Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y Iaoe Oe?a?ie tc «Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y Iaoe
Oe?a?ie»

?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

tc «?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie» Eiciaee A?oae?e Noai?neaaiae/

OAeE 947.084.2(477) tc «OAeE 947.084.2(477)»

Eai’yiaoeueea aeiaa Aee?aeoi??? tc «Eai’yiaoeueea aeiaa Aee?aeoi???»

Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee tc «Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee»

(/a?aaiue-eenoiiaae 1919 ?ieo) tc «(/a?aaiue-eenoiiaae 1919 ?ieo)»

07.00.01. — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie tc «07.00.01. — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie»

Aaoi?aoa?ao tc «Aaoi?aoa?ao»

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai tc «aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai»

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe tc «nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe»

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? ?inoeoooo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aa?nothe Aeaaeeneaa Oaaei?iae/, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii
?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? ?inoeoooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

Ie?iiaoeue Iaae?y?aai?aia,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iia?oiuei?

?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai

oi?aa?neoaoo?i O.Oaa/aiea

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aiooeye ?aai Eaii?aeiae/,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

a?aeae?eo aoii?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue

?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue

IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee

oi?aa?neoao ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “__ ”eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. i __aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 50.17.01 a ?inoeooo? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie (aae?ana: 252001, Ee?a-1, aoe. I.A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie (aae?ana: 252001, Ee?a-1, aoe. I.A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “___” aeiaoiy1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe I.A.Oei

tc «Ee?a — 1998» tc «Eiciaee A?oae?e Noai?neaaiae/»

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??. Caeiaoooy Oe?a?iith aea?aeaaii?
iacaeaaeiino? aeaaei a /enei iaei??i?eoaoi?oeo iai?yie?a no/anii?
a?o/eciyii? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee i?iaeaie oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa ?icaoaeiae noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
?noi?e/ieo ei?ai?a ai?ioueae ca iacaeaaei?noue, aena?oeaiiy ?aeaieia??
oa i?aeoeee ??cieo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo nee ? aiae?c iiieeie,
aeiiouaieo a i?ioean? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, ni?eyoeia a/aniiio ?ica’ycaiith
iac??eeo i?iaeai nueiaiaeaiiy, aenooiaoeia iaae?eiei aa?aioii
iaiiaa?iaiiy aei /an?a aacaea?aeaaiiai ?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Aeanyoee?ooyie ianaaeaeoaaeenue oeai? ?noi?e/i? eiioeaioe??,
ia?ae?o/oaaeenue oaeoe ? oiio iao /an aeiaaa? ia?ainieneaiiy oa
aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaoueio ?aaiethoe?eieo i?ioean?a 1917—1920 ??., cie?aia
? Eai’yiaoeueeiai ia??iaeo Aee?aeoi??? OI? (/a?aaiue-eenoiiaae 1919 ?.).
Aeeaiea oa anaa?/ia ?ic?iaea cacia/aii? oaie aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
a?aeoai?eoe iaeei c aaaeeeaeo o?aaiaio?a caaaeueii? ea?oeie noia?a/eeai?
aeiae iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue. Ia’?eoii aeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiiieaen i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c iie?oe/ieie iiae?yie, ui
a?aeaoaaeenue a Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae Aee?aeoi??? OI?.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeena?oaoe?? ioiieththoue /an c ii/aoeo /a?aiy 1919
?., eiee o Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiio noai?ththoueny oe?a?inuee? i?aaie
aeaaee ? nthaee ia?a?aeaeaea? aea?aeaaia ea??aieoeoai OI?, aei na?aaeeie
eenoiiaaea 1919 ?., eiee Aee?aeoi??y oa o?yae caeeoathoue i?noi. O
iie?oe/iiio a?aeiioaii? Eai’yiaoeueea aeiaa Aee?aeoi??? noaiiaeoue
oe?e?niee ia??iae ooieoe?iioaaiiy o Eai’yioe?-Iiae?euenueeiio
oei/aniaiai aea?aeaaiiai oeaio?o OI?.

Aeaia aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaia ca?aeii ?c iaoeiaei
iai?yieii a?aeae?eo ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie AI Oe?a?ie: “Caaaeuei?
caeiiii??iino? oa ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??”.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee. Aeine?aeaeoaaia i?iaeaia, ?? ie?ai? aniaeoe
ciaeoee iaaia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ca?oa?aei?e oe?a?inuee?e, ?aaeyinuee?e,
no/ani?e a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao??. ?ic?iaea oe??? oaie ?icii/aeanue ua
i?ae /an ?aaiethoe?? oa a?eie ca iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie. Ine?eueee
ia?oeie aeine?aeieeaie ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? aoee ia?aaaaeii
ae?y/? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, oi aeoaea aaaeei, a
caeaa?eueoiai iaiiaeeeai, ?iciaaeoaaoe ?o i?aoe? ia ?noi??ia?ao?/i? oa
iaioa?i?. *anoi aiie i?noyoue oe?iiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ? oai?aoe/i?
ocaaaeueiaiiy, aaaeeea? aeey ?icoi?iiy ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaioai?/iai
i?ioeano a Oe?a?i?. Aaea a 1920 ?ioe? aeoiaeeoue i?aoey A.Aeiie/aiea
“A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe??” 1. Cia/ia /anoeia o?aoueiai oiio oe??? ?iaioe
i?enay/aia aena?oeaiith iiae?e Eai’yiaoeueei? aeiae. Aaoi? aiae?co?
aioo??oith oa ciai?oith iie?oeeo Aee?aeoi??? a oeae ia??iae, aeath/e ?e
??cei iaaaoeaio ioe?ieo.

Oe?iiee aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae, a oaeiae aeani? niinoa?aaeaiiy
ai?uaii o i?aoe? I.O?enothea2. Ia?aaoaath/e o Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae ia
iinaae? canooiieea i?i?no?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa OI?, a?i aeaoaeueii iienaa
?noi?e/i? iiae?? oiai /ano. Aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui i?iaiaeeeanue
“ia?niiaeueia iie?oeea” N.Iaoeth?e, yeo i?aeo?eioaaee
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe, a OIN?, oi/ ? aoiaeeea a o?yae, aea ?aaeueiiai
aieeao ia iaea. Oiio I.O?enothe aaaaea?, ui ana?e ia ianooue
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iane?aeee ae?yeueiino? o?yaeo.

Cia/iee ?ioa?an noaiiaeoue oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, aeeeaaeaiee a eiec?
I.Aeioeaiea “E?oiien oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??”3.

*eiaei i?aoeue i?enayoea a?aeoai?aiith oa aiae?co ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e
I.Oaiiaae4. O ieo a?i a o?e /e ?io?e i??? oi?ea?oueny i?iaeai iia’ycaieo
c ae?yeuei?noth Aee?aeoi??? OI? ? o Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae cie?aia.
Aiae?coth/e iie?oeeo Aee?aeoi??? oa o?yaeo, I.Oaiiaae noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui
iniiaiith i?e/eiith ii?acee aea?aeaaioai?/eo coneeue aeueo i?aai?a
aeaaee OI? aoa a?aeo?ae a?ae “o?oaeiaiai i?eioeeio” ? i?aai?caoe??
O?oaeiaeo ?aae aei ia?eaiaioa?ecio oa aeaiie?ao??. O?eueee yne?aai
ae?aaeaia e?ai?aaeeeaeueia iie?oeea aac ni?ai?aoe? c ao?aeoacieie
ia?o?yie iiaea i?eianoe oni?o, aaaaeaa I.Oaiiaae5. A ?io?e i?aoe?
“Aaeeea ?aaiethoe?y ? oe?a?inueea aecaieueia i?ia?aia” a?i eiinoaoo?, ui
iniiaiith iiae??th e?oa 1919 ?ieo aoa ?ic?ea i?iaiaeo OI? i?ae oeneii
“i?aaeo” nee c iianoaioeyie. ? naia oea aoei i?e/eiith
caiaiaaeoAee?aeoi???6. A?aoo? I.Oaiiaae c?iaea aeniiaie, ui OI? cieueee
a?eueoiaeee oa oe?a?inueea ae??aia ao?aeoac?y.

O na?aaeei? 20-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy c’yaeeanue ioae?eaoe?y iaeiiai c
i?ia?aeiee?a OIN? I.A?eai???aa “Iaoeth??aueia”. O i?e aaoi? ?icoi??
“iaoeth??aueio” ye iniaenoee ?aaeei a?enueeiai? ? oeea?eueii? ioaiai??.
A aieiaiith i?e/eiith ?? ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ?nioaaiiy aaaaeaa onoiaiiy
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a ia?iaeii? aeaaee. Aiae?coth/e ai?ioueao
oe?a?ioe?a ca aea?aeaai?noue, I.A?eai???a iniiaio oaaao caa?ioa ia
aeyaeaiiy i?e/ei ii?acee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue7.

O 1930 ?ioe? iioae?eiaaii “Ca??iee iai’yoe N.Iaoeth?e” (ia?aaeaeaiee a
Oe?a?i? o 1992 ?ioe?)8. Iniaeeai oe?iieie aeey ian ? noaoo? ?.Iacaie
“Oai?aia aea?aeaaa” oa I.Oaaeaiea “Iianoaiiy iaoe??”.

O i?aoe? I.Eaionoyinueeiai aieiaio oaaao caa?iaii ia iien aieiaeo ae?e,
a yeeo a?aea o/anoue a?i?y OI? o /a?ai?-eenoiiaae? 1919 ?ieo. E??i oiai,
a?i aiae?co? ae?yeuei?noue iaaeaei?i?yinueeiai oa iaaeaei?no?yinueeiai
o?yae?a, aea? aeo/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?ia?aeieeai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo N.Iaoeth??, A.Ia?oino, ?.Iacai? oa ?i.9.

Aaaaoi oe?iiiai iaoa??aeo i?i caei?aeiiio iie?oeeo OI?, i?aeia?iaeia
noaiiaeua a 1919 ?ioe?, a oaeiae noaaeaiiy aaeeeeo aea?aeaa aei Oe?a?ie
ciaoiaeeii o eieaao oe?a?inueeeo i?aaenoaaiee?a ia Ia?ecueeee ie?i?e
eiioa?aioe??: I.Eiceinueeiai, A.Ia?aie?ia, A.Iaiaeea10. Oe? aaoi?e
eiinoaooaaee iani?eyoeea?noue i?aeia?iaeii? neooaoe?? aeey oe?a?inueei?
ni?aae, ??ci? i???ioaoe?? na?aae oe?a?inueeeo i?ia?aeiee?a oa
aeeieiiao?a.

Aaaeeea? aeai? i?i iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo Aee?aeoi??? OI?, iniaeeai ae
oe?a?inueei-?a?aenuee? a?aeiineie o aeacaiee ia??iae, i?noyoueny o
i?aoeyo N.Aieueaeaeueiaia11. Aaoi? caa?oa? oaaao ia oo aaeeeo ?iaioo,
i?iaaaeaio oe?a?inueeith aeaaeith a Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae ii ai?iouea?
c ?a?aenueeeie iia?iiaie, a oaeiae ?iciia?aea? i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a oeae
/an iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?niiaeueii? aaoiiii??.

