?inoeooo ciieia?? ?i. ?. ?. Oiaeueaaocaia

IAI Oe?a?ie

OAeE 595.792.23

AOIIANUeEEE

Ieaen?e Aaneeueiae/

?caeoe?-aioaaeii?ie (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Entedoninae) Oe?a?ie:
ii?oi-a?ieia?/iee aiae?c oa aeieiai-oaoi?noe/iee iaeyae

03.00.09 — aioiiieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ciieia?? ?i. ?. ?. Oiaeueaaocaia

Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ca?iaa Ia?eia Aeieo??aia,

caa. a?aeae?eii Nenoaiaoeee aioiiioaa?a

oa aeieia?/ieo iniia a?iiaoiaea

?inoeoooo ciieia?? ?i. ?.?.Oiaeueaaocaia

Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

?aae/aiei Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

?inoeoooo ciieia?? ?i. ?.?.Oiaeueaaocaia

Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ae?icaea Aaeaioei Oaaei?iae/,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

?inoeoooo caoenoo ?ineei

Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? Aa?a?ieo Iaoe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee Aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 29 a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.153.01 i?e ?inoeooo? ciieia?? ?i. ?.
?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252601, Ee?a-30, aoe. A.
Oiaeueieoeueeiai, 15.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ciieia??

?i. ?. ?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 27 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee

A. A. Cieioia

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue ieoaiiy. ?caeoe?-aioaaeii?ie yaeythoue niaith iaeio c
iae/eneaii?oeo i?ae?iaeei ?iaeeie Eulophidae, yea, a naith /a?ao, ?
iaea?eueoith ca e?euee?noth iienaieo aeae?a na?aae ?iaeei Chalcidoidea
(Noyes, 1978). Aiaeii/an Entedoninae yaeythoue niaith iaeio c aeiiii?/ii
aaaeeeaeo oa anana?oiuei iioe?aieo a?oi oaeueoeeaei?aeieo ?caeoe?a.
Na?oiaa oaoia oe??? i?ae?iaeeie aeeth/a? aeecueei 60 ?iae?a oa a?eueoa
ye 800 iienaieo aeae?a.

I?ae?iaeeia Entedoninae ia`?aeio? ?caeoe?a ae??aieo oa na?aaei?o
?ici???a

(0.6 — 6.8 ii caaaeiaaeee) c oeiiaei aeey oaeueoeeae ?aaeoeiaaiei
aeeeeoaaiiyi e?ee ? ia?aaaaeii iaoaeaai aeeneo/eie iie?eaaie. Ee/eiee
a?eueoino? aioaaeii?i ? ia?aeiieie /e aoi?eiieie aiaeiia?aceoaie y?oeue
oa ee/eiie i?aaenoaaiee?a ?yae?a Diptera, Lepidotera, Coleoptera,
Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera oa Homoptera, ui aeeaooue ye
a?aee?eoi, oae ? i?eoiaaii. Cei?aey a?aeaoaa?oueny ia noaae?? ee/eiee
inoaiiueiai a?eo /e eyea/ee. Cia/ia e?euee?noue oacy?a aioaaeii?i ?
oe?aeieeaie n?euenueeiai (oaoi?/i?, ieiaeia?, iai/aa?, aeaei?aoeai?,
e?ea?nuee? eoeueoo?e) oa e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa. A e?a?iao Iiaiai Na?oo
aioaaeii?ie aeoeaii aeei?enoiaothoueny a oaoi?/i?e aioiiieia??: Edovum
puttleri Grissell — ia?aceo y?oeue eiei?aaenueeiai aeoea Leptinotarsa
decemlineata, Ceranisus menes (Walker) ? Thripobius semiluteus Ferriere
— ia?aceoe o?ein?a oa ?io?.

Oi/a i?ioyaii inoaii?o 20 ?ie?a c`yaeeeny ocaaaeueithth/? ?iaioe a
aaeoc? nenoaiaoeee aioaaeii?i, nooo?a? ei?aeoeae aoee cai?iiiiiaai? aei
?o nenoaie oa noaoono iaaieo oaenii?a (Boucek, 1988; LaSalle & Schauff,
1994; Hansson, 1990, 1994a, 1994b, 1995, 1996; Schauff, 1984, 1986,
1988, 1989, 1991), i?ae?iaeeia ana ua caeeoa?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei
aea/aiith ye a nenoaiaoe/iiio, oae ? o oaoi?noe/iiio a?aeiioaii?:
iaa?aeiia a?ieia?y aaaaoueio aeae?a, iniaeeaino? ?o iioe?aiiy, aaaaoi
ae?aaiinoe/ieo iciae aeyaeythoueny iaaeoi i?ieeaeie i?e aea/aii?
aeiaeaoeiaeo iaoa??ae?a.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? eiiieaeniee ii?oi-a?ieia?/iee aiae?c oa
aeieiai-oaoi?noe/iee iaeyae oaeueoeeae i?ae?iaeeie Entedoninae
(Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae) oaoie Oe?a?ie. Ca?aeii c oe??th
iaoith iinoaaeaii oae? caaaeaiiy:

Aeyaeaiiy aeaeiaiai neeaaeo oa oaoi?noe/ia ?aa?c?y aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?oieia?? ?iaai ye iniiae aeey aecia/aiiy
ae?aaiinoe/iiai cia/aiiy ie?aieo iciae.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aeiiiaiaiiy aeaieo c ii?oieia??, a?ieia??
i?a?iaa?iaeueieo oac ?icaeoeo, o?io?/ieo ca`yce?a oa niiniao aeeooy
?iaai aioaaeii?i.

Aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie iaeiaio aea/aiiai na?aae aioaaeii?i iii?iaoeaiiai
?iaeo Entedon: aiae?c ae?aaiinoe/ieo iciae, ia?aaeyae iiae?eo ia a?oie
aeae?a, aeyaeaiiy aae?aeiino? iaca iaaieo aeae?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie aeyaeaii 98 aeae?a c 17 ?iae?a, ui
aeaei iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoeoe nienie ?aa?iiaeueii? oaoie a?eueo i?ae o 8
?ac?a; 64 aeaee oa 11 ?iae?a aia?oa iaaiaeyoueny aeey oaoie Oe?a?ie.
I?ioyaii i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue c Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a iienaii
8 iiaeo aeey iaoee aeae?a oa 1 iiaee i?ae??ae, iacae 11 aeae?a oa 1
?iaeo caaaeaii aei neiii?i?a, ia i?aenoaa? ii?oieia?? ?iaai a?aeiiaeaii
noaoon 1 ?iaeo (Epipleurotropis, iacaa yeiai ?ai?oa aaaaeaeany iieiaeoei
neiii?iii aei Pediobius). I?iaiae?ciaaii iioe?aiiy aioaaeii?i oaoie
Oe?a?ie ca a?ioiiaie oa aieiaieie ?ineeiieie oa?oiiaaiiyie.

Ia i?aenoaa? ii??aiyeueii-ii?oieia?/iiai aiae?co i?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo
ae?aaiinoe/iiai cia/aiiy ie?aieo iciae, aeaye? c ieo aia?oa
cai?iiiiiaai? aeey aaeeoeo a nenoaiaoeoe? a?oie.

Aia?oa ocaaaeueiaii aeai? c o?io?/ieo ca`yce?a ee/eiie aioaaeii?i,
iienaii ??ci? oeie ?o niaoe?ae?caoe??. Ia i?eeeaae? aioaaeii?i
cai?iiiiiaaii ci?ie aei eeaneo?eaoe?? oi?i o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??
ia?aceoe/ieo Hymenoptera, iienaii aeaa iia? oeie niaoe?ae?caoe??. Aeey
aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie neeaaeaii nienie oacy?a, aea 4 aeaee eiiao-oacy?a oa
5 aeae?a ei?iiaeo ?ineei oacy?a aeacai? aia?oa. Aia?oa io?eiaii
a?oioiai? aeai? c a?ieia?? Entedon (Entedon) zanara (Walker), a naia:
ia?oaaiiy ?iaai, iiooe oa ca?aaeaiiy oacy?ia, ii?oieia?y ee/eiee
inoaiiueiai a?eo, caeyeueeiaoaaiiy, o?aaeaiiy aoi?eiieie ia?aceoaie,
oiui.

?aa?ciaaii nenoaio ?iaeo Entedon: aianaii aei?aaeaiiy oa aeiiiaiaiiy aei
eiai ae?aaiico, cai?iiiiiaaii iiae?e ?iaeo ia aeaa i?ae?iaee — Entedon
(Entedon) s. str. oa iiaiiienaiee Entedon (Cederholmia) Gumovsky,
i?iaaaeaii e?eoe/iee aiae?c iiae?eo i?ae?iaeo Entedon (Entedon) ia a?oie
aeae?a, aiane?aeie /iai cai?iiiiiaaii iiae?e oeueiai i?ae?iaeo ia 8 a?oi
aeae?a (squamosus, cioni, hercyna, cyanellus, costalis, sparetus,
crassiscapus oa kerteszi, c yeeo aea? inoaii? a?oie aeae?eaii aia?oa),
ooi/iaii ae?aaiice oa neeaae oeeo a?oi.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. ?iaioa ? ia?oei eiiieaeniei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?caeoe?a-aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie, a oiae? yeiai aoei io?eiaii
i?ea?iaeuei? aeai? c ?o oaeniiii??, ii?oieia?? oa a?ieia??. Aiae?c oeeo
aeaieo aeicaieea aeyaeoe ii?oi-a?ieia?/io niaoeeo?eo Entedoninae ia
oa?eoi??? cacia/aiiai ?aa?iio, ui cia/ii ?icoe?th? iao? oyaeaiiy ye i?i
oaoio Oe?a?ie, oae ? i?i oaeniiii?/iee neeaae, ii?oieia?th, a?ieia?th oa
nenoaio oe??? i?ae?iaeeie a oe?eiio. A i?ioean? aea/aiiy iaoa??ae?a
?aa?iiaeueii? oaoie aoei ooi/iaii ae?aaiic i?ae?iaeeie c a?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeo?ee ii?oieia?? i?noeaaeo ?? i?aaenoaaiee?a, ui, ?acii c
?ic?iaeaieie i?ea?iaeueieie oaaeeoeyie aei aecia/aiiy ?iae?a oa aeae?a
oaoie Oe?a?ie, cia/ii iieaaoeoue aecia/aiiy aioaaeii?i oe?ieiio eieo
aioiiieia?a oa oao?aoe?a c caoenoo ?ineei. A ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue aoei
aeyaeaii 59 aeae?a aioaaeii?i, ui iathoue aaciina?aaei? (o?aaeaiiy
o?oioaa?a-oe?aeiee?a) oa iiina?aaeeiaaia (i?aeo?eiea i?e?iaeii?
aeeiai?ee iiioeyoe?e ei?enieo o?oi- oa aioiiioaa?a /a?ac ae?i?iaoe?th
/anoeie iniaei) ainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy, c ieo 22 aeaee aia?oa iaaaaeaii
aeey oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino? ?iciiae?eo aioaaeii?i
oaoie Oe?a?ie ca ?ineeiieie oa?oiiaaiiyie oa aeai? c ?o iioe?aiiy a
ie?aieo ?aa?iiao (ia oa?eoi??? ia`?eo?a i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo
cie?aia) aeicaieythoue ye?ni?oa ioe?ieoe i?noeaa? i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne
aioiiioaa?a. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai ii??aiyeueii-ii?oieia?/iiai oa
oaeniiii?/iiai aiae?co iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iiaoaeiae
i?e?iaeii? nenoaie ye aeania Entedoninae, oae Eulophidae a oe?eiio. Iien
iiaeo oaenii?a ? iaaiei aianeii a nenoaiaoeeo i?ae?iaeeie. Iiaee iiaeyae
ia caeiiii??iino? ?icoe?aiiy ia?aceoi-oacy?iieo ca`yce?a aioaaeii?i
aeicaiey? ii-iiaiio ioe?ieoe i?aeoiaee oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaaaeaiiy
eaai?aoi?ieo eoeueoo? i?aeoe/ii cia/oueo eiiao-ia?aceo?a, iiaeeeaino? ?o
ae?iuoaaiiy ia cacaeaeaa?aeue ia?aiiio oacy?i? oa ?io?iaeoeoe?? a ?io?
?aa?iie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno. 1) Oaoia aioaaeii?i
Oe?a?ie i?aaenoaaeaia 98 aeaeaie, ui iaeaaeaoue aei 17 ?iae?a. 2)
Na?aaeeiiee e?eue i?iiiaeaoia a iaaeao i?ae?iaeeie cacia? nooo?aeo
aeaeici?i, ye? iiaeooue aooe a?aeiia?aeii eeaneo?eiaai?. 3) A?/i? e?e?
i?iiiaeaoio aioaaeii?i ia ? naiino?eiei ooai?ii, a yaeythoue niaith
a?ia?o?ioiaaia i?aeiyooy aioo??oiueiai /e ciai?oiueiai e?ath a?/iiai
aeieiaa, a?aeiia?aeii, iayai?noue /e a?aenooi?noue a?/ieo e?e?a ia iiaea
neoaoaaoe ca naiino?eio ae?aaiinoe/io iciaeo ?iaeiaiai ??aiy. 4)
Aioaaeii?ie oaoie Oe?a?ie iathoue aiaeii/an i?eiaeii? o?e c ianooiieo
iciae: eiaio ?icaeeeo, caeiieaiiy noaia?a?iaeueii? aeeeee ia?aaeiueiai
e?eea a i?noe? ?? ia?aoiaeo a ia?anoeaio, ei?ioeo noeaiaeueio aeeeeo
ia?aaeiueiai e?eea oa iaeio ia?o uaoeiie ia neooaeoi?. 5) E??i iioe?aii?
na?aae aioaaeii?i ii?oi-oeiiai? o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??, aioaaeii?iai
aeanoea? aea? iia? oi?ie oe??? niaoe?ae?caoe??: oiii-oeiiaa oa
nenoaiaoe/ia; ?icoe?aiiy ia?aceoi-oacy?iieo ca`yce?a aioaaeii?i
a?aeaoaa?oueny caaaeyee iine?aeiaiiio /a?aoaaiith ??cieo oi?i ?o
o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??. 6) ??ae Entedon iiae?ey?oueny ia aeaa
i?ae?iaee — Entedon (Entedon) s. str. oa Entedon (Cederholmia) Gumovsky,
i?ae??ae Entedon neeaaea?oueny c 8 a?oi aeae?a (squamosus, cioni,
hercyna, cyanellus, costalis, sparetus, crassiscapus oa kerteszi).

