IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IIE?OE*IEO ? AOIIIAOe?IIAEUeIEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Ao?aeianueeee Ieaenaiae? Caeiaiiae/

OAeE 323.1; 327.39

?NOI??ss ?AAeE IAOe?IIAEUeIINOAE IA?IAeIIAI ?OOO OE?A?IE,
1989-1993 ??.

IIE?OIEIA?*IEE AIAE?C

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 23.00.02 — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe oa i?ioeane

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oeaio?? ?noi?e/ii? iie?oieia?? ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo ?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Oaiiaae TH??e ?aaiiae/.

?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI
Oe?a?ie, ea??aiee Oeaio?o ?noi?e/ii? iie?oieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aa?aiue Ieaen?e
Aaneeueiae/.

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y”,

eaoaae?a ?noi??? ? iie?oieia??

eaiaeeaeao iie?oe/ieo iaoe Eeei/aiei Ieaa Aieiaeeie?iae/.

Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei i?e
?aae? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oa iai?iie Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee
eiinoeueoaio a?aeae?eo iie?oe/ieo a?aeiinei

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa,

eaoaae?a iie?oieia?? oa nioe?ieia??,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 6 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.181.01 a ?inoeooo? iie?oe/ieo ?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252011, i.
Ee?a-11, aoe. Eooociaa, 8, e?ii. 202.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252011, i. Ee?a-11, aoe. Eooociaa, 8, e?ii. 218.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “4“ aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee TH.A. Eaaaiaoeue

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Ieoaiiy i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei ? iaeiei c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo o
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo e?a?iao na?oo. Ca /an?a N?N? oe?a?ioe? e ?io?
aoi?/i? a?oie ianaeaiiy ooo/ii o?aeooaaeeny ye “?aeeiee ?aaeyinueeee
ia?iae”, ui iaei neiaie?coaaoe “ceeooy” ia?iae?a a ?aeeio iaoe?th c
iaei??th iiaith a ?aeei?e ? iaiiae?euei?e aea?aeaa?. Aea ?noi?e/ii
a?eueo?noue ia?iae?a, ui iieieeeny ia oa?eoi??? ?iia???, aaaaoi noie?oue
iaiaaaeeny ca?eueieoeny ? aecaieuei? ?ooe ??cieo aoi?/ieo a?oi /an a?ae
/ano aeieeaee ? i?eaeoooaaeeny. Oiio oyaeea ?noi?e/ia niaaeueia c /an?a
?in?enueei? ?iia??? ? ?nioaaiiy N?N? nooo?ai a?aeaeeany ia oeo
i?ioeanao, ye? ii/aeeny i?ney 1985 ?. ye “?aaiethoe?y caa?oo”, aeiooaii
?i?oe?eiaaia eiiia?o??th i?ae aaneaie ia?aaoaeiae ? aeaniino?.

Oea niiioeaei a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee. Noai?thaaeeny nioi?
iaoi?iaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e, ii/aany i?ioean i?iaoaeaeaiiy ia?iae?a N?N?,
iniaeeai ia “ia?eoa???”: a I?eaaeoeoe?, Oe?a?i?, A?oc??, ?anioae?eao
Na?aaeiuei? Ac??. Oae ia?iaeeany Ia?iaeiee ?oo Oe?a?ie, c yeei ia noeaio
oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy aeeoee i?ia?aeieee iiaiai
oeio, ui ii?aeiaee nooi iaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie c i?iaeaiaie
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie, c i?iaeaiaie ia o?eueee aoiaiiiai noaaeaiiy aei
?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioinoae, aea e oe?ieiai caeo/aiiy ?o aei
aecaieueiiai ?ooo.

Naia oiio iaeiei c ia?oeo e?ie?a I?O aoei noai?aiiy a nai?e no?oeoo??
?aaee Iaoe?iiaeueiinoae ye ia’?aeioth/i? eaiee aeey an?o iaoe?iiaeueieo
a?oi ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ye? a ?acii c oe?a?ioeyie eoee aei aeaiie?ao??,
naiaiaee ? iacaeaaeiino?.

Iano?eiia ?ioi?iaoe?eia ?aaiethoe?y a na?o?, iineeaiiy
aeeneaeaionueeiai ?ooo, e?ao ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy ?,
aacoiiaii, *i?iiaeeuenueea o?aaaae?y 26 ea?oiy 1986 ?. ia’?aeiaee
ethaeae iacaeaaeii a?ae aoi?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy. A oeueiio i?ioean?
iaea?eueoo iiceoeaio ?ieue c?a?aa I?O, anaoe?a?inueea a?iiaaenueea
i?aai?caoe?y, yea c?aco ae, ianiiae?aaii aeey aaaaoueio, noaea
iaeiiioey?i?oith ianiaith, iiiceoe?eiith eiiia?o?? oa o?yaeo
i?aai?caoe??th a Oe?a?i?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aneth?oueny iio?aaith
oaeoieia?/iiai aea/aiiy ? eiioeaiooaeueiiai inieneaiiy ?noi??? ?I I?O,
aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iei oe?a?ioe?a ? iaoe?a?ioe?a, aea/aiiy aeina?aeo
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai ? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy, aea?aeaaioai?/iai
i?ioeano, ye? iaee ? iathoue i?noea a Oe?a?i?. Oea caaaeaiiy
aeooae?co?oueny c a?aooaaiiyi ?ie? ?I ? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei a
caaaeueiiia?iaeiiio ?on? aei iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. Caaaeyee caeiaoooth
Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino? c’yaeeanue ?aaeueia iiaeeea?noue ia’?eoeaiiai
aena?oeaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy.

Ca oioae?oa?ii? aeiae aea/aiiy ?noi??? ? aca?iiae?? ??cieo aoi?/ieo
a?oi ianaeaiiy aena?oethaaeiny o?eueee a oia?aaeaeaiiio oa
oaiaeaioe?eiiio aeaeyae?. Oiio ?noi??y ?I a /ane i?aeianaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee Oe?a?ie a ai?iouea? ca iacaeaaei?noue ? naiaiaeo oa
ia?o? naiino?ei? e?iee iiai? aea?aeaae cia/ii aeoiaeeoue ca ?aiee nooi
?oo?anueeiai /e i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy. A e?ioe? 20-ai noie?ooy,
eiee i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie, i?aaa iaoe?e ? i?aaa ethaeeie
caeeoathoueny na?aae aeiaaeueieo i?iaeai aaaaoueio aea?aeaa na?oo, ye?
i?eoiaeyoue aei iacaeaaeiino?, ?noi??y ?I I?O iiaea aooe aaaeeeaith aeey
aeeaoiai i?ciaiiy caaaeueieo aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a.

Oiio a oiiaao no/aniiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie
?ioa?an aei aiae?co i?aeaoi?/ieo ? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a a
aea?aeaa? noa? ua a?eueo aaaeeeaei. A iiiia?ao?? I. Iaai/?1, a aeayeeo
?ioeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?noi??y Oe?a?ie ?icaeyaea?oueny o aeeaieiio
aca?iica’yceo aeeooy oe?a?ioe?a ? iaoe?a?ioe?a. Oe? aaoi?e
?icaeyaeathoue Oe?a?io ye aea?aeaao aaaaoiaoi?/io. I. Noaoaeueiee2,
aeeeaaeath/e eiioeaioe?th oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? c iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a ?
aeioaia?, ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie i?eae?ey?
eeoa 5 noi??iie (n.244-247, 453).

Neooaoe?y, eiee ?noi?eee eiaeii? aoi?/ii? a?oie ?icaeyaeathoue
?noi?e/i? i?ioeane i?ae “nai?i” eooii ci?o, a?aeaeaaeany ? ia ni?eeiyoo?
ia?an?/ieie oe?a?ioeyie /e iaoe?a?ioeyie i?ioean?a, ui iaee i?noea a
1989-1993 ??. A?aeaeeiny oea ? ia ?noi??? oa aeie? ?I I?O. A oie aea
/an, iiaeia iacaaoe ieceo i?aoeue3, a yeeo aeine?aeaeaeo?oueny oe?ieee
niaeo? ?noi?e/ieo i?iaeai aoooy ??cieo aoiin?a ia oa?eoi??? no/anii?
Oe?a?ie, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?o iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo? aei ? i?ney
i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? ?aioae?ee. E??i oiai, aoiiiie?oieia?/i?,
?noi?e/i?, o?einionuee? ? noaoenoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a oe?e ae?eyioe?,
ui ocaaaeueithaaee aeina?ae, i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ye
iie?aoi?/ii? aea?aeaae, ?icaeyaeaeeny a oai?ao ?.Eo?ana, I.
Iaeai?iaee, O. Aoi/aea, I. Aae?oea?, I. Ooeueae, I.Iai/oea, A. Eie?niee,
I. E?eaeoeueei?, E. Iaai?ii?, I. Iaeeiianueei?, A. Iai?iooi, ss.
Oii?aniaia, I. Iiiiae/a, I. THoiueiai?, A. Iaoeea, TH.Oaiiaaea oa ?i.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue a oiio, uia ia iniia?
aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e, aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a a?o?aieo aeaieo, ?o
e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy a?aeoai?eoe oe?e?nio ea?oeio
?noi??? aeieeiaiiy ? ae?yeueiino? ?I ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie I?O a ia??iae
1989-1993 ??. Ia aac? oe??? ?noi??? iiaeia aeeaoa i?ciaoe
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?, i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? ? aea?aeaaioai?/? i?ioeane, ui
iaee i?noea a Oe?a?i? o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.

Iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaaeuei? iaoeia? i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio oa
ia’?eoeaiino?, i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee oa
no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiee iaoiaee.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee iaoa??aee a?o?ao ?I I?O, a
oaeiae oeaio?aeueii? ? i?noeaai? i?ane, ca??ee aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a,
noaoenoe/i? ca??ee, ye? aeeth/athoue aeai? noiniaii o/ano?
iaoe?iiaeueieo a?iiaae a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioeanao, ui iaee
i?noea a Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a, a oaeiae ie?ai?
iiiia?ao??, iaoeia? noaoo?, iniaenoee aeina?ae ? o/anoue aeena?oaioa a
?iaio? ?I a ia??iae 1989-1993 ??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? oa iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
aecia/a?oueny oei, ui oey ?iaioa ? ia?oith ni?iaith a no/ani?e
oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? eiiieaeniiai aena?oeaiiy ? aiae?co ?noi??? ?I
I?O. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a ?I I?O, oaeoe/ii ia
caeo/aieo aei iaoeiaeo aeine?ae?a, aeena?oaio iaiaaaany ?icaeyiooe
aca?iiae?th oe?a?ioe?a ? iaoe?a?ioe?a ye i?iaeaio, ui ia iaea?aeaea ua
iaeaaeiiai aena?oeaiiy ? aiae?co a ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo??.

