecturalis oa cyaeeenue iia?
aeaee- Pyxilla prolongata, Actinoptychus thumii, Rhizosolenia aff.
hebetata, Cocconeis vitrea, Eucampia balaustrium, Actinocyclus
octonarius, Rhaphoneis sp. , Actinocyclus sp. 1, Thalassiosira sp. ,
Nitzschia sp.

?aiiueii?ioeaiiaee aoai. Ii/aoie i?ioeaio noaa iaeiii?oi?oei ?oaaaeai a
aaiethoe?? ae?aoiiiai? oei?e a ?aa?ii?. ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie eeano
Pennatophyceae, ui ia’?aeioaaa a?eueo ye 40% ?iaeiaiai neeaaeo
ae?aoiiae, iniaeeai ii?yaeeo Araphales, aeeeeeaa ci?io oaeniiii?/ii?
no?oeoo?e oeaiic?a. Ae?aoiia? ?aiiueiai i?ioeaio oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iecueeith niaaeei?ii?noth a?ae iaeaiaaiiaeo ? nooo?aei a?aeiiaeaiiy
?iaeiaiai ? aeaeiaiai neeaaeo.

Aeae?eythoueny aeaa i?aeaoaie, ui a?aeaeaathoue ??cei a?aei?ii? oiiae
?icaeoeo aanaei?a naaeeiaioaoe??. Aei ii/aoeo ia?oiai c ieo cieeee
ae?aai? ?iaee Distephanosira, Eunotogramma, Sheshukovia ? c’yaeany
Asteromphalus, o /enei aeii?iaio?a oa?eoia Craspedodiscus. Ci?ieany
aeaeiaee neeaae ?iae?a Coscinodiscus, Actinocyclus, Actinoptychus,
Thalassiosira, Trochosira, Stephanogonia, Xantiopyxis, Sceptroneis.
?noioii ci?ieany aeaeiaee neeaae aeii?ioth/i? a?oie, cieeee
?aiiueiie?aioeaiia? Distephanosira architecturalis, Pyxilla prolongata.
Ae?aoiiiaee oeaiic, ?iciianthaeaeaiee ia E?einueeiio i-ia?, aeeth/a? 73
aeaeiaeo oaeniia ?c 30 ?iae?a. Aei eeano Centrophyceae a?aeiineoueny 21
??ae, aei Pennatophyceae — aeaa’youe. Aaaao? aeaeaie ?iaee Chaetoceros ?
Coscinodiscus. Oa?aeoa?ieie e aeii?ioth/eie a oeae /an aoee
Craspedodiscus elegans, Cr. coscinodiscus Cr. moelleri f. maicopensis,
Coscinodiscus grossheimii, Actinocyclus kisselevii, Actinoptychus
undulatus var. tamanica, Istmia szaboi, Cavitatus jouseanus f. linearis,
Thalassionema nitzschioides var. obtusa, aeaee ?iaeo Xantiopyxis.
Ae?oaee i?aeaoai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?noioiith ci?iith ? nei?i/aiiyi
neeaaeo ae?aoiiae. O I?e/i?iiii?nuee?e caiaaeei? aoa iioe?aiee
iaeiiiai?oiee aiaeai?/iee oeaiic, iiaeaiee 22 aeaeaie c 10 ?iae?a,
i’youe ?c yeeo iaeaaeaoue eeano Nentrophyceae, i’youe — Pennatophyceae.
Na?aae ?iae?a Aulacosaira ? Actinocyclus, ui aeii?ioaaee, inoaii?e
a?ae??ciyany iniaeeai aeoeaiei aeaeiooai?aiiyi. O oeae /an o?eno?oueny
ia?oa iiyaa a ?aa?ii? ?iaeo Alveolophora.

Na?aaeiueii?ioeaiiaee aoai. Ia ii/aoeo aoaio oaeniiii?/iee neeaae
ae?aoiiiai? oei?e ci?ieany ia ?iaeiaiio ? aeaeiaiio ??aiyo. Iii?oi?
aaiethoe?ei? ia?aoai?aiiy oi?eioeeny eeano Pennatophyceae, iniaeeai
ii?yaeeo Rhaphales, ui i?noea o?noue n?iaenoa. ??ciiiai?oieie aoee
n?iaenoaa Fragillariaceae ? Naviculaceae, aaaao? aeaeaie ?iaee
Rhaphoneis, Coscinodiscus, Mastogloia, Actinoptychus, Diploneis. Ia
ii/aoeo aoaio a ?aa?ii? c’yaeeenue ?iaee Denticulopsis, Cymatogonia ?
Thalassiothrix, ci?ieany neeaae ?iae?a Coscinodiscus, Rhaphoneis,
Nitzschia, Endictia, Navicula, Thalassionema ? Cymatosira.
Nai???aei?noue aoaio i?iyaeeanue a ?icaeoeo aiaeai?/ieo aeae?a o ?iae?a
Rhaphoneis, Lancineis, Sceptroneis, Stephanogonia, iiya? ia ii/aoeo
aoaio Lancineis parilis, L. lancetula, L. longissima, Rhaphoneis
elegans, R. scalaris, Hyalodiscus planus, a i?ci?oa — Delphineis
penneliptica, Diploneis szontaghii, Rhaphoneis cocconeiformis,
Cymatosira biharensis. I?ioyaii aoaio ci?ithaaany aeaeiaee neeaae
ae?aoiiae. Cieeee Lancineis parilis, L. lancettula, Raphydodiscus
marilandicus, Coscinodiscus levisianus, Istmia szaboi, c’yaeeenue
Delphineis maeotica, D. angustata, Rhaphoneis parvula, Istmia
squanaboli, Anaulus cf. mediteraneus, Actinocyclus ingens, c?inoaea
?icia?o?noue ?iae?a Cocconeis ? Navicula. E?iaoeue aoaio a?aecia/a?oueny
iiyaith ?iaeo Actinostephanos, nei?i/aiiyi aeaeiaiai aaaaonoaa o
Rhaphoneis. A Oe?a?i? a?aeiii 240 aeae?a ? ??ciiaeae?a
na?aaeiueii?ioeaiiaeo ae?aoiiae, ui iaeaaeaoue aei 80 ?iae?a, 28
n?iaenoa, 10 ii?yaee?a. A?ey 30% oeaiico neeaaeathoue aeia?e? aeaee,
?io? a?aeii? a no/anieo aanaeiao.

Na?iaonueeee aoai. Ia ?oaaae? na?aaeiueiai ? i?ciueiai i?ioeaio
oaeniiii?/ia no?oeoo?a ae?aoiiiaeo oeaiic?a ci?ieeanue ia ??ai? ?iae?a ?
n?iaenoa. Na?iaonueeiio /ano i?eoaiaii? iaioaaiiy eeano Pennatophyceae,
ia?aaaaa n?iaenoa Naviculaceae, Cymbellaceae ? Achnanthaceae, ?icea?o
iieiaeeo ?iae?a Achnanthes, Amphipleura, Licmophora ? Amphora,
aeoea?caoe?y iaiaaiiaeo ?iae?a Fragillaria, Diatoma, Dimerogramma,
Amphora, Rhopalodia, Surirella, Campylodiscus, Nitzschia. Ae?aoiia?
na?iaonueeiai aoaio a?aecia/aeenue iaaecae/aeii aenieith ?icia?o?noth, o
No?aeiiio Ia?aoaoen? a?aeiii 575 oaenii?a aeaeiaiai ?aiao, ui iaeaaeaoue
a?eueo i?ae aei 80 ?iae?a, 30 n?iaenoa, 8 ii?yaee?a 2 eean?a. O ?aa?ii?
c’yaeeeny ?iaee Amphiprora, Entomoneis, Corethron, Dimidiata,
Dictyoneis. Iaiiaeany aeaeiaee neeaae Anaulus, Grammatophora, Caloneis,
Mastogloia. Cieeee ?ae?eoia? ?iaee Craspedodiscus, Clavicula,
Cladogramma oa na?aaeiueii?ioeaiia? aeaee ?iae?a Triceratium,
Denticulopsis, Rhizosolenia, Xantiopyxis, Thalassionema,
Climacosphaenia, Rhabdonema, Plagiogramma. Ia ii/aoeo aoaio ua cia/iith
aoea ?ieue oeaio?e/ieo ?iae?a Paralia, Aulacosaira, Pseudopodosira,
Podosira, Hyalodiscus, Coscinodiscus, Haynaldia, Actinocyclus,
Chaetoceros, Biddulphia, aoee i?enooi? ae?aai? Zigoceros, Stephanogonia,
Xantiophyxis, i?e aeaeiai? ?icia?oino? iaaoa Mastogloia. O
aanna?aanueeee /an e?euee?noue oeaio?e/ieo ae?aoiiae nei?ioeeanue,
ci?ieany aeaeiaee neeaae aeii?ioth/i? a?oie. Cieeee Anaulus simplex, A.
minutus, Coscinodiscus doljensis, Corethron podolica, Mastogloia
szontaghii, Dictioneis mastoidea, Cymatosira biharensis. ?o i?noea
caeiyee Actinocyclus (?) podolicus, Achnanthes baldjikii var podolica,
A. hauckiana, Caloneis liber, C. scutellum var. inequalepunctata,
Surirell fastuosa, Navicula baldjikiensis, N. jarensis, Fragillaria
brevistriata, Aulacosaira granulata, Mastogloia baldjikiana. E?iaoeue
aoaio oa?aeoa?ecoaaany iiaiei iaioaaiiyi eeano Pennatophyceae, iiyaith
i’youeio ?iae?a ? a?eueo ye 30 aeae?a ? ??ciiaeae?a, o oiio /ene?
Semseyia maeotica, Navicula zichii, N. andrusovii, Nitzschia
romanoviana, N. stockmayeri, Amphora variabilis, A. hyalina, Entomoneis
alata, Entomoneis gigantea var. gigantea. I?ioyaii na?iaoo a iniiaiiio
noi?ioaaany ?iaeiaee neeaae no/anii? ae?aoiiiai? oei?e
*i?iiii?nueei-Eani?enueeiai ?aa?iio.