Ioae?eaoe??. C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 15 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oacao
onieo aenooi?a oa iaaiai?ai? ia 3 eiioa?aioe?yo: iaei?e a?o/eciyi?e (“I
nooaeaionueea iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y oiiaeo O.A.Oaa/aiea”, Ee?a, 1994) oa
aeaio i?aeia?iaeieo («O?aai?ciaaia iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua: ioi?iia
i?e?iaee oa caei?ia`y ethaeeie» (Ee?a, 1995) oa “XI iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y
IFOAM c aeieia?/iiai n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa” (Eiiaiaaaai, 1996)).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 306 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, c yeeo iniiaia /anoeia (ci?no, anooi, 7 ?icae?e?a
oaenoo, aeniiaee, nienie oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e) neeaaea? 150 noi??iie,
153 iaethiee — 26 noi??iie, 5 oaaeeoeue — 5 noi??iie, 10 ae?aa?ai — 5
noi??iie, aeiaeaoee (6 oaaeeoeue oa ?ethno?aoe?? aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie,
aeeth/ath/e ?o aecia/iee) — 120 noi??iie. Nienie e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
i?noeoue 293 iaeiaioaaiiy.

Ci?no ?iaioe

IAOA??AEE oa IAOIAeE aeine?aeaeaiue

A iniiao aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaii ia?o ca ana i?ea?iaeuei?
niinoa?aaeaiiy oa iaoa??aee aeanieo cai??a aaoi?a (1993 — 1998) ia
oa?eoi??? Ieeiea?anueei?, Iieoaanueei?, Oa?e?anueei?, Ee?anueei?,
*a?i?a?anueei?, Oiaeueieoeueei?, Euea?anueei?, Caea?iaonueei?,
Aieeinueei? iaeanoae Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae a aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei.
Iaoa??aee c ?aooe iaeanoae Oe?a?ie aoee ii?aoeueiaai? caaaeyee aea/aiith
eieaeoe?e A?aeae?eo nenoaiaoeee aioiiioaa?a oa aeieia?/ieo iniia
a?iiaoiaeo ?inoeoooo ciieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie (Ee?a) oa Ciieia?/iiai
?inoeoooo ?in?enueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a).

Aeey aeinoia??iiai aecia/aiiy aioaaeii?i aoei aea/aii oeiia? oa iaoeiia?
ii??aiyeuei? aecaiiey?e c eieaeoe?e A?eoainueeiai ?noi?eei-I?e?iaeie/iai
Iocath (Eiiaeii), Iai/anoa?nueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Iai/anoa?, Aiae?y),
Ciieia?/iiai iocath Eoiaenueeiai Oi?aa?neoaoo (Eoiae, Oaaoe?y),
Oaaaenueeiai ?noi?eei-I?e?iaeie/iai Iocath (Noieaieuei), Eaoaae?e
ciieia?? Ieiaae?anueeiai Oi?aa?neoaoo “Ia?n?e O?eaiaea?nueeee”
(Ieiaae?a, Aieaa??y), Iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?noi?eei-I?e?iaeie/iai Iocath
Oai?ueie (Aoaeaiaoo), Aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?eei-I?e?iaeie/iai Iocath
“Aeae?aeiii Aei??a” (Aaioy, ?oae?y), Iocath Eaoaae?e aioiiieia?/ii?
nenoaiaoeee N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai oaeoeueoaoo Oieaeaenueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (Oieaeaei, ssiii?y), ssiiinueei? e?nicaoenii? noaioe??
(A?aa?, ssiii?y), ?inoeoooo caoenoo e?no Eeoaenueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe
(Iae?i), Iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?noi?eei-I?e?iaeie/iai Iocath Niieo/aieo Ooao?a
Aia?eee (Aao?iaoii), ?noi?eei-I?e?iaeie/iai Iocath Eae?oi?i?enueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (Aa?ee?, NOA), Eaiaaenueei? Iaoe?iiaeueii? Eieaeoe?? Eiiao,
A?aoi?ae oa Iaiaoiae (Iooaaa), i?eaaoii? eieaeoe?? Aeii?i?ea Eieea
(Noa?e?ia, Aeynea, NOA) oa Iocath Ieeaiaenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Ieeaiae,
Iiaa Caeaiae?y). Oaeiae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ii?oieia?? oa
iioe?aiiy aioaaeii?i aoei aea/aii iaii?aoeueiaai? iaoa??aee c ??cieo
?aa?ii?a ?a?iie, Ac??, Ao?eee, Aano?ae?? oa Aia?eee c eieaeoe?e
iaaaaeaieo aeua iaoeiaeo caeeaae?a. Aecia/aiiy ?caeoe?a i?iaiaeeeiny
ia?aaaaeii ca iaoa??aeaie caaaeaieo eieaeoe?e, a oaeiae ca e?oa?aoo?ieie
aeaieie (oaaeeoeyie aei aecia/aiiy oa iienaie).

I?ioyaii ?iaioe aoei ii?aoeueiaaii iaoa??ae, ui ia?aoiaoaaa a oe?eiio
iiiaae 4000 aecaiiey??a ?iaai e 300 aecaiiey??a i?a?iaa?iaeueieo oac
(ee/eiie oa eyea/ie), c ieo — 1047 iocaeieo aecaiiey??a. Aiane?aeie
i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe a ?inoeooo? ciieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie
noai?aii ooiaeaiaioaeueio nenoaiaoe/io eieaeoe?th oaeueoeeae-aioaaeii?i,
ui i?noeoue iiiaae 1500 aecaiiey??a, aeeth/ath/e 24 oeiia? aecaiiey?e 6
iiaeo aeae?a; iinoaaeaii nenoaiaoe/io eieaeoe?th c ?iaeo Entedon a
Ciieia?/iiio ?inoeooo? ?in?enueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a), ui
ia?aoiao? aeecueei 220 aecaiiey??a, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue 28 aeae?a.

Aeey cai?o, aeaaaeaiiy c oacy?a, iiiooaaiiy oa aeaioiaeaiiy i?aia?ao?a
?iaai oa ee/eiie aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ia?aaaaeii caaaeueiiaaeeaai?
iaoiaeeee (Noyes, 1978), ui aoee aeiiiaiai? i?aia?oaaiiyi ee/eieiaeo
oeo?ie oa aeei?enoaiiyi i?ea?iaeueii? onoaiiaee aeey aeaaaeaiiy ?caeoe?a
c aiaei- oa aecio?oieo oacy?a. Aeaia onoaiiaea aeicaieyea caa?aaoe a?ae
aenoooaaiiy acyo? a i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu? noaaea ?ineei e aeiaanoe
?icaeoie ee/eiie eiiao-oacy?a oa (/e) ?oi?o ia?aceo?a aei noaae??, ui
aaea ia oa?/oaaeany ? aoea no?eeith aei aenoooaaiiy.

Aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy ?icaeoeo aeae?a ?iaeo Entedon, ye? ia?aceoothoue a
ee/eieao aeoea-aeiaaiiineea Cionus scrophulariae, inoaii? aoee
iioo?aiaai? a iiiaio caeyeueeiaoaaiiy, aiane?aeie /iai eieii,
ooai?thaaiee ee/eieaie aeoea a ii?i?, ia oi?ioaaany ? caeyeueeiaoaaiiy
oacy?ia oa iiaeaeueoee aeo?ae ee/eiie ia?aceoa a?aeaoaaeeny a?aee?eoi. C
iaoith caiia?aaiiy aenoooaaiith ee/eiie ?caeoe?a, ui aaea aeeoee c o?ea
oacy?ia, a /aoeo Iao??, aea aiie oo?eioaaeeny, aeiaeaaaeiny o?e e?aieeie
aiaee.

Aeey iie?ioaiiy ?iaioe c? uieii c?a?aieie iaoa??aeaie iieueiaeo i?ia oa
aecaiiey?aie, ui caa??aaeeny a nie?o?, aoea aeei?enoaia i?ea?iaeueia
iaoiaeeea, yea aacoaaeany ia ia?iaoe? oaeeo iaoa??ae?a ae?oea?eiii.
Aiane?aeie oe??? ia?iaee oeaieie eiiao iaaoaaee iniaeeai? aeanoe/iino?,
yea caa??aaeany ai?iaeiaae aeoaea o?eaaeiai /ano.

?noi??y oa nooi?iue aea/aiiy ?caeoe?a-aioaaeii?i

?noi??y aea/aiiy aioaaeii?i. A ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi ?noi??th aea/aiiy
aioaaeii?i a?ae ii/aoeo XIX noi??//y (iien?a ia?oeo aeae?a, cie?aia:
Spinola, 1808; Dalman, 1820) aei 90-o ?ie?a XX noi??//y. ?noi??th
aea/aiiy ?icaeoi ia 4 aoaie:

Ae?oaa iieiaeia XIX noi??//y: ?ioaineaiee iien oaenii?a iaaeaeaeiaiai
??aiy oa aea/aiiy a?ieia?? ie?aieo aeae?a (Westwood, 1833a, 1833b, 1837;
Haliday, 1833, 1844; Walker, 1839, 1841, 1842, 1846, 1851, 1872;
Foerster, 1841, 1856, 1861, 1878; Ratzeburg, 1848; Thomson, 1878;
Zetterstedt, 1838).

E?iaoeue XIX — ii/aoie XX noi??//y: ?icaeoie nenoaiaoeee oa a?ieia??
Entedoninae, aeoeaiee iien oaenii?a aeaeiaiai ?aiao (Ashmead, 1890,
1894, 1899a, 1899b, 1904; Girault, 1911, 1913a, 1913b, 1913c, 1913d,
1915, 1916a, 1916b, 1916c, 1916d, 1916e, 1916f, 1916g, 1917a, 1917b,
1917c, 1917d, 1917e, 1917f, 1919, 1920, 1922, 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929,
1934).

Na?aaeeia — e?iaoeue 70-o ?ie?a XX noi??//y: noai?aiiy a?oioiaieo
oaeniiii?/ieo ?aa?c?e, iaeyae?a ?aa?iiaeueieo oaoi oa ii?aoethaaiiy
oeiiaeo na??e aeae?a, ui aoee iienai? iiia?aaei?ie aaoi?aie (Erdoes,
1944, 1951, 1954, 1956, 1961, 1966; Graham, 1959, 1963, 1971; Boucek,
1957, 1963, 1965a, 1965b, 1972, 1974, 1976a, 1976b, 1977a, 1977b; Askew,
1962, 1968, 1978, 1974; Boucek & Askew, 1968; Kerrich, 1973; Szelenyi,
1977a, 1977b, 1978; Burks, 1958, 1966, 1968, 1971, 1979; Yoshimoto,
1973a, 1973b, 1973c, 1976, 1977, 1978).

80-o? ?iee — na?aaeeia 90-o ?ie?a XX noi??//y: ii/aoie aianaiiy iaaii?
noaeino? aei no?oeoo?e i?ae?iaeeie, ui aaaaoi a /iio caaaey/o? ?iaioai
E. Oainniia, Cae. Aio/aea oa I. Oaoooa (Hansson, 1983, 1985a, 1985b,
1986a, 1986b, 1987, 1988a, 1988b, 1990, 1994a, 1994b, 1995a, 1995b,
1996a, 1996b; Boucek, 1988; Schauff, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1989; Schauff and
Boucek, 1987; LaSalle & Schauff, 1994).

?noi??y iiaoaeiae nenoaie Entedoninae ia iaae?iaeiaiio ??ai?. A oe?e
/anoei? i?iaiae?ciaaii ?noi??th iacae oa oaeniiii?/iiai noaoona
Entedoninae: a?ae ?iaeeie Entedonoidae (Foerster, 1856), Entedonidae
(Walker, 1872; Ieeieueneay, 1952; Domenichini, 1953) oa o?eae Entedonini
(Schmiedeknecht, 1907, 1909), Entedonina (Thomson, 1878) aei i?ae?iaeeie
Entedoninae/Entedontinae (Howard, 1885 — 1886, Ashmead, 1899a, Ashmead,
1904, Morley, 1910; Girault, 1913b; Peck, 1951, 1963; Boucek, 1957;
Graham, 1959; Peck, Boucek, and Hoffer, 1964; Yoshimoto, 1984; Burks,
1979), ui ? ? aeciaiei iei? (Boucek, 1988; Schauff, 1991).
?icaeyaea?oueny ?noi??y iacae, iaienaiiy yei? /a?ac “t” (“Entedontinae”)
aoei iaaei?aaaeaii cai?iiiiiaaia Ii?e? (Morley, 1910), aeayeee /an
o?ao?oaaei a e?oa?aoo??, a caiaeii aoei iiaa?iaii aei aeo?aeiiai
ei?aeoiiai aa??aioo Aio/aeii (Boucek, 1988).