Iiaecio aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a? aaaaeaiiy aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao a?o?aieo
aeaea?ae, ui ia aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ?ai?oa, a oaeiae caeo/aiiy aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aiae?c ioae?eaoe?e, ye? i?aaenoaaeyee eiioeaioe?th ?I
I?O. Ia i?aenoaa? iaeiaeinooiieo iaoa??ae?a (aenooi?a ia c’?caeao ?ooo,
nan?yo ?I, ?iai/eo can?aeaiiyo I?iaiaeo I?O, Aaeeei? ?aaee ?ooo, oiui)
aena?oeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy i?ia?ai, ui i?eeiaeeny, a oaeiae iiceoe??
e?aea??a ?I, I?O oa ioe?iee ieie nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo ?
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo iiae?e ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao a ia??iae 1989-
1993 ??.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeai? oei, ui naia a oeae /an
?nioaaea ?I — iaa?ae’?iia /anoeia I?O, yeee aoa anaoe?a?inueeith
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iith i?aai?caoe??th. A ethoiio 1993 ?. I?O aoa
ca?a?no?iaaiee I?i?noa?noaii thnoeoe?? ye ia?o?y ? naia oiae? ?I
oaeoe/ii i?eieieea ?nioaaiiy.

Aeioaia? a?aeii? aeae?eueea i?aoeue, a yeeo aeine?aeaeo?oueny
ae?yeuei?noue I?O. Oea ioae?eaoe?? A. Eiaooia1, I.Aa?aiy2, A.
Aii/a?oea3. Aiae?c nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a e?a?i?
iaia?aaeiaei? 1-ai c’?caeo ?ooo cae?eniaii o eieaeoe? A. Eai?inueeiai4.
Noiniaii ae?yeueiino? ?I I?O ? ?ie? ?? a ?noi?e/ieo i?ioeanao 1989-1993
??., ui iaee i?noea a Oe?a?i?, a?aeo? ioae?eaoe?e. A?eueoa oiai, a
iayaieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?noi??? I?O ?ieue ?I aai caiia/o?oueny, aai
/anii iiaea?oueny oia?aaeaeaii.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?I I?O oa ?? aieeao ia caeiaoooy
iacaeaaeiino? ? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a anaia?iaeiiai ?aoa?aiaeoio 1
a?oaeiy 1991 ?. aeaee i?aenoaae noi?ioethaaoe aieiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe??, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Aiane?aeie ia’?eoeaieo i?e/ei c ii/aoeii “ia?aaoaeiae” ca
?i?oe?aoeaith oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? oe?a?ioe? ? iaoe?a?ioe?
ia’?aeiaee nai? coneeey c iaoith e?aa?ae?caoe?? noni?euenoaa ia iniia?
aeaiie?ao??, i?ioenoiyiiy eiioi?noe/i?e iiiiia?o?eiino? a aea?aeaa?,
aeeeoaoo EI?N, ia?aoiaeo aei oaaea?aeueii? oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith,
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? ? an?o ?ioeo iia,
eoeueoo?, iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e, ?ae?a?e. Oeueiio ?aeiaiith ni?eyee
aanea ??aiii?aaiino? ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie, naiaiaee, aeaiie?ao??, ni?eueia
oyaeea aeiey, i?ioenoiyiiy aoaeue-yeei oia?i?noe/iei ae?yi, iacaeaaeii
a?ae oiai, i?ioe yei? aoi?/ii? a?oie ianaeaiiy aiie ni?yiiaai?. Oeueiio
cia/iith i??ith ni?eyea ooai?aia ?ooii ?I.

2. Aeieeiaiiy I?O ? ?I, ?o c?inoath/a iiioey?i?noue na?aae ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie cioneee EI?N i?oe ia ??ceo eiio?iioaoe?th c ?ooii ia an?o
ae?eyieao ai?ioueae, iniaeeai a aaeoc? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo noinoie?a.
EI?N ii/aea noai?thaaoe ooo/i? iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aai?caoe??, ye?
aeoaethaaee ae?? ?I, aea c ?ioeie aaneaie. A oe?e neooaoe?? i?ae /an
AE*I ?oo aeyaeany ?aeeiith oeaiaiooth/ith ia?iae Oe?a?ie
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iith i?aai?caoe??th.

3. I?ney i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino?, I?O ? ?I ni?yioaaee nai? coneeey
ia eiinie?aeaoe?th an?o aa?noa ianaeaiiy, iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eyth/e
i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei?e ceaaiae?, aa?ooth/e ianaeaiiy i?iaieinoaaoe ia
?aoa?aiaeoi? 1 a?oaeiy ca iacaeaaeio noaa?aiio aeaiie?aoe/io aea?aeaao.
Ia?aiiaa i?ae /an ?aoa?aiaeoio aeoea?coaaea ? i?eaa?ioea aei ?ooo ye aei
ianiai? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? ia o?eueee aeaiie?aoe/i?
aa?noae ianaeaiiy, ye? i?aeo?eioaaee ia?o? i?ia?aiia? canaaee ?ooo, aea
e iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/i? neee, ui noiyee ia canaaeao “?aaiethoe?eiiai
iaoe?iiae?cio”.

4. Anaia?iaeii ia?aiee ia?oee I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie E. E?aa/oe, yeee i?ney
ioo/o AE*I caeeoea ia?o?th eiioi?no?a, a nai?e ae?yeueiino? ii/aa
nie?aoeny ia ?oo?aoe?a ? acya ia ica?i?iiy iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo, ia
aac? yei? o Aa?oiai?e ?aae? aoa i?eeiyoee caeii “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei?
iaioeie a Oe?a?i?”. ?I ia aoea caiaeia eiioeaiooaeueii c oeei caeiiii.
Aiia ?ic?iaeea i?iaeo caeiio “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaa a?iiaaeyi
Oe?a?ie”, yeee ia aeie?aiethaaa aeiaeii? aoi?/ii? a?oie, ia ?icae?eya
a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie ca aoi?/iith iciaeith. Oeae caeiiii?iaeo aoa
?icaeyiooee ia niaoe?aeuei?e nan?? ?I ? iaae?neaiee aei ia?eaiaioo,
iaeiae caeeoeany iica oaaaith.

I?ney i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? a Oe?a?i? ii/aee ?ioaineaii oi?ioaaoeny
iie?oe/i? ia?o??, a?eueo?noue e?aea??a yeeo aoee aeaeaaaoaie ia?oiai
c’?caeo ?ooo. Iac??aaa ?iceie a ?on? aaciina?aaeiuei. A?eueo?noue /eai?a
?I, ye? ia iiaee nia? aeicaieeoe ye e?aea?e iaoe?iiaeueieo oiaa?enoa
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaoe nai? ae?? ia?o?ei?e aeenoeeie?i? aoaeue-yei? ia?o??,
cayaeee i?i na?e aeo?ae c ?I, ui ia?ae?aneeei naia ?nioaaiiy ?I.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny eiiieaeniei
oa aiae?oe/iei ?icaeyaeii i?iaeai ?nioaaiiy, ?iaioe ? aca?iiae?? ?I ye c
I?O, oae ? c i?aaenoaaieeaie iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oiaa?enoa ??cieo
aoi?/ieo a?oi ianaeaiiy. Cia/iee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae a?aee?eaa?
iiaeeea?noue aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
iiaeeaeaiiy ?o ? ocaaaeueiaiiy. Ii?aoeueiaaiee iaoa??ae iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaiee aeey aea/aiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo oa
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo aca?iei a Oe?a?i? a ia??iae caeiaoooy iacaeaaeiino?,
a oaeiae o aeeeaaeaii? iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie OO noie?ooy.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia iniia? aiae?co
e?oa?aoo?e, aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? a?o?aieo aeaieo, ?o e?eoe/iiai
inieneaiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy, ?ice?eaa? ae?yeuei?noue, aieea ? aeeiai?eo
aca?iia?aeiinei oe?a?ioe?a ? iaoe?a?ioe?a a ia??iae aei ? i?ney
caeiaoooy iacaeaaeiino?. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy o o?iiieia?/i?e
iine?aeiaiino? a?aeaeaa? noinoiee ?I ye c I?O, oae ? c i?aaenoaaieeaie
??cieo aoi?/ieo a?oi ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a 1989-1993 ??. Aeena?oaioii
oeeaaeaii o?iiieia?/io oaaeeoeth iniiaieo iiae?e, iia’ycaieo c
ae?yeuei?noth ?I I?O.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aenoiee ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? o
ioae?eaoe?yo, na?aae yeeo eieaa, i?enay/aia ?I o ia??iae 1989-1993 ??.,
iaoeia? oa iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/i? noaoo?, aenooie c aeiiia?aeyie ia
nan?yo ?I ? c’?caeao ?ooo. I?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiue aena?oethaaeenue o
aenooiao aeena?oaioa e iaaiai?thaaeenue ia eiioa?aioe?yo a Oe?a?i? oa ca
ei?aeiiii: cie?aia, ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?ia a
no/aniiio na?o?”, i?aai?ciaai?e ?anioae?eainueeith anioe?aoe??th
oe?a?iiciaaoe?a (Ee?a, 1990); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
“Oe?a?inueei-?a?aenuee? ae?aeiae”, (???onae?i, ?c?a?eue,1992); iaoeiaiio
neiiic?oi? ii i?iaeaiao caoenoo ? ?icaeoeo eoeueoo? iaoeiaioei (Ee?a,
1992), 14-e i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aoi?/i? iaioeie a
Oe?a?i? ? ?o ?ieue a ?icaoaeia? aea?aeaae” (?ee?iien, NOA, 1995);
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? IOO “Oe?a?inueei-?a?aenuee? ae?aeiae” (Iueth-Ei?e,
NOA, 1995); iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? a Eieoia?enueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
(Iueth-Ei?e, NOA, 1996) oa ?i.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai? oaeiae o aenooiao ia caoiaeao,
i?iaaaeaieo iaoe?iiaeueieie oiaa?enoaaie Oe?a?ie, ?c?a?eth ? Aia?eee.