Ia ie?aio oaaao caneoaiao? i?aoey eieeoiueiai i?ai’??-i?i?no?a OI?
?.Iacaie “Oe?a?ia a iai? e ao?? ?aaiethoe??”12. Aiia aaco?oueny ia
iniaenoeo niiaaaeao ? aeieoiaioao oa iaoa??aeao, ye? i?iaiae?ciaaii c
iiceoe?e oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??. Ooo aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo
Eai’yiaoeueei? aeiae Aee?aeoi??? OI?. ?.Iacaia aaaaea? ?? iaei??th c
iaeo?aa?/i?oeo a ?noi??? aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917-1920 ?ie?a. A?i
noaa?aeaeo?, ui aeey iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo oey aeiaa iaea
iniaeeaa cia/aiiy, ai naia a Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae iaeae?aci?oa
aenooieee an? oeae ? iaaeie?ee, ye? oyae?ee iaae oe?a?inueeei
noni?euenoaii ai?iaeiaae onueiai /ano oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? ? oeei
iaaecae/aeii oo?oaeithaaee aecaieueio ai?ioueao. Oeaio?aeueiei iiiaioii
cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo ?.Iacaia aaaaea? ia’?aeiaiiy ia Iiae?ee? aeaio
a?i?e eieenue ?iceieioi? Oe?a?ie ? ?o ni?eueiee iio?ae i?ioe ai?ia?a
iacaeaaeiino?. Aea c?oeioaaiiy ia’?aeiaiiai o?iioo aiane?aeie
aioo??oiuei? ?ica?aeiino? oe?a?inueeeo nee, ye? niia?aeoaaee ??ci?
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? ?aea?, i?ecaaei aei e?aoo ai?ioueae ca oe?a?inueeo
aea?aeaai?noue a 1919 ?.

Iniiaiith i?e/eiith ii?acee oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii?
ai?ioueae ?.Iacaia aaaaeaa iaaeinoaoi?noue aeanieo, iaoe?iiaeueii
na?aeiieo, iaeaaeii i?aeaioiaeaieo oe?a?inueeeo nee, a naia oe?a?inueei?
iie?oe/ii? ae?oe13.

O 50-o ?ieao OO noie?ooy c’yaey?oueny ?yae iiiia?ao?e, i?enay/aieo ?ie?
oe?a?inueei? a?i?? o aecaieueieo ciaaaiiyo, aea iiaeathoueny oaeiae ?
iie?oe/i? iiae?? a Oe?a?i?14.

Oaeei /eiii, ca ei?aeiiii aena?oeaiiy oaie ai?ioueae ca aea?aeaai?noue a
aeiao Aee?aeoi??? aae aei 60-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy iaei caeaa?eueoiai
iaioa?ii-aeine?aeieoeueeee oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee iaeaea an? aaoi?e
aaciina?aaeiuei a?aee o/anoue o ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?yo a Oe?a?i?.

Iaea?eueo cia/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
?aae?e ia??iaeo ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??? OI? ? naieoiiia i?aoey
I.Noao?aa “Oe?a?ia a aeiao Aee?aeoi??? OI?”15. Iaeiae, Eai’yiaoeueeee
ia??iae Aee?aeoi??? a oe?e i?aoe? cian?i ia aeine?aeaeaii.

O 1967 ?ioe? iiaa/eea na?o iiiia?ao?y I.I??/oea16. I?aeoiaey/e aei
aena?oeaiiy oa aiae?co oiai/anieo iiae?e c “i?aaeo”, eiina?aaoeaieo
iiceoe?e, a?i ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui aaee/acii? oeiaee oe?a?inuee?e ni?aa?
caaaeaea aocueeiia?o?eia iie?oeea iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo nioe?ae?no?a,
ine?eueee iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi aeey ieo aoea ia iai?iia Oe?a?ie, a
eeaniaa ai?ioueaa.

Oaia Oe?a?inueeeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue a aeiao Aee?aeoi??? /anoeiai
ciaeoea nai? aena?oeaiiy a ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeyo ca?oa?aeieo
?noi?ee?a, iioae?eiaaieo iauiaeaaii a Oe?a?i?, I.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei
oa I.Noaoaeueiiai17.

A inoaii?e /an iiaa/eee na?o iiiia?ao?? ?noi?ee?a oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e
O.Aoi/aea oa ?.Iaaa?anueeiai18. O a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?eao oeeo ?ia?o
ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy iaai? iiae?? Eai’yiaoeueei? aeiae Aee?aeoi???
Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee.

?aaeyinuee? ?noi?eee aeeiiaee cia/io ?iaioo ii aeine?aeaeaiith iiae?e
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie oa ?ioa?aaioe?? ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Oaia
ai?ioueae a?eueoiaeoeueei? O?N? oa Aee?aeoi??? OI? ciaeoea nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o o?eoiii?e i?aoe? “Oe?a?inueea ?N? a ia??iae
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie”, oa ?ioeo eieaeoeaieo ?iaioao19. C’yaeeinue ?yae
iiiia?ao?e, i?enay/aieo ia??iaeo Aee?aeoi???. O 1949 ?ioe? aeeoea i?aoey
A.A.Eeoieaoa “?aca?ii ao?aeoacii-iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneie Aee?aeoi?ee ia
Oe?aeia”, a o 1962 ?ioe? iaeiieiaiia ?iaioa ?.E.?eaaeea20. Aeeeaae
iaoa??aeo a iaio iiiia?ao?yo cae?i/o?oueny ea?oiai-o?aaiai 1919 ?.
Ioaea, iiae?? oa i?ioeane Eai’yiaoeueeiai ia??iaeo a ieo ia ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy.

A ie?aieo ia?aa?aoao i?aoe? I.?.Noi?oiaiea iieacaii ai?ioueao *a?aiii?
a?i?? i?ioe a?enuee Aee?aeoi???, aena?oeaii ?io? iiae??
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo21.

Iaaio /anoeio eaiaeeaeaonueei? aeena?oaoe?? N.E.Aoiaithea i?enay/aii
aeeeaaeo ai?ioueae a?eueoiaee?a i?ioe OI? o Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae22.
?io? ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c oe?a?inueeei iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiei ?ooii,
o i?aoe? ia aena?oethaaeenue.

Iniiaiith iaaaoeaiith ?enith aeua caaaeaieo ioae?eaoe?e ?aaeyinueeiai
ia??iaeo ? iaeiiaieee eeaniaee i?aeo?ae, yeee aoeneoaaa aeine?aeaeaiiy a
caaeai? ?aiee eiioi?noe/ii? ?aeaieia??.

C e?ioey 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a ii/aany iiaee aoai oe?a?inueei?
?noi??ia?ao??, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny e?eoe/iei inieneaiiyi
?noi??ia?ao?/ii? niaaeueie iiia?aaeiueiai ia??iaeo, ni?iaith a?ae?eoe
a?ae cae/ieo eaiii?a oa noai ?aaeyinueei? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee, a?eueo
ia’?eoeaiei aena?oeaiiyi ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e a Oe?a?i?23.

O 1995 ?ioe? iioae?eiaaii eieao TH.Iaaeaiei oa TH.O?aiiaa o ye?e
ae?yeuei?noue Aee?aeoi??? ioe?ith?oueny ??cei iaaaoeaii24.

Iniaeeaino? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? o?yaeo OI? o
Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae Aee?aeoi??? aena?oeth? o nai?e noaoo?
A.I.ssaeiinueeee25.

Aeayeeo i?iaeai Eai’yiaoeueei? aeiae oi?eathoueny o nai?o noaooyo aaoi?e
ca??ieea “Neiii Iaoeth?a oa oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaiethoe?y”26.

A.I.A?eoeaiei o aeioneo “?noi?e/ieo cioeo?a” ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
aeaea aiae?c iie?oe/ieo oaai??a, ui ciaaaeeny ca aeaaeo a Oe?a?i? a 1919
?ioe?27. A iaeiiio c ?icae?e?a aena?oeaii iiae?? Eai’yiaoeueeiai
ia??iaeo. Aaoi? iieaco? i?ioenoiyiiy ia o?eueee o?ueio iniiaieo
oiai/anieo iie?oe/ieo nee (naiino?eieoeueeiai, a?eueoiaeoeueeiai oa
a?eiaaa?ae?enueeiai), aea e ai?ioueao ana?aaeei? oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui naia oea caaaeaei
inoaiiueiio iaea?eueoi? oeiaee.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea Aee?aeoi??? OI? aiae?co?oueny a
iiiia?ao?yo I.I. ?a?ioa oa A.?. Aiae?oneoeia, i?enay/aieo i?iaeai?
?ia?oieoeoaa a oe?a?inuee?e ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ?ie?a28.Ie?ai?
oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa oaeoe/i? aeai?, ui oae /e ?iaeoa noinothoueny
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie, i?noyoueny o aeena?oaoe?eieo ?iaioao inoaiiueiai
ia??iaeo29. O eieaao, i?enay/aieo ieoaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, oaia Aee?aeoi??? OI?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ia aoea
?ice?eoa30.

Iauiaeaaii iiaa/eea na?o ocaaaeueithth/a i?aoey “?noi??y Oe?a?ie. Iiaa
aa/aiiy”. O ?icae?e? “Oe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia ?anioae?ea i?ae i?iaiaeii
Aee?aeoi???” ia iniia? no/aniiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ?noi?e/ii?
iaoee aeaii ia’?eoeaiee, noeneee aiae?c iiae?e aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo31. Aeayeeo ieoaiue Eai’yiaoeueei? aeiae oi?eioany o nai?e eiec?
ss.A?eoeae32.

Aea?aeaaioai?/ei i?ioeanai ? caeiiiaeaa/?e ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??? OI?
i?enay/aii ?icae?e i?aoe? I.E.Eiieeaiea oa I.E.Eiieeaiei. Aaoi?e
oi?eathoueny i?iaeai aeai?o no?aoaa?/ieo i???ioe??a aea?aeaaioai?aiiy,
i?aai?caoe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aia?aoo, ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee oa ?i. ?
?icaeyaeathoue ?o o aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiio aniaeo?33. Iie?oeea Aee?aeoi???
noiniaii ?ae?a?? oa oea?eae aena?oeth?oueny a eiec? A.Aiae?oneoeia
“Oea?eaa a oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? 1917-1920 ??. (aeiaa Aee?aeoi???
OI?)”34.

Oaeei /eiii, ie?ai? iiae?? Eai’yiaoeueei? aeiae Aee?aeoi??? OI? ciaeoee
iaaia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeyo oa niaoe?aeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo. Aea eiiieaenii ? anaioiiethth/a oeae iane/aiee iiae?yie
ia??iae ia aea/aany. An? oe? ianoaaeie e niiioeaee aaoi?a aea?aoe aeey
aeena?oaoe?? oaio aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco eaiaeeaeaonueei? aeena?oaoe?? iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia
/ioe?e a?oie: 1) iaiioae?eiaai? a?o?ai? iaoa??aee; 2) ca??ieee
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a; 3) ia??iaee/ia i?ana; 4) oai?e oa iaioa?e
ae?y/?a oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo.