Nooi?iue aea/aiino? ie?aieo ?iae?a. A aeai?e /anoei? iaaiai?aii
?iciiae?e aeae?a i?ae?iaeeie ii ?iaeao, cacia/aii ?noioio
iaiaeii??aei?noue oeueiai ?iciiae?eo: iaea?eueoee a?aenioie aeae?a
na?oiai? oaoie i?eiaaea? ia ?iaee Entedon, Pediobius, Chrysocharis,
Closterocerus, Neochrysocharis oa Omphale (a?eueo ye 100 aeae?a o
eiaeiiio), ?aooa ?iae?a i?aaenoaaeaia iaio ye 50 aeaeaie. I?iaiae?ciaaii
nooi?iue aea/aiino? ie?aieo ?iae?a, anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeiaio
aeine?aeaeaieie ?iaeaie ? aaaao? ia aeaee ?iaee Entedon oa Omphale.

??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy Entedoninae a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao. A oe?e /anoei?
noenei ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ??ci? ?aa?iie caiii? eoe? c oi/ee ci?o ??aiy
aeine?aeaeaiino? ?caeoe?a-aioaaeii?i a oeeo ?aa?iiao. Cacia/aii, ui
iaee?ioa aeine?aeaeaiith caeeoa?oueny i?ai?/ia i?aeoey, a naia
Aiea?eoe/ia ciiaaia?ao?/ia iaeanoue, aea iaea?eueo aeine?aeaeaiith ?
Cao?aeia Iaeaa?eoeea, a naia — Na?aaeiy oa I?ai?/ia ?a?iia ? /anoeiai —
No?aeia ?a?iia (oaoie eieeoi?o *aoineiaa//eie oa THaineaa??, a oaeiae
Iieaeiae, ie?ai? aeai? c Aieaa???, Iieueu? oa ?in??). O oe?e /anoei?
oaeiae iaaaaeaii iaeyae iniiaieo ?ia?o c iaaieo ?aa?iiaeueieo oaoi.

?noi??y aea/aiiy aioaaeii?i a Oe?a?i?. A Oe?a?i?, ye ? ia an?e oa?eoi???
eieeoiueiai N?N?, aioaaeii?ie niaoe?aeueii ia aea/aeeny. A ?iaio?
iaaaaeaii iaeyae oeo iaaaaaoueio ?ia?o, a yeeo caaaeoaaeeny
?caeoe?-aioaaeii?ie Oe?a?ie: a?ae iieno I. Eo?aethiiaei ?iaeo
Neochrysocharis c Iieoaanueei? iaeano? (Kurdjumov, 1912) aei aeaieo ii
ie?aieo aeaeao aioaaeii?i oaoie Oe?a?ie, ye? ? ia?aceoaie eiiao-i?ia??a,
a iaeyaeao ia?aceoi-eiiieaen?a ieiaeiaeo eoeueoo? (Ca?iaa, Oieeaieoe,
Eioaiei e ae?., 1991; Nae?eaeia, 1993). Ocaaaeueiai? aeai? oeeo ?ia?o
aeacoaaee ia ciaoiaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? ia iiiaio ii/aoeo iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue 12 aeae?a oe??? i?ae?iaeeie, ui aeaeaei ia a?aeiia?aeaei
?o ?aaeuei?e e?eueeino?.

I?a?iaa?iaeuei? oace ?icaeoeo

A aeaiiio ?icae?e? ca aeanieie oa e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie iaaiaeyoueny
iniaeeaino? ii?oieia?? y?oeue, ee/eiie oa eyea/ie iaaieo aioaaeii?i,
cie?aia oeo, ui ca?a?no?iaai? a Oe?a?i?.

Aia?oa iienaii caeyeueeiaoaaiiy ee/eiie Entedon (Entedon) zanara Walker
— ia?aceoa ee/eiie aeiaaiiineea Cionus scrophulariae, iienaii oa
i?i?ethno?iaaii oioiiaoa??aeaie aaa?oon ee/eiee inoaiiueiai a?eo, ??
aeo?ae c o?ea oacy?ia, aaa?oon ia?aaeeyea/ee, iine?aeiai?noue iioaii?iiy
iaaieo ae?eyiie oaaoiaioo eyea/ee oa ?ioa. Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii
iiaaae?ieo ?iaai E. (E.) zanara (ye a i?e?iae?, oae ? a eaai?aoi?ieo
oiiaao): ia?oaaiiy, iiooe, aea?? oa o?aaeaiiy oacy?ia. Iaaaaeaii ?io?
i?ea?iaeuei? aeai? c a?ieia?? aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie.

Ii?oieia?y ?iaai oa ae?aaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy ie?aieo iciae a i?ae?iaeei?
Entedoninae

Iaie i?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueia ii??aiyeueii-ii?oieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
?iaai aioaaeii?i c iaaieinii ia iciaee, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a
nenoaiaoeoe? i?ae?iaeeie, aeneiaeai? i?eiouaiiy uiaei aeo?aeii?
ii?oieia?? iaaieo iciae. A ?iaio? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eaiiy aeey
aioaaeii?i o?ueio oei?a aaa?oono:

Aoaea?iioaei?aeiee — ae??ai? ?ici??e, ?aaeoeiaai? ia?aaeiueinieiea oa
caaeiueinieiea, ?icoe?ai? a?oaee, i?ii?aeiee naaiaio aocueeee, ia??aeei
nioaeeiiiae?aiee, /eaieee aeaeaooeea aonee?a ia?aaaaeii ceeo? ?acii
(i?aaenoaaieee o?eae Euderomphalini).

Oea?ai?ci?aeiee — ae??ai? ?ici??e, eiiiaeoia o?ei, aocuee? oa aeiaa?
ii??aiyii aei o?ea e?eea c aeaeiaaeaiith e?aeiaith oi?i/eith, ei?ioe?
aoneee, /eaieee aeaeaooeea yeeo a?eueo-iaio ceeo? ?acii (aeaee ?iae?a
Ceranisus, Thripoctenoides, Entedonastichus, Goetheana oa Eugerium).

Aioaaeiii?aeiee — oi?ie c ??ciiiai?oiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi aei???a
a?oaeae, noaaaeueoey oa /a?aaoey, aea caaaeaee an? /anoeie o?ea
aeinoaoiuei ?icaeiai?, e?aeiaa oi?i/ea ia?aaei?o e?ee a?aeiinii ei?ioea
(a?eueo?noue aioaaeii?i).

A ?iaio? iaaaaeaii ocaaaeueiai? aeai? c oaeeo ii?oieia?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ye ?ici??e, eie??, iie?eae, aoaeiaa aieiae oa ??
i?eaeaoe?a, a?oaeae oa ?o i?eaeaoe?a; e??i oiai, i?noeoueny aaaaoi
i?ea?iaeueieo aeaieo c iniaeeainoae ii?oieia?? aioaaeii?i (ye oaoie
Oe?a?ie, oae ? ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a).

Aeneiaeaii i?eiouaiiy, ui ??aiioe?ii?noue V- oa U-iiae?aii? oi?i
aoneeiaeo ai?icaiie (Schauff, 1991) ? noii?aiith, ? aoei a aeioe?euei?oa
?icaeyaeaoe V-iiae?aio oi?io ye ia?ao?aeio i?ae Y- oa U-iiae?aiith. Ia
iao iiaeyae, oeae ia?ao?ae ? iine?aeiaiei ? caiaeeoueny nii/aoeo aei
aei?i/aiiy “e?i?? niieo/aiiy” Y-iiae?aieo aoneeiaeo ai?icaiie c eiaiith
?icaeeeith (a ?acoeueoao? /iai ooai?th?oueny V-iiae?aia oi?ia), a iio?i
aei ?icoe?aiiy i?noey c`?aeiaiiy a?eie aoneeiaeo ai?icaiie oa a?eie
eiaii? ?icaeeee (a ?acoeueoao? /iai ooai?th?oueny U-iiae?aia oa a?eueo
?icaeiaia I-iiae?aia oi?ia).

Iaie aeneiaeaii i?eiouaiiy, ui eiaio ?icaeeeo aioaaeii?i, yea
aaaaea?oueny iaei??th c oa?aeoa?enoee ia i?aeo?eieo ?o iiiio?eaoe/iino?
(Schauff, 1991), iiaeia aeaanoe c iiia?a/ii? ai?icie, ui cono??/a?oueny
a aeayeeo aaeio?i (Sympiesis striatipes (Ashmead), S. hirticula Kamijo),
aoaea??i (Euderus spp.) oa oao?anoeo?i (Aprostocetus spp.) ? ?icae?ey?
o?i`y oa eia. Oiio i?eiouaiiy Oaoooa (Schauff, 1991) i?i
ieac?iii?oi?noue V-iiae?aii? oi?ie oa aiiii?oi?noue iiia?a/ii? oi?ie
eiaii? ?icaeeee aioaaeii?i (iai?eeeaae, a ?iae? Achrysocharoides) ?
noii?aiei.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii nenoaio oaoiio o?ea aioaaeii?i, cacia/aii iiceoeaio
ei?aeyoe?th i?ae ieiuath iiooaiiy oa neoeueioo?iaai?noth iiaa?oi?
naaiaio?a /a?aaoey. ?iiae? (iai?eeeaae, o Pleurotroppopsis podagrica
Waterston, Edovum puttleri Grissell oa o aeae?a ?iaeo Entedononecremnus)
/a?aaoea ??aiii??ii oa aonoi iiooaia, ui, ca aeoieith no/anieo aaoi??a
(LaSalle & Schauff, 1994), ia? aoi?eiiee oa?aeoa?.

Iaai? iciaee aoee aia?oa aeine?aeaeai? a ii??aiyeueiiio aniaeo?. Oae,
aia?oa cacia/aii iioaioe?eia ae?aaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy aeieio
ia?aaeiueia?oaeae, oi?ia yeiai aa??th? a?ae ieaaoeaiiae?aii? (Entedon
(Entedon) zerovae Gumovsky) aei ?eeiiiae?aii? (E. (E.) alveolatus
Gumovsky), aai ?aaeoeo?oueny aei iaaaeeeiai ai?aeea (a?eueo?noue aeae?a
aioaaeii?i). Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia aoaeia? na?aaeeiiiai e?ey
i?iiiaeaoia. Nooe?eueiei oa iae/?oe?oei oeae e?eue ? o i?aaenoaaiee?a
?iae?a Pleurotroppopsis, Kratoyisma oa Entedon. O aeayeeo aeae?a
inoaiiueiai ?iaeo na?aaeeiiee e?eue i?noeoueny a aeieiaeo, yeee ooai?th?
iaai? ??a/a/ee ii aieao a?ae e?ey, ui i?eeiyoi iaie ca aeo?aeiee noai.
Iiaeeo?eaoe?? na?aaeeiiiai e?ey iiaeooue aooe ca?oiiaai? ca oaeei
i?eioeeiii:

I. Ai?eaeueia ?icaaeoaeaiiy:

1. Iacia/ia, c iiaiei caa?aaeaiiyi nooe?eueiiai na?aaeeiiiai e?ey
(a?eueo?noue aeae?a ?iaeo Entedon, Omphalentedon longus Girault).

2. Cia/ia, c ooai?aiiyi “aa?o?aeiai? /a?ee”:

a) c i?aeiyooyi ye e?ey, oae ? “aa?o?aeiai? /a?ee” (aeaee ?iae?a
Mestocharis oa Derostenus);

a) c? nieiuaiiyi “aa?o?aeiai? /a?ee” oa ?aaeoeoe??th ?aooe na?aaeeiiiai
e?ey (aeaee ?iae?a Davincia, Pleurotroppopseus, Chrysocharis oa ?io?);

a) c iaaecae/aeiei ?icaeoeii “aa?o?aeiai? /a?ee” oa aoi?eiiei
?icaaaeaiiyi na?aaeeiiiai e?ey ia aeaa ie?ai? e?e?, ui oyaiooueny ii
aieao a?ae “aa?o?aeiai? /a?ee” (??ae Epichrysoatomus).

3. Cia/ia, c iiaiei ?icaaaeaiiyi nooe?eueiiai na?aaeeiiiai e?ey ia aeaa
iaeaea ia?aeaeuei? e?e? (i?ae??ae Cederholmia ?iaeo Entedon).

II. Aacaeueia ?icaaeoaeaiiy:

1. Iaiiaia (/anoeia aeae?a ?iaeo Pediobius).

2. Iiaia ?ic`?aeiaiiy (/anoeia aeae?a ?iaeo Pediobius, Pediobomyia
darwini Girault).

III. Caaaeueia ?icoe?aiiy:

1. C iaeii/aniei ?icoe?aiiyi oa /?oeei iaiaaeaiiyi a?/ieo ??a/a/e?a, aac
i?aeiyooy yei?nue c ae?eyiie e?ey:

a) aa?o?aea na?aaeeiiiai e?ey ceeoa c aa?oi?i e?a?i i?iiiaeaoio (iaai?
aeaee ?iaeo Paracrias);

a) aa?o?aea na?aaeeiiiai e?ey a?aeie?aieaia a?ae aa?oiueiai e?ath
i?iiiaeaoio (aeaee ?iae?a Horismenus oa Paracrias).