No?oeoo?ii aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoeo. Ianya
aeena?oaoe?? — 194 noi??iee, c yeeo anooi — 16 noi??iie, aeniiaee — 9,
nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (167 iaeeieoeue) — 8,
aeiaeaoie (o?ii?ea iiae?e 1988-1993 ??.) — 10 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, ie?aneaii iniaeeaino?
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo i?ae O?N? ? iacaeaaeiith Oe?a?iith, ie?aneaii
iaoeiao iiaecio aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaeaii aiae?c aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e
oa aeaea?ae, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, aecia/aii ??
iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “A?ae ?aea? aei i?aai?caoe?? ?I: ii/aoeiaee aoai
?noi??? I?O” ?ice?eaa?oueny ? aiae?co?oueny caaaeueiinithcia neooaoe?y a
N?N? aei ? i?ae /an “ia?aaoaeiae”. Iiyaa Ia?iaeieo o?iio?a ia ia?eoa???
aea?aeaae, ia?o? e?iee aeaiie?ao?? a Oe?a?i?, aeieeiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo,
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e, ?o ia’?aeiaiiy iaaeiei I?O,
aca?iii?iieeiaiiy i?ia?aiiaeo canaae oe?a?ioe?a ? iaoe?a?ioe?a ia oeyoo
aei aeaiie?ao??.

Iieacaii, ye ?icaeaaeany a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia aeoiea iaia?aaeiaei?
1-ai c’?caeo I?O a na?aaeiaeu? oe?a?inueei? ? iaoe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe??. Aeine?aeaeothoueny i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie i?ae /an
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Cae?i/o?oueny ?icae?e
aiae?cii nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? ? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueii? neooaoe??, ui
neeaeany ia /an i?iaaaeaiiy 1-ai c’?caeo I?O o aa?ani? 1989 ?. Ia?oee
?icae?e aeeth/a? 4 ia?aa?aoe, a yeeo, cie?aia, iieacaii, ui a na?aaeei?
80-o ?ie?a iaa?oue e?aea?e EI?N c?icoi?ee, ui aea?aeaaa N?N? eioeoueny a
i???ao. Eeoeai??ia nenoaia aca?iia?aeiinei ? eiiaiaeii-i?e?oa?ia
aeiiii?ea aeniaaeeee ethaeae ? iaeaea cieueee i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne
aea?aeaae. Ia?o?y iaieineea “ia?aaoaeiao”, cia/iith i??ith
e?aa?ae?coth/e noni?euenoai “caa?oo”, aeicaieyth/e ? aeicoth/e
aeani?noue ? ieth?ae?ci. Oe? aeiooai? e?iee iaee ca iaoo ia no?eueee
“aeaoe iiaiai?eoe”, ne?eueee — ca?eueieoe aiioe?eii ethaeae, uia
iiaeaaaeoe aeiiii?eo e?a?ie, c?ooeoe c i?noey ?aoi?ie, aeoea?coaaoe
noni?euenoai. Aea oey “iaeeoey” iaea aeaa e?ioe?. Aeani?noue ?
e?aa?ae?ci i?iaoaeeee a ethaeyo iaoe?iiaeueio ? ethaenueeo a?aei?noue. ?
?o aeoeai?noue ni?yioaaeany ia no?eueee ia i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aoe? ? ae?iaieoeoaa, ne?eueee ia i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?.

Ia?o? i?aai?ciaai? a?iiaaenuee? ?ooe ia?iaeeeeny a Anoii?? aaniith 1988
?., Eeoa? (e?oi 1988 ?.) ? Eaoa?? (in?iue 1988 ?.) o aeaeyae?
“Iaoe?iiaeueieo O?iio?a”. ? c?aco ae i?ioe ieo aoee noi?iiaai?
“?ioa?o?iioe”, aieiaiith ca?i?th yeeo aoei ia?aia “iaoe?iiaeueia
ieoaiiy”.

A oeae /an cayaea i?i naaa Aeaiie?aoe/iee O?iio ? a Iinea?. A Oe?a?i?
ae ia aeicaieyeiny iaeaea i?/iai. I?ana iia/aea iaa?oue i?i
*i?iiaeeuenueeo eaoano?ioo ? cei/eiia noaaeaiiy i?noeaaiai
ia?oea??aieoeoaa aei naiai ia?iaeo. ?, oei ia iaio, iaeieie c ia?oeo
aieinii cayaeee i?i naaa a?iiaaenueea aeieia?/ia ia’?aeiaiiy “Caeaieo”,
i?ina?oieoeuee? oe?a?iiciaa/? i?aai?caoe?? (“Niaaeueia”) oa ?i.
C’yaeeany “Ia?iaeia ni?eea ni?eyiiy ia?aaoaeia?”, ??ci? aeaiie?aoe/i?
“Eeoae” o Ee?a?, Eueaia?, A?iieoe?, ?ioeo i?noao.

A 1987-1988 ??. ii/aee iiaa?oaoeny ?c caneaiiy oe?a?inuee? aeeneaeaioe.
?oi?ie coneeeyie, cie?aia, ia aac? Oe?a?inueei? Aaeuen?inueei? A?oie
aoei noai?aii Ni?eeo. Neeueiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo
i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? iaa aca?aaeaeaeaii-a??iainueeee eiioe?eo,
iaoe?iiae?noe/ia ??ciy a Noiaa?o?.

O ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui a Oe?a?i? ia?o? iie?oe/i? aeaeea?aoe?? aoee
caii/aoeiaai? i?aaicaoeniith i?aai?caoe??th OAN. A 1988 ?. c’yaeeany ?o
“Aeaeea?aoe?y i?eioeei?a” oa “Noaoooi? i?eioeeie”, aea a ieo ua ia aoei
iie?oe/ieo aeiia. A eeii? ? a eenoiiaae? 1988 ?. ia ieaioiao i?aae?iiy
Ni?eee ienueiaiiee?a Oe?a?ie ooaaeth?oueny ??oaiiy i?i canioaaiiy “I?O
ca ia?aaoaeiao”. A a?oaei? aei ni?acaniiaiee?a I?O i?aeeeth/a?oueny
?inoeooo e?oa?aoo?e AI O?N?. A n?/i? 1989 ?. ia ni?eueieo cai?ao
Ee?anueei? ienueiaiieoeueei? i?aai?caoe?? NIO iaieioo?oueny i?iaeo
“I?ia?aie I?O ca ia?aaoaeiao”, iaae?oeiaaiee 16 ethoiai. C oeueiai /ano
iiae?? a Oe?a?i? iaaoee oa?aeoa?o ?aaiethoe?eieo: ia?iaeaeothoueny
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? oiaa?enoaa ??cieo aoi?/ieo a?oi ianaeaiiy,
Oiaa?enoai oe?a?inueei? iiae, “Iaii??ae”, ??ci? eoeueoo?ieia?/i? eeoae,
anioe?aoe??, a?iiaaee ?.o.?.

Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui ?aea? ? ae??, iai?aaeai? ia ceaaiaeo ?
ii?icoi?iiy, i?aeiaoe?iiaeueia a?aoa?noai ? ??ai?noue, ye? aeii?ioaaee a
aeaeea?aoe?yo oa caa?iaiiyo ?ooo c ia?oiai aeiy eiai ooai?aiiy noai?eee
oie ?i?aeae, yeee c?iaea ?oo iiioey?iei ia o?eueee a Oe?a?i? ? na?o?,
aea, iaeaieiai?oa, niiaiea iaae??th ia aa?iii?eiee ?icaeoie i?eueeiie
iaoe?a?ioe?a, ye? a?eaie aeeee ia oa?ai? Oe?a?ie.

Onoaiia/ee c’?cae I?O a?aee?eany 8 aa?aniy 1989 ?. Ia iueiio aoee
i?enooi? 1109 aeaeaaao?a a?ae 1247 iaeanieo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie, ye?
?acii ia?aoiaoaaee 280 oeny/ /eai?a ?ooo. Ca iaoe?iiaeuei?noth aeaeaaaoe
?iciiae?eeeeny oae: oe?a?ioe?a — 944, ?in?yi — 77, ?a?a?a — 9, iieye?a —
6, a?ei?on?a — 6, a??iai — 2, ei?aeoe?a, a?ae?a, oai?oe?a, i?ioe?a,
/ao?a, anoiioe?a, e?einueeeo oaoa? — ii 1 ethaeei?. 58 aeaeaaao?a ia
aeacaee nai?? iaoe?iiaeueiino?. C aeuith ina?oith — 800, /eai?a EI?N —
228, na?aaei?e a?e aeaeaaao?a c’?caeo — 42 ?iee.

E??i iaaiai?aiiy aeiiia?aeae ? ni?aaeiiia?aeae, ia c’?cae? oi/eeany
aeeneon?y iaaeiei ci?i aei I?ia?aie ? Noaoooo. Oaia? o I?ia?ai? cieeee
neiaa i?i “ea??aio ?ieue EI?N”, oi/a ? caeeoeeany o?aca “iiiaeaia
nioe?ae?noe/ia noni?euenoai”. Caeeoeeeny neiaa “eai?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia
iie?oeea”, “nithc ae?enii noaa?aiieo aea?aeaa”, aea aaea ia aoei caaaeee
i?i “caaaeueiinithcio eiinoeoooe?th”. Caeeoeany oa?i?i
“iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia aaoiiii?y”, aea cieeei iiiyooy
“iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueia aaoiiii?y”. A ?icae?e? “Iaoe?iiaeueia
ieoaiiy” c’yaeeeny neiaa: “?aae?caoe?y an??? iiaiioe iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aa
??cieo aoi?/ieo a?oi, ye? ianaeythoue Oe?a?io, iaa?aeae?eueia a?ae
ona?aeiieaiiy ieie oiai, ui oe?a?inueea iaoe?y ia? a ?anioae?oe? noaoon
?noi?e/iiai ainiiaea?y”.

