EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? ?AAIA O?AIEA

OAeE 930.1(477)

Aaeeei/ee Aieiaeeie? Noaiaiiae/

?noi??y COI?: aeaea?aea aei aea/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa

07.00.06 – ?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aeiciaanoai

oa niaoe?aeuei? ?noi?e/i? aeenoeeie?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie I?eea?iaonueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ea?iaiei Ieaenaiae? THoeiiae/.

I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ A?aeae?eo ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iaeai ?inoeoooo
iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie ?
I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iai/oe Iae ?aaiiae/

?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Eeoaei Ieeiea ?iiaiiae/

?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N. A?ooaanueeiai.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 12 aeiaoiy 1999 ?., i 13.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee E 35.051.12 o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith: 290602, i. Euea?a, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 7 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee I.I.Nooee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aiiy oa iaoeiaa inieneaiiy
Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??. ? iaeiei c i?ia?aeieo iai?yie?a
a?o/eciyii? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee a oe?eiio, ?noi?e/iiai aeaea?aeiciaanoaa
cie?aia. ?o oni?oia cae?eniaiiy iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae iineeaiiy oaaae
aei i?iaeai iaoiaeieia??, ?noi??ia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa, ye? ?
aaaeeeaeie aaaeaeyie i?aeaeuaiiy oai?aoe/iiai ??aiy, aoaeoeaiino?,
i?aeoe/ii? cia/eiino? ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Naia a?ae ?noi?e/ieo
aeaea?ae, ?o iiaiioe, ?ai?acaioaoeaiino?, ?ioi?iaoeaii? iane/aiino? ?
aeinoia??iino?, ??aiy ii?aoethaaiiy, iaoeiai? e?eoeee ? iaoiae?a
aeei?enoaiiy caeaaeaoue ye?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue ?noi?e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue caaaeii.

Oea iiaiith i??ith noino?oueny ? aea/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa o
Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inuee?e Ia?iaei?e ?anioae?oe? (COI?) — iaoe?iiaeuei?e
aeaiie?aoe/i?e aea?aeaa? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia eiai cao?aeieo caieyo,
yea aeieeea o 1918 ?. ye caeiiii??iee ?acoeueoao ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo aeiae Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-
1920 ??. Aeooaeuei?noue oaie iaoiiaeaii, ianaiia?aae, oei, ui
aeaea?aeiciaa/? aniaeoe ye ?noi??? COI? a oe?eiio, oae ? aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa a i?e cie?aia, niaoe?aeueii ia ?ic?iaeyeenue. O
iia?oiueiio oe?a?inueeiio aeaea?aeiciaanoa? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue
oaeiai oa?aeoa?o iiee ui ia noai?aii, a ie?ai? o?aaiaioe ? aeoiee
aaoi??a ? eeoa na?ae/aiiyi caii/aoeoaaiiy i?ioeano aeyaeaiiy oa
iai?aoethaaiiy no/anieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai.

E??i oiai, c noeoiiino? an?o aeaea?aeiciaa/eo i?iaeai ?noi??? COI?
aeie?aieai? ieoaiiy aea/aiiy aeaea?ae, ye? i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii
a?aeia?aaeathoue aea?aeaaia aoae?aieoeoai a i?e, ui, aaaaea?ii, a
oe?eiio ? iaei??th c iaeiaio aeine?aeaeaieo ? aeeneon?eieo i?iaeai,
aeiaaathoue nooo?aiai ooi/iaiiy ? ia’?eoeaiiai aena?oeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio oa i?ia?ai iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe c
?noi??? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o XX no., ui cae?enith?oueny
eieaeoeaii eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aaneey Noaoaieea oa A?aeae?eo ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iaeai ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo
oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie ? I?eea?iaonueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? COI?
caaa?oeeinue iaienaiiyi eieaeoeaii aaoi??a i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
caa?aeoaa/a A?aeae?eo aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a Ea?iaiea I.TH.
iiiia?ao?/ii? i?aoe? «?noi??y COI?: 1918-1923 ??.» (iiaeaia aei ae?oeo).

Aeena?oaio cae?eniea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia ii?aoethaaiiy oa i?aeaioiaeo aei
ae?oeo aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a, ye? oa?eoee aei ?, II oa IV oii?a
ca??ieea ‘’COI?:1918-1923 ??.» o 5-oe oiiao, 8-ie eieaao, ?iaioa iaae
yeei a iniiaiiio caaa?oaia (iiaeaiee aei ae?oeo).

E??i oiai, aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeinue a?aeiia?aeii
aei ieaio iaoeiaeo caoiae?a I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aaneey
Noaoaieea, ?ic?iaeaiiai ia iniia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie a?ae 16 o?aaiy 1997 ?. ia aeeiiaiiy caoaa?aeaeaiiai Eaa?iaoii
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie «Ieaio i?aai?caoe?eieo caoiae?a c a?aecia/aiiy
iai’yoieo iiae?e Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??».

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/ai? c o?aooaaiiyi noaio iaoeiaiai
ii?aoethaaiiy oa aeooaeueiino? oaie ? iieyaathoue o ?ic?iaoe?
aeaea?aeiciaa/eo aniaeo?a aea/aiiy ?noi??? COI? ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie
iiae?e Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??. Aeena?oaio noaaea ia?aae
niaith oae? caaaeaiiy:

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe noai noeoiii? aeaea?aeueii? aace aea/aiiy ?noi???
COI? ?, ia iniia? caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo o a?o/eciyiiio oa ca?oa?aeiiio
aeaea?aeiciaanoa? i?eioeei?a, i?iaanoe eeaneo?eaoe?th a??ia?aeieo
aeaea?ae, iiaeaoe caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iniaeeainoae ? cia/eiino? ?o
ie?aieo oei?a, aeae?a oiui;

— iae?aneeoe oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?ioi?iaoeaii? a?aeaea/? aeaea?ae,
iaiao?aeieo aeey aea/aiiy i?iaeai aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a COI?,
eiai aca?iica’yceo ? aieeao ia ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo ia??iaeo Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917
-1920 ??.;

— cae?enieoe iiaa i?i/eoaiiy aaea a?aeiieo ? aaanoe o iaoeiaee ia?a
iia? aeaea?aea c aecia/aieo i?iaeai;

— ia iniia? aeyaeaieo oa ii?aoeueiaaieo aeaea?ae, ooi/ieoe eiioeaioe?th
?icaeoeo aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a a COI?, oi?io, no?oeoo?o oa
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, i?aai?a
i?noeaai? aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy, ca?ieieo nee, noaeo, ioi?iie
noni?eueiiai ii?yaeeo.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue aanue ia??iae ?nioaaiiy
Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee, yeee, ia iaoo aeoieo,
i?ioiaeea o 2 aoaie: ia?oee — c aeiaoiy 1918 ?. aei /a?aiy 1919 ?.;
ae?oaee — c na?aaeeie /a?aiy 1919 ?. aei 14 aa?aciy 1923 ?. Ia?oee aoai
iia’ycaiee c oae caaiei «oa?eoi??aeueiei» ?nioaaiiyi COI?, i?ioyaii
yeiai aiia aeieeea ? oeiinoeoothaaeany, ooaa?aeaeoaaea naith aeaaeo
oeyoii ?icaoaeiae ? iioe?aiiy aeanieo aea?aeaaieo ?inoeoooe?e ia
oa?eoi??? No?aeii? Aaee/eie. Ae?oaee aoai ioiieth? ia??iae ?nioaaiiy,
aea?aeaaieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aeaaeieo ?inoeoooe?e COI?, ye? o ca’yceo
c ieoiaoe??th oa?eoi??? e?ath Ae?oaith ??//th Iiniieeoith, ?oioi??th,
*aoineiaa//eiith ia?aaoaaee a aecee?, a?ae ii/aoeo ai?a?aoe?? ? aei
iiiaioo ?o e?ea?aeaoe??.