Iaioe/iee aoai. Ci?ia oaeniiii?/iiai neeaaeo ae?aoiiiaeo c ii/aoeo
iaioeno a?aecia/eeanue o ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo ii?yaee?a ? n?iaenoa, i?ioa ia
?iaeiaiio ??ai? ?aiiueiiaioe/i? oeaiice aoee o?nii iia’ycai? ?c
na?iaonueeeie, oniaaeeoaaaoe a?ey iieiaeie ?o ?iaeiaiai neeaaeo. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae na?iaonueeeo, na?aae iaioe/ieo ae?aoiiae ia?aaaaeaee
i?aaenoaaieee eeano Centrophyceae. A?aeiii a?eueo 250 aeae?a ?
??ciiaeae?a iaioe/ieo ae?aoiiae, ui iaeaaeaoue aei 47 ?iae?a, 21
n?iaenoaa, naie ii?yaee?a aeaio i?aeeean?a. ??ciiiai?oi? aoee n?iaenoaa
Naviculaceae, Fragillariaceae, Biddulphiaceae ? Tabellariaceae. Ii/aoie
aoaio a?aecia/eany aeaeiooai?aiiyi o ?iaeao Thalassiosira, Actinocyclus,
Chaetoceros, Nitzschia, Diploneis, Navicula. Ae?oaa iieiaeia aoaio —
iiyaith ? aenieith i?iaeoeoeai?noth Cymatosira savtchenkoi oa
Lithodesmium cf undulosum, i?enooi?noth o oeaiic? Coscinodiscus nitidus,
Pseudotriceratium cinamomeum, Nitzschia separanda ? Denticulopsis lauta.
Caaa?oeany aoai nei?i/aiiyi aeaeiai? ?icia?oino? ae?aoiiae ? ?icaeoeii
iaeiiiai?oiiai oeaiico c oa?aeoa?iei Rhizosolenia bezrukovii e
aeii?ioth/ei Actinocyclus octonarius. Iniaeea?noth oeueiai /ano ? ia?oa
iiyaa a No?aeiiio Ia?aoaoen? i?aaenoaaiee?a ?iae?a Stephanodiscus ?
Cyclotella. A?ey 70 % aeae?a iaioe/ii? anioe?aoe?? ?niothoue aei iei? e
aeeaooue o *i?iiio e Acianueeiio ii?yo, ?io? — aeia?e?.

I?ciueii?ioeaiiai-ie?ioeaiiaee aoai. C ii/aoeo iiioo a Aaeneinuee?e
/anoei? No?aeiiai Ia?aoaoeno ?icaeaaeanue ae?aoiiiaa oei?a iiaiai oeio,
aaiaoe/ii iia’ycaia c ie?ioeaiiaith. Iniiaia iniaeea?noue aoaio —
oi?ioaaiiy aiaeai?/ii? anioe?aoe?? ai?eiioeiaioaeueiiai oeio, yea noaea
iniiaith ae?aoiiiaeo oeaiic?a no/aniiai *i?iiai ii?y. Ia ?oaaae? iaioeno
? iiioo ci?ia oei?e a?aeaoeany ia ??ai? n?iaenoa oa ?iae?a ? oi?eioeanue
ye eeano Centrophyceae, oae ? Pennatophyceae. Cieeee i?aaenoaaieee
n?iaenoa Hyalodiscaceae, Hemiaulaceae, Heliopeltaceae, Lithodesmiaceae,
Aulacodiscaceae, Cymatosiraceae. Ciaioeeanue ?iaeiaa ?icia?o?noue
n?iaenoa Thalassiosiraceae, Coscinodiscaceae, Biddulphiaceae. Nei?ioeany
aeaeiaee neeaae ?iae?a Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Navicula,
Thalassiosira ? e?euee?noue ?ae?eoiaeo aeaiaio?a. C’yaeeeny ??ae
Cyclostephanos e aiaeai?/i? aeaee Stephanodiscus proprius, S.
multifarius, Cyclotella proshkinae, Aulacosaira papilio. Aiaeii/an
?aiiueiiiioe/iei ae?aoiiiaei aoa aeanoeaee aenieee ??aaiue
oniaaeeiaoaaiiy. Caaaeueia ni?yiiaai?noue ?o ?icaeoeo i?ioyaii
iiioe/iiai i?aeaoaio a?aecia/eeanue o /a?aoaaiiy aaeaioeaii? ?aae?aoe??
aeae?a ?iae?a Stephanodiscus ? Cyclotella. O ?aiiueiio iiio? a?aeiii 62
aeaee ? ??ciiaeae?a ae?aoiiiaeo ?c 30 ?iae?a, 17 n?iaenoa aeaio
i?aeeean?a. Aaaao? aeaeaie ?iaee Stephanodiscus, Aulacosaira, Diploneis.
Aeii?ioaaee Actinocyclus, Stephanodiscus ? Ellerbeckia. O ae?oa?e
iieiaei? iiioo neeaae ae?aoiiae ci?ieany, cieeee Actinocyclus
octonarius, A. stockesianus oa C. proshkinae, ca?eueoeeany /enaeuei?noue
S. multifarius, c’yaeeenue aiaeai?/i? Aulacosaira bellicosa, A. elegans
? Thalassiosira makarovae. Iniaeea?noth aoa ?icaeoie aeae?a
Cyclostephanos pontica, C. pliocenicus, C. stelliformis.

O ie?ioeaiiaee /an a *i?iiii?nueeiio aanaei? ?nioaaea aeiyoeiai
nai???aeia aiaeai?/ia ae?aoiiiaa oei?a, aiaeiae yei? a oe?eiio ia
a?aeii?. Aei ii/aoeo i?aeaoaio c ?? neeaaeo cieeei aaaaoi
i?ciueii?ioeaiiaeo ?ae?eo?a. Oaeaee? oaiie aaiethoe?? aoee i?eoaiaii?
?iaeai Stephanodiscus, Cyclostephanos, Cyclotella ? Aulacosaira.
Aiaeai?/i? aeaee oaeaeei ci?ithaaee iaeei iaeiiai a aeioiiao,
a?eueo?noue ?c ieo aeia?ea aei oaia??oiueiai /ano. Ie?ioeaiia? oeaiice
i?noyoue a?oie niaoeeo?/ieo aeae?a. Iai?ee?ioe? ie?ioeaio noi?ioaaeanue
iaeiiiai?oia anioe?aoe?y, ui iii?oii a?ae??ciyeanue a?ae iiia?aaei?o
iaioaaiiyi iiaiai aeaeo Cyclotella servant-vildary. Oea noaei ii/aoeii
ci?ie noaoaiiae?neoniai-oeeeeinoaoaiiniai? oei?e aiaeai?/iith
oeeeeioaeiaith.

Ieaenoioeaiiaee aoai. O *i?iiii?nueeiio aanaei? oi?ioaaeanue aiaeai?/ia
ae?aoiiiaa oei?a iiaiai neeaaeo. Ia ci?io ie?ioeaiiaei aeaeai ?iae?a
Stephanodiscus ? Cyclostephanos i?eeoee iia? — Stephanodiscus rotula, S.
binderianus, S. robustus, S. niagarae, S. hantzschii, Cyclostephanos
dubius, C. costatus. Ci?ieany neeaae ?iaeo Cyclotella. I?ney ie?ioeaio a
?aa?ii? ia cao?eniaaii iiyae iiaeo oaenii?a ?iaeiaiai ??aiy. A?eueo?noue
?c aeae?a, ui c’yaeeeny a oeae /an, ?niothoue o no/anieo aanaeiao.
I?ioyaii ieaenoioeaio a?aeaoaaeany /anoa ci?ia ae?aoiiiaeo a?ioii?a,
aeeeeeaia ia?aaaaeii i?a?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie. O iiiaioe iiiiaeaiiy
ca’yceo ?c Na?aaecaiiei ii?ai c’yaeyeenue na?aaecaiiiii?nuee? i?a?aioe,
o ia??iaee ?cieyoe?? aanaeio ?icaeaaeeny aiaeai?/i? iaeiiiai?oi?
anioe?aoe??. Caaa?oeany ieaenoioeaiiaee aoai oi?ioaaiiyi
i?ciueiiiaiaaeneinueeiai ae?aoiiiaiai oeaiico, ui i?nooeoue 60 aeaeiaeo
oaenii?a ?c 28 ?iae?a. ?icia?o?noth a?aecia/aeenue ?iaee Stephanodiscus,
Diploneis, Aulacosaira ? Thalassiosira. Aieiaia iniaeea?noue oiai /ano —
?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie ?iae?a Stephanodiscus ? Cyclotella oa oa?aeoa?iiai
aeaeo Stephanodiscus robustus. O?e aeaee S. robustus, S. rotula oa S.
hantzschii iaioaaee a a?ioii?.

Aieioeaiiaee aoai. Ia ii/aoeo aieioeaio o *i?iiii?nueeiio aanaei?
a?aeaoeanue oaeaeea ci?ia neeaaeo ae?aoiiiaiai oeaiico, cieeee
oa?aeoa?i? i?ciueiieaenoioeaiia? aeaee e iiaa?ioeenue
na?aaecaiiiii?nuee? aeaiaioe. Ae?aaiuei/i?iiii?nuee? ae?aoiia? iaee
aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue. A?aeiii 96 aeae?a ?c 42 ?iae?a, c yeeo
iaea?eueo /eneaii? Coscinodiscus, Thalassiosira, Navicula, Diploneis. Ia
ii/aoeo ae?aaiuei/i?iiii?nueeiai /ano c’yaeeenue Bacteriastrum hyalinum,
Rhizosolenia setigera, i?ci?oa — Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, ianiaeie
aoee Rh. setigera, Thalassiosira oestrupii, Cycllotella caspia,
Thalassionema nitzschioides, Coscinodoscus radiatus, Asteromphalus
robustus, aeaee ?iaeo Chaetoceros, ca?eueoeeanue i?iaeoeoeai?noue
Pseudosolenia calcar-avis ? ?iaeo Asteromphalus. O neeaae?
iiai/i?iiii?nueei? annioe?aoe?? a?aeiii 94 aeaee ?c 40 ?iae?a. Iaea?eueo
??ciiiai?oieie aoee ?iaee Thalassiosira, Coscinodiscus, Diploneis ?
Navicula, /eneaiieie Cyclotella caspia, Thalassionema nitzschioides,
Thalassiosira oestrupii, Paralia sulcata. O oeae /an c’yaeeenue aeaee
Chaetoceros peruvianus ? Hemiaulus hauckii, nei?ioeeany i?iaeoeoeai?noue
Rh. setigera ? Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, i?noea yeeo caeiya aeae
Proboscia alata. An? aeaee, e??i Ch. peruvianus, a?aeii? a
ieaenoioeaiiaeo ? ?aiiueiaieioeaiiaeo aanaeiao ?aa?iio, on? aeaee, e??i
Thalassiosira oestrupii, i?enooi? a no/ani?e aeueaioei?? *i?iiai ii?y.