2. C iiaiith ?aaeoeoe??th a?/ieo ??a/a/e?a oa i?aeiyooyi ia?aaeiueiai
e?ath ?icoe?aiiai na?aaeeiiiai e?ey o aeaeyae? coaiiiae?aiiai aeieio
(aeaee ?iaeo Epipleurotropis, Edovum puttleri Grissell).

IV. Iiaia ?aaeoeoe?y:

1. Aac caeeoe?a (aeaee ?iae?a Holcopelte, Closterocerus, Asecodes).

2. C ooai?aiiyi na?aaeeiiiai aeieiao a ?acoeueoao? cia/iiai ?icaeoeo
a?/ieo ??a/a/e?a na?aaeeiiiai e?ey oa ?aaeoeoe?? inoaiiueiai (??ae
Colpixys).

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui a?/i? e?e? i?iiiaeaoio aioaaeii?i (aeanoea? ?iaeai
Pediobius, Kratoysma, Pleurotroppopsis, Apleurotropis oa Paracrias) ia ?
naiino?eiei ooai?ii, a yaeythoue niaith a?ia?o?ioiaaia i?aeiyooy
aioo??oiueiai /e ciai?oiueiai e?ath a?/iiai aeieiaa (yeee a iiaiiio,
aeo?aeiiio aa??aio? i?enooi?e o i?aaenoaaiee?a a?oie aeae?a squamosus oa
i?ae?iaeo Cederholmia ?iaeo Entedon, aeayeeo aeae?a ?iae?a Edovum oa
Paracrias). Iayai?noue a iaaeao iaaieo ?iae?a aeae?a, ui iathoue
aiaeii/an a?/i? e?e? oa a?eueo-iaio ?icaeiaiee a?/iee aeieia (?iaee
Pediobius, Kratoysma, Pleurotroppopsis, Apleurotropis, Paracrias oa
?io?), a oaeiae a?aenooi?noue o?aoona i?ae oeeie oi?iaie aea? i?aenoaae
aaaaeaoe, ui aeania iayai?noue /e a?aenooi?noue a?/ieo e?e?a ia iiaea
neoaoaaoe ca ae?aaiinoe/io iciaeo ?iaeiaiai ??aiy.

A iaaeao ?iaeo Entedon iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui na?oea aeeeeoaaiiy
i?eoaiaiia a?eueo a?oa?/iei a?oiai (squamosus, hercyna, cioni,
crassiscapus), a oaiia — a?eueo aaiethoe?eii i?inoiooei (sparetus,
kerteszi, cyanellus, costalis).

Cia/aiiy ie?aieo ii?oieia?/ieo iciae aeey iiaoaeiae nenoaie i?ae?iaeeie
Entedoninae. A aeaiiio i?ae?icae?e? e?eoe/ii ia?aaeyiooi ae?aaiinoe/i?
iciaee oa neiaiiii?o?? aioaaeii?i, ui aoee cai?iiiiiaai? iiia?aaei?ie
aaoi?aie (Schauff, 1991; LaSalle & Schauff, 1994). Anoaiiaeaii, ui
i?aaenoaaieee i?ae?iaeeie Entedoninae oaoie Oe?a?ie iathoue aiaeii/an
i?eiaeii? o?e c ianooiieo oa?aeoa?enoee:

1. Neooaeoi c iaei??th ia?ith uaoeiie [a oaoi? Oe?a?ie aeeeth/aiiy
noaiiaeyoue o?eueee Neochrysocharis albiscapus Erdoes oa aaa?aioi?
aecaiiey?e Pediobius foliorum (Geoffroy)].

2. Iacineoooi c aeaiia ia?aie uaoeiie (aeineoue noaea a iaaeao oaoie
aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie iciaea, oi/a ?iiae? iiaeeea?noue ?? aeei?enoaiiy o
aecia/aii? ?caeoe?a oneeaaeith?oueny /a?ac eaie?noue uaoeiie).

3. Ei?ioea noeaiaeueia aeeeea, ia iao iiaeyae, i?eiaeii? aeey aeae?a
oaoie Oe?a?ie, iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia ye iaeia c ae?aaiinoe/ieo iciae.
Oi/a oaea oi?ia noeaiaeueii? aeeeee i?eoaiaiia ia o?eueee aioaaeii?iai,
a ? aeayeei ?ioei aaeio?aeai (cie?aia aoaea??iai oa oao?anoeo?iai), ia
a?aei?io a?ae inoaii?o, a aioaaeii?i e?i?y oieono noeaie oe??? aeeeee
ia?aoeia? aa?oi?e e?ae e?eea.

4. Noaia?a?iaeueia aeeeea c caeiieaiiyi ia?aae ia?anoeaiith. Ine?eueee
caeiieaiiy noaia?a?iaeueii? aeeeee i?eoaiaiia ye aioaaeii?iai, oae
oao?anoeo?iai oa aoaea??iai, oeth iciaeo o?aaa ?icaeyaeaoe o?eueee a
noeoiiino? c ?ioeie. A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui na?aae aioaaeii?i aeiyoeii c
oeueiai i?aaeea ? o?eueee aeaee c Iiaiai Na?oo (iai?eeeaae, Paracrias
arizonensis (Ashmead), P. strii Schauff) oa o?ii?e?a Noa?iai Na?oo
(iai?eeeaae, Entedon (Cederholmia) halli Gumovsky), ie aaaaea?ii oeth
iciaeo oe?eeii iieaciaith aeey aecia/aiiy aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie.

?io? iciaee, ui aoee ?ai?oa cai?iiiiiaai? aeey aaeeoeo i?e aecia/aii?
aioaaeii?i (Schauff, 1991; LaSalle & Schauff, 1994), aeciai? iaaeoi
i?ieeaeie, i?eiaeii? aeey aecia/aiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a oaoie Oe?a?ie;
nooi?iue ?o aa??aaaeueiino? (aeeth/ath/e iia? i?eeeaaee)
iaaiai?th?oueny.

Oacy?ii-ia?aceoi? ca`ycee ee/eiie aioaaeii?i

Oi?ie ia?aceoecio a aioaaeii?i. Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?nioth/eo oa io?eiaiiy
iiaeo aeaieo c ia?aceoi-oacy?iieo ca`yce?a aioaaeii?i aeicaieeei
cai?iiiioaaoe eeaneo?eaoe?th oeeo ca`yce?a ca ??cieie e?eoa??yie (on?
cai?iiiiiaai? a?oie noi?iaiaeaeothoueny a oaeno? aeena?oaoe??
i?eeeaaeaie).

Ca ??aiai ia?aceoecio:

Ia?aeii? ia?aceoe.

Aoi?eii? ia?aceoe.

Ia?aeiii-aoi?eii? ia?aceoe.

Ca no?aoaa??th oa niiniaii aca?iiae?? c oacy?iii [aeei?enoiaoth/e
oa?i?iieia?th ca Ae. A. *a?iiaocii (*a?iiaoc, 1993)]:

?ae?ia?iioe c? no?aoaa??th ea?oaaiiy.

Eieiia?iioe:

c? no?aoaa??th eieiia?iioiiai oi?aae?iiy;

c? no?aoaa??th oi?aae?iiy, ui iana aeaiaio eiioi?iiino?.

Ca e?euee?noth ee/eiie, ui ?icaeaathoueny a iaei?e iniaei? oacy?ia:

Nie?oa?i?.

A?aaa?i?.

Nie?oa?ii-a?aaa?i?.

Ca oacith oacy?ia, yeiai o?aaeo? naiea:

sseoeaa?.

sseoea-ee/eieia?.

Ee/eieia?.

Ee/eieiai-eyea/eia?.

Eyea/eia?.

Ca niiniaii aeeooy oacy?a:

I. Ia?aceoe aecio?o?a:

ia?aceoe eiiao-nenoi?a;

ia?aceoe eiiao-eenoia?ec?a;

ia?aceoe eiiao-oeaeae?a.

II. Ia?aceoe aiaeio?o?a:

ia?aceoe i?ia??a;

ia?aceoe aaeiooai?thaa/?a;

ia?aceoe noaaeiaeo ao?aaiee?a;

ia?aceoe eneeioaa?a;

i?aceo?a ?ioeo (ia?aeiieo) ia?aceo?a.

Ca oeiii ?icaeoeo oacy?ia:

Ia?aceoe eiiao c iiaiei ia?aoai?aiiyi.

Ia?aceoe eiiao c iaiiaiei ia?aoai?aiiyi.

Oe?ioa o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??. Ca oe?ioith o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??
aioaaeii?i iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia iie?oaa?a, oe?ieeo ie?aioaa?a, aocueeeo
ie?aioaa?a oa iiiioaa?a. I?e oeueiio cacia/aii, ui ie?aioaa?y ?
iaeiioe?ai?oith o?io?/iith no?aoaa??th aioaaeii?i, iie?oaae oa iiiioaae
cono??/athoueny cia/ii ??aeoa. A ?iaio? iaaiaeyoueny i?eeeaaee ??cieo ca
oe?ioith oei?a o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??.

E??i oiai, caoaaaeaii, ui inoaoi/ia anoaiiaeaiiy aocueei? ie?aioaa??,
oae naii ye ? iiiioaa??, aeey aioaaeii?i ? i?iaeaiaoe/iei /a?ac aenieo
a??ia?aei?noue (? iayai?noue aaaaoueio i?aoeeaeaio?a) ciaoiaeaeaiiy aeey
i?aaenoaaiee?a i?ae?iaeeie aeiaeaoeiaeo oacy?a (iaa?oue c a?aeaeaeaieo a
aeieia?/iiio oa nenoaiaoe/iiio a?aeiioaii? a?oi). Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee c
?iaeo Entedon, eiee aeiaeaoeia? oacy? aoee ciaeaeai? ye a ?acoeueoao?
io?eiaiiy iiaeo aeaieo, oae ? i?e neiii?i?? aeaeiaeo iaca oa
a?aeiia?aeiiio ia`?aeiaii? aeaieo c a?ieia?? neiii?i?ciaaieo aeae?a.

Ii?oi-a?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? aioaaeii?i. A aeaiiio ?icae?e?
i?iaiae?ciaaii iaai? i?eeeaaee caeaaeiino? i?ae aoaeiaith o?ea oa
a?ieia??th i?aaenoaaiee?a Entedoninae.

Oae, i?aaenoaaieee o?eae Euderomphalini, ui ? aeeeth/ii ia?aceoaie
aeae?iae?ae, aiane?aeie nai?? o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe?? iaaoee oae?
ii?oieia?/i? iciaee, ye aeoaea ?icaeiaia aoeaaa, ?aaeoeiaaia ?aooa
/eaiee?a aeaeaooeea ? ?icoe?ai? a?oaee, ui aeanoeai e ?ioei ia?aceoai
aeae?iae?ae. Ia?aceoe o?ein?a iathoue oae? ni?euei? ?ene, ye nieiuaia
o?ei, iiaeiaaeaia e?aeiaa oi?i/ea ia?aaei?o e?ee, aeai/eaieeiaee
aeaeaooee aonee?a. Caoaaaeaii, ui, a oe?eiio, aeaye? caaaeai?
ii?oieia?/i? iniaeeaino? aeeeeeai? ciaioaiiyi ?ici??o (cie?aia
ca?eueoaiiy aeiaaeeie e?aeiai? oi?i/ee) oa i?enoinoaaiiyi aei iiooeo
oacy?ia, ui aaaea i?eoiaaiee niin?a aeeooy (iineeaiiy /ooo?aino? aoeaae
aoneea, ca?eueoaiiy ?? ?ici???a uiaei /eaiee?a aeaeaooeea aoneea,
aoiaeaeaiiy aei neeaaeo aoeaae aeiaeaoeiaeo naaiaio?a aoneea).

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eaia ia?aceoo aeoe?a-eneeioaa?a Entedon (Entedon)
propinquae (Yang), ui aoa iienaiee o iiiioeiiiio ?iae? Sanyangia (Yang,
1996) c Eeoath, oa ia?aaaaeaiee iaie aei ?iaeo Entedon. Aeey oeueiai
aeaeo oa?aeoa?ia iaaecae/aeia aenoiaiiy aia?aae eiaieo ae?eyiie, yea
aeanoeaa oaeiae aeayeei ?ioei ia?aceoe/iei ia?aoei/anoie?eeei c
Ichneumonoidea oa Chalcidoidea. Aeneiaeaii i?eiouaiiy uiaei ooieoe?e
aenoiooeo aia?aae eiaieo ae?eyiie, na?aae yeeo -aeooiaooaaiiy ao?iaiai
ai?ioia a oiae? aeoea-oacy?ia oa caoeno aonee?a naiee i?ae /an
a?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue a?ae iaiaaeo c aieo ?ioiai ia?aceoa aai naiee
aeoea-oacy?ia.

Oeie o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe?? oa aaiethoe?y ia?aceoi-oacy?iieo ca`yce?a
o aioaaeii?i. Cai?iiiiiaaii noaio aaiethoe?? ia?aceoi-oacy?iieo ca`yce?a
o aioaaeii?i, a iniiao yei? iieeaaeaii i?eioeei iine?aeiaiiai /a?aoaaiiy
aeae?eueeio oei?a niaoe?ae?caoe??.