Aaoi? ia iaa ia iao? iine?aeiaia aena?oeaiiy ?noi??? COI? ? iaa?oue
nenoaiiee aeeeaae ieoaiue aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a i?e.
Aeena?oaoe?y, ca caaeoiii aaoi?a, iaea a aeaoe caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
aeaea?aeueii? aace aea/aiiy ?noi??? COI?, aeie?aieoe niaoeeo?/i?
iniaeeaino? ?? noai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy, i?iaanoe aiae?c
aeaea?aeiciaa/eo i?iaeai aea/aiiy i?ioeano aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a
i?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa a
?noi??ia?ao?? cae?eniaia ni?iaa eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?noi??? COI?; i?iaaaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th aeaea?ae ca ?o
oeiiai-aeaeiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie; aeie?aieaii oa i?iaiae?ciaaii
iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaii cia/ei? aeaea?aea c ?noi??? aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa, eiie?aoieo i?iya?a ae?yeueiino? ?? aeaaeieo ?inoeoooe?e;
cae?eniaii iiaa i?i/eoaiiy ? aaaaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a ?yae ?ai?oa
iaa?aeiieo aeaea?ae, ye? iathoue i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy aeey ia’?eoeaiiai
aena?oeaiiy ?noi??? COI?, noai?aiiy oe?e?nii? iaoeiai? eiioeaioe?? ??
aea/aiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iiaa i?i/eoaiiy aaea
a?aeiieo ? aea/aiiy oa aaaaeaiiy a iaoeiaee ia?a iiaeo aeaea?ae c
?noi??? COI? a oe?eiio, aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a i?e cie?aia, aeaei
iiaeeea?noue, ia iaoo aeoieo, nooo?ai ooi/ieoe o?ae iiaoaeiae,
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? oa aaiethoe?th no?oeoo?e aea?aeaaii-i?aaieo
?inoeoooe?e; cia/ii ?icoe?eoe iai?yiee oa aeaea?aeueio aaco aea/aiiy
iiae?e Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??. caaaeii. E??i oiai, a
oiiaao cae?eniaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i? ia no/aniiio
aoai? ?? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, aeei?enoaiiy oaeiai aeina?aeo ia??iaeo COI?
iiaea iaoe ia eeoa oai?aoe/ia, a e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aoee ai?iaiaai? o A?aeae?e? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iaeai ?inoeoooo
iie?oe/ieo oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie ?
I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea, ia eaoaae??
?noi??? Oe?a?ie I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea oa
ia i?aeia?iaeieo ? anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo, cie?aia:
«Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie a Aaee/ei? o XX no.» ( eenoiiaae 1996
?., i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee), «Oe?a?inueea iia?oiy aea?aeaaa: ?noi??y ?
no/ani?noue» (aa?acaiue 1997 ?., i. Oa?iii?eue), «OI?-ia?oa a XX
noie?oo? aeaiie?aoe/ia aea?aeaaa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo: aei 80-??//y
Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 — 1920 ?ie?a» (n?/aiue 1998 ?., i. Ee?a),
i?enay/ai?e 80-??//th Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee (
aeiaoaiue 1998 ?., i?noa Euea?a, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee), ia ca?oii-iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo eaoaae? I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aaneey
Noaoaieea o 1996-1999 ??.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??, ?? ci?no ? iine?aeiai?noue aeeeaaeo iaoa??aeo
coiiaeai? eia?eith naii? i?iaeaie, iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo (179 n.) oa
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (547 iaeiaioaaiue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iaoeiaa iiaecia, o?iiieia?/i?
?aiee, aecia/aii ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo
? caaaeaiiy, i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee ? caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea
aeaea?ae c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy» cae?eniaii iaeyae iaeaaaii?oeo
caeiaooe?a a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? ?noi??ia?ao?? o aea/aii?
Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917- 1920 ??., iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo ia?oi? /aa?o? OO noie?ooy,
?noi??? COI?, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii a oe?eiio aeaea?aeueio aaco aei aea/aiiy
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a i?e, aeie?aieaii iaenooo?a?o?, ia iao
iiaeyae, ?noi??ia?ao?/i? oa aeaea?aeiciaa/? i?iaaeeie, ye? aeiaaathoue
ie?aiiai iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy.

Aiae?c ii?aoeueiaaieo ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo iaaeaaiue aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe,
ui ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue aeaea?aeiciaa/? aniaeoe ?noi??? COI? a
oe?eiio, ieoaiiy aeaea?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy aea/aiiy i?ioeano
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a i?e cie?aia, ua ia noaee i?aaeiaoii ye
niaoe?aeueieo, oae ? eiiieaenieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. C-iina?aae
ianeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aaaaea?ii, eeoa o iiiia?ao?/ieo aeaeaiiyo I.
Eeoaeia oa N.Iaea?/oea, noaooyo N.Aea?aa’yiea, A.Iai/oea, I.Iai/oea,
I.Ea?iaiea c?iaeaii ni?iao oe?ieiai aiae?co aeaea?aeueii? aace aei
aea/aiiy ie?aieo aniaeo?a ?noi??? COI?, e?eoe/ii? ioe?iee
?noi??ia?ao?/ieo aeaea?ae c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

C i?aoeue, ui aeinoaoiuei aeeaiei, ia iniia? cia/iiai ianeao aeaea?ae,
?ice?eaathoue ie?ai? i?iaeaie aoae?aieoeoaa ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aea?aeaaieo ?inoeoooe?e COI?, aeae?eeii, ianaiia?aae, o?, ye? c’yaeeenue
ua o 20-30-o ?ieao OOno. Oea, cie?aia, i?aoe? ea??aiee?a oa aeoeaieo
ae?y/?a COI? oa Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee: E.Eaaeoeueeiai,
I.Eiceinueeiai, N.A?oeea, A.Io?eiiae/a, A.Iaiaeea, E.Oeaaaeuenueeiai,
A.Aeiie/aiea, I.Aeioeaiea, N.Iaoeth?e, I.O?enothea, ?.Iacaie oa ?i. ?o
aecia/aeueiith ?enith ? caa?aaeaiiy aeooo oiai/anii? aiioe, iane/ai?noue
cia/iith e?euee?noth aeaea?aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, caiaeii /eiaeith i??ith
ao?a/aiiai.

Aeaeai? o 20-30-o? ??. niiaaaee aaciina?aaei?o o/aniee?a oa na?aee?a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iiae?e ( I.*oaaoiai, I.Eocueie, Ae.Iae??aa oa ?i.)
oaeiae oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeei?enoaiiyi cia/ii? e?eueeino? aeieoiaio?a ?
iaoa??ae?a. sse i?aaeei, aiie iinyoue oaiaoe/iee oa?aeoa?, i?enay/ai?
ie?aiei ieoaiiyi ?noi??? COI?. Cie?aia, o i?aoe? I.*oaaoiai «Aea?aeaaiee
eaae ia Cao?aei?e Iaeanoe Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeiuei? ?anioae?ee» aia?oa
cae?eniaii ni?iao c’ynoaaiiy /enaeueiino? iniaiaiai neeaaeo OI?aaee,
iioae?eiaaii nienee ?? /eai?a.

Ieoaiiy ?noi??? COI? a oe?eiio, ye ? i?iaeaia aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa
a i?e, a ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? 40-80-o ??., aaaaea?ii, ia ciaeoee
iaeaaeiiai aena?oeaiiy. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith ne?ae aaaaeaoe
iaiiaeeea?noue ananoi?iiiueiai aea/aiiy aeaea?ae /a?ac ?nioth/ee oiae?
?aaeeiiee oa?aeoa? caa??aaiiy ie?aieo oiiae?a oa eieaeoe?e aeieoiaio?a ?
iaoa??ae?a a onoaiiaao oiae?oiueiai a?o?aiiai oiiaeo N?N?,
oaiaeaoe?ei?noue oiai/anii? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee a O?N?.

Ia?oei o na?aaeei? 50-oeo ??. cae?eniea ni?iao a?ae?eoe a?ae iaia?aae
aecia/aieo ?aaeyinueeith ?noi?e/iith iaoeith ?aeaieiaai, ia’?eoeaii
aena?oeeoe oa?aeoa? Eenoiiaaeiai? (1918 ?.) ?aaiethoe?? ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo euea?anueeee aeine?aeiee I.Ea?iaiei.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e cia/iee ianea aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a, ui ?ice?eaaee
ia?aaeoiiae oa i?e/eie Eenoiiaaeiaiai c?eao, io?oe?ei? aeieoiaioe
aeaaeieo no?oeoo? Aano?i-Oai?ueie, aeiianaiiy noa?ino iia?o?a ?
iia?oiaeo aee?aeoe?e iie?oe?? i?i ianiaee a?/iaee ?oo o e?a?
aaniith-ainaie 1918 ?., iaoa??aee oiai/anii? i?ane, niiaaaee
aaciina?aaei?o o/aniee?a oa na?aee?a iiae?e, a/aiee aeia?a
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee, ia?iaeiee oa?aeoa? ye naii? ?aaiethoe??,
oae ? ia?iaeaeaii? iath Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee.
Iaeiae, oaea iiceoe?y aaoi?a ? cai?iiiiiaaia iei eiioeaioe?y ia iaaoea
oiae? oa?aeoa?o caaaeueiiaeciaii? ? oaeoe/ii aoea canoaeaeaia, ye
«ai?iaea» oa a?aeeeiooa.