O ?icae?e? ooi/iaii iieiaeaiiy i?aoeue A. Eiaooia ? I. Aa?aiy i?i
ia?aiiy Aieiae ?I ? ia?aiiy naii? ?I. Aeaye? iaoi/iino? c oeueiai
i?eaiaeo aoee ?icoe?aaeiaai? o iaae?oeiaaieo i?ci?oa iaoeiaeo ?
iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/ieo i?aoeyo. O ?icae?e? i?aee?aneaii, ui 1989 ??e
noaa aeey Oe?a?ie ?ieii i?iaoaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ? ethaenueei?
a?aeiino?. Naia oea ia’?aeioaaei ethaeae ? i?eaiaeeei ?o aei eaa ?ooo.
Oeae /an i?iaoaeea noni?euenoai, aeeeeeaa a??o a iaoe?iiaeueia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, iaae?th ia oni?oi? ?aoi?ie ? iaoa??aeueiee aeia?iaoo o
iaeaooiueiio. Aei ?ooo ia ii/aoeo 1989 ?. i?eeoee oeny/? ethaeae,
caiaeieo ia aacei?enio i?aoeth a ?i’y iaeaooiueiai Oe?a?ie. Oea aoa,
iiaeeeai, iaee?auee ethaenueeee iaoa??ae, ia’?aeiaiee ia a?eia?/i?e
?aea? ni?aaaaeeeaino? ? /ano?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?I I?O a ae??: nooi?noue, no?oeoo?a, aoaeoeai?noue
a ia??iae 1989-1991 ??.” i?aaenoaaeai? iiae?? 1989-1991 ??., ceao I?O a
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie, ia?iaeaeaiiy ? aaiethoe?y ?I ye
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai aeaiie?aoe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oiaa?enoa Oe?a?ie, ye? ?acii c ?ooii, an?i
ia?iaeii Oe?a?ie, eoee aei iacaeaaeiino?. Aiae?co?oueny ai?ioueaa EIO c
eiinie?aeaoe??th iaoe?iiaeueieo oiaa?enoa iaaeiei ?I oeyoii ooo/iiai ?o
caia?aeaeaiiy, noai?aiiy “eeoaiueeiaeo” iaoe?iiaeueieo no?oeoo?,
i?aeo?eiee iaeieo ? i?ioeae?? ?ioei, ?ethno?othoueny ia?o? neiioiie
aaiethoe?? ?ooo a ia?o?th.

O ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny ia?o? e?iee ae?yeueiino? ?I I?O, ??
noaoooi? ? i?ia?aiia? aeieoiaioe, aca?iiae?y c iaoe?iiaeueieie
a?iiaaeaie Oe?a?ie, aiae?cothoueny i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? noinoiee ye aeaiaio
iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae a na?aaeiaeu? e?aea??a ?ooo, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia
neooaoe?y, ui neeaeany i?ney i?eeiyooy caeiio “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie
a Oe?a?i?”, a oaeiae i?ney i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino?. Cae?i/o?oueny
?icae?e aiae?cii iiae?e ia /an i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoa?aiaeoio 1 a?oaeiy 1991
?. Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?noeoue 6 ia?aa?ao?a.

Aeena?oaio iieaco?, ui e?iaoeue 1989 ?. aoa iaiiaiaiee i?aai?caoe?eieie
iiae?yie a ?on?. Iaoe?iiaeuei? oiaa?enoaa a?eueoino? aoi?/ieo a?oi
ianaeaiiy noai?thaaeeny ii an?e Oe?a?i?. ? iio??aai aoa /an, uia eiaei?e
c ieo ?ic?a?aoeny ?c nai?ie ni?aaaie. Iaeiae i?ioeae?y eiiia?o??
oneeaaeithaaea oeae i?ioean. Ia eiaeio noeo?eii a?ae?iaeaeaio
iaoe?iiaeueio i?aai?caoe?th, yeui ?i?oe?aoeaa aeoiaeeea ia c ia?o?eieo
eaa?iao?a, “noai?thaaeany” ?e aeueoa?iaoeaia, yea iaieiooaaeany
“?aeeiith”.

?oo i?iaiaeea ?iaioo ii aenoaaiith ? i?aeo?eioe? eaiaeeaeao?a o
aeaiooaoe Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie c /enea nai?o /eai?a ? i?eoeeueiee?a.
Ia?aiiaoe eiiia?o?th ia?eaiaionueeei oeyoii — noaei aieiaiith iaoith
?ooo ? ?I, yeo ia?aee 11 ethoiai 1990 ?. A ia?oeo a?eueo-iaio
aeaiie?aoe/ieo aeai?ao aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie aei ia? i?ieoea iaaia
e?euee?noue ?oo?aoe?a. Aiie aaea a no?iao ia?eaiaioo i?aai?coaaee ?acii
c i?eoeeueieeaie, ye? noiyee ia ieaooi?i? “Aeaiie?aoe/iiai aeieo”,
ni?eueio o?aeoe?th — “Ia?iaeia ?aaea”. Iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa i?ae
aeaiie?aoaie ? eiioi?noaie iaaoaaea ia?eaiaionueeeo oi?i.

Ui noino?oueny caeaoooieiai? ai?ioueae ? aieeao ia ??ci? iaoe?iiaeuei?
a?oie ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, oi a oeueiio eiioi?noe aeyaeeeny iaaaaaoi
a?eueo “ioae?eie”. I?ci?oa noaei a?aeiii, ui a oie naiee /an, eiee
iae?aeany ?I I?O, a aaa??eiiio ii?yaeeo aoea caii/aoeiaaia aac aeai??a,
i?ia?aiiaeo aeieoiaio?a, iaaiai?aiiy a iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?yo,
aeueoa?iaoeaia aei ?I I?O no?oeoo?a “Niaao iaoeeiiaeueiuo iauanoa”. Ca
aeiiiiiaith EIO eiai oaeaeei eaaae?ciaaee, i?aeienaee “Noaooo NII”, ca
yeei a?i iaa ae?yoe ia an?e oa?eoi??? O?N? ye ?aeeiee a?iiaaenueeee
i?aaenoaaiee iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioinoae c i?aaii canioaaiiy oa
?aa?no?aoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo oiaa?enoa. Aiiaa?i iie?oeee ia cieuaiiy an?o
iaoe?iiaeueieo oiaa?enoa, ui ia aoiaeeee a “NII”, aoa eeno OeE EIO ?
792/105 n iicia/eith “Aeey neoaeaaiiai iieueciaaiey” a?ae 22 ea?oiy 1991
?. O iueiio cacia/aeiny, ui an? iaoe?iiaeuei? oiaa?enoaa, ye? aeciathoue
ea??aio ?ieue “NII”, iathoue io?eioaaoe a iaeanoyo ? i?noao Oe?a?ie
i?aeo?eieo. A c ?I I?O o?aaa ai?ioeny ? an?eyei ?? aeene?aaeeooaaoe.

Iaeiae, aieiaiith i?e/eiith i?ioeai?noaa ?ooo ? eiiia?o?? noathoue aaea
ia no?eueee i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie, ne?eueee oa, ui ?oo iaa iai??
ia?aoai?eoeny a ia?o?th ? c?iaea a oeueiio iai?yieo ia?oee e?ie. A
aa?aci? 22 e?aea?e ?ooo, a oiio /ene? ? 3 /eaie ?I, i?aeienaee caa?iaiiy
«Aei /eai?a ?ooo oa aei an?o a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie», yea a?aeiia ye “Eeno
22-o”. Oey “Cayaa” iieeaea ii/aoie ci?iai ia o?eueee a ?on?. 24 aa?aciy
ae?oeo?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?y “O Nae?aoa??ao? OeE EIO”, a ye?e e?eoeeoaaeany
“Cayaa 22-o” ? iaaieiooaaeinue, ui o? /eaie ia?o??, ye? i?aeienaee Eeno,
iinoaaeee naaa iica EI?N. 30 aa?aciy an? oeaio?aeuei? aacaoe N?N?
?icae?oeoaaee iinoaiiao Eii?n?? ia?oeiio?ieth i?e OeE EIO, a ye?e “ca
naia?aoenonuee? i?aaiaiiy, iaoeuei? iaeeaie ia EI?N, ae??, ni?yiiaai? ia
noai?aiiy iiai? iie?oe/ii? ia?o??, aeueoa?iaoeaii? EI?N”, aeeeth/eea
o?ueio /eai?a EI?N, ye? i?aeienaee Eeno.

Iaeaaaeeea?oith iiae??th a ?noi??? I?O aoea ae?caeia “Iaoeiaa nan??
Aaeeei? ?aaee ?ooo” a Oono?, yea i?ioiaeeea 24 aa?aciy 1990 ?.
Oi?iaeueii nan?y aoea i?enay/aia 51-e ??/ieoe? Ea?iaonueei? Oe?a?ie, aea
iaeaieiai?oei aoei ieoaiiy i?i ia?aoai?aiiy ?ooo a ia?o?th.