Oeaio?aeueia i?noea a eiiieaen? aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue aeieoiaioe oa
iaoa??aee, ye? caa??aathoueny a a?o?ainoiaeuao Ee?aa, Eueaiaa,
Oiaeueieoeueeiai, A?iieoe?, Eai’yioey-Iiae?euenueeiai. Aaoi?ii
aeei?enoaii 30 oiiae?a cacia/aieo a?o?a?a oa ?noi?e/ieo a?ae?ioae.

Aaeeeee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae cia/ii? ?noi?e/ii? oe?iiino? cina?aaeaeaiee o
oiiaeao Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee ? i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie (aeae? OeAeAAI
Oe?a?ie). Oea noino?oueny oiiae?a “Eaioeaey??y Aee?aeoi??? OI?” (O.
1429) oa “?aaee Ia?iaeieo I?i?no??a” (O. 1065), ii yeeo iiaeia
i?ine?aeeoaaoe iie?oeeo oa ae?yeuei?noue aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee
Oe?a?inueei? ?anioae?ee. Oiiaee “I?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa” (O.
3696), caei?aeiiieo iinieuenoa oa i?n?e (O. 3619) aeathoue ciiao
a?aeoai?eoe caei?aeiiio iie?oeeo Aee?aeoi??? oa o?yaeo. I?aai?caoe?y oa
ae?yeuei?noue i?noeaai? aaei?i?no?aoe??, noaiiaeua ia i?noeyo aena?oeth?
oiiae “I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa” (O. 1092). O oiiaeao “I?i?noa?noaa
caiaeueieo ni?aa” (O. 1062) cina?aaeaeaii aeieoiaioe, ui
a?aeia?aaeathoue aa?a?io iie?oeeo Aee?aeoi??? oa ?? ao?eaiiy a 1919
?ioe?.

O oiiae? 581 Oeaio?aeueiiai Aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai A?o?ao Oe?a?ie o
Eueaia? (aeae? OeAe?A o Eueaia?) ciaoiaeyoueny aeieoiaioe, ye?
aena?oeththoue aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae i?iaiaeaie OI? oa CIOI?, a oaeiae
iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee. A iniaenoeo oiiaeao ae?y/?a CIOI? oa
OI? I.Iaca?oea (O. 359) oa N.Oiiao?anueeiai (O. 368) i?noyoueny
iaoa??aee i?i aioo??oith oa ciai?oith iie?oeeo OI?.

O Euea?anueeiio OeAe?A ciaoiaeyoueny i?e?io?eueiiaai? aeieoiaioe c
A?ae?ioaee Ia?iaeiai? o Aa?oaa?, a yeeo ? iaai? na?ae/aiiy i?i
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.

O Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano? (aeae? AeAOI) oa a eiai
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenuee?e o?e?? (aeae? E-IOAeAOI) i?aaenoaaeai?
iaoa??aee, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th, ui
neeaeanue ia Iiae?ee? a Eai’yiaoeueeo aeiao Aee?aeoi??? (O. 260 — 263,,
3026).

Aeaye? aeieoiaioe, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue ae?yeuei?noue aeaaeieo no?oeoo?
OI? ia i?noeyo o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ciaoiaeyoueny a Aea?aeaaiiio
a?o?a? A?iieoeueei? iaeano? (aeae? AeAAI) (O. 4155, 1196 oa ?io?).

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaieo a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a aeicaiey?
eiiieaenii aena?oeeoe aioo??oith oa ciai?oith iie?oeeo aeueo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?inueei? ?anioae?ee ia oii? iiae?e oa i?ioean?a,
ui a?aeaoaaeenue a Oe?a?i? oa ?a?ii? o Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae
Aee?aeoi??? OI?.

O ?aaeyinuee? /ane aoee iioae?eiaai? ca??ieee o yeeo i?noeeeny
aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee, ui a?aeia?aaeaee aeaye? iiae?? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo35. Iaaaoeaiith ?enith oeeo ca??iee?a ? caeaa?eueoiai
oaiaeaioe?eii-ai?iaea noaaeaiiy aei Aee?aeoi??? oa oe?a?inueeiai
aecaieueiiai ?ooo i/iethaaiiai iath. Iaoa??aee caaaeaiiai ia??iaeo
i?noyoueny o aeaeaiiio o NOA ca??ieeo “Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y.
Aeieoiaioe 1919-1921 ?ie?a. Aeaea?aea aei iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie”36.

Oe?eaaei aeaea?aeii ?ioi?iaoe?? ? oiai/ania ia??iaeeea, iniaeeai
oe?a?inueea i?ana, ui aeaeaaaeanue o Eai’yioe?-Iiae?euenueeiio (aacaoe
“A?niee OI?”, “O?oaeiaee oeyo”, “Aecaieaiiy”, “Oe?a?ia”, “?ia?oie/a
aacaoa”, “Oe?a?inueeee eicae”, “No??eaoeue” oa ?io?). O oeeo /aniienao
ioae?eoaaeenue o?yaeia? oa a?enueeia? iinoaiiae, iaeace, ?ioa?a’th c
io?oe?eieie iniaaie oa ?ioa ?ioi?iaoe?y. I?e e?eoe/iiio ?icaeyae?
aacaoieo noaoae ? iaoa??ae?a ?o oaeiae iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye
?noi?e/ia aeaea?aei.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey aeine?aeieea ? oai?e ? iaioa?e ae?y/?a
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. A?eueo?noue aaoi??a
aaciina?aaeiuei a?aee o/anoue o iiae?yo, i?eo?eioaaeenue oeo /e ?ioeo
iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a, ? a?aeiia?aeii, aei ?o oai??a iio??aii noaaeoenue
e?eoe/ii. Aea ana ae o ieo iiaeia ciaeoe aaaaoi oe?eaaeo oaeo?a, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue oiai/anio iie?oe/io neooaoe?th, i?aeia?o?eio ai?ioueao
oa ?i.37

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia iniia? aiae?co a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a, iioae?eiaaieo aeieoiaio?a, iaoeiai? oa iaioa?ii? e?oa?aoo?e
a?aeoai?eoe iniiai? iie?oe/i? i?ioeane Eai’yiaoeueei? aeiae Aee?aeoi???
OI? (/a?aaiue-eenoiiaae 1919 ?ieo).

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe oae? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ?icnoaiiaeo iie?oe/ieo nee o aeueo aoaeiiao aeaaee OI?;

— aeine?aeeoe ai?ioueao o?yaeo c e?ai?aaeeeaeueieie oe?a?inueeeie
iie?oe/ieie neeaie ca aieea ia iianoainueeee ?oo a Oe?a?i?;

— iieacaoe ai?ioueao “i?aai?” iiiceoe?? i?ioe iie?oeee o?yaeo OI?;

— aena?oeeoe ia?aaoaaiiy i?iaiaeo CIOI? oa OAA ia Iaaeaei?i-?yiuei? ?
iie?oe/ia i?ioenoiyiiy o?yae?a OI? oa CIOI?;

— i?inoaaeeoe i?ioean a?aeiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee
OI?;

— ?icaeyiooe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? caoiaee o?yaeo OI? (o?iainiaa,
aa?a?ia oa i?iaeiaieue/a ieoaiiy);

— ?ice?eoe iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo o?yaeo OI?;

— c’ynoaaoe ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iee eo?n Aee?aeoi??? oa o?yaeo OI? oa
a?aeiineie o?yae?a OI? oa CIOI? c ?aaeia?eiiii ? Aeia?iaieue/ith
a?i??th.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia oe??? ?iaioe iieyaa? o eiiieaeniiio a?aeoai?aii? oa
aiae?c? iniiaieo iie?oe/ieo iiae?e oa i?ioean?a Eai’yiaoeueei? aeiae,
aiane?aeie /iai iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ae?noaea oaca, ui o cacia/aiee
ia??iae ?aeaieia?/iee ieth?ae?ci oa/?e, i?aaenoaaeaieo a oe?a?inueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on?, coiiaea oioaeueio ai?ioueao o an?o
noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy OI?, ui i?ecaaei aei ineaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
aea?aeaaieoeueeeo nee ? noaei iniiaiith i?e/eiith e?aoo aea?aeaaioai?/eo
coneeue Aee?aeoi??? OI?.

Ii?yae c oeei aeine?aeaeaii ?yae ?ai?oa neaaei aea/aieo ieoaiue uiaei
ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??? oa o?yaeo ii iaeaaiaeaeaiith ?iaioe
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aia?aoo oa ae??oaiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai
(o?iainiai?, aa?a?ii?, i?iaeiaieue/i?). Oaeiae aena?oeaii oa
i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoe?iiaeueio oa caei?aeiiio iie?oeeo aeueo i?aai?a
aeaaee OI?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy i?aoe? aecia/a?oueny ni?iaith aaoi?a a?aeoai?eoe
ocaaaeueithth/o ea?oeio iie?oe/ieo iiae?e, ui a?aeaoaaeenue o
Eai’yiaoeueeo aeiao Aee?aeoi??? OI?. O a?eueo oe?ieiio ieai?
aeena?oaoe?y ? iaaiei e?ieii o aea/aii? noia?a/iinoae oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ? i?ioeano aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a
cacia/aiee ia??iae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaoa??ae yeee
iiaea?oueny a aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii?, iiaeia aeei?enoaoe aeey noai?aiiy
ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e, niaoeeo?n?a, i?iaaaeaii?
nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, a
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e ?iaio?.

A iniiao no?oeoo?e aeena?oaoe?? iieeaaeaii i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee
i?eioeei, ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iniiai? iai?yie iie?oeee Aee?aeoi???,
i?inoaaeeoe o?ainoi?iaoe?th ?aeaeieo ianoaiia ? ci?io iniiaieo canaae
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a eiaeiee eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee ia??iae ??
ae?yeueiino?.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe?? aaco?oueny ia ae?aeaeoe/ieo
i?eioeeiao i?ciaiiy ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano, ia’?eoeaiiio i?aeoiae? aei
aiae?co noni?eueieo yaeu oa iiae?e, e?eoe/iiio noaaeaii? aei
aeaea?aeueiiai iaoa??aeo.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ii?yae c iaoiaeaie aii??e/iiai i?ciaiiy, o
i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee aeena?oaoe?? canoiniaoaaeenue oai?aoe/i? iaoiaee
aiae?co, neioaco, ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee oa i?iaeaiii-oaiaoe/iee.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue aaoi?ii ia 7
Anaoe?a?inueeeo oa 4 ?aa?iiaeueieo eiioa?aioe?yo. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeaeo? a 14 iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo. Aeena?oaoe?y
iaaiai?aia ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei caoenoo ia can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a ? ci?no aeena?oaoe??

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? a?aeiia?aea? ?? iao? oa caaaeaiiyi. Aiia
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, iineeaiue, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e, yeee neeaaea?oueny c 281
iaeiaioaaiiy a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a oa e?oa?aoo?e. Caaaeueiee ianya oaenoo
noaiiaeoue 188 noi??iie. O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai? eiai ia’?eo, o?iiieia?/i? iaae?,
noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ? caaaeaiiy, ?icaeyiooa ?noi??ia?ao?y,
i?iaiae?ciaai? aeaea?aea, aeacaii ia iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Iie?oe/i? oa/?? a oe?a?inueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on?” ?icaeyioo? i?e/eie, o?ae, oa ianoaaeie
ni?ai?aoe? oa i?ioeai?noaa i?ae ??cieie oa/?yie ? oaai?aie oe?a?inueeiai
aecaieueiiai ?ooo.