O 60-80-o? ?iee i?iaeaie ?noi??? COI? oaeiae ia noaee i?aaeiaoii
??oioiaieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aa?oi a?aecia/eoe, ui eeoa a i?aoeyo
I.Ea?iaiea, ?.Neiiiaiea, TH.Neeaee /anoeiai ?icaeyaeaeeny ieoaiiy
oa?aeoa?o Eenoiiaaeiai? ?aaiethoe?? 1918 ?. ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo oa aeieeiaiiy COI?, ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? oa aeeieiiaoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? ?? o?yaeiaeo no?oeoo?, ?o ai?ioueae ca i?aeia?iaeia
aeciaiiy aea?aeaae. I?e oeueiio a/ai?, iane?eueee oea aoei iiaeeeaei,
oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaee aeinooiiee ?i oiae? iaoa??ae, /anoi oeeooth/e
ie?ai? o?aaiaioe aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a o oaeno? i?aoeue.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e aeinyaiaiiy a?o/eciyii? ?noi??ia?ao?? inoaiiueiai
aeanyoe??//y noiniaii icia/aieo iaie i?iaeai, caoaaaeeii, ui a?eueoith
/e iaioith i??ith aiie ciaeoee nai? aena?oeaiiy o i?aoeyo ss.A?eoeaea,
ss.Aeaoeaae/a, , N.Aea?aa’yiea, I.AEa?iieea?aa, I.Eaeaeo?e, ss.Eaeaeo?e,
I.Ea?iaiea, I.Eieyi/oea, A.Eiiae?aothea, I.E?aa/oea, I.E?an?anueeiai,
I.Eoaooyea, A.Eoeue/eoeueeiai, I.Eeoaeia, N.Iaea?/oea, E.Iaoiaiea,
I.Iaaethea, A.Iai/oea, I.Iai/oea, ?.I?aeeiae, I.?oaeueiaa, I.Nooiai,
A.Oeueea, Y.Oeaaia?ioa, ?.Oonoa. Na?aae i?aoeue ocaaaeueithth/iai
oa?aeoa?o, a yeeo cae?enith?oueny ni?iaa eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy oa
aiae?co ?noi??? COI?, ne?ae, ia iaoo aeoieo, aeae?eeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
I.Eeoaeia, E.Iaoiaiea, A.Oeueea, I.A?a/a?aiea, N.Iaea?/oea. Naia ?o
i?aoe?, ia iaoo aeoieo, caii/aoeoaaee iiaee aoai a ?noi??ia?ao?? COI?,
yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?aaiaiiyi aaoi??a iiaeieaoe iaioth/? ?ai?oa
noa?aioeie o aena?oeaii? aa?i?/ii? aeie?, ?ie? ? i?noey
cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Ie?aiei ieoaiiyi aeieeiaiiy oa ae?yeueiino? COI? i?enay/ai? /eneaii?
i?aoe? a/aieo — oe?a?i?no?a c-ca ei?aeiio: A.Aa?eae, O.Aoi/aea,
?.Iaaa?anueeiai, I.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei, I.Noao?aa, ?.Oiie, A.Oaa/oea,
N.ss?ineaaeia (?.Nioioeueeiai) oa ?i. Aaoi?e aeei?enoaee iaiaaeaia eiei
aeinooiieo ?i aeaea?ae: aeieoiaioe io?oe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o, iaoa??aee
oiai/anii? i?ane, niiaaaee aaciina?aaei?o o/aniee?a oa i/aaeaeoe?a
iiae?e. Aeeaeiith aeaea?aeiciaa/iai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae??ciy?oueny
i?aoey ?.I?neea, a ye?e iiaeaii ??oioiaiee aiae?c i?ane COI?, iaaaaeaii
ia?ae?e iaoeiaeo onoaiia oa caeeaae?a e?a?i ?a?iie oa Aia?eee, aea aiie
caa??aathoueny.

Cia/io a?oio ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue i?aoe? iieuenueeeo
a/aieo. O?, ui aoee iioae?eiaai? o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae oa ai?iaeiaae
40-80-o ??., ? ia?aaaaeii, niiaaaeaie o/aniee?a oa na?aee?a iiae?e,
a?aecia/athoueny oaiaeaioe?ei?noth i?aeoiae?a aei aena?oeaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?iaeai. A?eueoith ia’?eoeai?noth oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
i?aoe? iieuenueeeo ?noi?ee?a, iioae?eiaai? ca inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy. ?o
aaoi?e oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoue a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee aeey
aena?oeaiiy, aieiaiei /eiii, oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?iei,
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a o Aaee/ei? ia??iaeo ?nioaaiiy COI?.
Aeaea?aeiciaa/? aniaeoe ?? ?noi??? caaaeii ieie ia ?ic?iaeyeenue.

Oaeei /eiii, aea/aiiy iayaieo i?aoeue c ?noi??? COI? aea? iiaeeea?noue
aecia/eoe ye aeinyaiaiiy, oae ? iaea?eueo oeiia? aeey aaaaoueio c ieo
iaaeie?ee o aeei?enoaii? aeaea?ae. Iiaiaeaeo?iiny c aeniiaeaie
N.Aea?aa’yiea ? A.Iai/oea c oeueiai i?eaiaeo. Cie?aia, iaaaaeai? o
anooiao aei i?aoeue aeaea?aeiciaa/? aniaeoe, ye i?aaeei caiaeyoueny
o?eueee aei ia?a/eneaiiy ie?aieo a?oi aea/aieo aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a,
i?noyoue o?aaiaioa?i? a?aeiiino? i?i ?o ioae?eaoe?? oa i?noey
caa??aaiiy. O oaenoao ??aeei a?aeia?aaeaia i?iaaaeaia aaoi?aie ?iaioa
iaae aeaea?aeaie, ?o aeaea?aeiciaa/a oa?aeoa?enoeea. Ia an? aeaea?aea,
ui aeei?enoiaothoueny, aieiae?thoue aeinoaoi?i ??aiai
?ai?acaioaoeaiino?.

Nooo?aei iaaeie?eii ? e oa, ui /anoi, aeei?enoiaoth/e ia i?ea?iaee, a
eii?? aeieoiaio?a /e ?o o?aaiaioe, ye? ia caaaeaee aeathoue iiaio oyao
i?i aeaea?aea a oe?eiio, aeieac?a, ye? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?o
aeinoia??i?noue, aaoi?e ia iaaiaeyoue. E??i oiai, ia aeaco?oueny
oa?aeoa? aeieoiaio?a, ?o aaoi?noai, /an ? i?noea noai?aiiy oa ?i. A
iaoeiai-aeia?aeeiaiio aia?ao? cono??/athoueny oae caai? «aeoo?
iieeeeaiiy», eio?? ia aeathoue oyae i?i aeei?enoai? aeaea?aea. Aeey
?yaeo i?aoeue inoaiiueiai /ano oa?aeoa?i? iieeeeaiiy ia /enaeuei?
a?o?ai? oiiaee, aeai? i?i ye? ia a?aeiia?aeathoue ?o no/aniiio ci?iaiiio
iieno. Ana oea a oe?eiio oo?oaeith? ia?aa??eo aeinoia??iino? aeaea?ae
?ioeie aeine?aeieeaie.

Ioaea, ia caaaeath/e ia cia/io e?euee?noue i?aoeue, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue
aa?i?/iee oeyo Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee, ieoaiiy
aea/aiiy ?? aeaea?aeueii? aace iaeaea ia ?ic?iaeyeenue ? oiio ia
io?eiaee iaeaaeiiai aena?oeaiiy. Oea, a naith /a?ao, i?ecaaei aei
iaaeinoaoiueiai aea/aiiy oa iaoeiaiai aiae?co aaaaoueio aaaeeeaeo
ieoaiue i?ioeano aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a COI?.

A?aoiaoth/e oea, iaie, c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a aeaea?aeiciaa/i?
aa?enoeee, anoaiiaeaii noeoii?noue aeaea?ae, ui ? iniiaith aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? COI? a oe?eiio, aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a i?e
cie?aia, i?iaaaeaii ?o eeaneo?eaoe?th, iiaeaii caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
iioiaeaeaiiy, caa??aaiiy oa eiie?aoieo iniaeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy.

Iniiaiith nea?aieoeath aeieoiaioaeueii? iai’yo? i?i ?noi??th oa
ae?yeuei?noue COI? ? Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee a?o?a aeueo i?aai?a
aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie) ? Oeaio?aeueiee
aea?aeaaiee ?noi?e/iee a?o?a Oe?a?ie o i. Eueaia? (OeAe?AE).

??ciiiai?oi? ca nai?th aeaeiaith eeaneo?eaoe??th, iioiaeaeaiiyi oa
i?ecia/aiiyi, ?noi?e/i? oa ?noi??ia?ao?/i? aeaea?aea c ?noi??? COI?
cina?aaeaeai?, a iniiaiiio, o 10 oiiaeao OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie. A iniia?
aioo??oiueiai oi?ioaaiiy eiaeiiai c ieo eaaeeoue o?iiieia?/iee i?eioeei.
Caaaeueia e?euee?noue iaeeieoeue caa??aaiiy eiiieaeno noaiiaeoue, ca
iaoeie i?ae?aooieaie, 822. Iniiaia /anoeia oeo, ui caa??aathoueny o
OeAe?AE, ciaoiaeeoueny o oiiae? 581 «Eieaeoe?y aeieoiaio?a i?i
ae?yeuei?noue o?yae?a ? a?i?e Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee oa
Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee (1914 – 1939 ??.)», cie?aia o
?? ae?oaiio ?icae?e? (122 c 212 iaeeieoeue caa??aaiiy). Ie?ai? aeaea?aea
c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii iaie ua o 5 oiiaeao oeueiai a?o?ao.

Iaea?eueo aaaiiith /anoeiith eiiieaeno ? aeieoiaioe io?oe?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o: ?icii?yaeaeaiiy – ?icii?yaeee, ia?aeieee, iaeace Aeeeoaoi?a,
eiai A?enueeiai? eaioeaey???, Ia/aeueii? Eiiaiaee Aaeeoeueei? A?i??
(IEAA) oiui. Aei iueiai aoiaeyoue oaeiae ? iaoa??aee iniaenoiai
oa?aeoa?o: ia?aienea, niiaaaee, uiaeaiieee o/aniee?a ? na?aee?a iiae?e.

