AeI?I?IIAO?IANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

C?IE?I IEOAEEI AANEEUeIAE*

OAeE 930.1:32.019.5

?NOI?E*I? OA NONI?EUeII-IIE?OE*I?

IIAEssAeE A.I.*E*A??IA

07.00.06 – ?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aeiciaanoai oa

niaoe?aeuei? ?noi?e/i? aeenoeeie?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??ia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Caneoaeaiee i?aoe?aiee ia?iaeii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie

AIEAA?OO Aiaoie?e A?eai?iae/

aeaeai ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

I?I*OE TH??e Aiaoie?eiae/,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii ?noi??ia?ao?? ?inoeoooo ?noi???

Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

EEOIA*AIEI Ethaeieea Aiaoie??aia

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
anana?oiuei? ?noi???

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «6» aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.051.14 i?e Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 320625, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
i?.Aaaa??ia,72, aoae.307.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 320050,
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aoe.Eacaeiaa,8.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «3 » aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A.I. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
E.A.IA?EIA

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie no/anieo
ae?ni?ei??icaeiaieo iino?iaeono??aeueieo aea?aeaa ni?aaea nooo?aee aieea
e?aa??a?e?ci, c eiai aeiiaaie iaaeioi?eaiiino? i?aa ? naiaiae iniae,
aa?aio?yie i?e?aaoii? aeaniino?, iiae?eo aeaaee. A?i aeiee o Cao?aei?e
?a?ii? a e?ioe? XVIII – ia ii/aoeo XIX no. ? c?aco ae noaa i?ia?aeiith
?aeaieia??th eai?oae?n?oe/iiai noni?euenoaa, ui oaeaeei ?icaeaaeiny, ?
aei oeueiai /ano aecia/a? noo?i?noue iie?oe/ieo nenoai ia?aaeiaeo e?a?i
na?oo.

Neeaaei?oa c oe?a?inueeei oa ?in?enueeei e?aa?ae?ciii. A?i aeiee
aian?e?aeie noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa iie?oe/ii? e?ece, yea caaino?eeany
a 40-50-o? ??. XIX no. ? noaea, ia?o ca ana, a?aeiia?aeaeth ia /eneaii?
ieoaiiy i?i iiooe aaeoi?a iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo. Iacaaaeath/e ia
oioiaei?noue eiai no?o? ?c noooth cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai e?aa?ae?cio, o
iueiai ia aoei oeo aee?ai?eeo ei?ai?a, ye? aoee o inoaiiueiai. E??i
oiai, naia iie?oe/ia nenoaia ?i?n?enueei? ?iia???, ui nie?aeanue ia
e??iaoeoai, ua a?eueoa noia?a/eea ca?naaeie/ei i?eioeeiai e?aa?ae?cio,
i?ae cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? aea?aeaae na?aae?iueia?//y.

?ioa aeiey o no/aniiai e?aa?ae?cio, yeee iaaiith i??ith aecia/a?
i?i?oean oi?ioaaiiy eiioeaioe?? ?aoi?i, aeeoo?ai iaiao?aeieo aeey
oe?a?inue?ei? aea?aeaae. A oeueiio ca’yceo iniaeeao oe?ii?noue ?
aaaeeea?noue i?aaenoaaey? oai??/?noue ?aeaieia?a oe?a?inueeiai oa
?in?enueeiai e?aa?ae?cio – I.Einoi?ia?iaa, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
O.A?aiianueeiai, E.Eaaae?ia, A.*e/a??ia, aac a?a?oo?aaiiy niaaeueie yeeo
ia iiaeia inieneeoe ?noi?e/io ?ieue e?aa?ae?cio. Cia/iee ?ioa?an iathoue
iaoeia? caeiaooee A.I.*e/a??ia, aeineoue iaia?an?/?iiai i?aaenoaaieea
noni?eueii? aeoiee, yeee aeea o 1828-1904 ??. ? ?acii c? nai??i a/eoaeai
E.Ae.Eaaae?iei caeeaa ooiaeaiaio e?aa?aeueii? i?ia?aie ia??aoai?aiiy
?in??. Iaeiae e?aa?aee ia io?eiaee a noni?euenoa? a?ae/ooii?
i?ae?o?eiee, iaa?oue ye ?aaeeeaeuei? aeaiie?aoe, ? ia ciaeoee ?icoi?iiy
a eii?na?aaoeaieo eieao, oiio ?o iiaeyaee caeeoeeenue iacao?aaoaaieie
aei ?a?aiethoe?? 1917 ?., a iaaeoi i?ney ia?, ine?eueee i?aeoe/ii a on?o
ioieoao ?ic?oi?aeeeenue c ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeith ?aeaieia?/iith
aeieo?eiith.