O /a?ai?-eenoiiaae? 1919 ?. Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee aoa i?noeai
in?aeeo Aee?aeoi??? oa o?yaeo OI? ? oei/aniaei aea?aeaaiei oeaio?ii
?anioae?ee. Oeae ia??iae oa?aeoa?ecoaaany noia?a/iinoyie iiey?ieo
iie?oe/ieo nee c aeueie ?inoeoooe?yie OI?: iianoaioe?a, ye? /anoi
niia?aeoaaee “e?ao” ?aeaieia?th oa “o?oaeiaee i?eioeei”
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy — c iaeiiai aieo, ? “i?aai?” iaaeaei?i?yinueei?
iiiceoe?? oa i?iaiaeo CIOI?, ui aenooiaee ca ia?eaiaioa?eci oa caaaeueio
aeaiie?ao?th — c ?ioiai aieo.

Ia oie /an aeuo aea?aeaaio aeaaeo OI? ca?aeii “Oi?aa?naeo O?oaeiaiai
Eiia?ano” i?aaenoaaeyee Aee?aeoi??y, ?aaea Ia?iaeieo I?i?no??a (?II) oa
Eiia?an O?oaeiaiai Ia?iaeo/a?ac nai? eii?n??. Ine?eueee aca?iia?aeiineie
i?ae ieie ia aoee caeiiiaeaa/i oii?iiaai?, oi oea i?ecaiaeeei aei
eiioe?eo?a oa i?ioenoiyiiy ? aeaei i?aenoaae iaaeae? eiinoaooaaoe
?.Iacai?, ui iaei??th c i?e/ei iaaaea/ oe?a?inueeeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
aoee aeaoaeoe caaaeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

Aa?oiaiei i?aaiii aeaaee aoea Aee?aeoi??y ia /ie? c N.Iaoeth?ith, yeee
oaeoe/ii iaeiiiniaiai aecia/aa iai?yiee aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee. Aeeiiaa/o
aeaaeo ao?ethaaa nioe?ae?noe/iee o?yae. A?i neeaaeaany c i?aaenoaaiee?a
ONAe?I oa OIN?. Oeae eaa?iao aoa aioo??oiuei eiioe?eoiei /a?ac
?aeaieia?/i? noia?a/iino? ia?o?e, ye? a iueiai aoiaeeee.

Iie?oe/iei aeieoiaioii, ui aecia/aa canaaee ae?yeueiino? o?yaeo OI? ia
ii/aoeo Eai’yiaoeueeiai ia??iaeo aoea *i?iiino??anueea oaiaea oeeaaeaia
OeE ONAe?I oa OeE OIN? c aeaeaaaoaie Oeaio?aeueiiai iianoainueeiai
eii?oaoo (OeIE). Ca?aeii oaiaee i?aaenoaaieee iianoaioe?a (/eaie OIN?)
oa?eoee a o?yae, a i?aai?caoe?y i?aai?a aeaaee iiaeiia aoea
i?iaiaeeoenue ca “o?oaeiaei i?eioeeiii”. (Aeea. aeen. — N. 23-24.)

Eiee ciai?oi? oa aioo??oi? iie?oe/i? ianoaaeie i?iaeeeooaaee iio?aao
ci?ie ?aeaieia?? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, oea eaaeue ia i?ecaaei aei e?ece
o?yaeiaiai aeueyino ONAeI? oa OIN?. Nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe a oeueoeiaoeai?e
oi?i? caaeaaeaee a?ae ana??a a?aeiiae a?ae eeaniaeo canaae iiaoaeiae
aea?aeaae. O ?acoeueoao? aei?noei? iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae 12 na?iiy 1919
?. o?yae aeaeaa aeaeea?aoe?th, yeith i?iaieinea eo?n ia ia?eaiaioa?eci
oa caaaeueio aeaiie?ao?th, ui a?aeeeaeaei “o?oaeiaee i?eioeei”
oi?ioaaiiy aeaaeieo no?oeoo? OI?. (Aeea. aeen. — N. 30.)

A oiiaao anaia?inoath/iai aioea?eueoiaeoeueeiai ?ooo, ui ?icai?oaany a
Oe?a?i?, i??i?eoaoia cia/aiiy aeey i?iaiaeo OI? iaei iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
o?nieo noinoie?a c iianoaioeyie.Iacaaaeath/e ia *i?iiino??anueeo oaiaeo,
/anoeia ?aaeeeaeueii iaeaooiaaieo /eai?a OeIE ia caeeoaea iaae?e
caoiieoe aeaaeo a OI?. Eiio??ica?aeea caa?aoooaaea “iacaeaaeieoeueeee”
OeIE. O?yaeo OI? aaeaeinue iaeaaiaeeoe ae??a? noinoiee c aaaaoueia
iianoainueeeie caaiiaie. Aea iaaecia/ai?noue oe?a?inueeeo i?ia?aeiee?a
uiaei a?aeiinei c Aeai?e?iei ? caie?eaiiy c ii/aoeii ai?ioueae i?ioe
a?eiaaa?ae?eoe?a, yeo aeoeaii aaee ia?oecaie, i?ecaaee aei ao?aoe ?o
aieeao ia cia/i? iianoainuee? oi?ioaaiiy. (Aeea. aeen. — N. 46.)

O Eai’yiaoeueeo aeiao i?iaeiaaeoaaeinue i?ioeai?noai i?ae
nioe?ae?noe/iei o?yaeii, N.Iaoeth?ith ? a?oiaie “i?aai?” iie?oe/ii?
i???ioaoe??. ?aaeeeaeueia /anoeia iiiceoe?? ni?iaoaaea a/eieoe
aea?aeaaiee caeieio, yeee aoei i?eaeooaii. I?ney oeueiai aeoeaio
ai?ioueao i?ioe nioe?ae?noe/iiai o?yaeo ?icii/aea “eaaaeueia iiiceoe?y”.
15 eeiiy c iaoith eiinie?aeaoe?? an?o aioenioe?ae?noe/ieo, aioeo?yaeiaeo
nee ooai?eany Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiee nithc (OIAeN).
Iiiceoe?y oe?iei ?icai?ioea naith ae?yeuei?noue. ia ii/aoeo na?iiy 1919
?. “i?aa?” eiea iineeeee oene ia ?aaeo Ia?iaeieo I?i?no??a (?II),
caa?iaeoth/e aenooieoe i?ioe o?yaeo oa N.Iaoeth?e. A oae?e neooaoe??
c’yaeeany a?aeicaa ?II a?ae 12 na?iiy 1919 ?., a ye?e i?noeeeny iniiai?
aeiiae iiiceoe??. O?yae caaeaeea?oaaa ooai?aiiy eiae?oe?eiiai Eaa?iaoo,
a yeiio iaaeaaaeenue i?i?noa?nuee? “ii?ooae?” i?aaenoaaieeai “i?aaeo”
ia?o?e. Aea inoaii?, ia caaeiaieai? “einiaoe/iith” ?ai?aai?caoe??th ?II,
aei iiaiai o?yaeo ia aa?eoee. Iiiceoe?ei? ae?y/? e iaaeae? i?aeaeaaaee
ieu?ai?e e?eoeoe? eo?n o?yaeo ? ai?ieenue ca eiai ci?io. (Aeea. aeen. —
N. 58.)

16 eeiiy 1919 ?. i?ia?ae CIOI? oa OAA ia?aeoee ia Iaaeaei?i?yiueio.
Ia?aae oei aeeeoaoi? ?.Iao?ooaae/ aenoioa ?yae oiia iiaeaeueoi?
ni?ai?aoe? c o?yaeii OI?. A?i aeiaaaa, uia ea??aieee OI? i?iaiaeeee
aeaiie?aoe/io iie?oeeo aac ooee?a o a?e ?aaeyinoaa, a oaeiae ci?ieee
nioe?ae?noe/iee o?yae oa neanoaaee i?i?noa?noai aaeeoeueeeo ni?aa. O
?acoeueoao? aino?i? iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae oe? aeiiae aoee aeeiiai?. C
naiai aieo i?ia?ae OI? ia aeciaaaa caeiiiino? aeeeoaoo?e CIOI?. ??ci?
iie?oe/i? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae aea?aeaaiino? oa ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?
i???ioaoe?? o?yae?a OI? oa CIOI? i?ecaaee aei cia/ii? iai?oae i?ae ieie.
Iaaeaei?i?yinuee? e?aea?e aeiiaaaeenue ia’?aeiaiiy iaio o?yae?a oa a?i?e
i?ae nai?th caa?oi?noth. A ?.Iao?ooaae/ iaiieyaaa ia aaoiiiiiiio
?nioaaii? i?iaiaeo CIOI? oa ie?ai?oiino? OAA, ye ?ai?acaioaio?a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Oiio cacia/aia ai?ioueaa iaio
o?yae?a aoea nooo?aei aeaiaioii aeanoaa?e?caoe?? neooaoe?? i?ioyaii
onueiai Eai’yiaoeueeiai ia??iaeo. (Aeea. aeen. — N. 69.)

Iacaaaeath/e ia ?ica?aeiino?, ana ae aaeaeinue ae?eoe caiaee i?i
noai?aiiy ni?eueiiai Ooaao aeey eii?aeeiaoe?? aieiaeo iia?aoe?e iaio
a?i?e ? ?icii/aoe oni?oiee ianooi ia Ee?a-Iaeano. Aea caea/a Ee?aa
aeai?e?ioeyi aaeeoeueeei eiiaiaeoaaiiyi i?ecaaea aei /a?aiaiai
caaino?aiiy noinoie?a. Iiee iaaeaei?i?yinuee? oa aaeeoeuee? e?aea?e
c’yniaoaaee a?aeiineie, eiiaiaeoaaiiy OAA, yea oaeoe/ii noaei
naiino?eiith iie?oe/iith neeith, i?aeienaei c a?eiaaa?ae?eoeyie oaiaeo,
ca?aeii yei? OAA iaea ia?aeoe a i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy Aeai?e?ia. A?aoo?,
oeae aeo i?eca?a aei iiaiiai ?ic?eao OI? oa CIOI?. (Aeea. aeen. — N.
74.)

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Aioo??oiy iie?oeea Aee?aeoi??? oa o?yaeo OI?”
aena?oeththoueny oa aiae?cothoueny caoiaee oe?a?inueeeo i?aai?a aeaaee,
ni?yiiaai? ia a?aeiiaeaiiy i?noeaaeo aaei?i?no?aoe?e, a oaeiae
?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai.