OIIAE ?NIOAAIIss Ae?AOIIIAeo aiaei?inoae O EAEIICIENUeEEO IAEAIAANAEIAO
OE?A?IE

Iaeaiaanaeie iaeaiaaia.

I?ioyaii iaeaiaaio o i?ai?/i?e ieieeoe? Oaoena a?aeaoaaeanue
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y aanaeio ? oi?ioaaiiy iaeaia?ao?/ieo i?ia?ioe?e.
Ni?eyoeea? aeey iaeiie/aiiy ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae oiiae ?nioaaee o
oaeueoia?e cii? ie?a?iieo ae?eyiie Oaoena.

Aioeai. O i?ciueiio iaeaioeai? ? ?aiiueiio aioeai? ia i?ai?/iiio caoiae?
AeAeA ?icaeaaeanue ae?aoiiiaa oei?a ?a?i-nea??nueeiai oeio (Aeaca? C.E,
1996). O na?aaeiueiio aioeai? ?? oa?aeoa? iii?oii ci?ieany ? c oeueiai
/ano ii/aany ?icaeoie aaiethoe?eii a?eueo iieiaei? ae?aoiiiai? oei?e
aoeaioe/iiai oeio (Aeaca? C.E, 1996). Ia ca’ycie oeueiai aanaeio ?c
Oaoenii ? c I?ai?/iith Aoeaioeeith aeaco? aaeeea e?euee?noue ni?eueieo
aeaiaio?a o neeaae? ae?aoiiiaeo eiiieaen?a. C ae?oai? iieiaeie
na?aaeiueiai aioeaio o aanaei? (o iaaeao AeAeA ? ieieeoeue Aeiiaano)
?icaeaaeenue e?oi?aeuei? ae?aoiiia? anioe?aoe??, ui na?ae/aoue i?i
ianoaa?euei? i?eaa?aaei? oiiae na?aaeiaeua. Ia e?iaoeue na?aaeiueiai
aioeaio ?icia?o?noue ae?aoiiae ca?eueoeeanue, iai?aia i?noea caeiyee
aeaee ?iae?a Noscinodiscus ? Hemiaulus. C’yaeeenue iia? i?a?aioe c
Aoeaioeee. Neeaae ae?aoiiae aeaco? ia oa, ui aeeaeia aanaeio
ca?eueoeeanue, ? iaaooue a?aeiia?aeaea iaea?eueo aenieiio ??aith
na?aaeiueiaioeaiiai? o?aina?an??. Ia ii/aoeo i?ciueiai aioeaio
ae?aoiiiaa oei?a aeinyaea iaeneiaeueii? aeaeiai? ?icia?oino? ca ?aooiie
iiyae aaioinieo aeae?a ?iae?a Diploneis, Navicula, Plagiogramma ?
Caloneis. ?? oa?aeoa? a?aeiia?aeaa oiiaai ii?iaeueii ii?nueei? a?aeiinii
oaieiaiaeii? aiaeieie; aeii?ioaaiiy ia?eoe/iiai ieaieoiio ii?aeioaaeinue
?c aenieei ai?noii ieaai?/ieo aeae?a. Iiaeaeueoa cieeiaiiy ?yaeo
?ae?eoiaeo ieaai?/ieo aeae?a ? iiyaa ?iaeo Actinocyclus aeaco? ia
?aa?aneai? i?ioeane a aanaei?.

Ie?aioeai. ?aa?aneaia noaae?y Oaoena, ii/aoie ?cieyoe?? eiai e?aeiaeo
ae?eyiie ? ooai?aiiy ai?eiioeiaioaeueieo ii?nueeeo aanaei?a Ia?aoaoena
ia ii/aoeo ie?aioeaio aieeioee ia ?icaeoie ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae.
A?aeaoeinue nei?i/aiiy ?o a?aaeo, ci?ieeenue neeaae ? no?oeoo?a
oeaiic?a, ii/aany ?icaeoie i?ia?ioe?ae?cio. O ?aiiueiio ie?aioeai?
ae?aoiiia? a ?aa?ii? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue aenieith a?ii?iaeoeoeai?noth ?
nai???aeieie ?enaie. ?o e?oi?aeueii- ia?eoe/iee oa?aeoa?, i?enooi?noue
aaioino ? nii? aeacothoue ia ?aa?aneai? i?ioeane a aanaei?. *eneaii?noue
?iaeo Pyxilla na?ae/eoue i?i aeoeaiee a?ae?iaeeiai?/iee ?aaeei, iiyaa
a?eoi-ai?aaeueieo aeae?a — i?i cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iiaa?oiaaeo aiae.
A?aei?ii?noue ?aiueiie?aioeaiiaeo ae?aoiiiaeo Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio a?ae
o?ii?/ieo ? noao?ii?/ieo ieaai?/ieo oei? iii?oia /a?ac a?aenooiinoue o
oeaiicao oa?aeoa?ieo ieaai?/ieo ?iae?a Cestodiscus, Lisitzinia ?
Rocella, iacia/io ?ieue iaeaa?/ieo Asterolampra, Coscinodiscus ?
Rhizosolenia. Aiaeii/an iiae?ai?noue ?c ai?aaeueieie oei?aie
Ii?aacueeiai ? Aa?eiaiaa ii??a i?inoaaeo?oueny /a?ac i?enooi?noue
ni?eueieo aeae?a Pyxilla prolongata, Cocconeis vitrea, Eucampia
balaustrium, nii? ?iae?a Xantiopyxis, Liradiscus.

Iaeaiaanaeie iaiaaia.

Ia ?icaeoie iaiaaiiaeo aanaei?a ?a?iie aieeaaee ia o?eueee oae?
aeiaaeuei? iiae??, ye cieaeaiiy ??aiy Na?oiaiai ieaaio ? ci?ia
ieaai?/ii? oee?eoeyoe??, aea e aaioaeoii?/i? i?ioeane Aeuei?enueeiai
i?iaai?/iiai ia?aieaiiy. Ei?aeiie ii?nueeeo aeaaoi??e ? oa?aeoa?
inaaeeiiaeiie/aiiy a ieo i?ioyaii iaiaaio ia caeeoaeenue noaa?eueieie,
a?ae?ieia?/i? oiiae eieeaaeenue, ui ni?eyei /ano?e ci?i? neeaaeo
ae?aoiiiaeo oeaiic?a.

I?ioeai. ?aii?e i?ioeai. O ii??aiyii? c ie?aioeaiii ia ii/aoeo ?aiiueiai
i?ioeaio ciaioeany aieea ai?aaeueieo ? c?inea ?ieue oaieiaiaeieo
aeaiaio?a. Oa?aeoa? ae?aoiiiaiai oeaiico o E?einueeiio ?aa?ii? aeaco? ia
oi?ioaaiiy eiai a ia?eoe/i?e cii? ii?nueeiai oaieiaiaeiiai aanaeio c
ii?iaeueiith nieii?noth e aeoeaiei a?ae?iaeeiai?/iei ?aaeeiii.
Aeii?ioaaee ieaieoiii? aeaee, aaioin neeaaeaa iacia/iee a?aenioie.
Ia?aaaaeaee ia?eoe/i? ?iaee Pyxidicula, Chaetoceros. *eneaii?noue
noao?ii?/ieo ? ieaai?/ieo aeae?a na?ae/eoue i?i eiia??iee ca’ycie
aanaeio c a?aee?eoeie ae?eyieaie Oaoena. Cia/i? ?ici??e nooeie
aeacothoue ia aeinoaoith e?euee?noue o aiae? ?ic/eiaiiai e?aiiacaio.
Oaieiaiaeiee oa?aeoa? ? aiaeai?ci a?ae??ciy? ae?aoiiiao oei?o i?aaeiy
Oe?a?ie a?ae ae?aoiiae yaaaiao?nueeiai aanaeio Cao?aeiiai Ia?aoaoeno.

Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ? ii??niaiiy Ia?aoaoeno iai?ee?ioe? ?aiiueiai i?ioeaio
i?ecaaee aei ci?ie neeaaeo ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae. O iaaeao
I?e/i?iiii?nueei? caiaaeeie ? i?aaeaiii? ieieeoe? OU o oeae /an
oi?ioaaeanue iaeiiiai?oia anioe?aoe?y ae?aoiiae, ui ?noioii
a?ae??ciyeanue a?ae iiia?aaeiuei?. Aiia neeaaeaeanue c iaoeaioe?a
aaeeeiai eiioeiaioaeueiiai aanaeio, yeee, eiia??ii, iaa ca’ycie c
aanaeiaie Cao?aeiiai Ia?aoaoeno. Aeii?ioaaee ia?aaaaeii aiaeai?/i?
i??niiaiaei? aeaee ?iaeo Actinocyclus ? oe?iei iioe?aiiai o ai?aaeueieo
eiioeiaioaeueieo iaiaaiiaeo aiaeieiao Aulacoseira.

Na?aaei?e i?ioeai. O na?aaeiueiio i?ioeai? ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ?nioaaee
aeaa aanaeie, i?aaeaiiee ? cao?aeiee, ui iaiaeii?aciai ci?ithaaee nai?
eiioo?e, a?ae?io?i?/iee ?aaeei, oei inaaeeiiaeiie/aiiy ? neeaae
ae?aoiiiai? oei??, yea oi?ioaaeenue a ie?aieo ae?eyieao ? ia ??cieo
aoaiao ?nioaaiiy oeeo aanaei?a.

Ia ii/aoeo na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio a Aae?oeeenuee?e caoioe? ?icaeaaany
i?eaa?aaeiee, i?eeiaiaeiee, ii?iaeueii nieiiee ae?aoiiiaee oeaiic ca
o/anoth nieiioaaoiaiaeieo aeae?a, aaioino oa yi?o?o?a. Aeii?ioaaee
iii??ii-ai?aaeuei? aeaiaioe, oieiaeiiaiaei? aeaee aoee a?aenooi?,
oaieiaiaei? — ia /eneaii?, a?eueo?noue ?c ieo a?aeiia c na?aaeiueiai
i?ioeaio Ao?eeainueeiai ocaa?aaeaey Na?aaecaiiiii?’y e Aia?eeainueeiai
ocaa?aaeaey. I?enooi?noue ni?eueieo aeae?a ?c ae?aoiiayie ea?iao?y
Oeaio?aeueiiai Ia?aoaoeno aeacothoue ia oe?ie? ca’ycee Aae?oeeenueei?
caoiee c aanaeiaie ?a?iie. Aeieia?/iee oa?aeoa? ae?aoiiiai? oei?e
na?ae/eoue i?i ooai?aiiy ?? a oiiaao ii?nueei? e?oi?ae?. A ae?oa?e
iieiaei? na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio neeaae ae?aoiiiaiai oeaiico a
Aae?oeeenueei?e caoioe? a?aeiia?aeaa oiiaai ii?nueei? e?oi?ae? c
aeoeaiith aeeiai?eith aiaeieo ian. Iai?ee?ioe? na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio
eiai oa?aeoa? ci?ieany, ca?eueoeeany /enaeuei?noue i??niiaiaeieo,
nieiioaaoiaiaeieo ? aaioinieo aeae?a, ui aeaco? ia oi?ioaaiiy oei?e a
ii??niai?e i?eeiaiaei?e ii?nuee?e caoioe? c iii?oiei aieeaii ??/eiaiai
noieo.