23 /a?aiy 1990 ?. a Ee?a? a?aeaoeany 5-a nan?y Aaeeei? ?aaee ?ooo. Ia
oeueiio can?aeaii? aoea ? aeiiia?aeue a?ae ?I I?O. ?I i?ineea A??
aeiiiiiaoe ae??oeoe no?aoaa?/i? ieoaiiy: a?aee?eoe o Ee?a? Oeaio?
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei, noai?eoe a EAeO oaeoeueoao iaoe?iiaeueieo
iia ? e?oa?aoo? ia?iae?a Oe?a?ie, a a Ee?anueeiio iaae?inoeooo? —
oaeoeueoao /e eaoaae?o aeey i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a-a/eoae?a, ye? a iiaee
i?aoethaaoe a aaeoc? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?;
cai?iaaaeeoe a na?aaei?o oeieao oaeoeueoaoeaia iaa/aiiy iiaaie
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioinoae ? anoaiiaeoe caioi/oaaeuei? noeiaiae?? aeey
oeo, ui ia?aee oeyo a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?; iinoaaeoe a
ia?eaiaio? ieoaiiy i?i nenoaiaoe/ia iaaeaiiy /ano ia ?anioae?eainueeiio
oaeaaa/aii? ? ?aae?i aeey “e?oaeeo noie?a” c iaoe?iiaeueieo ieoaiue,
?icaeyiooe noai ni?aa c iaoe?iiaeueieie a?o?aaie, ?oeiienaie,
aeieoiaioaie, ye? aaea aeanyoee ?ie?a cae?eo? o niaoeo?aiao; ai?iaaaeeoe
a on?o e?aeiaeo i?aai?caoe?yo ?ooo Eii?n?? c iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei;
aei e?ioey 1990 ?. c?a?aoe “Oi?oi ia?iae?a” aeey ?icaeyaeo ieoaiiy
?aeiino? an?o iaoe?iiaeueieo a?oi ianaeaiiy a iiaoaeia? noaa?aiii?
Oe?a?ie. ??oaiiy, yea ooaaeeea A? I?O ia nai?e 5-e nan??, aaaaoi a /iio
a?aoiaoaaei i?iiiceoe?? ? aeiiae ?I, caoaa?aeeei ?? neeaae oa iniiai?
aeieoiaioe, noai?eei a on?o E?aeiaeo i?aai?caoe?yo ?ooo Eii?n?? c
iaoe?iiaeueieo ieoaiue. Oea ??oaiiy A?? noaei aaeeeei caeiaooeii ?I.
Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui oea aoa /an iaea?eueoiai aieeao ? aaoi?eoaoo
?I a na?aaeiaeu? ??cieo aoi?/ieo a?oi ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

O ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui a na?ii? 1990 ?. ?I I?O aeoea?coaaea ?iaioo. 19
aeiaoiy, iaia?aaeiaei? 2-ai c’?caeo ?ooo, cae?a?oueny 2-a nan?y ?I I?O.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee ?I aeey iaaiai?aiiy ia c’?cae? ?ooo ? iiaee “I?iaeo
no?oeoo?e ?ooo”. Ia 2-e nan?? aoei i?eeiyoi “Ia?niaeoeaiee ieai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo? ia?iae?a Oe?a?ie». ?I aaaaeaea ca
iaiao?aeia noai?eoe i?e ?aae? I?i?no??a O?N? Eii?oao o ni?aaao
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

25-28 aeiaoiy 1990 ?. o Ee?a? a?aeaoany 2-e c’?cae ?ooo, i?ney yeiai
eiiia?o?y ia?aeoea a eiio?ianooi ia ?oo, ia aeaiie?aoe/i? neee.
Aiaeii/an, aeei?enoiaoth/e iinoaiiao I?aceae?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee O?N? a?ae
29 aa?aniy 1990 ?. “I?i ii?yaeie ?a?no?aoe?? a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue”,
ii/aee ?ioaineaii ?a?no?oaaoeny ??ci? ia?o??. Aeey iaoe?iiaeueieo
oiaa?enoa, ye? ia iaee i?aaa aeaeea?oaaoe aoaeue-ye? iie?oe/i? aia?oe??,
ianoaa oyaeeee /an. C iaeiiai aieo, aeeooy aeiaaaei yeinue “aecia/eoeny”
c iie?oe/iith i???ioaoe??th, c ?ioiai — ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae aoooy ??cieo
aoi?/ieo a?oi ianaeaiiy a/ea: oeueiai ia iiaeia ?iaeoe. Iaiie?oeciaaiee
?oo iaaeaaaa an?i iaoe?a?ioeyi iiaeeea?noue a?aoe aeoeaio o/anoue a
a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo? aea?aeaae, c ?ioiai -ia ?iaeoe oeueiai a?ae ?iai?
aoaeue-yei? aoi?/ii? a?oie ianaeaiiy, oiaoi aooe ??aieie c on?ia
a?iiaaeyiaie Oe?a?ie, ia i?eieaeoth/e nai?? ethaenueei? ? iaoe?iiaeueii?
a?aeiino?. E??i oiai, ?aaeeeae?caoe?y aeeooy, iiyaa a e?ioe? 1990 ?.
i?aaeo, oia?i?noe/ieo oe?a?inueeeo aacao, ye? aacoaaeeny ia ?aeayo
“?ioaa?aeueiiai iaoe?iiae?cio”, ia caeeoaee i?aaenoaaieeai iaoeiaioei
?ioi? iaae?? ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ye a??i?noue oei ?aeayi ?ooo, ye? aoee
caaeaeea?iaai? a 1989 ?.

2 ethoiai 1991?. a?aee?eeanue 3-y nan?y ?I I?O, ia ye?e
i?aee?anethaaeanue iaaecae/aeia aaaeeea?noue eii?aeeiaoe?? ae?e
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, ?o o/anoue a aea?aeaaioai?aii?, a?ae?iaeaeaii? ?o
eoeueoo? ?acii c a?ae?iaeaeaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Ie?aiei ieoaiiyi
aoei ia?aiiy iiaiai neeaaeo ?I I?O oa ?? I?aceae??. Aei neeaaeo ?I I?O
aoei ia?aii 72,7% iaoe?a?ioe?a, aaciina?aaeiuei aoee i?aaenoaaeai? a ?I
10 iaoe?iiaeueieo a?oi ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Cae?i/eeanue 3-y nan?? ?I I?O
i?eeiyooyi ooaae, caa?iaiue, ??oaiue ? caya. Aieiaia c ieo “Aei
noaiiaeua a E?eio”. A i?e eoeiny i?i oyaeea noaiiaeua e?einueeeo oaoa?,
caa?oaeany oaaaa ia ii?aeuei? ? th?eaee/i? ianoaaeie, ye? ia? a?aooaaoe
ia?eaiaio Oe?a?ie.

O ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui ca ??e, ui i?ieoia i?ney canioaaiiy ?I, aiia
ci?oei?ea ?acii c ?ooii. I?ae can?aeaiiyie /eaie ?I cono??/aeeny c
i?aaenoaaieeaie iaoeoiaa?enoa, aeoiaoaaee a ieo aeia??o aei ?ooo. Naia
ia ??ai? ae?eiaeo noinoie?a, /enaeueieo ?iciia c e?aea?aie iaoeoiaa?enoa
? ia?iaeaeoaaeanue aeia??a, yea o?ainoi?ioaaeany aeae? aaea /a?ac oeeo
ethaeae aei ?ioeo. Oey “n?oea aeia??e” aoea iae?aaeeeaeuei?oith aeoe??th
?I.

O ea?oi? 1991 ?. ia aae?ano ?I I?O iaae?eoia eeno a?ae Ee?anueei?
i?nuee?aaee, aea i?iiiioaaeiny aeneiaeoe caoaaaeaiiy aei i?iaeo?a
caeii?a O?N? “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioino?”, oa “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeuei? iaeeieoe?”. Oe? i?iaeoe ?I iaae?neaea a
on? iaeano? ?, io?eiaaoe a?aeiia?ae? ? ?icaeyioaoe ?o ia I?aceae?? ?I,
i?aeaiooaaea 19 o?aaiy iinoaiiao, a ye?e cacia/eea, ui cai?iiiiiaai?
i?iaeoe caeii?a o iayai?e ?aaeaeoe?? ia ni?iiiaei? caaacia/eoe ?ioa?ane
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae. Aa?iii?caoe?? aoiiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a ?anioae?oe?,
caaacia/aiith i?aa an?o aoi?/ieo ni?eueiinoae iaee?aua a?aeiia?aeaa ae
“Caeii i?i iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaa a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie”. ?I noai?eea ?iai/o
a?oio aeey iino?eiiai eiioaeoo c on?ia aea?aeaaieie no?oeoo?aie a
i?ioean? ?ic?iaee caeiiiaeaanoaa c i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo ieoaiue. Aieiaith
A?oie aoa i?ecia/aiee /eai I?aceae?? ?I I. Iaeai?iaea. Oey A?oia ii/aea
aiooaaoe aeueoa?iaoeaiee caeii, i?aeeeth/eaoe aei oeueiai an? iaeani?
EIN. Oea aoea iaeia c iaeiania?oeo aeoe?e ?I ca 4 ?iee naiai ?nioaaiiy.

A /a?ai? 1991 ?. aoa i?aeaioiaeaiee i?iaeo aeueoa?iaoeaiiai caeiio “I?i
iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaa a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie” c 9 ?icae?e?a, ye? i?noeee 42
noaoo?. An? ?ic?iaeai? aeieoiaioe aoee iaae?neai? a Eii?n?? A? O?N?, a
i?ano, ia?aaeai? ie?aiei ia?iaeiei aeaiooaoai-?oo?aoeyi, aea ia aoee
a?aoiaai? ? ia ae?oeoaaeeny aeey iaaiai?aiiy. Iaaaeiac? Aa?oiaia ?aaea
ooaaeeea caeii “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie a Oe?a?i?”, ca yeei ana
ianaeaiiy ?icae?eyeiny ia oe?a?ioe?a ? iaoe?a?ioe?a, oiaoi —
iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie. Oeae caeii, ia aeoieo ?I I?O, iaaeaa iaoe?a?ioeyi
ae?oai?yaeiiai cia/aiiy a aea?aeaa? i?e ??aieo aeaeea?iaaieo i?aaao ?
iieeaaeaa ia oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao iaia’ycie oo?aoaaoeny i?i aeia?iaoo
iaioei.

13 aa?aniy 1991 ?. a aeoiaiio cae? NIO a?aee?eeany 4 nan?y ?I I?O, yea
aoea caii/aoeiaaia o aeaeyae? eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoe?iiaeuei? oiaa?enoaa
Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie ? no/ani?noue”. Aeaeaaaoe eiioa?aioe?? iniaeeao oaaao
i?eae?eeee i?iaeai? iiaa?iaiiy a Oe?a?io ?ai?aniaaiiai i?iaoeueeiai oa
e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iae?a. O ?icae?e? iieacaii, ye ?I ae?yea a
?ioeo iai?yieao o oeae /an, o ia??iae i?aeaioiaee aei ?aoa?aiaeoio 1
a?oaeiy 1991 ?. I?ae iino?eiei oeneii ?I aoei ooaaeaii ia I?iaiae? I?O
??oaiiy i?iaanoe Anaoe?a?inueeee Oi?oi i?aaenoaaiee?a iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae aieiaiei noeioeii aoa ?aoa?aiaeoi. Ia?oa
?i?oe?aoeaia a?oia ii i?iaaaeaiith Oi?oio aoea neeaaeaia ia aac?
I?aceae?? ?I. Oi?oi aoa i?ecia/aiee 16-17 eenoiiaaea 1991 ?. a Iaean?.
A?aeiia?aei? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy aoee i?aeaioiaeai? a Eaa?iao? I?i?no??a.