Ia eiie?aoieo oaeoao i?inoaaeo?oueny iaiaaaiiy aeueo ?inoeoooe?e OI?
iaeaaiaeeoe ae?yeuei?noue aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aia?aoo ia i?noeyo:
a?aeiiaethaaeanue ?iaioa i?aai?a aeaaee, ye? ?nioaaee aei i?eoiaeo
a?eueoiaee?a; noai?thaaeanue aeeiiaanueea aa?oeeaeue aea?aeaaieo
i?aaenoaaiee?a — aoaa?inueeeo, iia?oiaeo, aieinieo oa n?euenueeeo
eii?na??a. Ine?eueee aieinieie oa n?euenueeeie eii?na?aie noaaaee aieiae
a?aeiia?aeieo Ia?iaeieo Oi?aa, eio?? iae?aeeny a?iiaaeaie, oi ?o
ae?yeuei?noue /anoi aoea ia?ae?ciaaia aaeeeith caeaaei?noth a?ae
inoaii?o.

Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie iaeaaiaeaeaiiy i?aai?a aeaaee oneeaaeithaaea cia/ia
ianoa/a eaae?o?eiaaieo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo eaae??a.

Ii?iaeueiiio ooieoe?iioaaiith i?noeaaeo ?inoeoooe?e caaaaeaee
iaoii?iiaai? a?aeiineie oa a?aenooi?noue aca?iiae?? i?ae oeea?eueiith oa
a?enueeiaith aeaaeaie. Aeaiaeaaeaey ia i?noeyo, i?ioeae?y a?enueeiaeo
oeea?eueiei i?aaiai aeaaee i?ecaaee aei ia?ae?/o inoaiiuei?.
Iaaecae/aeii iaaaoeai? iane?aeee aeey ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoe?e
iaea e a?aenooi?noue eioo?a.

?acii c eii?na??aoaie a?aeiiaethaaeanue ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Oi/ o?yaeia? ia?o?? aeiiiaeeenue i?i oi?ioaaiiy
aeaaeieo no?oeoo? ca “o?oaeiaei i?eioeeiii”, iaeiae /a?ac iaiiaeeea?noue
oaeaeei i?iaanoe aeai?e aoei aeiiouaii aei aeeiiaiiy iaia’yce?a noa??
cainoaa, ye? iae?aeenue ua ca Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo. Aino?i noiyea i?iaeaia
eaae??a oa eioo?a. Oiio a?eueo?noue cainoa i?aoethaaee iacaaeia?eueii.

Naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia?aaoaaei a iiiceoe?? aei nioe?ae?noe/iiai o?yaeo OI? ?
aeiaaaei aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa. Aa/a/e ?icaaei?aai?a
naiia?y-aeoaaiiy ? iaiiaeeea?noue ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy, o?yae iaa iai??
aeaeaoe caeii i?i iaaaeio ci?io neeaaeo cainueeeo oi?aa, aea oeueiio
caaaaeeea ii?acea ia o?iio?. (Aeea. aeen. — N. 88.)

Ine?eueee /a?ac iino?ei? aieia? ae?? oa ci?ie i?aeeiio?ieueii? oa?eoi???
o?yae iaa iaiaaeai? iiaeeeaino? aeeiioaaoe nai? ooieoe??, iniiaio oaaao
aoei cina?aaeaeaii ia ae??oaii? o?iainiaiai, aa?a?iiai oa
i?iaeiaieue/iai ieoaiue.

O Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae o?iainiaa e?eca noaea anaioiiethth/ith.
Caiaiaae aeiiii?ee oa ?icaae iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie ?iaeee a?ioia? ai?n??
iniiaiei aeaea?aeii o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a. Cia/i? noie oe?a?inueei?
aaethoe aeinoaaeyeeny c I?ia//eie. Uia caaacia/eoe an? aea?aeaai?
iio?aae a Eai’yioe?-Iiae?euenueeiio aoei iaeaaiaeaeaii aeione aaieiio.
Aea ?ioeyoe?y oaeaeei ciaoe?ithaaea a?io?. Aeey noaa?e?caoe??
o?iainiaiai noaiiaeua o?yae ?iaea ni?iaeiaeaaiaeeoe ca?? iiaeaoe?a,
aeeo/eoe c ia?ao an? iaoe?a?inuee? a?ioia? ciaee, iaeaaiaeeoe
oiaa?iiai?i ana?aaeei? e?a?ie oa ?c ca?oa?aeieie aea?aeaaaie. I?ioa oe?
caoiaee ia iaee oni?oo. (Aeea. aeen. — N. 94.)

Iaaecae/aeio aaao aeey oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? iaei ae??oaiiy
aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy. A Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae o?yae iaiaaaany i?iaanoe
caiaeueio ?aoi?io ia iniia? caeiio a?ae 8 n?/iy 1919 ?. I?eeiaoiith
oaiaeaioe??th oeueiai /ano aoea iaaia ci?ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
iano?i?a naeyinoaa, yea ii/aei aenooiaoe ca aeeoi caie? o aea?aeaae ?
aieiae?iiy iath ia canaaeao i?eaaoii? aeaniino?. Aea nioe?ae?noe/iee
o?yae ia iaaaaeeany ci?ieoe aa?a?io iie?oeeo. Iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaaeanue ia
ai?iaaaeaeaii? aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie aaeaeoae?noue aoiieaiiai a?eiith
naeyinoaa. I?ioa a aeayeeo naeao ana ae ?icii/aany i?ioean ?iciiae?eo
caie?, aea aeae? a?i ia i?oia, ine?eueee a?i?y OI? caciaea ii?acee.

Iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueiei aeey o?yaeo OI? aoei i?iaeiaieue/a ieoaiiy.
Iaeiae e?oiuei-in?iiy eaiiai?y 1919 ?. ii caea/? oe?aa aea?aeaa? /a?ac
iaaeinoaoi?noue o?iain?a, neaaeo i?aai?caoe?th a?aeae?e?a ii cae?aiith
a?iaeath oa ianiaa ?ice?aaeaiiy ca?aeaey caciaea iaaaea/?. (Aeea. aeen.
— N. 104.)

Aaeeea cia/aiiy o i?ioean? iiaoaeiae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae a aeiao
Aee?aeoi??? OI? iaee aoiiiie?oe/i? /eiieee. Ae?oeo-ainaie 1919 ?.
i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie ia oa?eoi??? eiio?ieueiaai?e Aee?aeoi???th,
aoee aeineoue iai?oaeai?, aea aiie anthaee aacoaaeenue ia?aaaaeii ia
??cieoe? nioe?aeueieo ?ioa?an?a. Aeey onoiaiiy i?ioenoiyiiy o?yae OI?
i?iaieinea eo?n ia ni?ai?aoeth c aeaiie?ao??th iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

Iniaeeai? aino?ioe iaaoee a 1919 ?. oe?a?inueei-?a?aenuee? noinoiee.
THaeioianoai a Oe?a?i? ia iaei ?aeaieia?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ? ia aoei
aea?aeaaiith iie?oeeith. Aioenai?oeci o oiai/aniiio noni?euenoa?
iiynithaaany ia?aaeon?i i?eoeeuei?noth ?a?aenoaa aei a?eueoiaecio. Oeae
noa?aioei oi?ioaaee /eneaii? oaeoe ia?aaoaaiiy ?a?a?a o eaaao
eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??, iniaiaiai neeaaeo *E oa eii?na??a *a?aiii? a?i??.
Aea ia?aaeien iieyaaa o oiio, ui a?aeiinii caaaeo ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy
oey /anoeia ia aoea aeii?ioth/ith. A?eueo?noue ?a?a?a, eio?? iaeaaeaee
aei ae??aii? ao?aeoac??, ia iiae?eyee a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?aeaieia?? oa
i?aeoeee.

Aee?aeoi??y oa o?yae aaeeee ieceo caoiae?a aeey oiaiiaeeeaeaiiy
?a?aenueeeo iia?ii?a. Ao?ethaaany caeii i?i ?a?aenueeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?niiaeueio aaoiiii?th. ?a?aenuee? ia?o?? oa i?aai?caoe??
caeo/aeenue aei aea?aeaaii? i?aoe?. (Aeea. aeen. — N. 115.)

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iee eo?n Aee?aeoi??? oa o?yaeo
OI?. A?aeiineie o?yae?a OI? oa CIOI? c ?in?enueeeie
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieie ?aaeeiaie (?aaeia?eiiii ??ON? oa Aeia?iaieue/ith
a?i??th)” — ?ice?eaa?oueny iaiaaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao?? aeiaeoeny
aeciaiiy iacaeaaeiino? OI? i?aeia?iaeiei ni?aoiaa?enoaii, a oaeiae
ni?iae caaaaeaiiy noinoie?a c a?eueoiaeoeueeei oa a?eiaaa?ae?enueeei
?ooaie a ?in??.

Iiae??th, ui aecia/aea iai?yi ae?e oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao?? ia ii/aoeo
e?oa 1919 ?., aoei aeciaiiy a Ia?eae? aaei??aea Eie/aea i?aaeoaeai on???
?in??. A?aeoae oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy noaaaei aioo??oiueith i?iaeaiith
oe??? aea?aeaae. Cao?aei? e?a?ie i?aeooiaooaaee OI? aei oaaea?aoe?? c
?in??th. A cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie? noaee ?ici?iiith iiiaoith o aaeee?e
aeeieiiaoe/i?e a??. 25 /a?aiy 1919 ?. ?aaea *ioe?ueio aeianea iinoaiiao,
yeith oiiaiiaaaeoaaea ca?iei? neee Iieueu? aanoe nai? iia?aoe?? ii ?.
Ca?o/, ui aoei ae?ieii CIOI?.

?icoi?th/e, ui iaea?eueo aieth/ith i?iaeaiith aeey aaeeeeo aea?aeaa o
No?aei?e ?a?ii? aoa a?eueoiaeci, i?ia?aeieee OI? ye?ac ? ?iaeee iaaiein
ia ai?iouea? c iei. Aoaeo/e caoe?eaaeaieie o eiinie?aeaoe?? an?o
aioea?eueoiaeoeueeeo nee i?ia?aeieee Aioaioe oa NOA ana ae ?aii?oaaee
i?iiiceoe?? o?yaeo OI? ? ia iaaeaaaee eiio aeiiiiiae /a?ac aea?aeaaia
aaceaaeaey oa iecueeo ai?caeaoi?noue oe?a?inueei? a?i??.

Iaaecae/aeii iani?eyoeeaith aeey ie?aeii? aeeieiiaoe/ii? i?aoe?
aoeaae?eiaa aoiinoa?a ana?aaeei? oe?a?inueei? i?n?? a Ia?eae?, yea
?iceieieanue ia aeae?eueea oaai??a. Aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae ieie
aecia/aeenue noia?a/iinoyie: ii-ia?oa, i?ae aaee/aiaie oa
iaaeaei?i?yioeyie; ii-ae?oaa, i?ae oeie /eaiaie iaaeaei?i?yinueei?
aeaeaaaoe??, ye? oaa?aei i?eo?eioaaeenue eo?no ia iacaeaaei?noue ? oeie,
ooi aeiioneaa oaaea?aoe?th c ?in??th. Iaocaiaeaeai?noue ae?e /eai?a
aeaeaaaoe??, iaaeio?eiaiiy ?aeeii? iie?oe/ii? e?i?? caiaeeee iai?aaoeue
o? /e ?io? aeeieiiaoe/i? e?iee Ia?ecueei? i?n??.