A e?aeia?e /anoei? Caea?iaonueeiai ii?nueeiai aanaeio ia ii/aoeo
na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio na?aae ae?aoiiiaeo ia?aaaaeaee noaiiaae?ii?
ieaieoiii? aeaee. Ia ca’ycie ?c Oeaio?aeueiei Ia?aoaoenii aeaco?
i?enooi?noue /eneaiieo na?aaecaiiiii?nueeeo aeaiaio?a. Ii??niaiiy e
iai?e?iiy iai?ee?ioe? na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio ii?nueeiai aanaeio a
e?aeia?e cii? Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio ia?aoai?eei eiai ia iaaeeaieo
i??niiaiaeio aiaeieio. Ae?aoiiiaa oei?a a oeae /an iaea ica?ii-aieioiee
oa?aeoa?.

A Ai?enoainuee?e caoioe? a ea?oaaeuenueeee /an ae?aoiiia? a?aecia/aeenue
aeii?ioaaiiyi oeiiai ii?nueeeo ? ieaai?/ieo aeae?a ?c ?iae?a
Actinocyclus, Denticulopsis, Azpeitia, Coscinodiscus, Cestodiscus. sse
iaea?eueo noaiiaae?iia c a?aeiieo o na?aaeiueiio i?ioeai?, ae?aoiiiaa
oei?a E?eio oi?ioaaeanue a iiiaio iaeoe?oiai ca’yceo aanaeio ?c
Na?aaecaiiiii?’yi. Ia ii?iaeueii nieiiee ?aaeei aanaeio aeaco? ?
ni?eueia ia?aaoaaiiy ?aooie ae?aoiiae ?c oi?ai?i?oa?aie, iiethneaie,
eoneith ?ea.

I?ci?e i?ioeai. Na?iao. Cia/i? i?iaai?/i? iiae??, ui noaeeny o e?ioe?
na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio, aoee i?e/eiith a?aeae?eaiiy Na?aaecaiiiai ii?y
a?ae ?iaei-Iaoeeo?ee ? ia?aoai?aiiy eiai a e?aeiaee aanaei Aoeaioe/iiai
ieaaio. Ia ii/aoeo na?iaoo No?aeiee Ia?aoaoen ii/aa ii??nithaaoenue ?
?iciaaeaoenue ia ?yae iai?aii?nueeeo aanaei?a, ui ai?ciaee/ii
niieo/aeenue ?c Na?aaecaiiei ii?ai. Ci?ia a?ae?ieia?/ieo oiia ni?eyea
oi?ioaaiith aiaeai?/ieo ae?aoiiiaeo oeaiic?a. ??cei cieceeany
/enaeuei?noue ieaieoiiieo ? iie?aae?iieo aeae?a, ii/aeinue aeii?ioaaiiy
noae?oi?aeueieo, yi?o?oieo oa aaioinieo oeaiic?a. Nieueiaee ?aaeei
i?ioyaii na?iaoo ia aoa iino?eiei ? eiai eieeaaiiy a?aeaeaaeenue ia
neeaae? ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae. Aenieee ??aaiue aeaeiai? ?icia?oino?
i?ioyaii aieeinueeiai, aanna?aanueeiai ? oa?niinueeiai /ano aeaco? ia
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?o ?icaeoeo.

Ae?aoiiiaa oei?a aieeinueeiai aanaeio ?noioii a?ae??ciyeanue a?ae
na?aaeiueii?ioeaiiai?. Ia ii/aoeo na?iaoo aeia?ea a?eueo?no?
noaiiaae?iieo ?iae?a, i?ioa ua caa??aaeeny oe?iei aa??aae?ii? oaeniie.
Ia?aaaaeaiiy aaioino ? yi?o?o?a oa iaea /enaeuei?noue ieaieoiio
aeacothoue ia cieaeaiiy aeeaeie aanaeio. ?aaeei aaeeei?, aea ia aeeaiei?
iieoii?nueei? ?cieueiaaii? aiaeieie ni?eya iiya? aiaeai?/ieo
nieiioaaoiaiaeieo aeae?a ae?aoiiae. Aieeinueeee oeaiic Aaeneinueeiai
aanaeio i?noeoue cia/ia /enei aeae?a, ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey Oeaio?aeueiiai
Ia?aoaoena, aea inoaii? a?ae??ciythoueny a?eueoith ?icia?o?noth
ii?nueeiai oa ieaai?/iiai ieaieoiio. Ia ii/aoeo na?aaeiueiai na?iaoo
ia?ene Aaeneii-Eani?y ci?ieeenue, cieceeenue eiai ??aaiue ? nieii?noue,
c??n aiaeai?ci ae?aoiiiaeo. A na?aaeiueina?iaonueeiio oeaiic?
ia?aaaaeaee ii?nuee? aeaee, aiie neeaaeaee a?ae 55 aei 70%. A oeae /an
ca?eueoeeany /anoea nieiioaaoiaiaeieo ? i??niiaiaeieo oaenii?a,
cieceeenue ?icia?o?noue ? /enaeuei?noue ieaieoiio. Aeii?ioaaiiy
e?oi?aeueiiai aaioino ? ai?o?o?a, iiyaa iiaeo aiaeai?/ieo aeae?a
ae?aoiiae aeacothoue ia ?aa?aneai? i?ioeane ? oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy
nieiiino?. O i?ciueiio na?iao? ieiua aanaeio nei?ioeeanue, ciaioeany
a?aae ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae, aea caa??any aenieee ??aaiue ?o aeaeiai?
?icia?oino?. Cieaeaiiy nieiiino? i?ecaaei aei ciaiueoaiiy /enaeueiino?
ii?nueeeo aeae?a ? c?inoaiiy nieiioaaoiaiaeieo. Noi?ioaaany
nieiioaaoiaiaeiee oeaiic, oa?aeoa?iee aeey i?eeiaiaeii? ae?eyiee
aanaeio. Oa?niinueea ae?aoiiiaa oei?a ia 80% neeaaea?oueny ?c no/anieo
iaoeaioe?a *i?iiii?nueei-Eani?enueeiai ?aa?iio, a?ey 20% ?? neeaaeo —
aeia?e? aeaee.

Iaioen. Ia ?oaaae? na?iaoo ? iaioeno ii?nuee? aeaaoi??? a ?aa?ii?
noooaai ciaiueoeeenue. Ci?ieany e a?aae ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae, yeee
iaiaaeoaaany E?einueeei, Ea?/ainueeei ? Oaiainueeei i-iaaie oa
*i?iiii?nueeith oeiaiaeiith. ?aiiueiiaioe/ia o?aina?an?y oe?eeii ci?ieea
aeieia?/io no?oeoo?o ae?aoiiiai? oei?e. Ciee nieiioaaoiaiaeiee oeaiic ?c
oe?ieei ?icaeoeii ?iae?a Navicula, Nitzschia, Amphora ? Achnanthes, eiai
ci?ieea ii?nueea anioe?aoe?y c /eneaiieie aeaeaie ?iae?a Thalassiosira,
Actinocyclus oa Biddulphia. I?ioyaii iaioe/iiai a?eo /a?aoaaeeny
aeieia?/ii ??cii??aei? ae?aoiiia? ni?aoiaa?enoaa. Ia ii/aoeo ?aiiueiai
iaioeno aiie a?aecia/aeenue aenieith aiaeai?/i?noth oa i?noeee ie?ai?
na?iaonuee? ?ae?eoe. Aeii?ioaaa ia?eoe/iee ieaieoii ?c iii?oiith
aeii?oeith aaioino ? yi?o?o?a, ia?aaaaeaee noaiiaae?ii?, ii?nuee? e
nieiioaaoiaiaei? aeaee O ia?o?e iieiaei? ?aiiueiai iaioeno cieeee
na?iaonuee? ?ae?eoe e a?eueo?noue aiaeai?/ieo aeae?a Thalassiosira oa
Actinocyclus. C?inea e?euee?noue ai?o?o?a oa nieiioaaoiaiaeieo ?iae?a,
aeacoth/e ia iai?e?iiy aanaeio oa aeayea cieaeaiiy nieiiino? iai?ee?ioe?
?aiiueiai iaioeno. O i?ciueiio iaioen? noaany ei?ioei/aniee ?icaeoie
nai???aeii? anioe?aoe?? ae?aoiiae, iniaeea?noth yei? aoea iiyaa
i?ciueii?ioeaiiaeo i?ai?/iiaoeaioe/ieo Cymatosira savtchenkoi oa
Lithodesmium cf. undulosum, ieaai?/iiai Denticulopsis lauta e aeniea
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ii?nueeeai ieaieoiio. Cieaeaiiy ?icia?oino? ?
/enaeueiino? nieiioaaoiaiaeieo ? aaioinieo aeae?a na?ae/eoue i?i
ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie aanaeio ? ei?ioei/anio ?ia?an?th ii?nueeeo aiae.
Ae?aoiiiaee oeaiic a?aeia?aaea? inoaii?e iiiaio niieo/aiiy aanaei?a
No?aeiiai Ia?aoaoeno c? Na?oiaei ieaaiii. Iaaeae? c? neeaaeo ae?aoiiae
oe?eeii cieeee ieaai?/i? aeaiaioe. Iai?ee?ioe? i?ciueiai iaioeno
ciaioeeanue aeaeiaa ?icia?o?noue ae?aoiiiaeo, cieeea a?eueo?noue
ii?nueeeo oaenii?a ? a aanaei? iioe?eeany iaeiiiai?oia anioe?aoe?y c
aeii?ioth/eie Actinocyclus octonarius e Rhizosolenia bezrukovii. O oeae
/an o?eno?oueny ia?oa iiyaa a No?aeiiio Ia?aoaoen? i??niiaiaeieo ?iae?a
Stephanodiscus oa Cyclotella. Neeaae ae?aoiiiaeo a?aeiia?aeaa oiiaai,
aeecueeei ii nieiiino? aei no/aniiai *i?iiai ii?y.