“?noi??ia?ao?/ia aeiey” *e/a??ia aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oie aea aeniiaie ?
i?i iueiai, ai oi/a eiai iniaeno?noue ? na?oiaeyae a iaooe?
caoi?eoaaeenue aei?neoue /anoi, aea i? aei ?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?., i? i?ney
ia? i?i iueiai ia aoei noai??aii aeiaeiiai nenoaiaoe/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aoiaoth/e eiai e?aa?aeuei? oii?aei?aaiiy ? aei?noeo
e?eoeeo ia?enecio e nioe?ae?cio, ?aaeyinueea ?noi?e/?ia iaoea, aeanii
eaaeo/e, na?eicii ia aea/aea eiai iiaeyaee, a eiai i?aoe? oae ? ia
ia?aaeaeaaaeeny, e??i aeayeeo ioae?oeenoe/ieo noaoae ? niiaaae?a,
/i?oe?e oiie yeeo aoee iaae?oeiaai? a 30-o? ??. Eiai iiaeyaee
o?aeooaaeeny a aeo?n? ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeiai noaaeaiiy, oiio, oi/
i?i *e/a??ia iaie?naii aeineoue aaaaoi, oa aea/aiiy eiai
?ioaeaeooaeueii? niaaeueie ia ao?a?oeei oe?iiino? aeey no/anii? iaoee,
yea o?eueee ?icii/eia? aeaoaeueiee aiae?c aa?aa?oiai iioaioe?aeo
e?aa?aeueii? ?aeaieia??, nai???aei?noue yei? ia eeoa a i?i?ii?iiaai?e
iath iiaeae? noni?eueiiai ono?ith, aea ? a niiniaao ?? ao?eaiiy a
aeeooy. Iiaeia neacaoe, ui e?aa?ae?ci oea niaoeeo?/ia “aoeea
eiii?ii??no”, yea ii?aeio? “iiaaao aei ieioeiai c aioiai?noth aei
iiiaeai?iy” A.I.*e?/a??i, iiaeeeai iaea?eueoa aeneiaea naia oeth
iniaeea?noue e?aa?a?e?cio.

Aeineoue aaeeea ? ??ciiiai?oia ?noi??ia?ao?y cacia/aii? oaie.
O?iii?ei?a?/ii ?? aa?oi ?iciiae?eeoe ia aeae?eueea ia??iae?a. Aei
ia?oiai a?aeiineoueny any aei?aaiethoe?eia e?oa?aoo?a, yea a naith /a?ao
?iciaaea?oueny ia ieceo ia?i?yie?a: eiina?aaoeaiee,
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/iee, ?aaeeeaeueii-aeaii?e?a?oe/?iee oa
ia?enenonueeee.

I?aaenoaaieee ia?oiai, cie?aia, I.I.Iiaiae?i, I.A.Ono?yeia, I.I.Ei?o
noaaeeenue aei i?aoeue *e/a??ia iaaaoeaii. Oae, Iiaiae?i ia iiae??eya
eiai iiaeyae?a ia aeai?yinueea ? naeyinueea ieoaiiy, e?aa?aeuei? i?iaeoe
?a?oi?i, e?eoeeoaaa eiai iiceoe?th ye cao?aeieea, noaa?aeaeoth/e, ui
?noi??y ?i?n?? ? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i a?aei?ii?.