Na?aae oei?a o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe?? aioaaeii?i aeae?eaii:

Ii?oi-oeiiao niaoe?ae?caoe?th, ui aeanoeaa a?eueoino? aioaaeii?i ? “…
ca yei? neeaae oacy?a aecia/a?oueny ia ?o nenoaiaoe/iei iieiaeaiiyi, a
ia?o ca ana aaa?ooaeueiith /e ciai?oiueith iiae?ai?noth ooai?aiue, ye?
aiie ianaeythoue” (Eiceia, 1970a, 1970a, 1972).

Oiii-oeiiao niaoe?ae?caoe?th. Nooi?noue oeueiai aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaiiai
oeio niaoe?ae?caoe?? caiaeeoueny aei ia?aceooaaiiy ?caeoe?a a ie?aieo
oacyyo, ui ?icaeaathoueny ii?o/ (ia iaei?e ?ineei?, a iaaeao iaei???
eiini?oe??), i?ioa iathoue ??cio a?ieia?th oa aeaeyae. Caoaaaeaii, ui
/an ?nioaaiiy aeaeo, yeee ia? oaeo o?io?/io niaoe?ae?caoe?th, iao?eaaeee
— a?i oaeaeei no?oeoo?o?oueny ia ie?ai? oi?ie (iiioeyoe??, i?aeaeaee,
aeaee) ca aeai?ii aoae/eo a?oi oacy?a. Iaeiae, iaiaaia, naia
oiii-oeiiaith o?io?/iith niaoe?ae?caoe??th iiaeia iiynieoe oe?iea eiei
??cieo ca a?ieia??th oacy?a o aeae?a-iie?oaa?a [iai?eeeaae, Asecodes
erxias (Walker)].

Nenoaiaoe/io niaoe?ae?caoe?th. Oeae oei niaoe?ae?caoe??, ui
cai?iiiiiaaii aia?oa, caiaeeoueny aei ni?yiiaaiiai iiooeo oa ai?ciaaaiiy
oacy?a, ui ? nenoaiaoe/ii aeecueeeie (iaeaaeaoue aei ni?eueiiai oaeniio
— ia?aaaaeii ?iaeo /e ?iaeeie), iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, a yeeo ooai?aiiyo
aiie iaoeathoue (aeania, oe? ooai?aiiy iiaeooue nooo?ai ??cieoeny i?ae
niaith oa aiaeii/an aooe aeoaea iiae?aieie aei ooai?aiue i?aaenoaaiee?a
?ioeo, a?eueo a?aeaeaeaieo a?oi, ye?, i?ioa, a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ia
o?aaeathoueny). Aeania, oey oi?ia niaoe?ae?c?oe??? ? i?ioeeaaeiith uiaei
ii?oi-oeiiai?. I?eeeaaeaie aeio?eiaiiy oe??? no?aoaa?? ? aeaee ?iaeo
Derostenus, ui ?icaeaathoueny o?eueee a aonaiyo iaoaeee?a-i?ia??a c
?iaeo Stigmella (Nepticulidae), Entedon (Entedon) procioni Erdoes —
ia?aceo ee/eiie aeoe?a c ?iaeo Apion (Apionidae) a noaaeao e?iieae
Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) oa ao?eoia Melilotus altissima (Fabaceae), E.
(E.) insignis Erdoes — ia?aceo ee/eiie aeoe?a-aeiaaiiinee?a c ?iaeo
Lixus, ui ao?aaeyoue noaaea Cirsium oa Carduus (Asteraceae) oa
aeoea-aeiaaiiineea Gymnetron asellus, yeee aiaeii/an ? ao?aaieeii a
noaaeao aoaeyea Carduus oa ooai?th? iacia/i? aaee ia noaaeao aeeaeie
Verbascum spp. (Scrophulariaceae).

Cai?iiiiiaaii noaio /a?aoaaiue ??cieo oi?i o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??, ui
caaacia/o? iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae a?ae iaeiiai oeio oacy?a aei ?ioiai.

Aioaaeii?ie ye oacy?. Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii niaeo? eiiao, ui ia?aceoothoue a
aioaaeii?iao, ?aaoethth/e aeeiai?eo ?oiuei? /enaeueiino?. Na?aae
ia?aceo?a aioaaeii?i cacia/ai? oae? ?caeoe?-aaeio?aee (Chalcidoidea,
Eulophidae): Aprostocetus ecus (Walker), Baryscapus endemus (Walker), B.
nigroviolaceus (Nees) (i?ae?iaeeia Tetrastichinae), Cirrospillus lyncus
(Walker) (i?ae?iaeeia Eulophinae) oa Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood)
(i?ae?iaeeia Entedoninae) (Graham, 1991; Ca?iaa, Oieeai?oe, Eioaiei e
ae?., 1991; Aoiianueeee, 1997).

Iaie aoei aeine?aeaeaii ia?aceooaaiiy oao?anoeo?ia Baryscapus endemus
(Walker) a eyea/eao Entedon (Entedon) zanara (Walker), yeee, a naith
/a?ao, ia?aceoo? a ee/eieao aeiaaiiineea Cionus scrophulariae ?
caeyeueeiao?oueny a eieii? oacy?ia. Aeine?aee iieacaee, ui a eieiiao
aeiaaiiinee?a c ?iaeo Cionus (C. tuberculosus, C. clairvillei oa C.
scrophulariae) Baryscapus endemus ia?aceoo? a eyea/eao E. (E.) cioni
Thomson, E. (E.) cionobius Thomson oa E. (E.) zanara Walker. Io?eiaii
iia? aeai? c a?ieia?? B. endemus (o?aaeaiiy oacy?ia, aoaeiaa ee/eiee
inoaiiueiai a?eo, ?? iiceoe?y ana?aaeei? eyea/ee oacy?ia oa ?ioa), ui
aia?oa aena?oeththoue eiai ia?aceooaaiiy a caaaeaieo aeaeao ?iaeo
Entedon (Aoiianueeee, 1997).

Aeieiai-oaoi?noe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea oa iioe?aiiy ca ?ineeiieie
oa?oiiaaiiyie aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie

Oaeniiii?/iee aiae?c oaoie aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie. C iaoith aeyaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae oaoie ?caeoe?a-aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie aoei i?iaaaeaii ??
oaeniiii?/iee aiae?c. A i?ioean? aea/aiiy eieaeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a oa
aeanieo iieueiaeo cai??a iaie aeyaeaii a oaoi? Oe?a?ie 98 aeae?a
aioaaeii?i, ui iaeaaeaoue aei 17 ?iae?a, i?e/iio 64 aeaee oa 11 ?iae?a
aioaaeii?i ca?a?no?iaaii a Oe?a?i? aia?oa; 22 aeaee aioaaeii?i, ui aoee
a?aeii? aeey Oe?a?ie oa Iieaeiae ?acii, i?aeoaa?aeaeai? aeania aeey
oaoie Oe?a?ie. Aeey 73 aeae?a aioaaeii?i io?eiaii iia? aeai? c
iioe?aiiy, i?e/iio 24 aeaee aia?oa aeacai? ye o?ainiaeaa?eoe/i? oa 1 —
ye aiea?eoe/iee.

Oacy?ii-ia?aceoi? ca`ycee aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie. A aeaiiio i?ae?icae?e?
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii oacy?ii-ia?aceoi? ca`ycee an?o ca?a?no?iaaieo a Oe?a?i?
aioaaeii?i, oacy? yeeo iaeaaeaoue aei ?yae?a Coleoptera, Lepidoptera,
Diptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera oa Thysanoptera (Oaae. 1).
Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii niaoeeo?/i?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a i?noeaai? oaoie o aeai??
oacy?ia.

Oaaeeoey 1.

?iciiae?e aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie ca ?yaeaie ?o oacy?a.

E?euee?noue aeae?a, ui ia?aceoothoue ia i?aaenoaaieeao aeaiiai ?yaeo *

? ??ae Col Lep Dipt Hym Thys Hom

Achrysocharoides

6

Asecodes 3 1 1 1

Ceranisus

2

Chrysocharis 3 9 11 2

Closterocerus 1 3 2 2

Derostenus

1

Entedon 22

Entedonastichus

1

Epipleurotropis

1

1

Euderomphale

1

Eugerium

1

Holcopelte

1

Ionympha ? ? ? ? ? ?

Neochrysocharis 1 1 2 3

Mestocharis 1

Omphale

3

Pediobius

3 2 10

Anueiai ?iae?a: 6 8 8 6 2 1

Anueiai aeae?a: 31 25 23 19 3 1

* COL — Coleoptera, Lep — Lepidoptera, DIPT — Diptera, HYM —
Hymenoptera,

THYS — Thysanoptera, HOM — Homoptera; ? — a?ieia?y aeae?a aeaiiai ?iaeo
iaa?aeiia.

?ano?nia ioe?iea aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie. ssae?i oaoie aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie
neeaaeathoue oe?iei iioe?ai? ?a?iiaenuee? oa o?ainiaeaa?eoe/i? aeaee
?iae?a Entedon (29 aeae?a), Chrysocharis (18 aeae?a) oa Pediobius (13
aeae?a), ye? aeiaie? ?aaoey?ii cono??/athoueny a ??cieo i?iaao i?ae /an
iieueiaeo cai??a ? neeaaeathoue a?eueoo /anoeio iaoa??ae?a, ye a
Oe?a?i?, oae ? a ?a?iiaenueeeo eieaeoe?yo. ?io? ?iaee i?aaenoaaeai?
iaioith e?euee?noth aeae?a, oi/a aeaye? c oeeo aeae?a ? aeiaie?
?aaoey?iith neeaaeiaith iieueiaeo i?ia. Cacia/aii, ui
?ai?acaioaoeai?noue aioaaeii?i a ??cieo i?iaao ae?ae aa??th? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae /ano i?iaaaeaiiy cai??a, ?o iaoiaeeee, i?noey cai??a
(a?ioiio) oa iiaiaeieo oiia. Iaaiai?aii i?e/eie oa niaoeeo?eo
noaoe?aeueiiai ?iciiae?eo aioaaeii?i oa ?o cono??/aeuei?noue a ie?aieo
iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie, ui a?aeia?aaeaii o a?aeiia?aeieo oaaeeoeyo.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c. Aeey ii??aiyeueii? ?ano?nii? ioe?iee oaoie
aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie ie cae?enieee ni?iao ii??aiyoe neeaae aioaaeii?i
aeaiiai ?aa?iio c oaoiaie oeeo ?caeoe?a noi?aeieo e?a?i (Iieaeiae,
Oai?ueie, Iieueu?, eieeoiuei? *aoineiaa//eie), ?ioeo e?a?i ?a?iie
(Aieaa???, eieeoiuei? THaineaa??, O?ieyiae??, Oaaoe?? oa Aaeeei?
A?eoai??) oa Ac?? (Oo?a//eia), aeey yeeo ?nioaaee a?eueo-iaio a?oioiai?
caaaeaiiy ii Entedoninae (caeaa?eueoiai i?aenoiiaai? a Boucek & Askew,
1968, a oaeiae ooi/iai? a Graham, 1971; Boucek, 1977; Doganlar, 1985,
Hansson, 1985a, 1985b; Vicberg, 1982; Aiyaeaeeaa, 1997, Boyadzhiev, 1997
oa ?io?). ?io? noi?aei? c Oe?a?iith oa?eoi??? aeyaeeeny aai ia aea/aieie
acaaae? (cie?aia A?ei?onue), aai aea/aieie a aeoaea iacia/i?e i???, e
aeai? ii ieo iaee iaaeoi o?ea/anoee oa?aeoa? (cie?aia ?a?iiaenueea
/anoeia ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? oa ?oioi?y). A aeaiiio ii??aiyeueiiio
aiae?c? ie aeei?enoiaoaaee iiaeeo?eiaai? e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? c o?aooaaiiyi
nenoaiaoe/ieo ei?aeoea, cai?iiiiiaaieo a inoaii?o ?aa?c?yo iaaieo a?oi,
aeanieo i??eoaaiue c neiii?i?? ie?aieo oaeniiii?/ieo iaca oa
i?ea?iaeueieo aeaieo c oaoie iaaiai?thaaieo ?aa?ii?a. Iaoa??aee oa
?acoeueoaoe oeueiai ii??aiyeueii-oaoi?noe/iiai aiae?co a?aeia?aaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?? o a?aeiia?aeieo oaaeeoeyo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeaeuo oaoi?noe/io nii??aeiai?noue aioaaeii?ie Oe?a?ie
(98 aeae?a c 17 ?iae?a) aeaiiino?othoue c oeeie ?caeoeyie Aaeeei?
A?eoai?? (ni?eueieo 76 aeae?a oa 17 ?iae?a), Oai?ueie (ni?eueieo 73
aeaee oa 17 ?iae?a) oa eieeoiuei? *aoineiaa//eie (ni?eueieo 71 aeae oa
17 ?iae?a). Aeaui iaioa e?euee?noue ni?eueieo aeae?a niinoa??aa?oueny o
oaoi? aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie c oaoiaie Oaaoe??, eieeoiuei? THaineaa?? oa
Iieaeiae, ui neeaaea? a?aeiia?aeii 64 aeaee oa 17 ?iae?a, 59 aeae?a oa
16 ?iae?a, 53 aeaee oa 16 ?iae?a. Aeoaea iacia/ia e?euee?noue ni?eueieo
aeae?a o oaoi? Oe?a?ie c oaoiaie O?ieyiae?? (39 aeae?a oa 17 ?iae?a),
Aieaa??? (30 aeae?a oa 12 ?iae?a), Oo?a//eie (24 aeaee oa 6 ?iae?a) ?
Iieueu? (18 aeae?a oa 10 ?iae?a).