Ia ii/aoie na?iiy 1919 ?. noaei c?icoi?ei, ui oaeoe/ii an? aeoe??
aeeieiiao?? OI? ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai? caciaee e?aoo. Ca oaeeo oiia 6-14
na?iiy 1919 ?. o i. Ea?enaaae? i?iaaaeaii eiioa?aioe?th iine?a oa aie?a
caei?aeiiieo i?n?e OI?. Ine?eueee cao?aei? e?a?ie iano?eeeai
?aeiiaiaeoaaee OI? oaaea?aoe?th c ?in??th, ia oe?e ia?aae? i?aaeiaoii
anaa?/iiai iaaiai?aiiyaeeieiiao?a noaea aeueoa?iaoeaa “naiino?ei?noue —
oaaea?aoe?y”. Aeoiaey/e c ?aaeueiiai noaiiaeua, aoei cai?iiiiiaaii
oi?ioeo iiaeaeueoi? aeeieiiaoe/ii? ?iaioe — “aiai?eoe i?i oaaea?aoe?th,
a ?iaeoe naiino?ei?noue”. Ea?enaaaenueea eiioa?aioe?y eiinoaooaaea, ui
iaaaea/? OI? ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai? ? ?acoeueoaoii aioo??oiueiai
noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie, oiio ci?oeiaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?,
i?iaaaeaiiy iine?aeiaii? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee iineeeoue
iiceoe?? OI? ca ei?aeiiii. O nai?o aeniiaeao ia?aaea ?aeiiaiaeoaaea o
ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe? i???iooaaoenue ia aeciaiiy OI? Aiae??th oa NOA. Aea
a?eueo ?aaeueiith aeciaii iie?oe/io e?i?th ia ii?icoi?iiy c iaeaeeae/eie
non?aeaie. (Aeea. aeen. — N. 124.)

I?ney Ea?enaaaenueei? eiioa?aioe?? o?yae OI? inoaoi/ii cina?aaeea oaaao
ia c’ynoaaii? noinoie?a c ?oioi??th, Iieueuath, ?aaeyinueeith oa
“a?eith” ?in??th. Uiaei aeaio ia?oeo, oi aiie aoee caoe?eaaeai? a
?nioaaii? OI? oa i?aeo?eioe? ai?caeaoiino? ?? Ca?ieieo nee o ai?iouea? c
a?eueoiaeeaie oa a?eiaaa?ae?eoeyie, ?iaeoa ?o a?i?yi aeiaaeiny a naiei
c?ooiaoiooeny c ieie. Oiio c ?oioi??th oa Iieueuath a?aeaoany iai?i
i?n?yie oa iaeaaiaeaeaii oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie. I?ioa ia
ia?aaiai?ao c Iieueuath iniiaiei eaiaiai niioeeaiiy aoea i?iaeaia
No?aeii? Aaee/eie. Ioaea, a e?ioe? e?oa-ainaie 1919 ?. o a?aeiineiao
Oe?a?ie c ?oioi??th oa Iieueuath niinoa??aaany iaaiee i?ia?an, aea aei
iie?oe/iiai aeciaiiy noaa?aiiino? OI? oeeie e?a?iaie ia ae?eoei.(Aeea.
aeen. — N. 137.)

O ca’yceo c ianooiii oe?a?inueeeo a?i?e ia Ee?a oa i?inoaaiiyi
aeai?e?inueeeo a?enuee a Oe?a?i? aeooaeueiith noaea i?iaeaia
aca?iia?aeiinei c a?eiaaa?ae?enueeei ?aaeeiii. Na?aae /?eueieo
oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a iiaoooaaei aea? oi/ee ci?o: N.Iaoeth?a oa o?yae OI?
aaaaeaee, ui c Aeai?e?iei iiaeeeaa /enoi a?enueeiaa oaiaea, a “i?aa?”
eiea oa aaee/aie iaiieyaaee ia i?aeienaii? iie?oe/iiai aeiaiai?o, yeee,
ia ?o aeoieo, a?aee?eaaa oeyo aei aeciaiiy oa ni?ai?aoe? c cao?aeieie
e?a?iaie. O?yae OI? iaiaaaany iaaanoe eiioaeo c “aeia?iaieueoeyie”, aea
o? a?aeiiaeeenue a?ae ia?aaiai??a ca oiiae noaa?aiiino? Oe?a?ie. A?aoo?,
aioeoe?a?inueea iie?oeea A.Aeai?e?ia i?eioneea i?ia?ae OI? oa aeeeoaoo?o
CIOI??icii/aoe i?ioe eiai a?i?? a?enueeia? ae??. A?aeoae, c iaoith
noai?aiiy aioeaeai?e?inueeiai aeueyino o?yaeii OI? c?iaeaii ni?iae
iaeaaiaeeoe noinoiee c ?aaeyinueeith Iineaith. A?eueoiaeee, ia?aaoaath/e
a ne?ooi?e neooaoe??, oaeiae aoee caoe?eaaeai? a ia?aaiai?ao. Iaeiae
ooai?aiith i?ioeaeai?e?inueeiai nithco caaaaeea ?icaae oe?a?inueeiai
o?iioo.

6 eenoiiaaea 1919 ?. ca iaeacii naiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy i?aaenoaaieee OAA
i?aeienaee oaiaeo c aeai?e?ioeyie i?i ia?ao?ae aaeeoeueeiai a?enueea ia
a?e Aeia?iaieue/i? a?i??. Ine?eueee neooaoe?y aoea aacaeo?aeiith
?.Iao?ooaae/ oa N.Iaoeth?a iiaiaeeeenue ia ia?aaiai?e c Aeai?e?iei, aea
a?ae ?iai? Niai?ii? Oe?a?ie. I?ney oiai, ye “aeia?iaieueoe?”
a?aeiiaeeenue a?ae eiioaeo?a c i?aaenoaaieeaie Iaaeaei?i?yiueie,
?.Iao?ooaae/ oaeoe/ii naieoe?iioaaa ia?ao?ae OAA ia a?e Aeai?e?ia ?
ae?oaa ca ei?aeii. N.Iaoeth?a oaeiae iieeioa Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee
? aeaui i?ci?oa iiaeaany aei Iieueu?. Oaeei /eiii, oe?eeii i?ioeeaaei?
i???ioaoe?? i?iaiae?a OI? oa CIOI?, iaeieo — ia iieye?a, ?ioeo — ia
aeai?e?ioe?a, i?ecaaee ia o?eueee aei ?ic?eao i?ae ieie, a e eeioee ?o o
??ci? oaai?e ?noi?e/ieo ai?ia?a iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. (Aeea. aeen. — N.
147.)

Aeniiaee

Eiie?aoii?noi?e/iee aiae?c aeaea?aeaeicaieea aecia/eoe Eai’yiaoeueeo
aeiao ye ia??iae, eio?ee oa?aeoa?ecoaaany oioaeueiith ai?ioueaith ca
aeaaeo ia an?o ??aiyo iie?oe/ii? nenoaie OI?. ?aeaieia?y
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy caciaea o Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae ea?aeeiaeueii? ci?ie.
Aea?? iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo canaae aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa, aeueoa?iaoeaa — “o?oaeiaee i?eioeei” aai aeaiie?ao?y —
aoee a oeaio?? iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo ?
i?iyaeyeenue a on?o noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy oiai/anii? OI?.

Ae?oeo-ainaie 1919 ?. o?yae OI? c?iaea noaaeo ia i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy
nai?io aieeaia? iiaooiueiai iianoainueeiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?. O neeaaei?e
iie?oe/i?e ai?iouea? Aee?aeoi??? aaeaeinue ia?aoiieoe ?i?oe?aoeao oa
iaeo?ae?coaaoe e?ai?aaeeeaeuei? OeIE oa AIO. O?yae OI? iaa iaai? oni?oe
o iaeaaiaeaeoaaii? noinoie?a c iianoainueeeie caaiiaie ? coi?a aeiaeoeny
iie?oe/ii? i?aeo?eiee ieie aeaaee Aee?aeoi??? OI? oa a?enueeiai?
aeiiiiiae a iia?aoe?yo Ae??ai? a?i??. Iaeiae iie?oe/i? noia?a/iino? o
aeueo aoaeiiao oe?a?inueei? aeaaee oa caie?eaiiy i?iaiaeo OI? uiaei
i?aeo?eiee ia?oecainueei? ai?ioueae c “aeia?iaieueoeyie” aeeeeeaei
iaaeia??o iianoaioe?a aei Aee?aeoi??? ? ia?ao?ae /anoeie ia?oecainueeeo
caaii?a i?ae aieea ?ioeo iie?oe/ieo nee, ye? aeoeaii ai?ieenue c
Aeai?e?iei.

Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii Eai’yiaoeueeiai ia??iaeo aoea yne?aai ae?aaeaia
iie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue i?aaiiiiceoe?eieo o?yaeo OI? ia?o?e. O noeoiiino?
c ?ioeie oaeoi?aie ?o oene i?eca?a aei a?aeiiae a?ae eeaniaeo canaae
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? aeaeea?oaaiiy ia?aoiaeo aei aeaiie?ao??.

Nooo?aei oaeoi?ii, ui aecia/aa iie?oe/i? i?ioeane Eai’yiaoeueei? aeiae,
aoee noia?a/iino? i?ae iaaeaei?i?yinueeei ? aaeeoeueeei o?yaeaie. Aiie
aacoaaeenue ia ??cieoe? ?aeaieia?/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo canaae
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy oa ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo i??i?eoao?a. Iie?oe/ia
ai?ioueaa i?ae Aee?aeoi???th oa Aeeeoaoo?ith iaea nai?i iane?aeeii
ia?ao?ae aei aeaiie?aoe/ieo oi?i oi?aae?iiy.

Aaee/acia cia/aiiy aeey noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae iaei
yeiaeoaeaeoa iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ?iaioe aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aia?aoo OI?. Oiio
o?yae i?oia ia a?aeiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? oeo i?noeaaeo ?inoeoooe?e OI?,
ye? ?nioaaee aei a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ianooio. I?e noai?aii? aeaaeieo
no?oeoo? iaaecae/aeii aieth/eie aeey OI? aoee eaae?iaa i?iaeaia,
o?iainiaa ne?ooa oa noia?a/iino? i?ae oeea?eueiith oa a?enueeiaith
aeaaeaie. Oiio a cacia/aieo oiiaao o?yae OI? ia ci?a noai?eoe
i?aoethth/eo i?aai?a aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aeaaee ia i?noeyo.

Aeey ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai i?aai?cio o?yae i?iaiaeea
eiiieaen caoiae?a ii cai?o iiaeaoe?a, noaa?e?caoe?? eo?no oe?a?inueei?
aaethoe oa oiaa?iiai?io c caei?aeiiieie aea?aeaaaie. Aea an? aiie ia
oa?i/aeenue oni?oaie. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ?icoe?aiiy nioe?aeueii?
aace Aee?aeoi??? iaei ae??oaiiy aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy. I?eeiaoiith
oaiaeaioe??th oeueiai ia??iaeo ? “iii?aa?iiy” /anoeie naeyinoaa, yea
ii/eia? noeeyoeny aei aeeoio caie? o i?eaaoio aeani?noue, aea i?ia?ae
OI? ia iaaaaeeany ci?ieoe aa?a?io iie?oeeo, ui ?acii c ?ioeie /eiieeaie
i?ecaaei aei c?eao caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie, a a?aeoae Aee?aeoi??? ia
aaeaeinue i?eaa?iooe oe?ieee caaae naeyinoaa ia na?e a?e.