C 1990 ?. iaoa??aee oeeo oiiae?a i?ney ?o oaoi?/iiai aeiii?aoethaaiiy oa
iiiiaeaiiy aoee ?icnae?a/ai? ? noaee aeinooiieie aeey ?o aeei?enoaiiy
aeine?aeieeaie. Iaeiae aiie i?aeoe/ii ia aaaaeai? o iaoeiaee ia?a, i?i
ui na?ae/eoue aiae?c ci?noo ioae?eaoe?e aeine?aeiee?a 90-o ??.

Cia/ia e?euee?noue aeaea?ae c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy caa??aa?oueny o
oiiaeao aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a A?iieoeueei?, Caea?iaonueei?,
?aaii-O?aie?anueei?, Euea?anueei?, Oa?iii?euenueei? oa *a?i?aaoeueei?
iaeanoae, oiaoi oiai ?aa?iio, aea aai aaciina?aaeiuei ciaoiaeeeanue naia
aea?aeaaa, aai ae?yee ?? ?inoeoooe??. Ie?ai? aeieoiaioe oa iaoa??aee
caa??aathoueny oaeiae ? a Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio e?iioioioiiia?o?a?
Oe?a?ie, o aea?aeaaieo a?o?aao ?yaeo ?ioeo iaeanoae, a oaeiae i?aai?a
Neoaeae Aaciaee, I?ieo?aoo?e, Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie.

*eiaei aeaea?ae c ?noi??? COI?, a o./. ? oeo, ui noaee i?aaeiaoii
oeueiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, caa??aathoueny ? a a?o?aao oa
a?ae?ioaeao ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i: o Oeaio?aeueiiio a?enueeiaiio a?o?a? o
i.Aa?oaa?, A?o?a? Aeo?a Iiaeo o i.Aa?oaa?, A?o?a? aea?aeaaiiio o
i.Ia?aieoe? (?anioae?ea Iieueua); Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a?,
Aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio oa A?enueeiaiio a?o?aao o i.A?aei? (Aano??y); A?o?a?
Oe?a?inueeiai eaoieeoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. na. Eeeiaioa iaie o i.
?ei? (Aaoeeai); Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??,
?in?enueeiio aea?aeaaiiio a?enueeiaiio a?o?a?, ?in?enueeiio oeaio??
caa?aaeaiiy oa aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a iia?oiuei? ?noi??? (?in?enueea
Oaaea?aoe?y). ? a?aeiiino? i?i iayai?noue ie?aieo i?ea?iaeueieo
aeieoiaio?a a a?o?aao ?ioeo aea?aeaa oa i?eaaoieo in?a.

Iaei??th c iaea?eueoeo ca ?ai?acaioaoeai?noth aeieoiaioaeueii? aace aei
aea/aiiy ?noi??? COI? na?aae a?o?a?a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i ? eieaeoe?y
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a o A?o?a? Oe?a?inueeiai eaoieeoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.na. Eeeiaioa iaie. Ca na?ae/aiiyi i?io. I.Ea?iaiea, yeee
iniaenoi o 1997 ?. iaa ciiao i?aoethaaoe c oe??th eieaeoe??th, aiia ?
aeiaie? ?aia?acaioaoeaiith ca e?euee?nieie ? ye?nieie e?eoa??yie,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaaaoiiai?ooyi ??cieo aeae?a aeaea?ae. Na?aae ieo —
?icii?yaeee, ia?aeieee, iinoaiiae Aeeeoaoi?a, ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
iia?aeiieaiiy aeaaeieo ?inoeoooe?e aea?aeaae ai?iaeiaae 1919-1923 ??.;
iioe i?ioanoo aei o?yae?a e?a?i Aioaioe, ea??aieo i?aai?a ie?ieo
eiioa?aioe?e c aeiiaaie i?eieiaiiy ieoiaoe?? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue ?ioa?aaioaie; iaoa??aee oe?a?inueei? i?ane, ui aeaeaaaeenue ca
?icii?yaeaeaiiyi A?aeae?eo i?ane ? i?iiaaaiaee O?yaeo Oiiaiiaaaeaieo
Aeeeoaoi?a, aeoiaeeea o oaai?ao ?ioa?iiaaieo aiye?a OAA oiui. *anoeia c
ieo aoea aeei?enoaia ia?oei aee?aeoi?ii oeueiai a?o?ao aeieoi?ii
Oaio?eai Ai?i?eaae/ai i?ae /an i?aeaioiaee iei ca??ieea aeieoiaio?a ?
iaoa??ae?a i?i iiae?? a Oe?a?i? o 1914-1922 ??.

Canai?iiy /eneaiieo ? ??ciiiai?oieo ca nai?i neeaaeii aeaea?ae aeiaaa?
?o iaoeiai? eeaneo?eaoe??. Aaoi?ii aeei?enoaii caaaeueiii?eeiyoo o
a?o/eciyiiio aeaea?aeiciaanoa? eeaneo?eaoe?eio noaio aeaea?ae ca ?o
oeiiai-aeaeiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, oi?iith, iioiaeaeaiiyi oa
i?ecia/aiiyi.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ia? aiae?c,
nenoaiaoecaoe?y oa aioo??oiy eeaneo?eaoe?y iaeiiai c ?iae?a ienaiieo
aeaea?ae, ye? ooai?eeeny a i?ioean? ae?yeueiino? ??ciiiai?oieo
aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo, i?eaaoieo onoaiia — aeieoiaioaeueieo. ?o
aeei?enoaiiy o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie aaaaea?ii aaciaeie, aaeaea
naia aiie aecia/aee o?ae ? iniaeeaino? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Oea,
cie?aia, aeoe caeiiiaeaa/iai oa?aeoa?o, i?eeiyo? OI?aaeith, ?aaeith
Aea?aeaaieo Nae?aoa??a, i?ioieiee ? noaiia?aie ?o can?aeaiue,
Caei?aeiiii? A?oie OI?aaee, Eieaa?? Oiiaiiaaaeaieo Aeeeoaoi?a, i?noeaaeo
i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy, ia?o?eieo c’?cae?a, eiioa?aioe?e, ?o
iinoaiiae oa caa?iaiiy, ?io? aeieoiaioe.

Ca i?eioeeiii iiae?eo aeaea?ae ca i?ecia/aiiyi, oiiaii aeae?eeii
«ii?iaoeai?» oa «aeeiiaa/?» aeieoiaioe. Aei ii?iaoeaieo a?aeianaii
caeiie, ooaaee, caa?iaiiy, ??oaiiy OI?aaee, ?icii?yaeee Aeeeoaoi?a,
?icii?yaeee oa ia?aeieee ?aaee Aea?aeaaieo Nae?aoa??a, Oiiaiiaaaeaieo
Aeeeoaoi?a, ye? iaee oa?aeoa? i?aecaeiiieo aeo?a ? aoee iieeeeai?
caaacia/eoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
?aae?caoe?th ?o iie?oeee; ?icii?yaeee oa ia?aeieee i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy. A?aeiinii ii?iaoeaiee oa?aeoa? iineee ia?aaeia?
?aaeaeoe?ei? noaoo? io?oe?eieo ae?oeiaaieo aeaeaiue i?aai?a aeaaee oa
oi?aae?iiy COI?: «?aioaeeee», «Iiaiai aeeooy», «Oe?a?inueeiai i?aii?a»,
«Oe?a?inueeiai Neeoaeueoey», «No??eueoey»; ?aciethoe?? oa ooaaee
ia?o?eieo c’?cae?a ? eiioa?aioe?e, ia?iaeieo a?/ ? cai??a oiui.

Aeeaoa ?ice?eoe oe?ieo aea?aeaaioai?/o ae?yeuei?noue COI? aeiiiiiaea
aea/aiiy oae caaieo aeeiiaa/eo aeaea?ae — iaeyaeiaeo, ca?oieo,
aeieoiaio?a OI?aaee, ?? eo?’???a ? iineaioe?a, ie?aieo Aea?aeaaieo
Nae?aoa??ao?a, Oiiaiiaaaeaieo Aeeeoaoi?a, eiai ?aoa?aio?a, i?noeaaeo
i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy; iianyeaeaiiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo;
ia?aienee; ??cieo i?aeaioia/eo iaoa??ae?a, ia yeeo a?oiooaaeenue
i?aecaeiii? aeieoiaioe ye aeeiiaa/iai, oae ? ii?iaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Aei ?noi?e/ii? o?aaeeoe??, aai iiia?aeieo aeaea?ae a?aeiinyoueny,
ianaiia?aae, /eneaii? niiaaaee aeoeaieo o/aniee?a oa na?aee?a iiae?e, a
o./. ? oeo, ui aenooieee ia aioe? i?ioeaiee?a aeaaee
cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, iniaenoa ia?aienea, ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
iaoa??aee, ye? oe?iei ioae?eoaaeenue o eaaaeuei?e oa iaeaaaeuei?e i?an?.
Canoiniaoth/e oaeee iiae?e, ne?ae cacia/eoe eiai /?oei ae?aaeaiee
oiiaiee oa?aeoa?, aea eiai aeei?enoaiiy iaaiith i??ith ni?ey?
iioei?caoe?? ?iaioe c aeaea?aeaie.

Aeoiaey/e c aeua neacaiiai, oaanue eiiieaen aeyaeaieo aeaea?ae,
iaiao?aeieo aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a
COI?, i?iiiio?ii ca iioiaeaeaiiyi oiiaii eeaneo?eoaaoe ianooiiei /eiii:

1.Aeieoiaioe aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy COI? ? OI?.