Iiio. Iiioe/iee /an o aaieia?/i?e ?noi??? ?a?iie iia’ycaiee c?
cieaeaiiyi ??aiy Na?aaecaiiiai ii?y, ?cieyoe??th *i?iiii?nueeiai
aanaeio, ci?iith eiai aeaaoi??? oa aa?aaiai? e?i??. C oeueiai /ano
ii/aeany ica?ia noaae?y ?icaeoeo Aaeneinueeiai aanaeio, ui ia?aoai?eany
ia aaee/acio cae?eoo aiaeieio ?c /anoeiai aiaeai?/iith oei?ith
ae?aoiiae; neeaae yei? na?ae/eoue i?i a?aenooi?noue i?yieo ca’yce?a c
?ioeie aanaeiaie. Ia aac? oniaaeeiaaii? i?ciueiiaioe/ii? anioe?aoe?? c
Actinocyclus octonarius ia ii/aoeo iiioo ?icaeaaeanue nieiioaaoiaiaeia
aiaeai?/ia ae?aoiiiaa oei?a. Iiioe/iee aanaei a?aecia/aany ?icea?oii
i??niiaiaeieo ? neaaei nieiioaaoiaiaeieo aeae?a ?c ?iae?a Stephanodiscus
oa Cyclotella. A ae?oa?e iieiaei? iiioo aiaeai?/i?noue ae?aoiiae
ca?eueoeeanue, oe?eeii cieeee ii?nuee? ? nieiioaaoiaiaei? aeaiaioe, ?o
ia?ai?ieee i??niiaiaei? aeaee, iieacieee ii??niaiiy aanaeio, ui
iineeeeiny. I?e /enaeueiiio ia?aaaaeaii? ieaieoiio aoea cia/iith /anoea
aaioino.

Ie?ioeai. I?ioyaii ie?ioeaio Aaeneinueeee aanaei i?iaeiaaeoaaa
a?aeie?aiethaaoenue ? ia?aoai?eany ia caieiaio, aeoaea ii??niaio
aiaeieio ?c nieii?noth 5-7‰ e aenieei ??aiai aao?iooaaiiy. Oaeniiii?/iee
neeaae ae?aoiiiaeo ?c aeiiieo a?aeeeaae?a *i?iiai ii?y (A.I.AEoca,
A.A.Iooeia, 1980) iieaco?, ui nieii?noue ? oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei aanaeio
ia aoee iino?eieie. Ca’ycie ?c Na?aaecaiiei ii?ai a ie?ai? iiiaioe
a?aeiiaethaaany, i?e oeueiio i?aeaeuoaaeenue oaiia?aoo?a ? nieii?noue
aiae, na?aae ae?aoiiae c’yaeyeenue ii?nuee? e nieiioaaoiaiaei? aeaee.
I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iiaa?oiaaeo aiae aeinyaei iaeneioio o eeia???,
cieaeaiiy ?? a?aeaoaaeiny o eoyeueieeo e ao???. Neaaei nieiioaaoiaiaeiee
e?ia??enueeee oeaiic aeeth/a? ye i??niiaiaei?, oae ? nieiioaaoiaiaei?,
ia?aaaaeii ieaieoiii? aeaee, ia ii/aoeo eeia??th ?icaeaaeenue
?iaeeeaoi?e ?ici??niaiiy Aulacoseira bellicosa, A. aff. hibschii, A.
papillio.

O i?ciueiio ie?ioeai? a?aei?/aii i?e aeoeaiino? o ?icaeoeo ?iae?a
Stephanodiscus ? Cyclostephanos. Cieeiaiiy oaieiaiaeieo aeaiaio?a ?
iiyaa iiaeo aiaeai?e?a aeaco? ia i??niiaiaeii-nieiioaaoiaiaeio noaae?th
o ?noi??? *i?iiai ii?y ? a?aenooi?noue ca’yceo ?c Na?aaecaiiei. Ca
aeaieie ao??iiy, a ao??? ??cei cieceeanue aeaeiaa ?icia?o?noue
ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae ? oi?ioaaany iaeiiiai?oiee oeaiic c
aeii?ioaaiiyi i??niiaiaeii-aaeio?eueiiai Cyclotella servant-vildary oa
nieiioaaoiaiaeiiai Actinocyclus hungaricus. Cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
iiaa?oiaaeo aiae iai?ee?ioe? aiieaenoioeaio aeeeeeaei aenieo
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?iae?a Cyclostephanos oa Cyclotella. Oiiae ?nioaaiiy
ae?aoiiae a?aeiia?aeaee iii??ii-oieiaeiiaiaei?e, neaai i?ia?ae?ciaai?e
aiaeiei? ie?aio?ioiiai oeio. A e?ioe? ie?ioeaio ae?aoiiiaa anioe?aoe?y
i??niiaiaeii-nieiioaaoiaiaeiiai ica?a — ii?y cieeea iiai?noth.

Iaeaiaanaeie /aoaa?oeiiiai ia??iaea.

Ieaenoioeai. I?ioyaii ieaenoioeaio a *i?iiii?nueeiio aanaei?
a?aeaoaaeeny /ano? eieeaaiiy a?iiii?/ieo oiia, iia’ycai? c
aeyoe?iaanoaoe/ieie o?aina?an?yie ? ci?iith nieueiaiai ?aaeeio, ui
i?ecaiaeeee aei /a?aaeoaaiiy ii?nueeeo, nieiioaaoiaiaeieo ?
i??niiaiaeieo ae?aoiiiaeo anioeeaoe?e. *aoaeeinuee? ae?aoiiia?
a?aecia/aeenue iaeiiiai?oi?noth neeaaeo ? iania?noth Stephanodiscus
rotula, S. hantzschii oa Cyclotella corona, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey ii??niaieo,
neaaei nieiioaaoiaiaeieo e iii??ii oieiaeiiaiaeieo oiia ica?iiai oeio.
Ia i?ioyc? ae?aaiueiai aaeneio aeii?ioaaa ii?nueeee i?ai?/ii-ai?aaeueiee
Actinocyclus normanii oa oaieiaiaei? ii?nuee? ? nieiioaaoiaiaei? aeaee,
ui a?aeaeee i?aeaeuaiiy nieiiino? ? ei?ioei/anio o?aina?an?th
na?aaecaiiiii?nueeeo aiae. A i?ciueiio iiaiio aaenei? aeii?ioaaee aeaee
?iae?a Stephanodiscus oa Cyclotella, oa?aeoa?i? aeey oiia
oieiaeiiaiaeiiai i??niiaiaeii-nieiioaaoiaiaeiiai aanaeia.

Aieioeai. Ia ii/aoeo ae?aaiuei/i?iiii?nueeiai /ano neeaae ? aeieia?/ia
no?oeoo?a ae?aoiiiaeo ci?ieeenue, i??niiaiaeii-nieiioaaoiaiaeia
anioe?aoe?y ?ioaineaii ia?ai?ieeanue ia ii?nueeo i?ney oaeaeei? ci?ie
?aaeeio aanaeio. Ca?eueoeeany /enaeuei?noue ii?nueeiai ieaieoiio,
c’yaeeenue na?aaecaiiiii?nuee? e ieaai?/i? aeaee Rhizosolenia setigera,
Thalassiosira oestrupii, Th. excentrica, Coscinodiscus radiatus.
Ae?aoiiiaee oeaiic oi?ioaaee ii?nuee? ieaieoiii?, ia?aaaaeii aa??oa?ii?
e aa??aae?ii? aeaee, ui aeaco? ia ca?eueoaiiy nieiiino? ? aeeaeie
aanaeio ? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a iueiai na?aaecaiiiii?nueeeo aiae. Ae?aoiiiaa
oei?a iiai/i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio a?aecia/aeanue aenieith /enaeuei?noth
oaieiaiaeieo ? iaeaa?/ieo aeae?a, ui i?iaeiaaeoaaee i?a?oaaoe c
Na?aaecaiiiai ii?y. ?icaeaaeenue na?aaecaiiiii?nuee? aeaee Proboscia
alata, Chaetoceros peruvianus ? Hemiaulus hauckii, nei?ioeeany
/enaeuei?noue a?aeiinii oieiaeiiaiaeiiai Rh. setigera.

AENIIAEE

Aeeiiaia ?iaioa ? ia?oei caaaeaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, i?enay/aiei
ae?aoiiiaei aiaei?inoyi eaeiicith Oe?a?ie, aea/aiith ?o nenoaiaoe/iiai
neeaaeo ? caeiiii??iinoae iioe?aiiy o oiau? ii?nueeeo inaaei/ieo
ooai?aiue, iniaeeainoae ?o aaiethoe?? o ?aa?ii? ? cia/aiith aeey
a?ino?aoea?ao?/ieo ? iaeaiaeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaeaaaeeea?o? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iiaeia noi?ioethaaoe o
aeaeyae? oaeeo aeniiae?a.

1. Aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy aaieia?/iiai oa eaoa?aeueiiai iioe?aiiy ?aooie
ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae ia ??cieo no?aoea?ao?/ieo ??aiyo eaeiicith
Oe?a?ie iieacaei, ui o a?aeeeaaeao na?aaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai aioeaio
i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo oa no?aeieo ?aeii?a, na?iaoo Aieeii-Iiae?eey, E?eio oa
I?eacia’y, iaioeno E?eio, ieaenoioeaio oa aieioeaio *i?iiii?nueei?
caiaaeeie e?aiaiaa? iaioee?? ae?aoiiiaeo ? iniaeeai /enaeueieie e
noaiiaeyoue ii?iaeiooai?thth/ee aeaiaio. Iaiueo aaaao? aiie o
a?aeeeaaeao ie?aioeaio, ieaeiueiai oa na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio, iiioo,
ie?ioeaio e ieaenoioeaio ?aa?iio. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii i?enooi?noue ?
aea/aii neeaae ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae o oa?oainueeiio ? ea?aaainueeiio
?aa?iy?onao Oe?a?ie ? ei?ie?anueeeo oa?ao i?aaeaiii? ieieeoe? OU. Aia?oa
aeine?aeaeoaaany neeaae ae?aoiiiaeo ?c ie?aioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a
Oe?a?ie. I?iaaaeaii ?aa?c?th nenoaiaoe/iiai neeaaeo e aiae?c aeeiai?ee
ci?ie ae?aoiiiai? oei?e a /an?.