O Eai’yiaoeueeo aeiao o?yae i?ia?a cia/io ?iaioo a iai?yi?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?eie?aiiy. Aaeeaath/e i?ioeiia?iiieo caoiae?a oa
ao?ethth/e a aeeooy caeii i?i ?a?aenueeo iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?niiaeueio
aaoiiii?th, i?ia?ae OI? coi?a aeiaeoeny, ye ia oie /an, iaaiiai
iie?ioaiiy oe?a?inueei-?a?aenueeeo a?aeiinei ? caeo/aiiy aeayeeo
?a?aenueeeo ia?o?e aei i?ioeano aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa OI?.

Iniiaiei ci?noii ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Aee?aeoi??? OI? aoea ai?ioueaa ca
aeciaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie aea?aeaaaie Caoiaeo oa iiooe nithciee?a.
I?ney i?iaaeo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia iaaaaeaiiy noinoie?a c aaeeeeie
e?a?iaie, o?yae ii/eia? i?iaiaeeoe aeoeaio iie?oeeo iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
?aa?iiaeueiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c iaeaeeae/eie non?aeaie. Aea aeiaeoeny
aeciaiiy noaa?aiiino? OI? ia aaeaeinue. Aioo??oiy neaae?noue
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo aoea iniiaiith i?e/eiith
iaaaea/ ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?.

I?EI?OEE:

1. Aeiie/aiei A. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe??. —A 3-o oiiao.- E., 1990. — O.C.

2. O?enothe I. Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y. ?ica?aeee ? iaoa??aee. Cai?oee ?
iaoa??aee aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??. —A 4-o
oiiao.- A?aeaiue., 1922. — O. ?V. — 192 n.

3. Aeioeaiei I. E?oiien oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??. Iaoa??aee ? aeieoiaioe
aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??. — O. 2. Eieaa 4. — Euea?a., 1923.
— 362 n.

4. Oaiiaae I. ?aaiethoe?eiee nioe?ae?ci ia Oe?a?i?. — A?aeaiue., 1921.;
Oaiiaae I. A?enueei ? ?aaiethoe?y. — I?aaa, Euea?a., 1923. — 24 n.;
Oaiiaae I. Caiaeueia ni?aaa ia Oe?a?i?. — I?aaa., a/ae.; Oaiiaae I.
Caiaiaae OI?. — I?aaa., 1928. — 42 n.;Oaiiaae I. Aaeeea ?aaiethoe?y ?
oe?a?inueea aecaieueia i?ia?aia. — I?aaa., 1928. — 325 n.

5. Oaiiaae I. Caiaiaae OI?. — I?aaa., 1928. — 42 n.;

6. Oaiiaae I. Aaeeea ?aaiethoe?y ? oe?a?inueea aecaieueia i?ia?aia —
I?aaa., 1928. — 325n.

7. A?eai???a I. Iaoeth??aueia. — I?aaa., 1925. — 24 n.; A?eai???a I.
Oe?a?inueea ai?ioueaa ca aea?aeaao a ?ieao 1917-1920. — Ne?aioii., 1934.

8. Ca??iee iai’yoe Neiiia Iaoeth?e. — E., 1992. — 259 n.

9. Eaionoyinueeee I. Iio?ae oe?a?inueeeo a?i?e ia Ee?a-Iaeano a 1919 ?.
— Euea?a., 1921. — O. 1-3. Ei. /. 1-2. — 88 n.; *. 3 — 128 n.

10. Eiceinueeee I. Aaee/aie ia ie?ia?e eiioa?aioe?? a Ia?eae?. —
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee., 1919. — 22 n.; Ia?aieei A. Oe?aeia e
iieeoeea Aioaiou. — Aa?eei., 1921. — 397 n.; Iaiaeei A. 3’?aeeiai?
aea?aeaae no?aeii? ?a?iie, Aaee/eia e Oe?a?ia noi?ioe Iieueu? e ?in??. —
A?aeaiue., 1922. — 82 n.

11. Aieueaeaeueiai N. Eenoe aeeae?anueeiai nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoa i?i
Oe?a?io. Iaoa??aee aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei-aeeae?anueeeo a?aeiinei ca
/an?a ?aaiethoe??. — A?aeaiue., 1921. — 78 n.; Aieueaeaeueiai N.
AEeae?anueea iaoe?iiaeueia aaoiiii?y ia Oe?a?i? (1917-1920 ??.). —
Ithioai., 19aC.

12. Iacaia ?. Oe?a?ia a iai? e ao?? ?aaiethoe??. — I?aaa., 1942. — O.2.
— 232 n.

13. Iacaia ?. I?aenoaae iaoiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. — I?aaa., 1946. — *. ?. —
163 n.

14. Oaeiae/aiei I. Oe?a?ia o a?ei? ca aea?aeaai?noue. ?noi??y,
i?aai?caoe?y ? aieia? neee 1917-1921. — E., 1995. — 206 n.; Oaieianueeee
E. Oe?a?inueea a?i?y a ai?iouea? ca aea?aeaai?noue. — Ithioai., 1958. —
317 n.

15. Noao?a I. Oe?a?ia a aeiao Aee?aeoi??? OI?. — Ne?aioii., 1962-1966. —
O. 1-7.

16. I??/oe I. Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue 1917-1920. — O?eaaeaeueo?y.,
1967. — 400 n.

17. Iieiinueea-Aaneeaiei I. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. A?ae na?aaeeie OV?? no. aei
1923 ?ieo. — E., 1992. — O.2. — 608 n.; Noaoaeueiee I. Oe?a?ia. ?noi??y.
— E., 1993. — 720 n.

18. Aoi/ae O. Oe?a?ia. Ia?oa iieiaeia aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy. — E.,
1993. — 288 n.;Aoi/ae O. Neiii Iaoeth?a oa ?a?a?. — E., 1993. — 48 n.;
Iaaa?anueeee ?. ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy. —
E., 1993. — 413 n.

19. Oe?a?inueea ?N? a ia??iae a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie (1917-1920 ??.). — A
3-o o. — E., 1967. — O.2.; Enoi?ey Oe?aeineie NN?: A 10-oe oiiao. — E.,
1983. — O.6.; ?noi??y ?ia?oie/iai eeano Oe?a?inueei? ?N?: A 2-o oiiao. —
E., 1967. — O.2; ?noi??y naeyinoaa Oe?a?inueei? ?N?: A 2-o oiiao. — E.,
1967. — O.2.

20. Eeoieao A.A. ?aca?ii ao?aeoacii-iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneie Aee?aeoi?ee ia
Oe?aeia. — I.: Ainiieeoecaeao, 1949. — 215 n.; ?eaaeea ?.E. ?ica?ii
ao?aeoacii-iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? Aee?aeoi??? ia Oe?a?i?. —Oa?e?a., — 1962 —
186 n.

21. Noi?oiaiei I.E. I/a?ee enoi?ee a?aaeaeaiieie aieiu e eiino?aiiie
aiaiiie eioa?aaioeee ia Oe?aeia. — I., 1966. — 455 n.

22. Aoiaithe N.E. Ai?ioueaa o?oaeyueo Iiae?eey c aioo??oiueith
eiio??aaiethoe??th a ?iee a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie (1918-1920 ??.): Aeen.
eaiae. ?no. iaoe. — E., 1976.

23. Aa?nothe A.O. Iaoiiaueia. Naeyinueeee iianoainueeee ?oo ia Oe?a?i?
(1913-1920). — E., 1991. — 352 n.; Aiooeye ?.E. Iie?oe/i? aniaeoe
?noi??? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ia Oe?a?i? // Oo?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee
aeo?iae. — 1990. — ?12. — N. 36-47; Eeoaei I.?., Iaoiaiei E.?. ?noi??y
aaeeoeueeiai no??eaoeoaa. — Euea?a., 1990. — 200 n.; Oe?aeia a 1917-1921
aa. Iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu enoi?ee: Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. — E., 1991. —
280 n.

24. Iaaeaiei TH., O?aiia TH. Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue o 1917-1919 ??.
— E., 1995. — 262 n.

25. ssaeiinueeee A.I. Iniiai? i?iaeaie ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
o?yaeo OI? (/a?aaiue-a?oaeaiue 1919 ?ieo). //A?niee Ee?anueeiai
Oi?aa?neoaoo. — Na??y ?noi???. — 1994. — N. 155-164.

26. Neiii Iaoeth?a oa oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaiethoe?y: Ca??iee
i?aoeue ae?oaiai eiieo?no iaoeth?iciaaoe?a Oe?a?ie. — E., 1995. — 368 n.

27. A?eoeaiei A.I. Iie?oe/i? neee o ai?iouea? ca aeaaeo a Oe?a?i?: ??e
1919-e. — E., 1996. —

81 n.

28. ?a?io I.I. Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y ? ?ia?oieoeoai.
(Nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? ci?ie 1917-1920 ??.). — E., 1996.—
256 n.; Aiae?oneoei A. O iiooeao nioe?aeueii? ??aiiaaae: ia?en ?noi???
?ia?oie/i? iie?oeee oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a ?aaiethoe?? oa aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue 1917-1920 ??. —E., 1995. — 192 n.

29. Aa?aaothe N.A. Ciai?oiy iie?oeea Aee?aeoi??? OI?: Aeen. eaiae. ?no.
iaoe. — E., 1996; Aaae?i??a Ae.A. Noaiiaeaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii?
neoaeae Oe?a?ie (1917-1920): Aeen. eaiae. ?no. iaoe. — E., 1994;
Ai?iaeiy I.Ae. Iie?oeea e?a?i Aioaioe oa NOA uiaei aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie
a 1917-1919 ??.: Aeen. eaiae. ?no. iaoe. — E., 1995; Caaeoiaenueeee A.A.
Ca?iei? neee OI? (1917-1920 ??): Aeen. eaiae. ?no. iaoe. — E., 1995;
No??eaoeue A.A. Aea?aeaaioai?/a ae?yeuei?noue iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e Oe?a?ie
(1917-1920 ??.): Aeen. eaiae. ?no. iaoe. — E., 1992.

30 A?aaianueeee N., Noaa?iyi? N., Oeey? E. Ia?ene c ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. — E., 1995. — 608 n.; Oe?a?inueea
aea?aeaai?noue o OO noie?oo?. ?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/iee aiae?c. — E.,
1996. — 436 n.

31. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. Iiaa aa/aiiy. O 2 o. /I?ae ?aae. A.A.Niie?y. — E.,
1996. — O.2. — 494 n.

32. A?eoeae ss. Ia?en ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii? oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?? O?O-OO no. — E., 1996. — 360 n.

33. Eiieeaiei I.E., Eiieeaiei I.E. Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai Oe?a?ie 1917-1920 —
E., 1993. — 48n.

34.Aiae?oneoei A. Oea?eaa a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? 1917-1920 ??. (aeiaa
Aee?aeoi??? OI?). — E., 1997.