2.Aeieoiaioe i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy COI?.

3.Aeieoiaioe iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, a?iiaaenueeeo, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o,
a?enueeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e oa ia’?aeiaiue.

4.Aeieoiaioe i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, eiioa?aioe?e.

5.Oai?e iie?oe/ieo oa aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a COI? ? OI?.

6.Iaoa??aee i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy Aano?i-Oai?ueie oa
Iieueu? noiniaii No?aeii? Aaee/eie o 1918-1923 ??.

7.Ia??iaee/ia i?ana ? iaia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy.

8.Niiaaaee aaciina?aaei?o o/aniee?a oa na?aee?a iiae?e.

9.Iaoa??aee iniaenoiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

10.E?iioioiaeieoiaioe, oai?e ienoaoeoaa.

11.Iaoeiaa, iie?oe/ia oa ooaeiaeiy e?oa?aoo?a.

Eiaeia c iacaaieo a?oi a?eueo /e iaio ia’?iia ? ??ciiiai?oia ca nai?ie
aeaeaie oa a oe?eiio neeaaea?oueny c iaeii??aeieo aeieoiaio?a.
Ana?aaeei? eiaeii? c a?oi aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii aeiaeaoeiao aioo??oith
eeaneo?eaoe?th, iaiao?aeio aeey aiae?co noeoiiino? aeaea?ae.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe, ui ia? iacao «Aeaea?aea aei aea/aiiy
Eenoiiaaeiai? (1918 ?.) iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aaiethoe?? ?
ooai?aiiy COI?», ?icaeyaea?oueny eiiieaen, ianaiia?aae, ienaiieo
aeaea?ae, ye? aena?oeththoue i?e/eie, ia?aaeoiiae, o?ae ?aaiethoe??,
i?ioean i?iaieioaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino? o 1918
?.

Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoai? ianooii? a?oie ?noi?e/ieo aeaea?ae: aeieoiaioe
? iaoa??aee, ui aena?oeththoue ia?inoaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?,
iaoe?iiaeueii aecaieueii? ai?ioueae ia?iaeieo ian; aeieoiaioe iie?oe/ieo
? a?enueeiaeo oeaio??a, eio?? aaee aaciina?aaeith i?aeaioiaeo ?
cae?enieee anoaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeaaee o No?aei?e Aaee/ei?.

Ine?eueee ieoaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua
cao?aeii-oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue iai?ee?ioe? 1917 – o 1918 ??. ia ?
niaoe?aeueiei i?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi o eiai
aena?oeaii? ie aacoaaeenue ia aaea ?nioth/eo i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo
aaoi??a, ye? iiaoaeiaai? ia ??oioiaiiio ia?oiaeaea?aeueiiio iaoa??ae?,
i?noyoue aeeaieee aiae?c iniiaieo ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo ?ia?o ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo c icia/aii? i?iaeaie.

I?ioean ia?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo aena?oeththoue, cie?aia, i?ia?aie, ??oaiiy,
ooaaee ? iinoaiiae c’?cae?a, eiioa?aioe?e, ?ioeo ea??aieo i?aai?a
iaoe?iiaeueieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, Aieiaii? Oe?a?inueei? ?aaee, Nithco
Aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie, Caaaeueii? Oe?a?inueei? ?aaee, Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?eaiaioa?ii? ?ai?acaioaoe??, aenooie oa io?oe?ei? caieoe aeaiooao?a
aano??enueeiai ia?eaiaioo a?ae cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue c aeiiaaie
a?aeiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino? ia aoi?/ieo oe?a?inueeeo
caieyo, niai?iino? iaoe??. Aeaea?aeaie aeey aea/aiiy oeueiai i?ioeano ?
oaeiae ??oaiiy, ooaaee a?/, ia?iaeieo cai??a o ethoiio-aa?aci? oa
aa?ani?-aeiaio? 1918 ?. c oaeeie ae aeiiaaie. A?aeiiino? i?i ieo
a?aeeeaeenue o iaoa??aeao oiai/anii? oe?a?inueei? i?ane, niiaaaeao
i?aai?caoi??a ? o/aniee?a iiae?e, aeiianaiiyo noa?ino iia?o?a ?
aee?aeoe?e iie?oe??.

Iaeiaioith ?ai?acaioaoeai?noth oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaea?aeueia aaca aei
aea/aiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy oa ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?aeueiiai
A?enueeiaiai Eii?oaoo (OeAE), i?aeaioiaee iei «Eenoiiaaeiaiai c?eao».
Oaeoe/ia a?aenooi?noue aeieoiaioaeueii? aace c oe??? i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiynith?oueny e?eueeiia i?e/eiaie. Ii-ia?oa, oi/ OeAE ?
aoa noai?aiee o aa?ani? 1918 ?., i?ioa aeoeaio ?iaioo ?icii/aa eeoa o
na?aaeei? aeiaoiy. Ii-ae?oaa, i?aeaioiaea aei anoaiiaeaiiy aeaaee
oe?a?ioeyie o No?aei?e Aaee/ei? ia i?noeyo iaea oe?eeii oa?iiee
oa?aeoa?, i?e oeueiio aeieoiaioaeueieo caien?a iaeaea ia caa??aaeiny.
Oiio iaeaaaeeea?oeie aeaea?aeaie aeey aea/aiiy i?ioeano ae?yeueiino?
OeAE ? i?aeaioiaee iei ca?ieiiai aenooio o e?a? ? niiaaaee naieo /eai?a
Eii?oaoo oa in?a, c iei iia’ycaieo: Ae.Iae??aa, ?.?oaeieoeueeiai,
O.Ia?oeioey, E.Eaaeoeueeiai, I.Aooeoeyea oa ?i.

Oe? ae ienaii? aeaea?aea ii?yae c ?ioi?iaoe?eieie iia?aeiieaiiyie c i?no
? iia?o?a e?ath aei OI?aaee o i.Eueaia?, aaaaea?ii, ? aaciaeie ? aeey
aena?oeaiiy ieoaiiy i?i i?iaieioaiiy Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo, Eenoiiaaeiaiai c?eao ? oiaeo caii/aoeiaaii?
iei iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aaiethoe??. Cie?aia, aea/aiiy
iaoa??ae?a oe?a?inueei? i?ane ca aeiaoaiue 1918 ?. aeaei iai ciiao
aia?oa anoaiiaeoe, ui aei neeaaeo OI?aaee ia /an ?? noai?aiiy aoiaeeei
eeoa 66 aeaeaaao?a, ye? 19 aeiaoiy 1918 ?. ? i?iaieineee a?aeiiaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino? ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

Oaeei /eiii, aeyaeai? ? ii?aoeueiaai? aeaea?aea ? aeiaie? ??ciiiai?oieie
ca nai?ie ye?nieie ? e?euee?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, oi/ ?o eiiieaen ?
iicia/aiee iaaieie i?iaaeeiaie, coiiaeaieie ?yaeii ia’?eoeaieo oa
noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a. A oe?eiio ae, aiie, aaaaea?ii, ?
?ai?acaioaoeaieie ? aeathoue i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeii? COI? noaei caeiiii??iei ?acoeueoaoii ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo o No?aei?e Aaee/ei?, ye neeaaeiai?
/anoeie Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 — 1920 ??.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «A?aeia?aaeaiiy a aeaea?aeao i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?e aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy»
iaaieioo?oueny: iniiaiei aeaeii ienaiieo aeaea?ae, ye? aeicaieythoue
aena?oeeoe icia/aio i?iaeaio, ? caeiiiaeaa/? oa ae?eiaiae/?. Na?aae ieo
i??i?eoaoia i?noea caeiathoue aeoe ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o,
aeaeai? aeueie aea?aeaaieie ?inoeoooe?yie COI?. Ca oi?iith,
iioiaeaeaiiyi oa i?ecia/aiiyi i?iiiio?ii ?icae?eeoe ?o ia ianooii?
i?aeaeaee: 1) caeiie, ooaaee oa iinoaiiae; 2) ?icii?yaeaeaiiy –
?icii?yaeee; 3) oee?eoey?e oa ia?aeieee.

Iio??aii cacia/eoe, ui cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?eia noaia ?icaeyaeo
aeieoiaio?a iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue eeoa aeey ia?oiai aoaio
ae?yeueiino? COI?. I?ae /an ia??iaeo, eiee iniiaiith oi?iith iie?oe/iiai
?aaeeio aoea aeeeoaoo?a, a naia cao?aeiioe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa ao?aoeea
naith oa?eoi??th, a?oio aeo?a ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o a iniiaiiio
neeaaeathoue ?icii?yaeee Aeeeoaoi?a, ia ye? ii?yae c caeiiiaeaa/eie
iieeaaeaeenue oaeiae ? ?aaeaiaiooth/? oa ?ino?oeoeai? ooieoe??.