Iaaaaeai? aeua aeai? na?ae/aoue ia?o ca ana i?i oa, ui nooi?iue
nii??aeiaiino? aioaaeii?i a oaoiao ie?aieo e?a?i a?aeaeaa? nei??oa
??aaiue aea/aiino? aeaii? a?oie a oeeo e?a?iao, ai?ae iniaeeaino?
?iciianthaeaeaiiy oa ?noi?e/iiai noaiiaeaiiy oeeo oaoi. Aiaeii/an ia
iiaeia aeeeth/eoe, ui iaeiei ?c /eiiee?a, ye?, eiia??ii, iaee ?noioiee
aieea ia nooi?iue oaoi?noe/ii? ni?eueiino? o aioaaeii?i, iiaea aooe
?ciethth/a ?ieue Ea?iaonueei-Aeuei?enueeiai a??nueeiai iai?ae?eueoey,
yea aoei cooo?aith ia?aoeiaeith aeey iioe?aiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a aeayeeo
?ioeo a?oi ia?aoei/anoie?eeeo, cie?aia Symphyta (Zombori & Ermolenko,
1997).

Ciiaaia?ao?/ia i?iaeaiaoeea aeine?aeaeaiue iioe?aiiy aioaaeii?i.
Niaoeeo?ea iioe?aiiy aioaaeii?i iieyaa? a iaaieo iniaeeainoyo ?oiuei?
a?ieia??:

Aioaaeii?ie iathoue aeineoue oe?ie? a?aaee ? ia ? aeia?eie ia`?eoaie
aeey ciiaaia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue (Boucek, 1965, 1988).

sse aaiethoe?eii iieiae?e a?oi?, ?i aeanoeaa oaiaeaioe?y aei ?icoe?aiiy
a?aae?a aaea a ?noi?e/iee /an (Schauff, 1991).

Aioaaeii?ie ? aeiaie? ieanoe/ieie a aeieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii?:
eiiaoe-oacy? cia/ii? e?eueeino? aeae?a iia`ycai? c ?oaea?aeueieie
?ineeiaie, ye? nai? iioe?ai? aeoaea oe?iei, a, c ?ioiai aieo,
a?eueo?noue aioaaeii?i ia? oe?ieo ii?oi-oeiiao o?io?/io
niaoe?ae?caoe?th, ui aea? ?i iiaeeea?noue ciaoiaeeoe i?eaeaoiiai oacy?ia
a aeoaea ??cieo ca ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie ciiao.

Niaoeeo?/i? ?ene ia?aceoi-oacy?iieo ca`yce?a aioaaeii?i, ui ? aieiaieie
/eiieeaie ?o oe?ieiai iioe?aiiy, caiaeyoueny aei:

Ia?aceooaaiiy a ??cieo ?aa?iiao ia ??cieo ca niiniaii aeeooy, aea
nenoaiaoe/ii aeecueeeo oacyyo [iai?eeeaae, Entedon (Entedon) abdera
Walker, ui ia?aceoo? a Iaeaaeii?? a ee/eieao aeiaaiiineea Gymnetron sp.
a ieiaeao Linaria dalmatica (Scrophulariaceae), a a Oe?a?i? — a ee/eieao
aeiaaiiineea Apion sp. a noaaeao Stachys sp. (Lamiaceae)].

Ia?aceooaaiiy a ??cieo ca niiniaii aeeooy oa nenoaiaoe/ii ianii??aeiaieo
oacyyo [iai?eeeaae, Asecodes erxias (Walker), ui ia?aceoo? a yeoeyo
ieeueueea Hemichroa crocea (Tenthredinidae), aeoea-eenoi?aea Cassida
nebulosa (Chrysomelidae), ee/eieao iooe-i?ia?a Liriomyza sp.
(Agromyzidae), iie?-i?ia?a Lyonetia clerckella (Lyonetiidae) oa ?o
ia?aeiiiai ia?aceoa Holcotetrastichus rhosaces (Eulophidae)].

Ia?aceooaaiiy a ??cieo noaoe?yo ia nenoaiaoe/ii nii??aeiaieo oacyyo, ui
iathoue noiaeee niin?a aeeooy, i?ioa caeiathoue ??ci? aeieia?/i? i?o?
(iai?eeeaae, Chrysocharis viridis (Nees), ui ia?aceoo? a ee/eieao
aeaie?eeeo-i?ia??a c ?iaeeie Agromyzidae a eenoeiaeo i?iao ia o?aaao,
eouao, aea?aaao oa iaii?ioyo).

Ia?aceooaaiiy ia aaaaoueio nenoaiaoe/ii ia nii??aeiaieo oacyyo, ui
iathoue aeecueeee niin?a aeeooy, oa ?oi?o ia?aeiieo ia?aceoao
(iai?eeeaae, Pediobius acantha (Walker), ui ia?aceoo? a ??ciiiai?oieo
eenoeiaeo i?ia?ao c Diptera, Lepidoptera oa ?oi?o oaeueoeeaei?aeieo
ia?aceoao).

Ca`ycie c iaaiei eieii oacy?a, ui iathoue oe?iea iioe?aiiy (iai?eeeaae,
Entedon (Entedon) diotimus Walker, ui ia?aceoo? a ee/eieao aeiaaiiinee?a
c ?iaeo Apion a ieiaeao oe?iei iioe?aieo ae??aieo aiaiaeo — Lotus
corniculatus, Medicago lupulina oa Trifolium spp.).

Iioe?aiiy aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie ca ?ineeiieie oa?oiiaaiiyie. A?aoiaoth/e
ciiaaia?ao?/io i?iaeaiaoeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iioe?aiiy aioaaeii?i,
aaiethoe?eio iieiae?noue aeaii? a?oie, ?o aeieia?/io ieanoe/i?noue ?
oaiaeaioe?th aei iiaioaaiiy iiaeo a?ioii?a oa oa?eoi??e, cai?iiiiiaaii
iaeyae i?aaenoaaieoeoaa iaeiioe?ai?oeo aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie a ?ineeiieo
oa?oiiaaiiyo, aea aiie neeaaeathoue noaoenoe/io a?eueo?noue. Iii?e oa,
ui aeey cia/ii? e?eueeino? aioaaeii?i oacy?ii-ia?aceoi? ca`ycee aea/ai?
ua ia iiai?noth, ?niothoue iaai? caeiiii??iino? uiaei ?o ?iciiae?eo ii
?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiiyo a Oe?a?i?. Oe? caeiiii??iino? aeineoue /?oei
niinoa??aathoueny i?ae /an iieueiaeo cai??a ca aeiiiiiaith ein?iiy
na/eii — cai?e a a?ioiiao, noiaeeo ca neeaaeii ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiue,
aeathoue noiaeee neeaae ?caeoe?a. Aiaeii/an ca o?oioeaiioe/iith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith a?ioiio iiaeia ni?iaiicoaaoe i?eaeeciee neeaae
i/?eoaaieo aeae?a aioaaeii?i. Aiae?c ?iciiae?eo iaaieo a?oi aioaaeii?i
ca ?ineeiieie oa?oiiaaiiyie, ia iao iiaeyae, ? iaaaaaoi a?eueo
?ioi?iaoeaiei, ai?ae iiooe caeiiii??iinoae ?o ciiaeueiiai iioe?aiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie iaeaaaaooeie ia ?caeoe?a
i?ae?iaeeie Entedoninae ? a?aee?eo? aaeyaeie c ea?oo/ei ??ciio?aa`yi ?
aeii?ioaaiiyi ?ineei c ?iaeei Fabaceae oa Asteraceae. Iaeiioe?ai?oeie
aeaeaie oaoie Oe?a?ie ? Entedon (Entedon) diotimus Walker, E. (E.)
pallicrus Erdoes, E. (E.) sylvestris Szelenyi, E. (E.) crassiscapus
Erdoes, Pediobius acantha (Walker), P. eubius (Walker), Chrysocharis
nephereus (Walker), Neochrysocharis aratus (Walker), N. albiscapus
Erdoes, Closterocerus lanassa (Walker), Omphale salicis Haliday, ye?
cono??/athoueny a a?eueoino? a?ioii?a.

A?aee?eo? a?ioiie. Aiae?coth/e iioe?aiiy aioaaeii?i o a?aee?eoeo
a?ioiiao, ie a?aee aei oaaae ye iaoeai? ?ineeii? oi?iaoe??, oae ?
?ineeii?noue o?ainoi?iiaaieo a?ioii?a (cie?aia naaaoaeueio oa
?oaea?aeueio). Na?aae a?aee?eoeo a?ioii?a iaeaaaaooeie ia aioaaeii?i ?
?oaea?aeuei? ?ineeii? oa?oiiaaiiy eeano Artemisietea vulgaris,
Chenopodietea oa Plantaginetea majoris ? naaaoaeueii-?oaea?aeuei?
oa?oiiaaiiy, i?aaenoaaeai? eeanaie Secalietea oa Agropyretea repentis.
Aeaui a?aei?oeie ? eo/i? oa?oiiaaiiy eeano Molinio — Arrhenatheretea,
eo/ii-noaiia? oa?oiiaaiiy eeano Festuco — Brometea oa iai?a?oaea?aeuei?
oa?oiiaaiiy eeano Agropyretea repentis. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaoia aaeyaei
oaieieo oa i?oaieo e?n?a Ea?iao ia ia? i?yeeo niaoeeo?/ieo ?en o oaoi?
aioaaeii?i ii??aiyii aei oaoie eo/ieo oa eo/ii-noaiiaeo oa?oiiaaiue
?ioeo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie.

E?nia? a?ioiie. Oe?ieieenoyi? e?ne eeano Querceto — Fagetea, aea
o?aa`yiee y?on noi?iiaaiee neaaei /a?ac aenieo cao?iai?noue, ? aeiaie?
a?aeieie ia aioaaeii?i, oi/a o?eueee a oeeo noaoe?yo cono??/athoueny
iiiaeeiie? aecaiiey?e oaeeo aeae?a, ye Derostenus gemmeus (Westwood) oa
Pediobius foliorum (Geoffroy).

A niniiaeo e?nao (??ci? anioe?aoe?? eeano Vaccinio — Piceetea) No?aeii?
Oe?a?ie aioaaeii?ie ciaeaeai? ia aoee. A Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? iino?eiith
neeaaeiaith oaieiiai (ia?aaaaeii nia?aeiaiai) e?no ? ??ci? aeaee ?iaeo
Omphale: a Ea?iaoao ia aaeyaeiao i?aea??`?a a ieaei?o y?onao e?no
(anioe?aoe?y Piceetum oriocarpaticum nithco Vaccinio-Piceion) iioe?ai?
O. salicis Haliday oa O. clymene (Walker), c i?aeeiiii aai?o (noeee
o?i/eu *i?iiai?a oa Eoc?e ia aenio? ( 1700 i, ??ci? anioe?aoe?? nithco
Seslerion tatrae eeano Carici rupestris — Kobrisietea bellardii) — O.
salicis Haliday oa O. rubigus (Walker), a aeua — aae aei ca?inoae
aea?aia Pinus mugo (anioe?aoe?y Vaccinio myrtilli — Pinetum mughi nithco
Pinion mughi, aeecueei 2000 i a?ey i?aeioae ai?e Aiaa?ee) — O. lugens
(Nees).

O?eueee a nia?aeiaeo ianeaao Ea?iaonueeeo e?n?a (caaaeoaaia anioe?aoe?y
Piceetum oriocarpaticum, aea aeii?io? Picea abies), aaaaoeo ia
aeoe?a-eneeioaa?a, a Oe?a?i? ciaeaeai? ?oi? ia?aceoe Entedon (Entedon)
euphorion Walker oa E. (E.) ergias Walker.

Aio?iiiaaii? /eiieee a iioe?aii? aioaaeii?i. Ii?ooaiiy a?oioiai? oa
oeaiiiiioeyoe?eii? oe?e?niino? ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiue aiane?aeie
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ni?ey? iioe?aiith aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a
?ineei oa oe?ieiio i?aaenoaaieoeoao ?oaea?aeueieo oa?oiiaaiue a ??cieo
a?ioiiao. A?aeiia?aeii, aaniethoia e?euee?noue aeae?a aioaaeii?i, ui
iia`ycai? c oaeeie oa?oiiaaiiyie, i?aaaeth? a iieueiaeo cai?ao. C ?ioiai
aieo, ia aeeeth/aii, ui, caaaeyee nai?e aeieia?/i?e ieanoe/iino?,
aioaaeii?ie caeaoi? ia?aoiaeeoe ia a?eueo i?eaeaoieo oacy?a, a oiio ?oiy
cia/ia ?ai?acaioaoeai?noue a ?oaea?aeueieo oa?oiiaaiiyo ? aoi?eiiith
(?acoeueoaoii iiaioaaiiy a?eueo aeinooiieo ?oaea?aeueieo oa?oiiaaiue
/a?ac nei?i/aiiy aeo?aeieo i?e?iaeieo ?aca?aao?a oeeo ?caeoe?a).