35. Iiae?eey a ?iee a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie. Aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee. —
A?iieoey., 1959. — 488 n.; A?aaeaeaineay aieia ia Oe?aeia. A 3-o oiiao,
4-o eieaao. Nai?iee aeieoiaioia e iaoa?eaeia. — E., 1967. — O.2. —918 n.

36. Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y. Aeieoiaioe 1919 — 1921 ??. Aeaea?aea aei
iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Oii?yaeiee Aoi/ae O.-Iueth-Ei?e.,1984.

37. Eiaaeaanueeee I. I?e aeaea?aeao ai?ioueae. Niiaaaee, a?aaeaiiy,
?aoeaen??. — ?ina?oe., 1960. — 720 n.; Eaaeoeueeee I. Aaeeoeueea a?i?y
ia Aaeee?e Oe?a?i?. — A?aeaiue., 1921. — 194 n.; Iaeoo ?. Ia ia?iaei?e
neoaea?. — Ae?o?ieo., 1958. — 628 n.;Ia?oin A. Ine?eei e Aieai/ai.
Niiaaaee. — Ithioai., 1958. — 62 n.; Iaoethe I. Aeiaa Aee?aeoi??? OI?.
Niiieie ? ?icaeoie. — Euea?a., 1939;. Ieooaa E. Iio?ae oe?a?inueeiai
a?enueea ia Ee?a. — A?aeaiue., 1920; Iaca?oe I. ??e ia Aaeee?e Oe?a?i?.
— A?aeaiue., 1921. — 344 n.; Iiaeueyiiae/-Iaaeaiei I. Ia Oe?a?i? 1919.
Ia?aaiai?e e a?eia c ?in?enueeith aeia?iaieue/ith a?i??th. — I?aaa.,
1940; ?aaiethoeey ia Oe?aeia ii iaioa?ai aaeuo. — Iineaa — Eaieia?aae.,
1930. — 435 n.; Oa?iaanueeee I. Niiaaaee. — Euea?a, 1992. — 126
n.;Oaaeaiei I. ?naae Iacaia — ai?aoeue ca aieth Oe?a?ie. — Eiiaeii.,
1954. — 228 n.; *eeaeaiei E. O?eaee c? niiaaae?a c ?ie?a 1919-1920. —
Iueth-Ei?e, 1963. — 166 n.; Oe?eueiee I. Oe?a?ia o ai?iouea? ca
aea?aeaai?noue a 1917-1921 ?ieao. Niiaaaee ? ?icaeoie. — Oi?iioi, 1971.
— 351 n.; Oooaae/ N. Niiieie. — Euea?a, 1929. — *. ???. —

162 n.

nienie iioae?eiaaieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue

1. Aa?a?ia iie?oeea Aee?aeoi??? OI? //Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. —
1997. — ? 2. — N.68-76.

2. Iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea Aee?aeoi??? OI? //Iaoa??aee iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? “Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ? oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaioai?/ee
i?ioean”. — Ee?a., 1997. — 1 /anoeia. — N. 106-115.

3. “O?oaeiaee i?eioeei” /e aeaiie?ao?y: aea?? iie?oe/ieo canaae
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a aeiao Aee?aeoi??? OI? //Eiina?aaoeci ?
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oeaio?aeueii-No?aei?e ?a?ii?. — Eooeuee—Ethae?i.,
1997. — N. 47-50.

4. Aeu? i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee OI? Eai’yiaoeueei? aeiae Aee?aeoi???
(/a?aaiue-eenoiiaae 1919 ?.) //Iiae?eey ? Aieeiue o eiioaeno? ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy: Iaoeiaee ca??iee. —
Oiaeueieoeueeee., 1995. — N. 141-143.

5. I?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee OI? a Eai’yiaoeueeo aeiao Aee?aeoi???
(/a?aaiue-eenoiiaae 1919 ?.) //Iaoa??aee ?O-i? Iiae?euenueei?
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/i? eiioa?aioe??. — Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee., 1995.
— N. 283-285.

6. I?iaeiaieue/a iie?oeea Aee?aeoi??? OI? //Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “Iaaeaeea?ae: 850 ?ie?a ?noi???”. — Iaaeaeea?ae., 1996. —
N. 137-139.

7. O?iaine OI? o Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae Aee?aeoi??? (/a?aaiue-eenoiiaae
1919 ?.) //Oace aeiiia?aeae i’yoiaaeoeyoi? iaeanii? ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/i?
eiioa?aioe??. — A?iieoey., 1996. — N. 42-45.

8. Ciai?oiy iie?oeea Aee?aeoi??? OI? a Eai’yiaoeueeo aeiao
(/a?aaiue-eenoiiaae 1919 ?.) //Academia ia iioaio i?ioani?a
E.A.Eiaaeaiea. ?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. — Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee.,
1997. — 1 /anoeia. — N. 146-148.

9. Iiaee?aueia a /a?ai?-eenoiiaae? 1919 ?. //Iaoa??aee oa aeiiia?ae?
ia?oi? Iiaee?a-Iiae?euenueei? e?a?ciaa/i? eiioa?aioe??. —
Iiaee?a-Iiae?euenueeee., 1996. — N. 75-77.

10. Noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? iano?i? naeyinoaa Noa?ieinoyioei?anueeiai
iia?oo ia ii/aoeo e?oa 1919 ?. //Noa?ieinoyioei?a ? e?ae a i?inoi??
/ano. Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/i?
eiioa?aioe?? “Aaeeea Aieeiue”, i?enay/aii? 470 ??//th a?ae aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy eiycy E.A.Ino?icueeiai. —
Oiaeueieoeueeee—Noa?ieinoyioei?a—Nai/eee., 1997. — N. 166-168.

11. Ae?yeuei?noue ?.Ia??iea a Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae Aee?aeoi??? OI?
//Aeooiaia ? iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue ?.?.Ia??iea (1882-1972)
a eiioaeno? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Iaoeia?
aeiiia?ae? ae?oai? Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. —
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee—Ee?a., 1997. — N. 89-90.

12. N.Iaoeth?a a Eai’yiaoeueeo aeiao Aee?aeoi??? OI? (/a?aaiue-eenoiiaae
1919 ?.) // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Aeooiai? aeoiee Iiae?eey: oai?oe? ?noi??? e?ath”. — Oiaeueieoeueeee,
1994. *anoeia 1. — N. 304-307.

13. Aeoia?aa//eia a Eai’yiaoeueeo aeiao Aee?aeoi??? OI?
(/a?aaiue-eenoiiaae 1919 ?.) // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-e?a?ciaa/i?
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeoia?aa//eia i/eia aeine?aeiee?a, o/aniee?a ? na?aee?a
?noi?e/ieo iiae?e”. — Ee?a., 1997. — N. 69-71.

14. Aee?aeoi??y OI? oa iianoainueeee ?oo a Oe?a?i? (1919 ?.) //Oai?/?
aa?oeie a/aiiai. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aei 60-??//y a?ae aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a I.A.Eoeo?oaecyea. —
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee., 1998. — N. 232-241.

Aiioaoe??

Eiciaee A.N. Eai’yiaoeueea aeiaa Aee?aeoi??? Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee (/a?aaiue-eenoiiaae 1919 ?.) — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01. — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. ?inoeooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith eiiieaeno i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c
iie?oe/ieie iiae?yie, ui iaee i?noea a Eai’yiaoeueeee ia??iae
Aee?aeoi??? Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee.

Aiae?co?oueny iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa i?ae “e?aeie” oa “i?aaeie” oa/?yie
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, yea i?ecaaea aei ci?ie
iie?oe/ieo canaae aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Aoei a?aeeeiooi eeaniaee
“o?oaeiaee i?eioeei” oa caaeaeea?iaaii ia?ao?ae aei ia?eaiaionueei?
nenoaie ia iniia? caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/ieo aeai??a.

?icaeyaea?oueny ae?yeuei?noue Aee?aeoi??? oa o?yaeo Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee, ni?yiiaaia ia ae??oaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaieo,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, iaoe?iiaeueieo oa ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo i?iaeai.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaiith ia?aoeiaeith aeey ?aae?caoe?? aeuacacia/aieo
caaaeaiue aoea aioo??oiy neaae?noue aeaaee Aee?aeoi??? Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Aee?aeoi??y, iiiceoe?y, “o?oaeiaee i?eioeei”,
aeaiie?ao?y, aaei?i?no?aoe?y, o?iainiaa iie?oeea, aa?a?ia iie?oeea,
ciai?oiy iie?oeea.

Eiciaie A.N. Eaiaiaoeeee ia?eiae Aee?aeoi?ee Oe?aeineie Ia?iaeiie
?anioaeeee (ethiue-iiya?ue 1919 a.). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01. — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Einoeooo enoi?ee Oe?aeiu
IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth eiiieaena i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
iieeoe/aneeie niauoeyie, eiaaoeie ianoi a Eaiaiaoeeee ia?eiae
Aee?aeoi?ee Oe?aeineie Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeee.

Aiaeece?oaony iieeoe/aneay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo “eaauie” e “i?aauie”
oa/aieyie oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey,
eioi?ay i?eaaea e niaia iieeoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa. Aue ioa?ioai eeanniaue “o?oaeiaie i?eioeei” e
caaeaeea?e?iaai ia?aoiae e ia?eaiaioneie nenoaia ia iniiaa
iauaaeaiie?aoe/aneeo auai?ia.

?anniao?eaaaony aeayoaeueiinoue Aee?aeoi?ee e i?aaeoaeuenoaa Oe?aeineie
Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeee ,iai?aaeaiiay ia ?aoaiea aaeieieno?aoeaiuo,
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo e aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo i?iaeai.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iniiaiui i?aiyonoaeai aeey ?aaeecaoeee auoaoeacaiiuo
caaea/ auea aioo?aiiyy neaainoue aeanoe Aee?aeoi?ee Oe?aeineie Ia?iaeiie
?anioaeeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Aee?aeoi?ey, iiiiceoeey, “o?oaeiaie i?eioeei”,
aeaiie?aoey, aaeieieno?aoeey, oeiainiaay iieeoeea, aa?a?iay iieeoeea,
aiaoiyy iieeoeea.

Lozovy V.S. The Kamenet‘s Period of the Ukrainian People’s Republic
(June — November 1919). — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree of historical sciences in speciality
07.00.01. — History of Ukraine. — Institute of History of Ukraine of the
NAS of Ukraine, Kiev, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to studying of a complex of problems
connected with the political events ,which took place in Kamenet‘s
periodofDirectoria of the Ukrainian People’s Republic.

The political struggle between the “left” and the “right” trends in the
Ukrainian national movement which resulted in the change of thepolitical
principles of the State building. Class “labour principle”was neglected
and the transition to parliamentary system on thebasis of general
democratic electionswas proclaimed.

Theactivity ofDirectoria andthe government of the Ukrainian People’s
Republic directed at solvingof theadministrative, social-economic,
national and foreign policy problems is under consideration.. It
wasdetermined that the inner weakness of Directoria’s power of
theUkrainian People’s Republic was the main obstacle for the realization
of the problemsmentioned abore.

Key words: Directoria, opposition, “labour principle”, democracy,
administration, financial policy, agrarian policy, foreign policy.

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