A iniiaiiio aeieoiaioe ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o, ye? a?aeeeaeenue
a oiae? ae?yeueiino? aeaaeieo no?oeoo? COI? iioae?eiaai? o niaoe?aeueieo
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo o?yaeo oa eiai i?i?noa?noa («Ca??iee caeii?a,
?icii?yaee?a oa ia?aeiee?a i?iaieioaieo Aea?aeaaiei Nae?aoa??aoii
Cao.-Oe?.I.?.», «A?noiee aea?aeaaieo caeii?a ? ?icii?yaee?a Cao?aeii?
Iaeanoe Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee», «A?noiee Aea?aeaaiiai
Nae?aoa??aoo a?enueeiaeo ni?aa», «A?noiee Aea?aeaaiiai Nae?aoa??aoo
i?inuea?oe ? a??i?niia?aeaiue»), oiai/ani?e i?an? (aacaoe «?aioaeeea»,
«Ae?ei», «Oe?a?inueea neiai», «Iiaa aeeooy», «Oe?a?inueeee i?aii?»).
Cia/iee ieano aeaea?ae oaeiai ae oa?aeoa?o i?noeoueny e o
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeyo ia?oeo aeine?aeiee?a ?noi??? COI?:
I.Eiceinueeiai, I.*oaaoiai, N.ss?ineaaeia, I.Noao?aa oa ?i.

I??i?eoaoiee oa?aeoa? aeei?enoaiiy aeaea?ae c icia/aii? i?iaeaie iathoue
o?, ye? iioae?eiaai? a io?oe?eieo ae?oeiaaieo aeaeaiiyo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy COI?. ?o oaenoiaee ci?no ? iaea?eueo
oi/iei ?, ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie i?eioeeiaie aeaea?aeiciaa/i? iaoee,
aaaaea?oueny aaoaioe/iei, eaiii?/iei.

Aeey aea/aiiy i?ioeano iiaoaeiae no?oeoo?e aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy COI? iaiao?aeiei ? oaeiae ? aeei?enoaiiy oeo
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ye? a?aeeeaeenue o oi?i? iacaaa?oaieo
aeieoiaio?a, i?iaeo?a ? o.?. Aeaea?aeiciaa/a aea/aiiy, iai?eeeaae, ?yaeo
i?iaeo?a ?icii?yaee?a Aeeeoaoi?a aeicaieeei c’ynoaaoe ?o no?aa?noe/i?
iniaeeaino?, ye?, o naith /a?ao, aeathoue iai i?aenoaae c?iaeoe aeniiaie
eiioeaiooaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Ii?aeiaiiy aa?a?a aeaio aea?aeaa
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo – OI? oa COI? o ia/aooe? ia ?icii?yaeeo Aeeeoaoi?a
«I?i cai?io iaeaeui? ia?aooieiai? iaeaoe O?yaeii Aea?aeaaii? Eiio?ie?»
a?ae 29 a?oaeiy 1921 ?. ia ? aeiaaeeiaei. Aa?a COI?. iaioee ca ?ici??aie
? ai?uaiee ana?aaeei? aa?aa OI?, neiaie?co?, aaaaea?ii, i?aai?/io
iaoe?iiaeueio oa aea?aeaaio ?aei?noue cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo c on?ia
oe?a?inueeeie caieyie, ye oea ? aoei i?iaieioaii i?ae /an ceoee COI? ?
OI?. Aeei?enoaiiy oaeiai ii?aeiaiiy aa?a?a o aea?aeaai?e ia/aooe? COI?
na?ae/eoue i?i iaioaaiiy a oeae /an na?aae ?? ea??aieoeoaa
niai?ieoeueeeo iano?i?a. Oea, o naith /a?ao, ?iaeoue noii?aiei
oaa?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo aeine?aeiee?a i?i oa, ui aaea ainaie 1919 ?.
ianooiea aea?aeaaiee ?ic?ea i?ae COI? ? OI?.

Oaeei /eiii, eiiieaen aeaea?ae, ye? aena?oeththoue i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy oa
ae?yeueiino? aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy COI?, neeaaeathoue,
ianai-ia?aae, aeieoiaioe io?oe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o, ??ciiiai?oi? ca aeaeaie,
oi?iith ? i?ecia/aiiyi. Niaoeeo?ea ?o iai?aoethaaiiy, aaaaeaiiy a ae?th
? canoinoaaiiy, oaenoiaee ci?no oa no?aa?noe/i? iniaeeaino?
aeicaieythoue ae/eaieoe aeaa aoaie o i?ioean? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa
a COI?, iia’ycai? c oeeie aoaiaie aeaeici?ie naieo aea?aeaaii-i?aaieo
?inoeoooe?e, ?o oa?aeoa?o oiui.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaea?ae aei aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino?
i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy, noaei/einoaa,
i?aaiii?yaeeo oa ca?ieieo nee a COI?» iniiaia oaaaa i?eaa?iooa aei
ienaiieo, ye? ca?oiiaai? aaoi?ii o ie?ai? i?aeaeaee: aeieoiaioe
io?oe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o, aeaeai? aeaaeieie no?oeoo?aie; iaoa??aee i?ane
i?i ?o ?iaioo; niiaaaee aaciina?aaei?o o/aniee?a oa i/aaeaeoe?a iiae?e.

Cia/ia ??ciiiai?oi?noue ienaiieo aeaea?ae ia?oiai i?aeaeaeo aeiaaa?, ia
iao iiaeyae, aeiaeaoeiai? aioo??oiuei? eeaneo?eaoe??. Ca iioiaeaeaiiyi,
oe? aeieoiaioe ne?ae ?icae?eeoe ia o?e i?aea?oie. Ia?oo neeaaeaoeiooue
aeieoiaioe aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ye? aecia/aee no?oeoo?o,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco oa noa?o eiiiaoaioe?? icia/aieo aea?aeaaieo
?inoeoooe?e.

Aei ae?oai? ne?ae a?aeianoe aeieoiaioe, aeaeai? naieie i?noeaaeie
i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy, noaei/einoaa, i?aaiii?yaeeo oa
ca?ieieo nee COI? ye o io?oe?eieo ae?oeiaaieo i?aaiao, oae ? o oi?i?
eeno?aie, iia?aeiieaiue, iiia?noie–iaieioaiue.

O?aoth a?oio, aaaaea?ii, neeaaeathoue aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee oaeiai ae
iioiaeaeaiiy, ye? ia aoee iioae?eiaai?, aea caa?aaeeny a a?o?aao.

Ieoaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy,
noaei/einoaa, i?aaiii?yaeeo oa ca?ieieo nee a COI? a?aeia?aaeai? oaeiae
o iaoa??aeao i?ane, niiaaaeao o/aniee?a oa i/aaeaeoe?a iiae?e.

Aiae?c aeyaeaieo oa ii?aoeueiaaieo aeaea?ae aeaa iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe
?yae ianooiieo aeniiae?a.

Nenoaia i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy ooieoe?iioaaea
eeoa i?ioyaii ia?oiai ia??iaeo ?nioaaiiy COI?. Ia /ie? ie?aii?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? iaeeieoe? – iia?oo, noiya Aea?aeaaiee Iia?oiaee
Eii?na?, i?e yeiio ia i?aaao aei?aae/iai i?aaio ae?yea iia?oiaa
oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaea. C ao?aoith COI? aeanii? oa?eoi???
i?eieieea nai? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? nenoaia i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy.

No?oeoo?a oeea?eueiiai noaei/einoaa oae ? ia iaaoea inoaoi/iiai
caaa?oaiiy, i?aeoe/iiai ao?eaiiy. Ia aoee noai?ai? ieaiiaai? noae? aeu?
noaeia? ?inoaioe??: «Aeuee Noae o Eueaia?» oa «Iaeaeuee Aea?aeaaiee Noae
o Eueaia?». Aeaea?aeiciaa/iai i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? oei/aniai?
?inoeoooe?? oaeiai ae oa?aeoa?o – Naiaoo ??? ?inoaioe?? –, i?i noai?aiiy
yeiai caaeaeea?iaaii o ?yae? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a aea?aeaae, o
oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie ia aeyaeaii.

Nenoaia a?enueeiaiai noaei/einoaa a COI? aoea a iniiaiiio noi?iiaaia o
eenoiiaae? 1918 – n?/i? 1919 ??. Aiia aoea noaeith i?ioyaii ia?oiai
aoaio ?nioaaiiy aea?aeaae ?, ia a?aei?io a?ae nenoaie oeea?eueiiai
noaei/einoaa, ae?yea oaeiae ? i?ioyaii ae?oaiai. Iaeiae aeyaeai? oa
ii?aoeueiaai? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee ia aeicaieythoue iiai?noth
a?aeoai?eoe ?? no?oeoo?o a oeae /an.

No?oeoo?o i?aai?a ioi?iie noni?eueiiai ii?yaeeo a aea?aeaa? neeaaeaee
Ei?ion Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaaii? AEaiaea?ia??? oa i?e?oe?? ia i?noeyo.
Ae?yeuei?noue ia?oiai, ye ? eiai iiaoaeiaa, i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy, i?aaiaa
aaca ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoee /?oei aecia/ai? eiie?aoieie
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeie aeoaie. Noaiiaeaiiy i?e?oe?? ia i?noeyo, aaaaea?ii,
a?aeaoaaeiny ca a?aenooiino? ?aeeii? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace.
Iia?aeiieaiiy c i?noeue aei OI?aaee i?i noaiiaeua o iia?oao i?ioyaii
eenoiiaaea 1918 ?. aeacothoue ia oa, ui oeae i?ioean cae?enithaaany c
?i?oe?aoeae ? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aaei?i?no?aoeaieo i?aai?a oa
?aaoethaaany eeoa ieie. O i?iaeiaae ae?oaiai aoaio ae?yeueiino? COI?
i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaiaea?ia??? ? i?e?oe?? aaea ia aeeiioaaee ooieoe??
ioi?iie noni?eueiiai ii?yaeeo a aea?aeaa?, a cae?enithaaee ?? eeoa a
neeaae? ca?ieieo nee, ui aeiaaa? ie?aiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oiio /ene? ?
aeaea?aeiciaa/iai.