E?eoeeoaaee iiaeyaee *e/a??ia ? ?aaeeeaeuei? aeaiie?aoe – I.?.Aa?oeai,
I.I.Aeia??iethaia, I.A.*a?ieoaanueeee oa ?i. *a?ieoaanueeee, iai?eeeaae,
?a?oaeueii aeine?aeea aeaye? i?aoe? ieneeoaey. Oiio a?i aecia/ea eiio
iaeia c ia??aaeiaeo i?noeue ? a iaooe?, ? a ioae?oeenoeoe?, i?ioa ia
iiaiaeaeoaaany c aea?yeeie aeniiaeaie *e/a??ia.

A?eueo aeecueeee *e/a??i c ?aeaieia?/ieo i??eoaaiue i?aaenoaaieeai
ao??aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai oaai?o – O.I.A?aiianueeiio, N.I. ?
A.N.Niei?aei?aei, E.Ae.Eaaae?io, A.I.Eeth/aanueeiio, I.?.Iiaai?iaeoeaao,
I.I.I?eth?ei?ao, I.I.Iaaeiao-N?eueaainueeiio. Aei oeueiai ae iai?yieo
iiaeia a?aeianoe ? E.I.Aanooaeaaa-?thi?ia, yeee caeeaeoaaany c
e?aa?aeueieie ?noi?eeaie. A?i a oe?eiio i?aeo?eioaaa aeniiaee *e/a??ia,
aea ?iaea eiio nooo?a? caoaa?aeaiiy. Iiceoeaii ni?eeiaa ?aea? *e/a??ia ?
A.I.Eeth/aanueeee. I.I.Eiy?eiae/, iaaiaee, *e/a??ia e?eoeeoaaa.
E.Ae.Eaaae?i, N.I.Nieiaeia, I.I.Iaaeia-N?eueaainueeee i?aeaeaee noii?ao
aeaye? aniaeoe ?noi?e/ieo iia?eyae?a ieneeoaey. Cie?aia eiai oyaeaiiy
uiaei aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ia?ue?ie.

sseui i?aaenoaaieee oeueiai iai?yieo cina?aaeeee naith oaaao ia
iao?eia?e niaaeuei? *e/a??ia, oi ia?enenonuee? ?noi?eee (I.?.C?aa?,
I.No?oaa, E.Eeaeiai?o oa ?i.) aeaaaee ioe?iee caaaeii eiai iie?oe/i?e
ieaooi?i?, ia?iaaath/enue ?aeaeii ?? ?ica?iieoe.

Oaeei /eiii, aei ?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?. i?aoe? *e/a??ia iaiaeii?aciai
noa?aaee i?aaeiaoii aiae?co, i?ioa, e??i noaoae a aioeeeeiiaaee/ieo
neia?ieeao, aeiaeii? ?iaioe, i?enay/aii? eiiieaeniiio aea/aiith eiai
iiaeyae?a oae ? ia c’yaeeiny. Aeiaee c iiey ci?o a/aieo oeueiai ia??iaeo
o?einionuee? iia?eyaee *e/a??ia.

Ianooiiee ia??iae ioiieth? /an c 1917 – ii/aoie 30-o ??. A oiiaao
?a?ai?ethoe??, a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie oa aoae?aieoeoaa nioe?ae?cio
?ioa?an aei oai??/ino? *e/a??ia cia/ii cieceany, ine?eueee eiai
e?aa?ae?ci ? e?eoeea nioe?ae?cio ia ciaoiaeeea ?icoi?iiy o ?noi?ee?a
iiai? oi?iaoe??. Cae??ieaia o i?aoeyo A.A.Ieaoaiiaa ? iniaeeai
A.?.Eai?ia iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei e?aa?ae?cio, a oeae ia??iae noa?
aieiaiei e?eoa???i aiae?co ? ioe?iee oai?/ino? ?aeaieia?a ?in?enueeiai
oa oe?a?inueeiai e?aa?ae?cio. Aiaeii/an ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui oey
ioe?iea aoea a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iaa’ycaia ?aaeyinueeei ?noi?eeai,
/a?ac ui aiie ia??aeei iiieeyeenue, i?aaio/e i?ae?aiaoe nai? aeniiaee
i?ae oaaeiie “eeanee?a ia?enecio-eai?i?cio”.