Aiae?c ?iaioe Oi?oio, ?I I?O, ?? iino?ei? eiioaeoe c ??cieie
iaoeoiaa?enoaaie, aeaee iiaeeea?noue i?ciaoe anth aeeaeio “aioo??oi?o”
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai a na?aaeiaeu? ??cieo iaoeoiaa?enoa. A 1991 ?.
noaei c?icoi?ei, ui aac iaoa??aeueii? i?aeo?eiee iaoe?iiaeueiei
oiaa?enoaai ?aae?coaaoe nai? aeooiai?, eoeueoo?i? iaiaaaiiy iaiiaeeeai.
Oae naii, ye iaiiaeeeai aeiaeoeny “ianiaino?” iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “?I I?O a 1992-1993 ??.” ioiieth?
iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/i? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i? i?ney ?aoa?aiaeoio 1 a?oaeiy
1991 ?. Aiae?co?oueny ?aaiethoe?eia o?ainoi?iaoe?y I?O a ia?o?th,
aaiethoe?y i?ioeano aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? a a?e iiaoaeiae
iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae c aa?aiooaaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueiei iaioinoyi
??aiii?aaiino? ? i?aeo?eiee. C caeo/aiiyi aeieoiaio?a, ?ic?iaeaieo ?I,
?ethno?o?oueny ?? ?noi??y, ci?ie a no?oeoo??, a i?ia?aiiaeo canaaeao,
ni?ai?aoey ye c iaoe?iiaeueieie oiaa?enoaaie, c ?ooii,
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieie, caeiiiaeaa/eie, aea?aeaaii-aaei?i?no?aoeaieie
onoaiiaaie ai?eooe aei oaeoe/iiai i?eieiaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?ney 4-ai
c’?caeo I?O. Aiae?cothoueny i?ioeane, iia’ycai? c aaiethoe??th ye I?O,
oae ? ?I I?O ia oe? ?icaeoeo ia?eaiaionueei?, aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?
o?yaeiai? aeaaee a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?.

25 n?/iy 1992 ?. a?aeaoeinue can?aeaiiy Aaeeei? ?aaee ?ooo, a yeiio
a?ae?aco i?ney ?aoa?aiaeoio ii/aeeny oa?oy, ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo a ?on?
i?ae oeie, ooi i?aeo?eiaa ia?aiiao E. E?aa/oea ? iaiieyaaa ia
ni?ai?aoe? c iei, ? oeie, ooi i?iiiioaaa ia?aeoe a iiiceoe?th. A oie aea
/an a n?/i?-ethoiio 1992 ?. ii an?e aaea iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?
aeoea?coaaeeny EIN a aaaaoueio e?aeiaeo i?aai?caoe?yo ?ooo, iniaeeai a
oeaio?aeueieo iaeanoyo. 20 ethoiai 1992 ?. I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie E. E?aa/oe
cai?inea ia cono??/ ?icoe?aiee neeaae I?iaiaeo ?ooo aeeth/ii c e?aea?aie
e?aeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e. Ia aoei eeoa A. *i?iiaiea c eiai i?eoeeueieeaie.
Oaeoe/ii, c oeueiai can?aeaiiy ?iceie a ?on? ia?anoaa aooe aioo??oiueith
ni?aaith I?O. I?ney ni?eueieo iicaei?iaeaiue ? iiaaaeaiue oni?o?a
?iciiaa ia?aeoea o ieiueio ?iciiae?eo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ii?ooae?a ca
?oo?aoeyie.

28 aa?aciy 1992 ?. a?aeaoeany 5-a nan?y ?I I?O. Ia i?e i?aaenoaaeaii 47
aeaeaaao?a a?ae an?o E?aeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e, a oaeiae 19 i?aaenoaaiee?a
iaoe?iiaeueieo oiaa?enoa. O ca?oi?e aeiiia?ae? aieiaa ?I cina?aaeeany ia
i?iaeaiao ?iaioe ?I, aca?iiae?? ?? c ?ooii, o?yaeiaeie no?oeoo?aie.
Ie?aia oaaaa i?eae?eyeany ??ce?e ?aaeeeae?caoe?? /anoeie oe?a?inueei?
i?ane. Aeoeaiooaaeanue oaaaa ia aieiaieo iai?yieao ?iaioe. O ?icae?e?
iieacai? nooo?a? ci?ie, ui iaee i?noea a neeaae? ?I I?O “o?aoueiai
neeeeaiiy” a ii??aiyii? c “ae?oaei”, ia?aiei 2 ethoiai 1991 ?. Iieacaii,
ui e?oi-in?iue 1992 ?. aoei aiiaa?i ianooio iaoe?iiae-?aaeeeae?a ia
aoaeue-ye? aeaiie?aoe/i? c?ooaiiy a aea?aeaa?. C’ynoaaeiny, ui oe? ?aea?
aeaooiaothoue ? ?aaeeeae-eiioi?no?a.

19 /a?aiy 1992 ?. a?aee?eeiny can?aeaiiy 6-? nan?? ?I I?O ?acii c
/eaiaie I?iaiaeo ?ooo. ?icaeyaeaeinue ieoaiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, inoaii? a?aeaa?oi oia?i?noe/i? ioae?eaoe?? a
oe?a?inuee?e i?an?, ?iaioa ? eiioaeoe ?I c iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieie
oiaa?enoaaie, i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/i? i?iaeaie ?I. Aaaaoi /eai?a
I?iaiaeo e?eoeeoaaee ?I. A. *i?iia?e aeneiaea noii?a uiaei iaiao?aeiino?
?I I?O, eiee a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i? ?niothoue niaoe?aeuei? aeaaei?
no?oeoo?e, iieeeeai? caeiaoeny i?iaeaiaie iaoeiaioei.

A ?icae?e? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui a na?aaeei? 1992 ?. iiey?ecaoe?y nee a
ea??aieoeoa? ?ooo ae?eoea aiiaath. C e?oa 1992 ?. ?oo?aoe?, ye? ua a/i?a
e?eoeeoaaee o?yae ? iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo aea?aeaae ? a oeueiio
i?aeo?eioaaee ? caioi/oaaee ae?yeuei?noue ?I, a?aeiiaeeeny a?ae e?eoeee.
A?eueoa oiai, “noa?iiiaei?noue” ?I noaea ?o ae?aooaaoe. Noai?thaaeinue
a?aaeaiiy, ui ia ae?enia i?eieceeaa iieiaeaiiy iaoeiaioei a aea?aeaa?
oo?ao? ?o, a, iaaiaee, aeaooiao?. C a?ae?eaii a?ae “noa?oiai a?aoa”, c
i?iaieioaiiyi iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie, c iiaa?iaiiyi oe?a?ioe?a ia ?ieue
oeooeueii?, aea?aeaaioai?/i? iaoe??, ae??oaiiy i?iaeai iaoeiaioei, ye?
?ai?oa ?icaeyaeaeeny a noeoiiino? c i?iaeaiaie oe?a?ioe?a, ii/aei
caaaaeaoe.

I?ney 3-ai c’?caeo ?ooo A.*i?iia?e noaa ea?oaaoe ?ooii iaeiiin?aii. 7
eenoiiaaea 1992 ?. a?aee?eeanue 7 nan?y ?I. Ia i?e, e??i /eai?a ?I, aoee
i?aaenoaaeai? 22 iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oiaa?enoaa Oe?a?ie. Ci?no
aeeneon?e iaee?aua iiaea aooe ?ethno?iaaiee i?eeiyoeie aeieoiaioaie. A
“Caa?iaii? aei iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oiaa?enoa ? a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie”
?iaeeany ni?iaa i?aeaeoe i?aenoiee ?iaioe ?I ca ieioe? o?e ?iee. O
“Caa?iaii? aei Aieiae Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie” aeaeaaaoe aeoeaiooaaee
oaaao ia iaaeineiiaeino? caeiio “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie a Oe?a?i?”. A
Eeno? aei ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a aeoeaiooaaeany oaaaa ia ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo
i?iaeaiao iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie. Nan?y i?eeiyea
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiiy aei I?ia?aie oa Noaoooo I?O.

4 a?oaeiy a?aee?eany 4 c’?cae ?ooo. Ia iueiio aoee i?enooi? 542
aeaeaaaoe. Ca iaoe?iiaeueiei neeaaeii 445 — oe?a?ioe?. Ia aoei
ni?aaieiae ?ooo ?. Ae?a/a. Aieiaa ?I I?O ia oeae ?ac aoa iiai?noth
a?aeeo/aiee a?ae iiaeaioiaee aei c’?caeo. Ia aoa iaaeaiee ? /an aeey
i?iaieioaiiy ca?oii? aeiiia?ae? a?ae ?I. Ia c’?cae? aoee i?eeiyo? ci?ie
aei I?ia?aie ? Noaoooo ?ooo, ye? ea?aeeiaeueii ci?ieee ?ieue ? i?noea ?I
a I?O. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, 4-? cai?e ?ooo th?eaee/ii cieueee ?I,
ine?eueee iae?aoe ?I ca iiaei Noaoooii iaee i?aai eeoa /eaie ?ooo.
Oiaoi, i? i?aaenoaaieee Eii?n?e c i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo noinoie?a E?aeiaeo
i?aai?caoe?e ?ooo, i? i?aaenoaaieee iaoe?iiaeueieo oiaa?enoa ia iaee
i?aaa iae?aoe ?I, yeui aiie ia aoee /eaiaie ?ooo. A yeui ?oo iinoaaaa
ia?o??th c aei?noeith ?a?no?aoe??th /eainoaa, oi iaoe?iiaeuei?
oiaa?enoaa ia iiaee caeeoaoeny a ?on?.