Ca?iei? neee COI? – Oe?a?inueea Aaeeoeueea A?i?y – a oiae? naiai
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iaiaeii?aciai ci?ithaaee noaoon, oi?io,
no?oeoo?o, i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue. Aeyaeaiiy ? ii?aoethaaiiy ?yaeo
aeieoiaio?a io?oe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o, cina?aaeaeaieo o oiiae? 2188 OeAeAAI
Oe?a?ie, aeicaieeee iai aeieoiaioaeueii aeiaanoe, ui o ethoiio – aa?aci?
1919 ?. /enaeuei?noue ca?ieieo nee COI? iaaoea iaea?eueoiai e?euee?niiai
iieacieea ? neeaaeaea 120 oeny/ /ieia?e. C aeieeiaiiyi o n?/i? 1920 ?.
*a?aiii? Oe?a?inueei? Aaeeoeueei? A?i?? (*OAA) OAA ia i?eieieea nai??
ae?yeueiino?, a aoea a?ae?iaeaeaia a ia?aaeaeaiue ? a oiae?
?aaeyinueei-iieuenueei? a?eie. Iaeiae c aeiaoiy 1920 ?. ii n?/aiue 1923
?. aeoeaieo a?enueeiaeo ae?e ia aaea, cina?aaeeaoe nai? coneeey ia
i?aai?caoe?eia, no?oeoo?ia noaiiaeaiiy ? ci?oeiaiiy, ia
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeo ?iaioo na?aae naiai iniaiaiai neeaaeo,
?ioa?iiaaiiai o oaai?ao a Iieueu?, *aoineiaae??, Aieaa???.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiiy c aieiaieo i?iaeai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aiae?c oa iaoeiaa ii?aoethaaiiy eiiieaeno aeaea?ae aei aea/aiiy
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa o Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inuee?e Ia?iaei?e ?anioae?oe?
aea? i?aenoaae c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee:

ii-ia?oa, aeaea?aeueia aaca aei aea/aiiy i?iaeaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny,
? aeiaie? ?ai?acaioaoeaiith ye ca e?euee?nieie, oae ? ca ye?nieie
e?eoa??yie;

ii-ae?oaa, a i?e iathoue i?noea i?iaaeeie, iia’ycai? c a?aenooi?noth
/a?ac ?yae ia’?eoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a aeaea?ae c ie?aieo
i?iaeai ?noi??? COI?, ui, iaeiae, nooo?aei /eiii ia iicia/a?oueny ia
??ai? ?ai?acaioaoeaiino? eiiieaeno aeaea?ae;

ii-o?ao?, i?aeaeuaiith oeueiai ??aiy, a oaeiae ?ioi?iaoeaii? iane/aiino?
aeaea?ae ni?eyoeia eeoa eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae a i?ioean? ?o
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy, iiaa, iaoia?aaeaeaia i?i/eoaiiy aaea
a?aeiieo aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a;

ii-/aoaa?oa, ia’?eoeaiiio ? ananoi?iiiueiio aea/aiith i?iaeai
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a COI? oa ?? ?noi??? caaaeii ni?eyoeia
aaaaeaiiy a iaoeiaee ia?a iiaeo aeaea?ae, ye, iai?eeeaae, i?ioieie?a ?
noaiia?ai can?aeaiue OI?aaee, ?aaee Aea?aeaaieo Nae?aoa??a, Eieaa??
Oiiaiiaaaeaieo Aeeeoaoi?a, ui ia? i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aena?oeaiiy cacia/aiiai i?ioeano.

Iayai? aeaea?aea a?aeia?aaeathoue iniiai? i?iaeaie, oaiaeaioe??,
iai?yiee i?ioeano aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa o Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inuee?e
Ia?iaei?e ?anioae?oe?, eiai i?aeoe/ia ao?eaiiy.

Ii?aoethaaiiy ?ioi?iaoeaiiai iioaioe?aeo icia/aiiai eiiieaeno aeaea?ae
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ?yae aeniiae?a caaaeueii?noi?e/iiai, eiioeaiooaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o:

ii-ia?oa, iayai? aeaea?aea i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue oie oaeo, ui Eenoiiaaeiaa
?aaiethoe?y 1918 ?. ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo iineea
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa?;

ii-ae?oaa, Eenoiiaaeiaa ?aaiethoe?y 1918 ?. noaea caeiiii??iei
?acoeueoaoii ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ?icaeoeo caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia?oi? /aa?o? XX no., a o./. ?
Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??.;

ii-o?ao?, aeieeiaiiy oa ooaa?aeaeaiiy Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee, a naith /a?ao, noaei caeiiii??iei iane?aeeii ?icaeoeo
Eenoiiaaeiai? ?aaiethoe??;

ii-/aoaa?oa, naia ?nioaaiiy COI? i?ioiaeeei a aeaa aoaie, ye?
a?ae??ciyeenue i?ae niaith eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieie oiiaaie, aaeoi?aie,
caaaeaiiyie aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a i?e, ui e coiiaethaaei eiai
oa?aeoa? oa oi?ie;

ii-i’yoa, nai i?ioean aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inuee?e
Ia?iaei?e ?anioae?oe? iaa oe?eani?yiiaaiee, iine?aeiaiee, caeiiiaeaa/i
iaa?oioiaaiee oa caaacia/aiee oa?aeoa? ia eiaeiiio c oeeo aoai?a. Eiai
?aae?caoe?y a eiie?aoieo oi?iao iaea iaai? iniaeeaino?, ia oa?aeoa?i?
aeey i?ioeano iaoe?iiaeueiiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a oiae? Oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??. a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie;

ii-oinoa, ia caaaeath/e ia ie?ai? iiieeee oa i?i?aooiee a oiae?
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a COI?, i?e/eiith eiai i?eieiaiiy oa
e?ea?aeaoe?? naii? aea?aeaae noaee, aieiaiei /eiii, ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?
oaeoi?e.

Aei ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
cie?aia, iiaeia a?aeianoe:

aeei?enoaiiy iaaaaeaieo iaie ?ai?oa iaa?aeiieo aeaea?ae, aeaye? iia?
ioe?iee oaea iioae?eiaaieo o i?aeaioiaoe? ocaaaeueithth/eo oa
niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue, ca??iee?a aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a, o?anoiiao?e c
?noi??? COI?, ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, aeaea?aeiciaanoaa, oai??? oa ?noi???
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie;

ia?aaeaa/eoe ?icaeyae a?aeiia?aeieo i?iaeai o i?ia?aiao eo?n?a ?noi???
Oe?a?ie, oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie, ye?
aeeeaaeathoueny o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao aea?aeaae;

?icai?iooe iiaeaeueoa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaea?ae c ?noi??? COI? ye
neeaaeiai? /anoeie Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ?., yea iiaei a
caaa?oeoenue noai?aiiyi eiiieaenii? ocaaaeueithth/i? i?aoe? «Oe?a?inueea
?aaiethoe?y 1917-1920 ??.: ?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aea».

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaiee aaoi?ii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aaeeei/ee A. Iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea COI? o eiioaeno?
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo a?aeiinei: aeaea?aeiciaa/ee aniaeo //
Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie a Aaee/ei? o XX no. Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (21-22 eenoiiaaea 1996
?.). — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: Ieae, 1997. — N.11C-117.

2 Aaeeei/ee A. Aeieo?i A?oianueeee (1887-1919 ??.) Aeieoiaioaeueiee
ia?en. — Eieiiey, aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/ia oiaa?enoai «A?e», 1997. — 75
n. (o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

3. Aaeeei/ee A. Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa aaca oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie i?aai?a
i?noeaaiai oi?aae?iiy a COI?: aeaea?aeiciaa/ee aniaeo// Iiaa iie?oeea. —
1998. — ?2. — N. 60-63.

4. Aaeeei/ee A. Ia?ee COI? ye aeaea?aei aei aea/aiiy ?? ?noi??? // Iiaa
iie?oeea. — 1998. — ? 5. — N. 13-17 (o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

5. Aaeeei/ee A. Aeaea?aea aei aea/aiiy Eenoiiaaeiaiai c?eao 1918 ?ieo //
A?niee I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y «?noi?e/i? iaoee». — Aei. 1.
— ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: Ieae, 1998. — N. 87-98.

6. Aaeeei/ee A. O iaa? iaae Oe?a?iith a ai?iouea? ca naiaiaeo ?
iacaeaaei?noue ?? ia?iaeo // Oe?a?iiciaanoai: aeieoiaioe, iaoa??aee,
?a?eoaoe.- ?aaii- O?aie?anuee: Ieae, 1998. — N.99-119.