Iniaeeai aeae?ey?oueny a oeae ia??iae a?aeiiee ?aaeyinueeee ?noi?ee
I.I.Iie?ianueeee, yeee aeaa a nai?o ?iaioao iaeyae o?einionueeeo oa
?noi??e/ieo iiaeyae?a *e/a??ia, aeo/ii aeacaaoe ia oa, ui iaei??th c
aaae /e/a???inueei? eiioeaioe?? aoea iaaei??ii aeniea ?ieue aea?aeaae.
Iaeiae, aenooia?th/e c eeaniaeo iiceoe?e, Iie?ianueeee iiieeyany,
noaa?aeaeoth/e, ui *e/a???i ia?ae?o/oaaa ?noi??th ca?aaee nai?o
oai?aoe/ieo aeniiae?a ? e?aa?aeueii? i?ia?aie.

A?eueo a?oioiaia oa?aeoa?enoeea *e/a??ia i?noeoueny a i?aoeyo
aein?e?ae?iee?a na?aaeeie 30 – ii/aoeo 60-o ??. Ia?o ca ana ne?ae
aeae?eeoe a/aieo, ye? ai?a?oaaee ca ei?aeii Ae.?.*eaeaanueeiai,
A.A.Caiueeianueeiai, I.I.Einue?ei?ai, I.I.Aa?aey?aa, ye? i?eae?eyee
a?eueoa oaaae o?einio?? *e/a??ia, aea?co?th/e ia iniaeea?noue eiai
aaaaeueyinoaa.

A?eueo aeieeaaeiee aiae?c iiaeyae?a *e/a??ia aeaee I.E.?oa?iooaei,
A.?.?eea?eoeueeee, I.E.Oai??i, A.?.Aaaeoeueeee, A.?.Anoaoia,
I.A.Neaaeea?ae/ oa ?i. Aiie aea/aee ?noi?e/i? ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?
iiaeyaee A.I.*e?/a???ia, oi/a ? ?o i?aoe? ia iaee ocaaaeueithth/iai
oa?aeoa?o oa, ia aeaeue, ii?cia/aeeny oei aea iaaaoeaiei noaaeaiiyi aei
eiai e?aa?aeueieo ?aeaae?a. A?eueo?noue ?noi??ia?ao?a caeiaeeny eeoa
oeie eiai iiaeyaeaie, ye? eyaee a iniiao “aea?aeaaii? oeiee”, aeaui
iia?aeii coieiyth/enue ia ?ioeo ia?a?eiiaiiyo *e/a??ia.

A oeae aea /an ii/eia? aea/aoeny iie?oeei-aeiiii?/ia oai??y *e/a???ia,
yeo ?aoaeueii aeine?aeea I.I.Oeaaieia, oi/a e a?i ia coi?a iiaeieaoe
iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei e?aa?ae?cio, ui iii?oii cieaeo? oe?ii?noue
oeueiai aei?neoue a?oioiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ie??i oiai, ia?aaaaeii
caaooith caeeoe?eanue oai??y aeaniino? ieneeoaey. I?aeaeuo?oueny ?ioa?an
? aei o?einio?? *e?/a???ia, iniaeeai aei i?iaeaie ni?eueiiai ?
iniaeeaiai i?ae iath ? aaaae?anueeith nenoaiith (A.A.Iae?i?i,
A.A.Aaeaeo?iiia, I.O.I?eaiae?ia oa ?i.). Iaeiae iacaai? aaoi?e, c
aeayeeie canoa?aaeaiiyie, a?aeiiaeyee *e/a???io a naiino?eiino? ye
o?einioo ? canoaeaeoaaee ca oa, ui a?i a?aeeeaeaa ?a?ai?ethoe?eiee a?e
aaaae?anueei? ae?aeaeoeee.