2. Aecia/aii a?ino?aoea?ao?/i? e?eoa???, aeae?eai? ciiaeuei? ?
oa?aeoa?i? aeaee ae?aoiiae oa anoaiiaeaii ciiaeuei? ae?aoiiia?
i?ae?icae?ee aeey ??cieo ?ioa?aae?a eaeiicith a?ae na?aaeiueiai aioeaio
ii aieioeai aeeth/ii o ??cieo aanaeiao naaeeiaioaoe??. ?ic?iaeaii ia?oo
aeey oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie i?ia?ioe?eio ciiaeueio ae?aoiiiao oeaeo, ui
aeeth/a? 31 no?aoii. O na?aaeiueiio aioeai? anoaiiaeaii ciio
Criscodiscus succinctus oa oa?e c Paralia biseriata-Hyalodiscus sp., ?c
Stephanopyxis crenata. O aa?oiueiio aioeai? — oa?e c Plagiogramma
paleogena. O ieaeiueiio ie?aioeai? — ciio Pyxilla aff. prolongata. O
ieaeiueiio i?ioeai? — ciio Delphineis subtilissima ? oa?e c
Craspedodiscus elegans — Sinedra jouseana. O na?aaeiueiio i?ioeai? —
ciie Lancineis parilis, Actinocyclus ingens, Navicula pinnata ? oa?e c
Anaulus mediteraneus. O aa?oiueiio i?ioeai? — ciie Mastogloia
szontaghii-Cymatosira biharensis, Achnanthes baldjickii var. podolica,
Navicula zichii, Thalassiosira delicatissima, Actinoptychus senarius
var. tamanica, Cymatosira savtchenkoi, Rhizosolenia bezrukovii,
Stephanodiscus proprius, Stephanodiscus multifarius oa oa?e ?c Lyrella
pigmea, ?c Amphitetras sp. O ie?ioeai? — ciie Cyclostephanos pontica,
Cyclostephanos pantoscekii, Cyclotella servant-vildary. O ieaenoioeai?
oa aieioeai? — ciie Stephanodiscus robustus, Rhizosolenia setigera,
Chaetoceros peruvianus ? oa?e c Cyclotella corona, ?c Actinocyclus
normanii -Actinocyclus divisus, ?c Thalassiosira oestrupii.

3. Aecia/aii iieiaeaiiy ciiaeueii? ae?aoiiiai? oeaee a caaaeuei?e
no?aoea?ao?/i?e noai? eaeiicith Oe?a?ie ? aeyaeai? iiaeeeaino? ??
aeei?enoaiiy aeey ??oaiiy iaoeiaeo oa i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue
a?ino?aoea?ao?? e?aiaienoeo oaoe?e, a oaeiae iiaoaeiae ea?o ianooaao
1:200 000 iiaiai iieie?iiy oa iiooe?a ?iaeiaeu i?ia?aeueii? e
aoae?aaeueii? ne?iaeie ia oa?eoi??? aea?aeaae. Aeiaeaoeiaei iaoiaeii
ieaieoiiii? a?ino?aoea?ao?? i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aaieia?/iee a?e oa
?ic/eaiiaai? inaaeee, ui iaeaaeaoue aei ee?anueeiai e iaooianeiai
?aa?iy?on?a aioeaio i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ?aeii?a, ieaeiueiiai?e?oiai?
i?aena?oe Naiai?neeo Ea?iao, ei?ie?anueeeo oa??a eioeaoo?neiai
?aa?iy?ono i?aaeaiy OU, oa?oainueeiai ?aa?iy?ono I?eaei?no?ia’y,
ea?aaainueeiai ? iaioe/iiai ?aa?iy?on?a E?eio, ?ic/eaiiaai?
ieaenoioeaiia? ? aieioeaiia? inaaeee *i?iiii?nueei? oeiaiaeie.

4. Aecia/aii ei?aeyoeai? ??ai? ? i?iaaaeaia ei?aeyoe?y i?ae?icae?e?a
ciiaeueii? ae?aoiiiai? oeaee Oe?a?ie c ciiaeueieie ae?aoiiiaeie oeaeaie
noi?aeieo aaieia?/ieo ?aa?ii?a ? ieaai?a. Iaea?eueo /?oei ei?aeththoueny
ciie na?aaeiueiai ? i?ciueiai aioeaio ?c neio?iiieie ??aiyie oeae
noi?aeieo ?aa?ii?a ?in??, I?eeani?th e aenieeo oe?io Aoeaioeee; ciia
?aiiueiai ie?aioeaio c ciiith I?ai?/ii? Aoeaioeee; i?ae?icae?ee
?aiiueiai ? na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio — ?c a?aeiia?aeieie i?ae?icae?eaie
Oeaio?aeueiiai Ia?aoaoeno; na?iaoo -n i?ae?icae?eaie ae?aoiiiai? oeaee
Aieaa???; iaeia ?c cii iaioeno — c neio?iiiith ae?aoiiiaith ciiith
I?ai?/ii? Aoeaioeee.

5. Anoaiiaeaii ?oaaae? aaiethoe?eieo ci?i ? iaa?oioiaaii aaiethoe?eio
aoaii?noue o ?icaeoeo i?ciueieaeiicienueei? ae?aoiiiai? oei?e Oe?a?ie,
ui iieeaaeaia a niiao ?ic?iaeaii? ciiaeueii? ae?aoiiiai? oeaee.
Aecia/aii iai?yiie, caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? e iniaeeaino? aaiethoe??
a?aeae?eo Bacillariophyta i?ioyaii eaeiicith o ?aa?ii?. Aeae?eaii oae?
aoaie a ?icaeoeo ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae: na?aaeiuei -i?ciueiaioeaiiaee,
?aiiueiie?aioeaiiaee, ?aiiueii?ioeaiiaee, na?aaeiueii?ioeaiiaee,
na?iaonueeee, iaioe/iee, i?ciueii?ioeaiiai-ie?ioeaiiaee, ieaenoioeaiiaee
? aieioeaiiaue. Iniiai? aoaie aeeth/athoue i?aeaoaie aai aoaie ae?oaiai
ii?yaeeo.

I?inoaaeaii oeyoe aaiethoe?? ie?aieo no?aoea?ao?/ii aaaeeeaeo ?iae?a
ae?aoiiae.

6. Aeyaeaii iniiai? a?iaaia?ao?/i? ca’ycee ae?aoiiiaeo iaeaia?ioeaiic?a
Oe?a?ie oa caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo ae?aoiiiai? oei?e aanaei?a
I?ai?/ii? ieieeoe? Oaoena, No?aeiiai Ia?aoaoeno oa *i?iiii?nueeiai
aanaeio. Iaea?eueo oe?ieeie ca’yceaie oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue ae?aoiiiaa
oei?a ae?oai? iieiaeie na?aaeiueiai ? i?ciueiai aioeaio Oe?a?ie c
oei?ith iicao?iie/ii? ae?eyiee I?ai?/ii? i?aeoe?; ?aiiueiai ie?aioeaio
Ea?iaoneiai ?aa?iio oa I?ai?/ii? Aoeaioeee. Ae?aoiiiaa oei?a ?aiiueiai e
na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio iaea?eueo aeecueea neio?iii?e oei?? Oeaio?aeueiiai
Ia?oaoeno. Aeia?a ae?aaeai? ca’ycee ae?aoiiae na?iaonueeeo aanaei?a
Oe?a?ie, Iieaeiae ? i?ai?/ii-no?aeii? Aieaa???. O neeaae? ae?aoiiae
a?aeaeany ei?ioei/aniee ca’ycie iaioe/iiai aanaeio i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie c
i?ai?/iith Aoeaioeeith. Aeyaeaii aeaiaioe iiae?aiino?
i?ciueiieaenoioeaiiaiai ae?aoiiiaiai oeaiica *i?iiai ii?y ?c neio?iiiei
eiiieaenii ?c?a?eth.

6. Aea/aiiy aeieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e aeeiiieo ae?aoiiiaeo oeaiic?a noaei
i?aea?oioyi aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee oiia ?nioaaiiy ae?aoiiiaeo ia ie?aieo
aoaiao ?o eaeiicienueei? ?noi??? oa aeey iaeaiaeieia?/ieo
?aeiino?oeoe?e. Ci?ia neeaaeo ae?aoiiiaeo oeaiic?a ? ?iaeeeaoi?ii ci?ie
iaeaia?ae?ieia?/ieo oiia o aanaeiao. Aeniea oaeniiii?/ia ?icia?o?noue
oei?e e i?enooi?noue ciiaeueieo ieaainueeeo aeae?a o na?aaeiueiio oa
i?ciueiio aioeai?, ?aiueiio ie?aioeai?, ia ii/aoeo ?aiueiai i?ioeaio, ia
ie?aieo aoaiao na?aaeiueiai i?ioeaio oa iaioeno, a?aeiia?aea? i?eo
o?aina?an?e oa a?aeaeaa? iiiaioe ca`yce?a iaeaiaanaei?a. ??cea
nei?i/aiiy ??ciiiai?oiino? e ?nioaaiiy iaeiiiai?oieo oeaiic?a o
eioeaoo?nueeee /an, ia ie?aieo aoaiao iaioeno, ieaenoioeaio oa aieioeaio
iia`ycaia c aeno?aiaeueieie oiiaaie ?nioaaiiy oei?e. ?icaeoie
noae?oi?aeueieo oeaiic?a, ca?eueoaiiy /enaeueiino? aiaeai?e?a o na?iao?,
ie?ioeai?, ieaenoioeai? aeaco? ia a?aeie?aieaiiy e iai?e?iiy aanaei?a.

E?euee?niee aiae?c caeeoe?a ae?aoiiiaeo o ??cieo ?ioa?aaeao eaeiicith
na?ae/eoue i?i oe?ieo aa??aaeeueiino? oiia, ui aecia/aee
a?ii?iaeoeoeai?noue aiaei?inoae a iaeaiaanaeiao Oe?a?ie oa oiiae ?o
noi?iii?no?.

Nienie iniiaieo iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

1. ?iae Pseudopodosira Jouse. /a ei. Aeeaoiiiaua aiaei?inee NNN?.
Eneiiaaiua e nia?aiaiiua. NIa.: Iaoea, 1992. O.2, — 2. — N.62-67.

2. Enneaaeiaaiey iaeaiaaiiauo ii?neeo aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae ia
oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu // Iaeaiio. enneaae. ia Oe?aeia: Iaoa?. 1-e aiaee/iie
nannee Oe?. iaeaiio. i-aa. — Eeaa, 1978. — N.286-291.

3. I aeeaoiieoao eeaaneie naeou naaa?i-ainoiea Oe?aeiu // Inaaei/iua
ii?iaeu e ?oaeu.: Iaoa?. ?anioae. niaau. ii e?aii. ii?iaeai -1980, — E.:
Iaoe. aeoiea. — N.228-233. (Niaaoi? Oeeoioeeay I.I.).