I?ney c’?caeo i?i na?e aeo?ae c /enea anioe?eiaaieo /eai?a ?ooo
cayaeee: ?neainueeee oeaio?, ?a?aenueea oiaa?enoai ?i. Oieii-Aeaeoaia,
/aoi-neiaaoeueea oiaa?enoai ? oiaa?enoai aeaaanoaioe?a. 15 a?oaeiy 1992
?. I?aceae?y ?I I?O c?a?aeanue ia iica/a?aiaa can?aeaiiy ?acii c
e?aea?aie iaoeoiaa?enoa, uia iaaiai?eoe ia?aoai?aiiy ?ooo ia ia?o?th.
Aoei i?aee?aneaii, ui ?I I?O iiaeiia caeeoeoeny iica ?ooii-ia?o??th. Aei
8 nan?? ?I iiaeiia aoea ?ic?iaeoe iiaa Iieiaeaiiy i?i ?I ? ?ic?neaoe o
an? E?aeia? i?aai?caoe?? I?O, a oaeiae an?i /eaiai ?I ? a iaoe?iiaeuei?
oiaa?enoaa, uia ooaaeeoe inoaoi/ia ??oaiiy.

20 ethoiai c?a?aeanue 8 nan?y ?I I?O. A aeaiue a?aee?eooy 8-? nan??
c’ynoaaeiny inoaoi/ii: c 33 /eai?a ?I i?enooi? 19, ?c ieo 9 — /eaie
I?aceae?? ?I. ?I ia aoea i?aaiii/ia i?iyoe i?ia?aiia? iieiaeaiiy ?I I?O
? ia?aiae?aoe na?e neeaae. Aea i?aaiii/iith aoea I?aceae?y. Nan?y ii/aea
?iaioo. A cae? aoei a?ey nioi? i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
oiaa?enoa. A na?aaeiaeu? iaoe?iiae?a aaeeeiai ?icaieino iaaoea /ooea i?i
neeaaeiino? a noinoieao ?I c I?O. I?enooi? ?icoi?ee, ui ?I ciiaea
?nioaaoe, yeui caeeoeoueny i?ae aeaoii ?ooo-ia?o??
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iith i?aai?caoe??th, aea ?c nai?th i?ia?aiith oa
noaoooii. Aaea ia 8-e nan?? cayaeee i?i aeo?ae c ?ooo 5 /eai?a I?aceae??
?I. C 13 in?a a i?e caeeoeeiny 7.

20 aa?aciy 1993 ?. ?I ?ic?neaei o an? caoe?eaaeai? i?aai?caoe?? iiaa
“Iieiaeaiiy i?i ?I”, ?ic?iaeaia I?aceae??th ?I c a?aooaaiiyi iaaiai?aiiy
ia 8 nan??. Aiii nooo?ai a?ae??ciyeiny a?ae Iieiaeaiiy, i?eeiyoiai 11
ethoiai 1990 ?. ? i?noeei aieiai? ?aea?, ye? iaee i?noea a aeiiia?ae?
Aieiae ?I ia 8-e nan?? ? aenooiao aeaeaaao?a. O ?icae?e?
i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i? i?ney 1
a?oaeiy 1991 ?. ci?ieeany. O? aanea, c yeeie ia?iae Oe?a?ie i?eeoia aei
aeaiie?ao??, aei iacaeaaeiino?, oaia? caaaaeaee, aaeueioaaee i?ioean
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. Iiynithaaeiny oea aeaiia eiieo?oth/eie ia?aeaeueieie
i?ioeanaie: eoea cai?ia noa?iai aaeaoainueeiai oi?aae?inueeiai aia?aoo ?
i?ioean iiooeo ?aea?, yea a ia’?aeiaea ia?iae. Iaei?ino?oei aeey
iaoe?iiae-iao??io?a ? iaoe?iiae-eiioi?no?a noaea eiioeaioe?y
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, yea aacoaaeany ia caeii? “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei?
iaioeie Oe?a?ie”. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, oeae caeii ii?iaeeea naia ?o
“?aei?noue”. ?I I?O ? ?? e?aea?e aeyaeeeny ia aioiaeie aei oaeiai
ia?aa?ao iiae?e. ?o oyaeaiiy i?i eiii?ii?n ia i?oee aeae? ci?noo iiaiai
Iieiaeaiiy i?i ?I.

?oo ia caoaa?aeea iiaa Iieiaeaiiy ?I. Ia can?aeaiiy I?iaiaeo a ea?oi?
1993 ?., ia yeiio aoei ooaaeaii iaaaoeaia ??oaiiy, aieiaa ?I ia aoa
cai?ioaiee. I?ooi ia cae?aany iaaiai?thaaoe, aeneooiaoaaoe a?aoiaioe
“ca” ? “i?ioe”. ??oaiiy aoei ai??i?iei. A e?ioe? ea?oiy aieiaa ?I iiaeaa
cayao i?i aeo?ae c ?ooo ? ciyooy c naaa iaia’yce?a aieiae ?I. Iaeaea
/ioe?e??/ia ?noi??y ?I I?O ye caaaeueii?anioae?eainueei?
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? i?eieieeanue. A
10 a?oaeiy 1993 ?. a?aee?eany 5 c’?cae aaea ?ooo-ia?o??.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaiaeyoueny
iaoa??aee noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a na?aaeiaeu? iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei a ia??iae 1991-1993 ??. Aiae?co?oueny neooaoe?y, ui neeaeany
na?aae iaoe?a?ioe?a i?ney o?ainoi?iaoe?? I?O a ia?o?th ? i?eieiaiiy
ae?yeueiino? ?I. Iaeaea 4 ?iee i?aoethaaea ?I, 2 — aei i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? ? 2 — ii oiio. Aiia ea?oaaeany oaeeie ?iia?aoeaaie:
a?eueia iacaeaaeia ? aeaiie?aoe/ia Oe?a?ia; aoi?/iee ieth?ae?ci ?
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?; caeiiiaeaa/i cae??ieaiee
i?eioeei th?eaee/iiai ??aiii?aa’y an?o a?iiaaeyi iacaeaaeii a?ae
aoi?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy; i?ioenoiyiiy ye iaoe?iiaeueiiio i?a?e?cio, oae ?
i?iyaai oia?i?cio, aioenai?oecio, aoaeue-yei? aeene?ei?iaoe?? ca
iaoe?iiaeueiith iciaeith.

Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui ?I ianoithaaea i?eioeeie, ye? aeii?iothoue
a a?eueoino? oeea?e?ciaaieo e?a?i ?a?iie ? Aia?eee: iie?eoeueoo?iino?,
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueii? aaoiiii??, iine?aeiaiiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caeiio
i?i aea?aeaaio iiao, noai?aiiy nenoaie aioeaeene?ei?iaoe?eiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, iaae?eii? i?aaiai? aace aea?aeaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee a noa?? i?aeaoi?/ieo a?aeiinei, iaeneiaeueiiai caeo/aiiy
i?aaenoaaiee?a eiaeii? aoi?/ii? a?oie aei oi?aae?iiy a?aeiia?aeieie
i?ioeanaie ia an?o ??aiyo: a?ae caeiiiaeaa/iai aei aeeiiaa/iai, a?ae
ia?eaiaioo aei ?aae ia iaeaniiio ? ?aeiiiiio ??ai?.

?I ia iiaea nia? aeicaieeoe, ye oea c?iaea ?oo: aei 1 a?oaeiy 1991 ?.
ai?ioeny ca aeaiaoe?iiae?ciaaia noni?euenoai (ye iane?aeie ia?aiiae iaae
oioae?oa?iei ?aaeeiii), a i?ney 1 a?oaeiy a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae
i?iaieioaii? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ? ii/aoe aoaeoaaoe “aea?aeaao —
iaoe?th”. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ?I c?iaeea iaeaieiai?oa: a
iaeae??oaeueiee ? ae?aiaoe/i?oee /an aeey Oe?a?ie ? ?? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
ia’?aeiaea ??ci? aoi?/i? a?oie ianaeaiiy i?ae i?aii?ii iacaeaaeiino?,
i?eiee ia eoea ia eiii?ii?n ca ?aooiie iaeaaaeeea?oiai —
ni?aaaaeeeaino?, ??aieo i?aa ? iie?oe/ieo naiaiae aeey an?o aoi?/ieo
a?oi ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

Aei ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo aeena?oaioii
?acoeueoao?a, iiaeia a?aeianoe iaiao?aei?noue iciaeiieaiiy, aea/aiiy oa
aeei?enoaiiy iieiaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey a?eueo aeeaieiai oa oe?ieiai
iaoeiaiai inieneaiiy nooiino? aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaaeeny
a Oe?a?i? aei ? i?ney i?iaieioaiiy ?? iacaeaaeiino?. O aeniiaeao
i?aee?aneaii, ui ?noi??th ?I I?O ia iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe eeoa ye eieaeueio
iiae?th, eeoa ye ?noi??th aeeooy iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei Oe?a?ie o oeae
ia??iae. ?noi??y ?I — oea ? /anoeia ?noi??? ?ooo, ?noi??? aoi?/ieo
oe?a?ioe?a, /anoeia ?noi??? Oe?a?ie a ia??iae caeiaoooy iacaeaaeiino? ?
ia?oeo ?? e?ie?a ia oeueiio oeyoo. ?noi??y ?I — oea ?noi??y iie?oe/ieo,
nioe?aeueieo, i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae
oioae?oa?ecio aei iacaeaaeii? Aea?aeaae.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? o ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. ?aaea Iaoe?iiaeueiinoae Ia?iaeiiai ?ooo Oe?a?ie (1989-1993). —
Aaeiiioii-Aeueaa?oa: Eaiaae?enueeee ?inoeooo oe?a?inueeeo nooae?e,
Aeueaa?onueeee oi?aa?neoao, 1995. — 160 n.

2. ?a?aenuee? aie? //Oe?a?ia a no/aniiio na?o?. — E., 1990.- N.91-102.

3. ?aaea Iaoe?iiaeueiinoae oa i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? noinoiee a Oe?a?i?
//No/ani?noue. -1991, *.1.- N.56-61.

4. Aoiiiie?oe/i? oa nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? iane?aeee o?aaaae?? 12
na?iiy 1952 ?.// Iai’yoaoe ca?aaee aeeooy. — E., ?inoeooo iaoe?iiaeueieo
a?aeiinei ? iie?oieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, 1993.- N.52-60.