Ioaea oa?aeoa?iith ?enith oeueiai ia??iaeo ? iaaeoi aeniea nooi?iue
ca?aeaieia?ciaaiino?, ui ni?e/eieeiny aei iani?aaaaeeeaeo ioe?iie, ye?
aeaaa?eeny *e/a??io oa aaaaoueii eiai no/anieeai. Aei oiai ae, oea noaei
iaei??th c i?e?/ei ?aii?oaaiiy /e/a??inueeeo iiaeyae?a, oa e naia ?i’y
eiai caaaeoaa?einue eeoa oiae?, eiee ia caaaeaoe eiai aoei iaiiaeeeai.

Ia??iae c 60 aei e?ioey 80-o ??. iicia/aiee aeayeeie ciaioaiiyie
?aea?i?ei?a?/iiai oeneo ia iaoeo, ui a?aeaeeiny oaeiae ia i?aeaeuaii?
?ioa?ano aei *e/a??ia, eiai iiaeyae?a e ia a?eueo?e ia’?eoeaiino?
iaoeiaeo aeniiae?a.

C?inea e?euee?noue ? ye?noue i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo o?einio?? *e/a??ia
(A.O.An?ion, E.A.Eiaai, I.A.Ieaoiiiaa, ?.ss.U?iaiia oa ?i.), aiia
ioe?ith??oueny a?eueo ia’?eoeaii, aeine?aeaeo?oueny ca’ycie eiai
o?einio?? ? nioe?ieia??, “aaaaeueyinoai”, uii?aaaea ocaaaeueithth/eo
i?aoeue ia c’yaeeiny.

A?eueo aeieeaaeii ?icaeyaeathoueny oaeiae ?noi?e/i? iiaeyaee *e/a??ia:
N.I.Eaooaiia, A.A.E?caeueooaei, I.A.Caeii/eianueeee, E.A.Caoa?iaa,
A.A.Ee?oa?a, I.I.Oeaiooae?, O.I.Eaa?i oa ?i.). N.I.Eaooaiia,
I.A.Caeii?/?eianueeee, E.A.Caoa?iaa, iai?eeeaae, aena?oethaaee ieoaiiy,
iia’ycai? c eiie?aoieie i?iaeaiaie ?icaeoeo ?in?? a ioe?ioe? *e/a??ia.
I.I.Oeaiooae?, O.I.Eaa?i oa ?.A.Ii?io – aca?iia?aeiineie ieneeoaey c
i?aaenoaaieeaie noni?eueiiai ?ooo na?aaeeie ? ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no.
Oae, ?.A.Ii?io aea?/aa iieai?eo *e/a??ia c Aa?oeaiii, ?icaeyaeath/e
oaeiae iiceoe?th *a?ie?oaanueeiai, yeee e?eoeeoaaa, aei ?a/? ? Aa?oeaia
ii ?yaeo ieoaiue.

*eiaei oe?iiiai i?noeoue ?iaioa A.A.Eeoa?aa, yea yaey? niaith, ia?aooue
ia?oee nenoaiaoe/iee ia?en ?noi??? e?aa?aeueii? aeoiee a ?in??. ?acii c
oei, iaeaea an? aeine?aeieee, ye ? ?ai?oa, ia i?eae?eyee aeinoaoiuei?
oaaae ia??a?ioe?ioe? onoaeaieo i?aeoiae?a aei /e/a??inueei? niaaeueie.

Ie?aii ne?ae aeae?eeoe I.I.??ea?ia, ia?oiai ?c ?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?e?e?a,
yeee iaea?eueo nenoaiaoe/ii aeine?aeea i?iaeaie “aea?aeaaii? oeiee”, a
oaeiae c?iaea ni?iao ii iiaiio ioe?ieoe /e/a??inuee?
o?einionueei-?noi?e/?i? iiaeyaee, ye? aei iueiai iaeaea ia aea/aeeny.