4. Iee?ioei?enoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea aa?oiaieioeaiiauo ioeiaeaiee thaa
Oe?aeiu. // Aaie. aeo?i.-1980. — 40, N 6. — N.136-140. (Niaaoi? —
Eoee/aiei A.A.).

5. No?aoea?aoey aeiiiuo inaaeeia *a?iiai ii?y ii aeeaoiiiaui
aiaei?ineyi. // Eco/aiea aaieiae/aneie enoi?ee e i?ioeannia nia?aiaiiiai
inaaeeiia?aciaaiey *a?iiai e Aaeoeeneiai ii?ae. *.2,- E.: Iaoe.aeoiea,
-1984, — N.37-41. (Niaaoi? — Iaeueiee A.E).

6. Iniaaiiinoe ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae a
aa?oia/aoaa?oe/iuo inaaeeao *a?iiai ii?y // Aeooaeueiua aii?inu
nia?aiaiiie iaeaiaeueaieiaee. Na. iao/i. o?. — E.: Iaoe.aeoiea. -1986. —
N.87-90.

7. Iniaaiiinoe aeino?aoea?aoe/aneie ei??aeyoeee iicaeia/aoaa?oe/iuo
inaaeeia aeoaieiaiaeiie /anoe *a?iiai ii?y ii aeeaoiiiaui aiaei?ineyi //
No?aoea?aoey e ei??aeyoeey ii?neeo e eiioeiaioaeueiuo ioeiaeaiee
Oe?aeiu. Ca. iao/.o?.-E.: Iaoe.aeoiea, 1987. — N.117-123. (Niaaoi? —
Iaeueiee A.E).

8. Iniiaiua yoaiu yaiethoeee aiaei?ineae a nayce n aeiaaeueiuie
eciaiaieyie a nenoaia aoiinoa?a-aeae?inoa?a-aeinoa?a // Neaaeu
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e aeeiaieea n?aaeu a ae?aaieo aeioiiao. O?oaeu XXX
nannee AII e VII nannee OII, Eeaa.: Iaoe.aeoiea, -1988, -N.143-149.
(Niaaoi?u — Aa?/aiei I.E., Euaiei A.A., Etheueaaa N.A., Noioeaiae A.A.,
Oaeeei E.I).

9. I iaoiaeea inoaoeia aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae a aa?oiaiaeiauo
ioeiaeaieyo naaa?i-caiaaeiiai oaeueoa *a?iiai ii?y // Aaie. aeo?i., ? 4,
-1989. — C.134-136. (Niaaoi? E?i/ae I.Ae.).

10. Morphology of the Diatom Genus Pseudopodosira // Proceeding of 10th
Intern. Simposium on Living and fossil Diatos. Finland, 1990. —
P.93-103.

11. No?aoea?aoi-aaio?iiieiae/aneea aeaiiua iicaeia/aoaa?oe/iuo aeiiiuo
inaaeeia eiioeiaioaeueiiai neeiia caiaaeiie /anoe *a?iiai ii?y. //
Aaieiae/aneay yaiethoeey caiaaeiie /anoe *a?iiii?neie eioeiaeiu a
iaiaai-/aoaa?oe/iia a?aiy. Nioey. — 1990. — N. 513-537. (Niaaoi?u —
Iaeueiee A.E., E?unoaa O.E., Aa?aneiiaa A.A., Eiaaetho I.I.).

12. Iiaua aeaeu ?iaea Actinocyclus Ehr. (Bacillariophyta) //
Aeueaieiaey, -1993. — O.3, — ? 3. — C. 57-59.

13. Iiaua aeaiiua ia yaiethoeee aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae nai
Coscinodiscaceae. // Aeueaieiaey, -1994. — O.4, -? 1. — N.98-93.
(Niaaoi? Aeaca? C.E.).

14. Ii?oieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe iaeioi?uo aeeaoiiae ?iaea Actinocyclus
Ehr. ec i?aniiaiaeiiai iaiaaia Oe?aeiu // Aaie. aeo?i. — 1994. -? 1. —
C.122-130.

15. E eco/aieth eneiiaaiuo aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae ec ?iaea Cymatosira
Grun. // Aeueaieiaey, — 1995. — O.5, — ? 1. — C.85-88. (Niaaoi?
Eicu?aiei O.O.).

16. Aeeaoiiiaay oei?a aeiiiuo inaaeeia *a?iiai ii?y // Aaie.aeo?i., —
1996, — ? 1-2. — N.193-198.

17. Ciiaeueiay no?aoea?aoey ieioeaia Oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Ainoi/iiai
Ia?aoaoena ii aeeaoiiiaui aiaei?ineyi // Aaie.aeo?i., — 1996. — ? 3-4. —
N.88-92.

18. Iicaeiaiaeiaay — eaeiicieneay enoi?ey ?iaea Pseudopodosira Jouse
emend. Veksch. // Aeueaieiaey.- 1996. – O. 6, — ? 4. — N.427-433.
(Niaaoi? Aeaca? C.E.).

19. Iia? aeai? c iaeaiioieia?? oa no?aoea?ao?? i?ioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a
Onoa/e?anueeiai a?aaaia Aieeii-Iiae?eey // Aaie.aeo?i. — 1997. — ? 1-2.
— N. 57-64.(Ni?aaoi?e — I?enyaeithe A.A., Etheue?aa N.A., Nya?ye N.A.,
Nooi?ia E.I.).

20. Iniiaiua yoaiu yaiethoeee Bacillariophyta a eaeiicieneeo aannaeiao
Oe?aeiu // Aeueaieiaey. — 1997. — O. 7, — ? 4. — C. 400-408.

21. Nev Date on Eocene Diatoms of the Family Coscinodiscaceae //
Hydrobiology Journal. — 1997. Vol.33 — ? 5. — P.79-84 (co-author Gleser
Z.I).

22. Iaeaiyeieiae/aneea oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey aeeaoiiiaie oei?u a
eaeiicieneeo aannaeiao Oe?aeiu // Aeueaieiaey.- 1999. – O. 9, — ? 2. —
N.101-102.

23. ?aiiaieeaioeaiiaua aeeaoiiae Neeaiaie ciiu Ea?iao // A?inoa?a ?
aaieia?/i? eaoano?ioe. –Ee?a, -1997. – N. 47-48.

24. Iaeaiaeieia?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ae?aoiiiai? oei?e a iaioen?
oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie No?aeiiai Ia?aoaoena // Iaeaia?iaaia?ao?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa i?iaeaie noai?aiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo no?aoea?ao?/ieo oeae.
— Ee?a. «I?aeia?iaeia o?iainiaa aaaioe?y», — 1998. — N.67- 69.

25. Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae a iicaeiaiaiaaiiauo
aannaeiao Oe?aeiu // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie a?ino?aoea?ao?? oaia?icith
Oe?a?ie. –Ee?a: “Ciaiiy” — 1999. — N.67-68.

26. Ciiaeueiay aeeaoiiiaay oeaea eaeiicieneeo ioeiaeaiee Oe?aeiu
//Aaieiaey ii?ae e ieaaiia. Oac. aeiee.XII Iaaeaeoia?. oeieu ii?neie
aaieiaee., o.2 -I.:-1997. — C.247-248.

27. No?aoea?aoe/aneea noaiu oaia?iciy e aeieaia?ey Oe?aeiu Eeno»
No?aoea?aoe/aneay noaia iaiaaiiauo ioeiaeaiee Oe?aeineiai ueoa». Eeno »
No?aoea?aoe/aneay noaia iaiaaiiauo ioeiaeaiee I?e/a?iiii?neie aiaaeeiu»
/ Iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiue no?aoea?aoe/aneee eiieoao Oe?aeiu ii aaieiaee e
eniieueciaaieth iaae?. Aeaaeaiey iaoe Oe?aeiu. -Eeaa, — 1993. (Niaaoi?u
A.ss.Aeeaeeianeee, A.ss.E?aaaa, A.A.Eoee/aiei, N.A.Etheueaaa,
I.O.Iinianeee, E.A.Ieaoioiue, Y.A.Naa?iiue, C.I.Naoaiianeay).

Aiioaoe?y

Ieueooeinueea I. I. Eaeiicienueeee aoai ?icaeoeo ae?aoiiiai? oei?e
Oe?a?ie (a?ino?aoea?ao?y, aaiethoe?y, iaeaiaeieia?y). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aaieia?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 04.00.09. — iaeaiioieia?y ? no?aoea?ao?y. – ?inoeooo
aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oei aeey Oe?a?ie ocaaaeueithth/ei aeine?aeaeaiiyi,
i?enay/aiei aea/aiith aeeiiieo ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae, caeiiii??iinoae
?iciiae?eo ?o ?aooie o oiau? ii?nueeeo inaaei/ieo a?aeeeaae?a oa
aeaoaeueiiio aiae?co ?o aaiethoe?? i?eoyaii cia/iiai a?ae??ceo
aaieia?/iiai /ano.

Aecia/aii iine?aeiaiinoue ciiaeueieo ae?aoiiiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a,
anoaiiaeai? a?ino?aoea?ao?/i? ?aia?e ? ia oe?e iniia? ?ic?iaeaii ia?oo
aeey oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ciiaeueio a?ino?aoea?ao?/io ae?aoiiiao oeaeo
eaeiicienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a. Anoaiiaeaii iaeaaaeeea?o? ei?aeyoeai? ??ai?
aeey ci?anoaaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? oeaee c ae?aoiiiaeie oeaeaie ?ioeo
?aa?ii?a na?oo oa Na?oiaiai ieaaio oa iiaeeeaino? ?? aeei?enoaiiy aeey
?ic/eaioaaiiy oa ei?aeyoe?? eaeiicienueeeo ooai?aiue. Aecia/ai? ?oaaae?
aaiethoe?eieo ci?i oa iaa?oioiaaii aaiethoe?eio aoaii?noue o ?icaeoeo
a?aeae?eo Bacillariophyta o ?aa?ii?, i?inoaaeai? oeyoe aaiethoe??
no?aoea?ao?/ii aaaeeeaeo oaenii?a.

Aeieia?/i? no?oeoo?e aeeiiieo ae?aoiiiaeo oeaiic?a noaee i?aea?oioyi
aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iaeaiaeieia?/ieo oiia ?nioaaiiy ae?aoiiiaeo oa
aecia/aiiy iaeaia?ae?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aanaei?a i?ioyaii ?o
eaeiicienueei? ?noi???.