7. Aaeeei/ee A. COI? a iai’yoeao ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e I?eea?iaooy. —
?aaii- O?aie?anuee: Ieae, 1999. — 128 n. (o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

8. Aaeeei/ee A. Aeaea?aea aea/aiiy ?noi??? Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee // Oe?a?ia: aea?aeaai?noue, ?noi??y, ia?niaeoeae. —
?aaii- O?aie?anuee: Ieae, 1999. — N. 122-129.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aaeeei/ee A.N. ?noi??y COI?: aeaea?aea aei aea/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.06 – ?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aeiciaanoai oa
niaoe?aeuei? ?noi?e/i? aeenoeeie?ie. – Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?aaia O?aiea, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aiae?co?oueny eiiieaen aeaea?ae aei aea/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa o Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inuee?e Ia?iaei?e ?anioae?oe? (COI?):
i?ine?aeeiaaii iayai? ?noi??ia?ao?/i? iaaeaaiiy /a?ac i?ecio
aeei?enoaiiy a ieo a?aeiieo ia /an noai?aiiy i?aoeue ?noi?e/ieo
aeaea?ae; c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a aeaea?aeiciaa/i? aa?enoeee
anoaiiaeaii noeoii?noue oeo c ieo, ui ? iniiaith aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
?noi??? COI? a oe?eiio, aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a i?e cie?aia;
i?iaaaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th aeyaeaieo aeaea?ae, iiaeaii caaaeueio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?o iioiaeaeaiiy, caa??aaiiy oa eiie?aoieo iniaeeainoae
aeei?enoaiiy; aaaaeaii o iaoeiaee ia?a iia? aeaea?aea oa cae?eniaii iiaa
i?i/eoaiiy aaea a?aeiieo. Ia iniia? aiae?co oa neioaco eiiieaeno
aeaea?ae aecia/aii ye?niee oa e?euee?niee ??aaiue ?o ?ai?acaioaoeaiino?,
ooi/iaii eiioeaioe?th ? ia??iaeecaoe?th ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaioai?/eo
i?ioean?a o COI?, oi?io, no?oeoo?o ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, i?aai?a i?noeaai? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy, noaeo, ioi?iie noni?eueiiai ii?yaeeo, ca?ieieo
nee, iae?aneaii oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?ioi?iaoeaii? a?aeaea/? aeaea?ae
aeey aea/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a COI?, eiai aca?iica’yceo ?
aieeao ia ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo ia??iaeo Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920
??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia ?anioae?ea (COI?),
aea?aeaaia aoae?aieoeoai, aea?aeaaii-i?aai? ?inoeoooe??, aeaea?aeueia
aaca, oeiiai-aeaeiaa eeaneo?eaoe?y aeaea?ae.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aaeeei/ee A.N. Enoi?ey COI?: enoi/ieee e eco/aieth ainoaea?noaaiiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.06 — enoi?eia?aoey, enoi/ieeiaaaeaiea e
niaoeeaeueiua enoi?e/aneea aeenoeeieeiu. — Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oieaa?neoao ei. Eaaia O?aiei, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?oaony eiiieaen enoi/ieeia e eco/aieth
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa a Caiaaeii-Oe?aeineie Ia?iaeiie
?anioaeeea (COI?): i?ineaaeaii eiathueany enoi?eia?aoe/aneia ianeaaeea
/a?ac i?ecio eniieueciaaiey a iai ecaanoiuo ia a?aiy nicaeaiey o?oaeia
enoi?e/aneeo enoi/ieeia; n eniieueciaaieai iaoiaeia enoi/ieeiaaae/aneie
ya?enoeee onoaiiaeaii niaieoiiinoue oao ec ieo, /oi neoaeao iniiaie aeey
enneaaeiaaiey enoi?ee COI? a oeaeii, ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa a
iae a /anoiinoe; i?iaaaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey auyaeaiiuo enoi/ieeia,
i?aaenoaaeaia iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea eo i?ienoiaeaeaiey, o?aiaiey e
eiie?aoiuo iniaaiiinoae eniieueciaaiey; aaaaeaii a iao/iue iai?io iiaua
enoi/ieee e inouanoaeaii iiaia i?i/oaiea oaea ecaanoiuo. Ia iniiaa
aiaeeca e neioaca eiiieaena enoi/ieeia ii?aaeaeai ea/anoaaiiue e
eiee/anoaaiiue o?iaaiue eo ?ai?acaioaoeaiinoe, ooi/iaii eiioeaioeeth e
ia?eiaeecaoeeth i?ioeannia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?acaeoey a COI?, oi?io,
no?oeoo?o e ooieoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe oeaio?aeueiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, ianoiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e
oi?aaeaiey, noaea, io?aiu iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, aii?oaeaiiuo nee,
iaia/aii iooe iiauoaiey o?iaiy eioi?iaoeaiie ioaea/e enoi/ieeia aeey
eco/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa a COI?, aai acaeiinayce e
aeeyiey ia ?acaeoea iaoeeiiaeueii inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey ia
caiaaeiioe?aeineeo caieyo ia?eiaea Oe?aeineie ?aaiethoeee 1917-1920 aa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Caiaaeii-Oe?aeineay Ia?iaeiay ?anioaeeea (COI?),
ainoaea?noaaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai, ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaua einoeoooeee,
enoi/ieeiaay aaca, oeii-aeaeiaay eeanneoeeaoeey enoi/ieeia.

ANNOTATION

Velykochyi V.S.- The history of Westukrainian People’s Republin: the
sources of learning state construction. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for admission to the degree of candidate of history to the
major 07.00.06. — historiography, source study and special historic
disciplines. — Lviv State University, named after lvan-Franko,1999.

The dissertation analyses the complex of sources for learning the state
construction in Westukraininan People’s Republic (WUPR). It traces the
real historiographic properties in the light of using works of
historical sources on the time of creation. Using the heuristics methods
of source studies, it was established that those of them are the basis
for the investigation of the history of Westukrainian People’s Republic
as the whole and the state construction separately. The discovery
sources were classified and the characteristic of their origin,
reservation and the peculiarities of their usage were done. The
well-known sources were read and introduced the new ones. On the basis
of the analysis and synthesis of the complex of sources, it was
determined their qualitative and quantitative level of representation
and it was drawn up the ways of improving the level of informative
sources for learning the state construction of Westukrainian People’s
Republic, its history.

Learning of available historiographical acquisitions from the history of
WUPR allowed to set up that the source study aspects of its history
haven’t yet become the subject as special as complex scientific
investigations. As a rule, in works, they only enumerate the groups of
the investigated documents and materials. They also contain the
fragmentary information about the publications and places of their
preservation. There is no information about the character of the
documents, their authors, time and place of their creation. The main
courses of such situation are: impossibility of the detailed learning
sources because off the USSR secret character of the preservation of the
funds and collections of documents and materials; specific investigation
themes of the home and foreign authors in present development of
history.

The total sum of sources which are the basis of the investigation of the
WUPR history as the whole and the state construction separately, consist
of the funds and collections of the central archives, scientific
libraries of Ukraine, State archives ofVinnytsya, Transcarpethian
lvano-Frankivsk, LvivTernopil and Chernivtsi regions, agencies of
Security Service, Public Prosecutor, the Supreme Court of Ukraine. The
dissertation also contains the sources from the archives of Republic of
Poland, Germany, Austria, Vatican, Great Britain, the USA and the
Russian Federation. For the systematization of the exposed sources the
author used the common scheme of their classification according to their
type and form characteristic, forms, origin and prescription.

The main attention in the dissertation concentrated on the analysis and
synthesis of the written sources because they are the most informative
and representative. The priority belongs to the documents which appeared
during the process of activity of the various state, public and private
establishments. We consider their usage in this investigation as the
basic because only they determine the progress and peculiarities of WUPR
state construction.

This dissertation investigates the history of WUPR archive fund
formation, its fortune before and after that state existence. The
normative-legal acts which were the basis of the office work system and
the course of the appearance of several types of the official materials
and documents were also analysed.

On the basis of primary sources the following problems were traced:

— the changes of the title; the status of the state; the character of
its political regime depending on the objective and subjective factors
which have social-political, economical, military and international
traits;

— the formation, the structure and the effective functions of the
Supreme Legislative Organ — the Ukrainian National Rada (UNR), the
Supreme Executive Agency, Rada of the State Secretaries, the Collegiate
Organ which had the status of the head of the State — the Department of
UNR;

— the formation and the establishing the nomal-legal base of the
functions of the regional organs of the State Power and Management ,
Courts, Police and Army.

In the process of the investigation it was picked out the problem of the
Analysis of the documents which gave an opportunity to explain the
causes and pre-conditions of the transformation to such form in WUPR as
dictatorship. It is also elucidated the changes in the structure,
functional peculiarities of some State Institutions.

Learning of the complex of sources of the history of the state
constru-ction in WUPR allowed to elaborate the conception and periods of
its development, its cooperation and influence on the National
Liberation Movement in Western Ukraine during the Ukrainian Revolution
of 1917-1920.

Key words: Westernukrainian People’s Republic (WUPR), state
constru-ction, state legal institutions, source base, type-and-form
classification.

Aeaeaaieoeoai “Ieae”

I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?i.A.Noaoaieea

A?aeae?oeiaaii a ae?oea?i? aeaeaaieoeoaa “Ieae”

284000, i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee, aoe. Oaa/aiea, 57

Oe?aae -100.

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