Io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieai (ca yeee aoei ia?aii a?ioiie, a?aeaeaeai? a?ae cii o?i?/iiai
caa?oaeiaiiy) aeaeiaee neeaae ye o?oioaa?a, oae ? ?oi?o
ia?aceo?a-aioaaeii?i a ?ineeiieo oi?iaoe?yo a?ioii?a, i?eeaaeeo aei cii
i?iieneiaiai oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai o?i?/iiai i?aneiao, ? cia/ii
a?aei?oei, ai?ae a eiio?ieueieo a?ioiiao (oi/ aiie iaee iiae?aiee
oei?enoe/iee neeaae). I?ioa, neeaae aioaaeii?i ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiue
“caeaieo ino??aoe?a” aeeoeiaeo ianea?a oa ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiue, ui aoee
a?aeie?aieai? a?ae o?ainii?oieo oeyo?a nioaith /aaa?ieeiai-o?aa`yienoi?
?ineeiiino? oe?eiith i?eiaeii? a 5 — 7 iao??a, ia a?ae??ciyany ?noioii
a?ae eiio?ieth (Gumovsky, 1996).

Cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue c nenoaiaoeee aioaaeii?i aeey aeei?enoaiiy a
a?iiaoiae? oa i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e i?aeoeoe?

Aeei?enoaiiy aioaaeii?i i?ioe oe?aeiee?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
e?no. A aeaiiio i?ae?icae?e? iaeyiooi i?eeeaaee aaeaeiai aeei?enoaiiy
aioaaeii?i ye aaaio?a a?iiaoiaeo, aeey /iai aeei?enoaii cai?iiiiiaaiee
aeua ?o iiae?e ca a?oiaie oacy?a: ia?aceoe oe?aeiee?a-nenoi?a, ia?aceoe
oe?aeiee?a-eenoia?ec?a, ia?aceoe oe?aeiee?a-i?ia??a, ia?aceoe
oe?aeiee?a-aaeiooai?thaa/?a, ia?aceoe oe?aeiee?a — noaaeiaeo ao?aaiee?a,
ia?aceoe oe?aeiee?a-eneeioaa?a oa a?ia?ia?aceoe. Cia/aiiy inoaii?o iiaea
aooe ye iaaaoeaiei (ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino? ia?aeiieo
ia?aceo?a-aioiiioaa?a), oae ? iiceoeaiei (i?aeo?eiaiiy noaeino?
iiioeyoe?e ei?enieo aioiiioaa?a oa iaiaaeaiiy /enaeueiino? ia?aceo?a
?ioeo ei?enieo o?oioaa?a) .

I?noea aioaaeii?i a aa?ioeaiicao oa nenoaiao caoenoo ?ineei. A aeaiiio
i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi e?euee?nia i?aaenoaaieoeoai aioaaeii?i a
aeine?aeaeaieo ia?aceoieiiieaenao oe?aeiee?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

A Oe?a?i? ainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy aioaaeii?i ?icaeyaeaeiny ia?aaaaeii
noiniaii aei aa?ioeaiic?a ieiaeiaiai naaeo (Ca?iaa, Oieeaieoe, Eioaiei e
ae?., 1991; Nae?eaeia, 1993), oi/a ?o i?aeoe/iee iioaioe?ae cia/ii
oe?oee. Oae, a aioiiieiiieaen? ia?aceo?a on?o oe?aeiee?a yaeoiaaeo
ianaaeaeaiue i?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo eieeoiueiai N?N? (Oe?a?ia oa Iieaeiaa)
aioaaeii?ie i?aaenoaaeai? 32 aeaeaie, ui noaiiaeoue 37% a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? aaeio?ae (86 aeae?a — Ae?aa?aia 1) oa 18% — a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? oaeueoeeae (144 aeaee — Ae?aa?aia 2). Na?aae ia?aceo?a
eenoeiaeo i?ia??a yaeoi? a Oe?a?i? aioaaeii?ie neeaaeathoue 23% a?ae
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ?caeoe?a (Ae?aa?aia 3) oa 50% — a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? aaeio?ae oeueiai aioiiieiiieaeno (Ae?aa?aia 4).

Ae?aa?aia 1. *anoea Entedoninae na?aae ?ioeo Eulophidae a
aioiiieiiieaen? ia?aceo?a oe?aeiee?a yaeoi? a Oe?a?i? oa Iieaeia? ?acii.

Ae?aa?aia 2. *anoea Entedoninae na?aae ?ioeo Chalcidoidea a
aioiiieiiieaen? ia?aceo?a oe?aeiee?a yaeoi? a Oe?a?i? oa Iieaeia? ?acii.

Ae?aa?aia 3. *anoea Entedoninae na?aae ?ioeo ?caeoe?a a aioiiieiiieaen?
ia?aceo?a i?ia??a eenoe?a yaeoi? a Oe?a?i?.

Ae?aa?aia 4. *anoea Entedoninae na?aae ?ioeo Eulophidae a
aioiiieiiieaen? ia?aceo?a i?ia??a eenoe?a yaeoi? a Oe?a?i?.

Na?aae aioaaeii?i oaoie Oe?a?ie cacia/aii 59 aeae?a, ui iathoue
ainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy; c ieo 22 aeaee aia?oa iaaaaeai? aeey aeaiiai
?aa?iio. ?ioi?iaoe?y ii oeeo aeaeao i?noeoue aeai? c a?ieia?? oa ioe?ieo
?o i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy — aaciina?aaeiueiai (o?aaeaiiy
o?oioaa?a-oe?aeiee?a) /e iiina?aaeeiaaiiai (i?aeo?eiea i?e?iaeii?
aeeiai?ee iiioeyoe?e ei?enieo o?oi- oa aioiiioaa?a /a?ac ae?i?iaoe?th
/anoeie iniaei). Iaeiii?oi?oa i?noea na?aae aioaaeii?i-aaaio?a
a?iiaoiaeo a Oe?a?i? iin?aeathoue ia?aceoe eiiao-i?ia??a (37 aeae?a).

Aeei?enoaiiy aioaaeii?i a i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e i?aeoeoe? oa ?o caa?aaeaiiy.
Iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aioaaeii?i a i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e i?aeoeoe? o?nii
iia`ycaia c ?o caeaoi?noth aenooiaoe a ?ie? aaaio?a a?iiaoiaeo.
Cacia/aii, ui ia nueiaiaei? ?aeeiei niiniaii aeei?enoaiiy aioaaeii?i a
Oe?a?i? (ui ?nioaaa aeiiei? oa caeeoa?oueny iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei
iaaeae?) ? oae caaia noaoe?aeueia oi?aae?iiy, eiee aieea ia oe?aeieea
cae?enith?oueny /a?ac caeo/aiiy eiai aioiiioaa?a (iioaioe?eieo aaaio?a
a?iiaoiaeo) aei aa?ioeaiico c iaaeieeoi?o i?e?iaeieo oa?oiiaaiue. A
?iaio? ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaai? oeie ?ineeiiino? ye iioaioe?ei? ?aca?aaoe
aioaaeii?i.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy c oaoie aioaaeii?i, ye? iieeaaeaii a iniiao oe??? ?iaioe,
a?aoiaaii i?e oi?ioaaii? ieaio i?aai?caoe??, i?e?aeiaii? iiaeo oa?eoi??e
oa ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeee caiia?aaiiy niaeaoai /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a a
Ea?iaonueeiio a?inoa?iiio caiia?aeieeo, caiia?aeieeo «Iaaeiai?e»,
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio I?e?iaeiiio ia?eo “Iiae?euenuee? Oiao?e”,
E?aniieoonuee?e aeine?aei?e noaioe?? naae?aieoeoaa oa i?eeaaeiio
aeaiae?iia?eo, eaiaeoaooiiio ia?eo “E?nieee” oa i?e i?iaeooaaii? aeayeeo
?ioeo ia`?eo?a i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo.

Ia i?eeeaae? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai I?e?iaeiiai ia?eo “Iiae?euenuee? Oiao?e” oa
caiia?aeieea “Iaaeiai?e” i?iaeaiiino?iaaii, ui non?aenoai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue c iaoeaieie oeaiicaie Oiao?
(ia?aeiieie ?aca?aaoaie) oa c ie?aieie ae?eyieaie ?oaea?aeueii?
?ineeiiino? (aoi?eiieie ?aca?aaoaie), ye? ? ?aooa?oiaie ??ciiiai?oieo
aioiiioaa?a — ?aaoeyoi??a /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, iiaea ni?eyoe naii?aaoeyoe?? oeeo aa?ioeaiic?a. A
aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii aeai? uiaei ?iciiae?eo aieiaieo
aioaaeii?i-aaaio?a a?iiaoiaeo ca ?ineeiieie oa?oiiaaiiyie ia ??cieo
ae?eyieao Iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiiai ia?eo “Iiae?euenuee? Oiao?e” oa
i?e?iaeiiai caiia?aeieea “Iaaeiai?e”.

Aeniiaee

Ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie aeyaeaii 98 aeae?a aioaaeii?i c 17 ?iae?a, na?aae
yeeo 64 aeaee oa 11 ?iae?a aia?oa iaaiaeyoueny aeey oaoie Oe?a?ie; yae?i
oaoie aioaaeii?i Oe?a?ie neeaaeathoue oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeai?
?a?iiaenuee? oa o?ainiaeaa?eoe/i? aeaee.

Iienaii 8 iiaeo aeey iaoee aeae?a aioaaeii?i, c ieo 2 — c Oe?a?ie, iacae
11 aeae?a oa 1 ?iaeo caaaeaii aei neiii?i?a, a?aeiiaeaii noaoon 1 ?iaeo.

I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueii-ii?oieia?/iee aiae?c ?iaai aioaaeii?i, yeee
aeicaieea aecia/eoe ae?aaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy ie?aieo iciae, ie?aneeoe
oa?aeoa?i? ?ene i?ae?iaeeie, aeae?eeoe 3 aaa?ooaeuei? oeie na?aae
aioaaeii?i, aeyaeoe niaoeeo?eo aoaeiae oa anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino?
iiaeeo?eaoe?e iaaieo ae?eyiie i?iiiaeaoio, cai?iiiioaaoe eeaneo?eaoe?th
oaoiio aioaaeii?i.

?icaeyiooi oa i?iaiae?ciaaii oi?ie ia?aceoi-oacy?iieo ca`yce?a
aioaaeii?i, cai?iiiiiaaii ??ci? oeie eeaneo?eaoe?? oeeo ca`yce?a.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aioaaeii?ie oaoie Oe?a?ie ia?aceoothoue a i?aaenoaaieeao
6 ?yae?a (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera oa
Thysanoptera), i?e/iio a?eueo?noue aeae?a ? ia?aeiieie aiaeiia?aceoaie
ee/eiie.

Aeneiaeaii a?iioaco, ui ?icoe?aiiy ia?aceoi-oacy?iieo ca`yce?a
aioaaeii?i a?aeaoaaeiny caaaeyee iine?aeiaiiio /a?aoaaiith ??cieo oi?i
o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??, na?aae yeeo, e??i iioe?aii? ii?oi-oeiiai?,
cai?iiiiiaaii aea? iia? oi?ie: oiii-oeiiao oa nenoaiaoe/io.

Aioaaeii?iai aeanoea? oe?ie? a?aaee, ui coiiaeaii ?o aeieia?/iith
ieanoe/i?noth oa oe?ieei niaeo?ii ia?aceoi-oacy?iieo ca`yce?a;
cai?iiiiiaaii iaeyae i?aaenoaaieoeoaa iaeiioe?ai?oeo aeae?a aioaaeii?i
Oe?a?ie a ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiiyo, ui ? iaaaaaoi a?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaiei,
ai?ae iiooe caeiiii??iinoae ?o ciiaeueiiai iioe?aiiy. Cacia/aii, ui a
Oe?a?i? iaeaaaaooeie ia aioaaeii?i ? a?aee?eo? aaeyaeie c ea?oo/ei
??ciio?aa`yi, cie?aia ?oaea?aeuei? oa naaaoaeueii-?oaea?aeuei? ?ineeii?
oa?oiiaaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeaeuo oaoi?noe/io nii??aeiai?noue aioaaeii?ie Oe?a?ie
(98 aeae?a c 17 ?iae?a) aeaiiino?othoue c oeeie ?caeoeyie Aaeeei?
A?eoai?? (ni?eueieo 76 aeae?a ? 17 ?iae?a), Oai?ueie (ni?eueieo 73 aeaee
? 17 ?iae?a) oa eieeoiuei? *aoineiaa//eie (ni?eueieo 71 aeae ? 17
?iae?a).

?aa?ciaaii nenoaio iaeiaea/aiiai ?iaeo Entedon: aianaii ci?ie oa
aeiiiaiaiiy aei eiai ae?aaiico, cai?iiiiiaaii iiae?e ?iaeo ia aeaa
i?ae?iaee — Entedon (Entedon)

s. str. oa iiaiiienaiee Entedon (Cederholmia) Gumovsky, i?iaaaeaii
e?eoe/iee aiae?c iiae?eo i?ae?iaeo Entedon ia a?oie aeae?a, aiane?aeie
/iai cai?iiiiiaaii 8 a?oi (squamosus, cioni, hercyna, cyanellus,
costalis, sparetus, crassiscapus oa kerteszi, c yeeo aea? inoaii? a?oie
aeae?eaii aia?oa), ooi/iaii ?o ae?aaiice oa neeaae, ia?aaeyiooi noaoon
aaaaoueio aeae?a, i?iaaaeaii nenoaiaoe/io ?aa?c?th ie?aieo a?oi aeae?a.