5.”?in?enuee? ?a?a?”, ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue // I?iaeaie
oe?a?inueei-?a?aenueeeo a?aeiinei. — E., 1991. — ?3-4. — N. 28-31.

Ao?aeianueeee I. C. ?noi??y ?aaee Iaoe?iiaeueiinoae Ia?iaeiiai ?ooo
Oe?a?ie, 1989-1993 ?iee. Iie?oieia?/iee aiae?c. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.02 — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe oa i?ioeane. ?inoeooo
iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1999.

Caoeua?oueny aeena?oaoe?y, ui aeine?aeaeo? ?noi??th ?aaee
Iaoe?iiaeueiinoae Ia?iaeiiai ?ooo Oe?a?ie a ia??iae ?? ?nioaaiiy a?ae
ia?iaeaeaiiy i?ney 1-ai c’?caeo ?ooo aei i?eieiaiiy a ea?oi? 1993, eiee
?oo o?ainoi?ioaaany a ia?o?th.

?icaeyiooi ? aena?oeaii o/anoue i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
a?iiaae Oe?a?ie a iioe?aii? aieeao ?ooo na?aae ianaeaiiy, caeiaooo?
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie.

Aiae?cothoueny aaiethoe?ei? i?ioeane a i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo noinoieao ?
iie?oeoe? ?ooo, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a noni?euenoa? aei ? i?ney i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeiino?, noaaeaiiy aei oeeo ci?i ?aaee Iaoe?iiaeueiinoae I?O,
ie?aieo iaoe?iiaeueieo oiaa?enoa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?oo, ?aaea Iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, oe?a?ioe?, iaoe?a?ioe?,
iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie, iacaeaaei?noue, iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea,
aeaiie?ao?y, aeene?ei?iaoe?y, th?eaee/ia ??aiii?aa’y, Oe?a?ia.

Ao?aeianeee A. C. Enoi?ey Niaaoa Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae Ia?iaeiiai ?ooa
Oe?aeiu, 1989-1993 aiaeu. Iieeoieiae/aneee aiaeec. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.02 — iieeoe/aneea einoeooou e i?ioeannu.
Einoeooo iieeoe/aneeo e yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee IAI Oe?aeiu,
Eeaa, 1999.

Caueuaaony aeenna?oaoeey, iinayuaiiay enoi?ee Niaaoa Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae
Ia?iaeiiai ?ooa Oe?aeiu e ioaaouaathuay ia?eiae 1989-1993 aiaeia.

Iie?aynue ia aeinoeaeaiey enoi?eia?aoee, aeieoiaioaeueiua iaoa?eaeu,
a?oeaiua aeieoiaiou, aeenna?oaio no?aieeny ?aeiino?oe?iaaoue oeaeinoioth
ea?oeio aicieeiiaaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe Niaaoa Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae eae
ninoaaiie /anoe I?O. Yoi eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeii, iineieueeo a
nia?aiaiiie enoi?eia?aoee I?O ?ieue Niaaoa Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae inaauaaony
iaaeinoaoi/ii. Iaaeaeo oai, eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho enoi?e/aneea oaeou,
yoa ?ieue auea aanueia cia/eoaeueiie a i?ioeanna ia?aoaiey Oe?aeiie
iacaaeneiinoe.

A aeenna?oaoeee iaoae io?aaeaiea i?aaeaea anaai eiiieaen aii?inia,
naycaiiuo n aicieeiiaaieai Niaaoa Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae a neiaeiii eiioaenoa
enoi?eei-iieeoe/aneeo niauoee eiioea 80-o aiaeia, eiaaea aue nicaeai
I?O. I?e yoii aeenna?oaio, iie?aynue ia aeieoiaiou, ooi/iyao ?yae
iiiaioia, iieo/eaoeo iaoi/iia inaauaiea a ioaeeeaoeeyo iineaaeieo eao.

Aeaeaa aeaaony ?acaa?iooue aiaeec ?aaiou Niaaoa Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae a
1989-1991 aiaeao, iieacaia aai yaiethoeey eae iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai iauaaeeiaiey iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo iauanoa
Oe?aeiu. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony oie ai?ueaa, eioi?oth aaea oiaaea
aua i?aayuay Eiiia?oey Oe?aeiu i?ioea oiai, /oiau eiaiii aie?oa Niaaoa
Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae i?ienoiaeeea eiinieeaeaoeey oiiiyioouo iauanoa.
Aeenna?oaio iiae?iaii aiaeece?oao onoaaiua e i?ia?aiiiua aeieoiaiou
Niaaoa Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae, aai a iiaeaioiaea e i?iaaaeaiee ?aoa?aiaeoia 1
aeaeaa?y 1991 aiaea.

Aeaeaa a aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey Niaaoa
Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae a 1992-1993 aiaeao, eiaaea ia/aeanue iinoaiaiiay
o?ainoi?iaoeey ?IO a iieeoe/aneoth ia?oeth. Yoe i?iaeaiu inaauathony ia
oe?ieii iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneii oiia, aeayoaeueiinoe ia?eaiaioneeo,
i?aceaeaioneeo e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo no?oeoo?. Aaoi? iieacuaaao i?e/eiu
oiai, /oi Niaao Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae ia iia inoaaaoueny a no?oeoo?a I?O eae
iieeoe/aneie ia?oee, a yoi oaeoe/anee icia/aei i?ae?auaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe NI.

Aeenna?oaio oaeaea cao?aaeaaao iaeioi?ua aii?inu, naycaiiua n ?acaeoeai
niauoee iinea i?ae?auaiey nouanoaiaaiey Niaaoa Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae.
Iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi yoa no?oeoo?a noiyea ia iiceoeeyo
iieeeoeueoo?iinoe, eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiie aaoiiiiee,
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ?aaeecaoeee Caeiia i ainoaea?noaaiiii ycuea,
nicaeaiey nenoaiu aioeaeene?eieiaoeeiiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
iaaeaaeiie i?aaiaie aacu ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a noa?a
iaaeyoie/aneeo ioiioaiee, iaeneiaeueiiai i?eaea/aiey i?aaenoaaeoaeae
eaaeaeie yoie/aneie a?oiiu e oi?aaeaieth niioaaonoaothueie i?ioeannaie
ia anao o?iaiyo.

A caeeth/aiee aeenna?oaoeee iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi enoi?eth NI I?O iaeuecy
?anniao?eaaoue eae eieaeueioth. Yoi /anoue enoi?ee naiiai ?IO, /anoue
iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee Oe?aeiu OO noieaoey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?oo, Niaao Iaoeeiiaeueiinoae, oe?aeioeu, iaoe?aeioeu,
iaoeeiiaeueiua iaiueoeinoaa, iacaaeneiinoue, iaoeeiiaeueiay iieeoeea,
aeaiie?aoey, aeene?eieiaoeey, th?eaee/aneia ?aaiii?aaea, Oe?aeia.

Burakovsky A. Z. History of the Nationalities Council of Rukh, the
Popular Movement of Ukraine, 1989-93. Politilogical analysis. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for the degree of candidate of political sciences for speciality
23.00.02 — Political institutions and processes. The Institute of
Political and Ethnonational Studies at the National Academy of Sciences,
Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation investigates the history of the Nationalities Council
of Rukh from the period of its inception after the first congress of
Rukh to the dissolution of the council in April 1993, after which Rukh
was transformed into a political party.

Reviews and explains the participation of various national communities
of Ukraine in disseminating the influence of Rukh among the population,
in particular in achieving support for Ukraine’s independence.

Analyzes the evolutionary processes of inter-national relationships
among the population as well as within Rukh, that took place before and
after the declaration of independence, the approach and attitude of the
Nationalities Council of Rukh to these changes, as well as the positions
of separate nationality-based community organizations.

Key words: Rukh, Nationalities Council, Ukrainians, non-Ukrainians,
national minorities, Ukrainian independence, national politics,
democratic movement, discrimination, equality before the law, Ukraine.

1 Paul Robert Magocsi. History of Ukraine. University of Washington
Press, Seattle, 1996.- 784 p.

2 I. Noaoaeueiee. Oe?a?ia, ?noi??y. E.: Eea?aeue, 1992.- 510 n.

3 I. I?ieii. Iaia?aaeiaei? iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie. Iueth-Ei?e — Euea?a,
IOO, 1993.- 502 n.; ?. Aecthaa. ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?ci /e ?oneo?eaoe?y
//No/ani?noue, 1968; I. Eaa??a. ?noi??y i?aaeaiii-no?aeii? Oe?a?ie
//Neiai. — Euea?a, 1992.-152 n; TH. Aaaecuei. Ii?acea oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe??. — E?o.Oe?a?ia. — 21-28 na?iiy 1997; ss. Aeaoeaae/.
Oe?a?inueea a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioino? //Aeiiia?aeue ia
eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?ia a no/aniiio na?o?”, ?AO, E., 1990; A. ?aooo.
Aoi?/ia iaioeia: iiiyooy, iciaee, ooieoe?? //O?einionueea ?
nioe?ieia?/ia aeoiea. -1994. -?1-2; TH. Na?iei. I?aeiaoe?iiaeueia
oiea?aioi?noue aoiin?a Oe?a?ie //Iao. eiioa?aioe?? “Ca i?aeiaoe?iiaeueio
ceaaiaeo i?ioe oia?i?cio oa aeno?ai?cio”. — E., 1995; ?. Aaeaoe?ia.
Eiioe?eoieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei no/anii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?. — E.,
Aa??n, 1994. — 48 n. ?. Aieiaaoa. No?aoaa?y nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie. — E., Aa??n, 1994.- 64 n. oa ?i.

1 A. Eiaooi. ?noi??y Ia?iaeiiai ?ooo Oe?a?ie. — E.: 1995.- 382 n.

2 I. Aa?aiue. Oaeoe ae?aeiia. C ?noi??? ?ooo oa iiaeo ia?o?e Oe?a?ie.
E.: Eea?aeue, 1993.- 200 n.

3 A. Aii/a?oe. Ia?iaeiee ?oo Oe?a?ie, ?noi??y. — Iaeana, Ano?ii?eio,
1997.- 378 n.

4 A. Eai?inueeee. Ia ia?ao?aeiiio aoai?. — Ithioai. OAO, 1990.- 684 n.

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