?ic?iaeaii eiii`thoa?io aaco aeaieo oa noai?aii aoean aeeiiieo
ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae Oe?a?ie, ui ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aaieo aeaieo
ii aeeiiiei i?aai?ciai e?a?ie.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?e iiaoaeia? Iaoe?iiaeueiei
No?aoea?ao?/iei eii?oaoii «No?aoea?aoe/aneeo noai oaia?iciy e aeieaia?ey
Oe?aeiu» (1993).

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?aoiiia? aiaei?ino?, eaeiicie, a?ino?aoea?ao?y,
ciiaeueia oeaea, aaiethoe?y, iaeaiaeieia?y.

Ieueoouineay A. I. Eaeiicieneee yoai ?acaeoey aeeaoiiiaie oei?u Oe?aeiu
(aeino?aoea?aoey, yaiethoeey, iaeaiyeieiaey). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aaieiae/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 04.00.09 — iaeaiioieiaey e no?aoea?aoey. — Einoeooo
aaieiae/aneeo iaoe IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aia aeey Oe?aeiu iaiauathuaa
enneaaeiaaiea, iinayuaiiia eneiiaaiui aeeaoiiiaui aiaei?ineyi ec
eaeiicieneeo ioeiaeaiee Oe?aeiu.

I?iaaaeaii ieaiiia?iia e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia enneaaeiaaiea aa?oeeaeueiiai
e eaoa?aeueiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey inoaoeia aeeaoiiae a oieua inaaei/iuo
ii?neeo eaeiicieneeo ioeiaeaiee Oe?aeiu. Auyaeaii /oi a ii?iaeao
n?aaeiaai e aa?oiaai yioeaia naaa?i-ainoi/iuo e ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia
no?aiu, na?iaoa Aieuii-Iiaeieee, E?uia e I?eaciauey, iyioena E?uia,
ieaenoioeaia e aieioeaia *a?iiii?neie aiaaeeiu niaea?aeaony
iiiai/eneaiiua iaioee?e eneiiaaiuo aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae, yaeythueany
ii?iaeiia?acothuae ninoaaeythuae. Iaiaa iaeeueiu inoaoee aeeaoiiae a
ioeiaeaieyo ieeaioeaia, ieaeiaai e n?aaeiaai ieioeaia, iiioa, ieeioeaia
e ieaenoioeaia ?aaeiia.

Eco/ai nenoaiaoe/aneee ninoaa eneiiaaiuo aeeaoiiiauo eiiieaenia ec
eaeiicineeo ?ac?acia Oe?aeiu e i?eeaaathueo ?aaeiiia. Onoaiiaeaiu
aeino?aoea?aoe/aneea e?eoa?ee, auaeaeaiu ciiaeueiua e oa?aeoa?iua aeaeu
aeeaoiiae e ii?aaeaeaia iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ciiaeueiuo aeeaoiiiauo
iiae?acaeaeaiee aeey ?acee/iuo no?aoea?aoe/aneeo eioa?aaeia e ?acee/iuo
aannaeiia naaeeiaioaoeee eaeiiciy io aoi?ie iieiaeiu n?aaeiaai yioeaia
ii aieioeai aeeth/eoaeueii. Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee
?ac?aaioaia ia?aay aeey oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu ciiaeueiay
aeino?aoea?aoe/aneay aeeaoiiiaay oeaea. Oeaea aeeth/aao 31 no?aoii e
iauaaeeiyao eae aia?aua onoaiiaeaiiua aeeaoiiiaua ciiu e neie n oei?ie
aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae, oae e ecaanoiua a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao aeeaoiiiaua
ciiu, iaia?oaeaiua e i?ineaaeaiiua ia Oe?aeia. A ?aaioa i?eaiaeeony
oa?aeoa?enoeea onoaiiaeaiiuo aeino?aoea?aoe/aneeo iiae?acaeaeaiee e
iieacaiu aiciiaeiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey aeey ?an/eaiaiey e ei??aeyoeee
eaeiicieneeo ioeiaeaiee.

Ii?aaeaeaiu aaaeiaeoea ei??aeyoeaiua o?iaie aeey niiinoaaeaiey
aeeaoiiiaie oeaeu Oe?aeiu n ciiaeueiuie aeeaoiiiauie oeaeaie
nii?aaeaeueiuo aaieiae/aneeo ?aaeiiia e ieaaie/aneeie oeaeaie. Iaeaieaa
/aoei ei??aee?othony ciiu n?aaeiaai e iicaeiaai yioeaia n neio?iiiuie
o?iaiyie oeae niaaeiuo ?aaeiiia ?innee, I?eeaniey e aunieeo oe?io
Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia; ciia ?aiiaai ieeaioeaia- n ciiie Naa. Aoeaioeee;
iiae?acaeaeaiey ?aiiaai e n?aaeiaai ieioeaia – n niioaaonoaothueie
iiae?acaeaeaieyie oeaeu Oeaio?aeueiiai Ia?aoaoena; na?iaoa – n
iiae?acaeaeaieyie aeeaoiiiaie oeaeu Aieaa?ee; iaeia ec cii iyioena — n
neio?iiiie aeeaoiiiaie ciiie Naa. Aoeaioeee.

A iniiao aeino?aoea?aoe/aneeo iino?iaiee auea iieiaeaia yaiethoeey
ioaeaea Bacillariophyta. Onoaiiaeaiu ?oaaaee yaiethoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee e
iainiiaaia yaiethoeeiiiay yoaiiinoue a ?acaeoee ioaeaea Bacillariophyta
a eco/aaiii ?aaeiia. Auaeaeaiu neaaeothuea yoaiu ?acaeoey aeeaoiiiauo
aiaei?ineae: n?aaeia-iicaeiayioeaiiaue, ?aiiaieeaioeaiiaue,
?aiiaieioeaiiaue, n?aaeiaieioeaiiaue, na?iaoneee, iyioe/aneee,
iicaeiaieioeaiiai-ieeioeaiiaue, ieaenoioeaiiaue e aieioeaiiaue.
Ii?aaeaeaiu iauea caeiiiia?iinoe e iniaaiiinoe yaiethoeee aeeaoiiiauo
aiaei?ineae. I?ineaaeaiu iooe yaiethoeee iaeioi?uo no?aoea?aoe/anee
aaaeiuo oaeniiia.

Auyaeaiu iniiaiua aeiaaia?aoe/aneea nayce aeeaoiiiauo annioeeaoeee
eaeiicieneeo aannaeiia ?aaeiia e iauea oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee
aeeaoiiiaie oei?u Naaa?iie ie?aeiu Oaoena, Ainoi/iiai Ia?aoaoena e
*a?iiii?neiai aannaeia.

Enneaaeiaaiu yeieiae/aneea no?oeoo?u eneiiaaiuo aeeaoiiiauo oeaiicia,
eco/aiu oneiaey iaeoaiey aeeaoiiae e ?aeiino?oe?iaaiu aeae?ieiae/aneea
ianoaiiaee a iaeaiaannaeiao ia i?ioyaeaiee eo eaeiicieneie enoi?ee.
Naiaia?acea ?acaeoey eco/aaiuo iaeaiaannaeiia au?aceeinue a aunieie
noaiaie yiaeaiecia aeeaoiiiaie oei?u ii?aaeaeaiiuo no?aoea?aoe/aneeo
o?iaiae. Iaeioi?ua aeeaoiiiaua annioeeaoeee ia eiatho aiaeiaia a
neio?iiiuo inaaeeao ae?oaeo aannaeiia, /oi iiaeao neoaeeoue e?eoa?eai
iainiaeaiiinoe aannaeiia — ianoiiaeoaiee aeeaoiiae.

?ac?aaioaia eiiiuethoa?iay aaca aeaiiuo eneiiaaiuo aeeaoiiiauo
aiaei?ineae Oe?aeiu. Aaciaui eeethno?aoeaiui iaoa?eaeii aeenna?oaoeee
yaeyaony aoean eneiiaaiuo aeeaoiiiauo aiaei?ineae Oe?aeiu, niaea?aeauee
250 ecia?aaeaiee 157 aeaeia e ?aciiaeaeiinoae aeeaoiiae a neaie?othuai e
naaoiaii iee?ineiiao.

?acoeueoaou ?aaiou eniieueciaaiu i?e nicaeaiee Iaoeeiiaeueiui
No?aoea?aoe/aneei eiieoaoii «No?aoea?aoe/aneeo noai oaia?iciy e
aeieaia?ey Oe?aeiu» (1993).

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeaoiiiaua aiaei?inee, eaeiicie, aeino?aoea?aoey,
ciiaeueiay oeaea, yaiethoeey, iaeaiyeieiaey.

Olshtynska A. P. The Cenozoic stage of development of diatom flora of
Ukraine (boistratigraphy, evolution, paleogeography). – Manuscript.

The doctoral dissertation on speciality 04.00.09 paleontology and
stratigraphy. – Institute of Geological Sciences NAS of Ukraine, Kiev,
1999.

The dissertation is the first generalized research for Ukraine dedicated
to study fossil diatoms, distribution regularities of it’s remains in
the thick of marine sediment deposits and to analyze in detailes of it’s
evolution during large interval of geologic time.

The sequence of zone diatom subdivisions is determined, stratigraphic
bench-marks are set and on this basis the first diatom zone
biostratigraphic scale of Cenozoic deposits is designed for the
territory of Ukraine.

Consequential correlative levels are established to compare the scale
designed and those ones for another regions of lands and the World
Ocean. It provides possibility to partition Cenozoic deposits and to
correlate cross-sections.

The ways of evolution of stratigraphically important taxons are traced.

Ecological structures of fossil diatom cenozes have been served as the
basis for interpretation of ancient environmental conditions of diatom
existance and determination of paleohydrologic characteristics of the
basins during it’s Cenozoic history.

The computer data base designed and the fossil diatom atlas of Ukraine
compiled are as constituents of the data bank of fossil organisms of the
Country. Work results were adopted in compiling of the Stratigraphic
schemes of Phanerozoic and Pre-Cambrian of Ukraine.

Key words: diatom algae, Cenozoic, biostratigraphy, zone scale,
evolution, paleoecology.

I?aei. Aei ae?oeo 17.09.99. Oi?iao 60o90/16. Iai?? ae?oe. Ion.ae?oe.

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 2,09. Oi. Oa?ai-a?aea. 2.09. Iae. -aeae. a?e. 1.8.

Oe?aae. 100 i?e. Cai. 142. Aaceeooiaii.

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A?aeae?oeiaaii a ?inoeooo? iaoaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie

252601 Ee?a, INI, aoe. Oa?aueie?anueea, 3

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