A ?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiue aeyaeaii 59 aeae?a aioaaeii?i, ui iathoue
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy: aaciina?aaei? (o?aaeaiiy o?oioaa?a-oe?aeiee?a) oa
iiina?aaeeiaaia (i?aeo?eiea i?e?iaeii? aeeiai?ee iiioeyoe?e ei?enieo
o?oi- oa aioiiioaa?a /a?ac ae?i?iaoe?th /anoeie iniaei); na?aae ieo 37
aeae?a ? ia?aceoaie eiiao-i?ia??a ? iin?aeathoue iaeiii?oi?oa i?noea a
i?aeoeoe? a?iiaoiaeo, a 22 aeaee aia?oa iaaaaeaii aeey oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie.

Nienie i?aoeue, iioae?eiaaieo ii oai? aeena?oaoe??

Gumovsky A. V. Review of the genus Entedon Dalman, 1820 (Hymenoptera,
Eulophidae, Entedoninae). 1. Infrageneric division of the genus Entedon
with description of a new subgenus from Africa // Aanoiee ciieiaee. —
1997. — O. 31, ?5-6. — P. 24-36.

Gumovsky A. V. Review of the genus Entedon Dalman, 1820 (Hymenoptera,
Eulophidae, Entedoninae). 2. Revision of crassiscapus species group //
Aanoiee ciieiaee. — 1998. — O. 32, ?4. — P. 33-37.

Gumovsky A. V. Review of the genus Entedon Dalman, 1820 (Hymenoptera,
Eulophidae, Entedoninae). 3. Review of kerteszi species group // Aanoiee
ciieiaee. — 1998. — O. 32, ?5-6. — P. 33-38.

Aoiianueeee I. A. Iaeyae aeoe?a-aeiaaiiinee?a ?iaeo Cionus (Coleoptera,
Curculionidae) c aeaieie i?i ?oi?o oaeueoeeaei?aeieo ia?aceo?a
(Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) // AE. Oe?. aio. o-aa. — 1997. — O. 3, ?3-4.
— P. 49-72.

Aoiianueeee I. A. ?iaeeia Eulophidae. n. 52 — 55 / Ca?iaa I. Ae.,
Eioaiei A. A.,

?aae/aiei I. A., Aeyeii/oe E. A., *a?aiiaiei I. A., Aoiianueeee I. A.,

Naiaoin A. A., Neiooi?e N. A. Ia?aoei/anoie?ee? eiiaoe-aioiiioaae
Ea?iaonueeiai a?inoa?iiai caiia?aeieea. — E.: 1996. — 66 n. (I?ai?.
96.2/ IAI Oe?a?ie, ?i-o ciieia??).

Gumovsky A. V. A New species of the genus Entedon Dalman (Hymenoptera,
Eulophidae, Entedoninae) from Tadjikistan // AE. Oe?. aio. o-aa. — 1994
(1995). — O. 2, ?1. — P. 45-50.

Gumovsky A. V. A new species of the genus Entedon Dalman (Hymenoptera,
Eulophidae, Entedoninae) from the Far East Russia // AE. Oe?. aio.
o-aa. — 1994 (1995). — O. 2, ?2. — P. 53-56.

Gumovsky A. V. Species of the genus Entedon Dalman (Hymenoptera,
Eulophidae) associated with Cionus weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)
in Ukraine // AE. Oe?. aio. o-aa. — 1994 (1995). — O. 2, ?2. — P. 43-52.

Gumovsky A. V. A new species of Eulophidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)
from the Far East Russia // AE. Oe?. aio. o-aa. — 1994 (1996). — O. 2,
?3-4. — P. 47-50.

Gumovsky A. V. A new species of the genus Entedon (Hymenoptera,
Eulophidae) from the Far East Russia // Aanoiee ciieiaee — 1996. — O.
30, ?3. — P. 56-57.

Aoiianueeee I. A. Aei oaoie aeoe?a-aeiaaiiinee?a (Coleoptera,
Curculionidae, Curculioninae) o?ea Cionini oa Gymnetrini, o?io?/ii
iia`ycaieo c ?ineeiaie ?iaeeie Scrophulariaceae // Ca??iee ?ia?o
nooaeaio?a oa ani??aio?a Ee?anueeiai oieaa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.
— 1994. — c. 79-85. — Aeai. a AeIOA Oe?a?ie 01.03.1994, ? 418-OE94.

Gumovsky A. V. New data on parasitoid-host interrelationships in
consortial guilds of Verbascum spp. // Ca??iee ?ia?o nooaeaio?a oa
ani??aio?a Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. — 1995. — c.
65-69. — Aeai. a AeIOA Oe?a?ie 04.09.1994, ? 2033-OE95.

Aoiianueeee I. A. Aeieia?/iee aiae?c eiini?oe?? ia i?eeeaae? aea/aiiy
aioiiioaoie aeayeeo ?ineei ?iaeeie ?aiieeiaeo (Scrophulariaceae) ye
neeaaeiaa a?iiaoiaeo // Ca??iee iaoa??ae?a Ia?oi? Anaoe?a?inueei?
nooaeaionueei? eiioa?aioe?? Oiiaeo Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. — E.: Oiiae O.
Oaa/aiea, 1994. — N. 118-121.

Gumovsky A. V. The features of distribution of entomofauna associated
with some plants in urban landscapes of Kiev // Abstracts of
international conference «Urbanized environment: nature conservancy and
human health». — Kiev. — 1996. — P. 72-76.

Gumovsky A. V. Plant communities as reservations of eulophids
(Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) — beneficial parasitic wasps // Abstracts of
11th IFOAM Scientific Conference of Organic Agriculture. — Copenhagen
(Denmark), 1996. — P. 97-98.

Aoiianueeee I. A. ?caeoe?-aioaaeii?ie (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae,
Entedoninae) Oe?a?ie: ii?oi-a?ieia?/iee aiae?c oa aeieiai-oaoi?noe/iee
iaeyae. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.09 — aioiiieia?y. — ?inoeooo ciieia?? ?i. ?.
?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi oaoie, ii?oieia?? oa a?ieia??
oaeueoeeaei?aeieo ?caeoe?a-aioaaeii?i (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae,
Entedoninae) Oe?a?ie. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey
aeaiiai ?aa?iio cacia/aii 98 aeae?a c 17 ?iae?a, na?aae yeeo 11 ?iae?a
oa 64 aeaee aia?oa iaaaaeaii aeey oaoie Oe?a?ie; iienaii 8 iiaeo aeey
iaoee aeae?a aioaaeii?i (c ieo 2 — c Oe?a?ie), iacae 11 aeae?a oa 1
?iaeo caaaeaii aei neiii?i?a, a?aeiiaeaii noaoon 1 ?iaeo. Aecia/aii
oa?aeoa?i? ?ene i?ae?iaeeie, iienaii 3 aaa?ooaeuei? oeie na?aae
aioaaeii?i, iaaiai?aii ae?aaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy ie?aieo iciae,
eeaneo?eiaaii oaoii aioaaeii?i. ?icaeyiooi oa i?iaiae?ciaaii oi?ie
ia?aceoi-oacy?iieo ca`yce?a Entedoninae, aeine?aeaeaii a?ieia?th iaaieo
aeae?a, cai?iiiiiaaii aea? iia? oi?ie o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??.
Aeneiaeaii i?eiouaiiy, ui ?icoe?aiiy ia?aceoi-oacy?iieo ca`yce?a
aioaaeii?i a?aeaoaaeiny caaaeyee iine?aeiaiiio /a?aoaaiith ??cieo oi?i
?o o?io?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??. Aia?oa ?aa?ciaaii nenoaio iaeiaea/aiiai
?iaeo Entedon: aianaii ci?ie oa aeiiiaiaiiy aei eiai ae?aaiico,
cai?iiiiiaaii iiae?e ?iaeo ia aeaa i?ae?iaee (iaeei c yeeo iienaii
aia?oa), cai?iiiiiaaii iiae?e iii?iaoeaiiai i?ae?iaeo ia 8 a?oi aeae?a
(aea? c yeeo aeae?eaii aia?oa), ooi/iaii ae?aaiice oeeo a?oi oa ?o
neeaae. I?inoaaeaii iaai? caeiiii??iino? iioe?aiiy aioaaeii?i ca
?ineeiieie oa?oiiaaiiyie a Oe?a?i?. Iaaiai?aii iiaeeeaino? i?aeoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy aioaaeii?i; cie?aia, a oaoi? Oe?a?ie aeyaeaii 59 aeae?a
aioaaeii?i, ui iathoue aaciina?aaei? oa iiina?aaeeiaaia ainiiaea?nueea
cia/aiiy, c ieo 22 aeaee aeacaii aia?oa aeey aeaiiai ?aa?iio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, oaoia, ii?oieia?y,
oacy?ii-ia?aceoi? ca`ycee, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Aoiianeee A. A. Iaacaeieee-yioaaeiieiu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae,
Entedoninae) Oe?aeiu: ii?oi-aeieiae/aneee aiaeec e
yeieiai-oaoienoe/aneee iaci?. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.09 — yioiiieiaey. — Einoeooo ciieiaee

ei. E. E. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai oaoiu, ii?oieiaee e aeieiaee
oaeueoeeaeieaeiuo iaacaeieeia-yioaaeiiei (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae,
Entedoninae) Oe?aeiu. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee aeey
aeaiiiai ?aaeiia oeacaii 98 aeaeia yioaaeiiei ec 17 ?iaeia, n?aaee
eioi?uo 11 ?iaeia e 64 aeaea aia?aua oeacaiu aeey oaoiu Oe?aeiu; iienaii
8 iiauo aeey iaoee aeaeia yioaaeiiei (ec ieo 2 — ec Oe?aeiu), iacaaiey
11 aeaeia e 1 ?iaea naaaeaiu a neiiieiu, ainnoaiiaeai noaoon 1 ?iaea.
Ii?aaeaeaiu oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou iiaenaiaenoaa, aeey yioaaeiiei iienaiu 3
oeia aaaeoona, ianoaeaeaii nenoaiaoe/aneia cia/aiea ioaeaeueiuo
i?eciaeia, eeanneoeoee?iaai oaoii yioaaeiiei. ?anniio?aiu e
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu oi?iu oicyeii-ia?aceoiuo naycae Entedoninae,
enneaaeiaaia aeieiaey iaeioi?uo aeaeia, auyaeaiu aeaa iiaua oi?iu eo
o?ioe/aneie niaoeeaeecaoeee. Auneacaii i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi ?anoe?aiea
niaeo?a oicyeii-ia?aceoiuo naycae yioaaeiiei i?ienoiaeeei aeaaiaea?y
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiio /a?aaeiaaieth ?acee/iuo oi?i o?ioe/aneie
niaoeeaeecaoeee. Aia?aua i?iaaaeaia ?aaecey nenoaiu iaeieco/aiiiai ?iaea
Entedon: aianaiu eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey a aai aeeaaiic, i?aaeeiaeaii
?acaeaeaiea ?iaea ia aeaa iiae?iaea (iaeei ec eioi?uo iienai aia?aua),
i?aaeeiaeaii ?acaeaeaiea iiieiaoeaiiai iiae?iaea ia 8 a?oii aeaeia (aeaa
ec eioi?uo auaeaeaiu aia?aua), ooi/iaiu aeeaaiicu yoeo a?oii e eo
ninoaa. I?ineaaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe ?ani?ino?aiaiey
yioaaeiiei ii ?anoeoaeueiui niiauanoaai a Oe?aeia. Ianoaeaeaiu
aiciiaeiinoe i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey yioaaeiiei; a /anoiinoe, a
oaoia Oe?aeiu auyaeaii 59 aeaeia yioaaeiiei, eioi?ua eiatho
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia e iiin?aaeiaaiiia oicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea, ec ieo 22
aeaea oeacuaathony aia?aua aeey aeaiiiai ?aaeiia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, oaoia, ii?oieiaey,
oicyeii-ia?aceoiua ioiioaiey, i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea.

Gumovsky A. V. Entedonine chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae,
Entedoninae) of Ukraine: morpho-biological analysis and
ecological-faunistic review. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 03.00.09 — entomology. —
Schmalhausen Institute of Zooology of National Academy of Science of
Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation deals with the fauna, morphology and biology of
entedonine chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Entedoninae) of
Ukraine. As a result of the studies 98 species belonging to 17 genera
have been found for the studied region. 64 species from 11 genera are
new for Ukrainian fauna; 8 new entedonine species are described (2 of
them — from Ukraine), 12 synonyms (11 species and 1 genus) are
established, status of 1 genus is revised. Diagnostic characters of the
subfamily are determined, 3 habitual types are proposed for entedonines,
the systematic importance of certain morphological characters is
discussed and the chaetom of entedonines is classified. Forms of
parasitoid-host interrelationships within subfamily Entedoninae are
analysed, the biology of certain species is discussed, 2 new forms of
trophic specialization are described. It is proposed, that extension of
parasitoid-host associations happens due to the consistent alternation
of different forms of trophic specialization. Infrageneric division of
poorly known genus Entedon is revised: subdivision of the genus into two
subgenera are proposed, a new subgenus is described, the nominative
subgenus is subdivided into 8 species groups, two of them are proposed
for a first time, diagnoses and structure of the remaining groups are
refined. Some regularities in distribution of Entedoninae associated
with certain plant communities in Ukraine have been tracked. Practical
importance of entedonines is discussed, 59 species characterized by
direct and indirect pactical significance are recorded for the fauna of
Ukraine, 22 of them are reported from the studied region for the first
time.

Key words: Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, fauna, morphology, parasitoid-host
relations, practical importance.

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