?yae aeine?aeiee?a (A.A.Eociaoeia, A.N.Ia?nanyioe, A.Ae.Ci?uee?i oa ?i.)
ci?na?aaeeeenue ia aea/aii? i?aaiaeo iiaeyae?a ieneeoaey, a?aecia/ath/e
?o o?niee ca’ycie c o?einionueeeie, ?noi?e/ieie ? iie?oe/ieie.
C’yaey?oueny ia?aoo? ia?oa (? iiee ui ?aeeia) iiiia?ao?y i?i *e/a??ia,
iaienaia A.Ae.Ci?ue?e?iei. Ao?i, aaoi? ia noaaea ia?aae niaith iaoo
?ice?eoe aanue niaeo? ?aeae ieneeoaey.

Oaeei /eiii, a ?noi??ia?ao?? oeueiai ia??iaeo ia aoei e?ea?aeiaaii an?
ea?eo?ie a aeine?aeaeaii? iaoi? i?iaeaie, iaaaaaoi c?iaeaii ? a
?noi??ia?ao?? e?i?oey 80-90-o ??. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a inoaii? ?iee
ci?ith?oueny ?aeo?n i?ae?oiaeo aei /e/a??inueeiai na?oiaeyaeo oa
e?aa?ae?cio a oe?eiio, i?ioa iaae???oaieo ieoaiue ua aaaaoi.

Iaeyae iayaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aianie *e/a???ia
a iaoeo aei oeueiai /ano aea/aiee ua iaaeinoaoiuei. I?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?
ocaaaeueithth/? aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai i?aoeue ye i?iya?a e?aa?aeueii?
noni?eueii-iaoeiai? aeoiee, ie ia ia?ii aeieeaaeii? a?ia?ao?? *e/a??ia,
aea a aeaaaeiny oyaeaiiy i?i aaiethoe?th eiai iiaeyae?a, oa ?o
cia/ei?noue aeey no/anii? ?noi??e/ii? ? iie?oe/ii? iaoee. Ia aecia/aia
?ieue *e/a??ia ye i?ia?aeiiai ?aea?ieiaa ?in?enueeiai e?aa?ae?cio a
noni?eueiiio aeeoo? ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX – ii/aoeo OO no.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeeooy ? na?oiaeyae A.I.*e/a??ia ye
aeaeao?iiai i?aaenoaaieea e?aa?aeueii? oa/?? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee ?in??.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy – eiai ?noi?e/i? oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?
iia?eyaee. Iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii o?einionueei-?noi?e/i?e eiioeaioe??
ien?eeoaey, i?iaeaiai ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae, oai???
aca??ii?a?ae?iinei iniae, noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae, aeaaee ? aea?aeaae,
nioe?aeueii? ooie?oe?? aeaniino?.

Iaoith ?iaioe ia?aia ?aeiino?oeoe?y ?noi?e/ieo oa
noni?eueii-iie??oe/?ieo iiaeyae?a *e/a??ia a eiioaeno? eiai aeeoo?aiai
oa oai?/iai oeyoo, aecia/aiiy eiai i?noey a noni?eueiiio aeeoo?,
?noi?e/i?e, o?einionuee?e ? ii?e?oe/i?e iaooe? ?in??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aaoi? aecia/ea oae? caaaeaiiy:

1) i?iaiae?coaaoe aeeoo?aee ? oai?/ee oeyo ieneeoaey a eiioaen?o?
oi?ioaaiiy eiai iiaeyae?a ia i?iaeaie ?noi?e/iiai ?
noni?eueii-iie??oe/?iiai ?icaeoeo ?in??;

2) ?ice?eoe oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee iiaeyae?a ieneeoaey, a
oaeiae iniaeeaino? eiai o?einionueei-?noi?e/ii? eiioeaioe??;

3) c’ynoaaoe iniiai? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie, ui ?o aeei?enoi?aoaaa
*e/a??i i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ?in?? oa ?ioeo e?a?i;

4) aea/eoe canaaeie/? iieiaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? oai??? *e/a??ia oa ??
inia?eeaino?;

5) aeoiaey/e c onoaeaieo ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo oyaeaiue i?i iniaeeao
/e/a??inueeo oai??th aea?aeaae, i?iaiae?coaaoe eiai iiaeyaee c oe???
i?iaea?ie, oa ?o i?noea a eiai iaoeiaiio na?oiaeyae?;

6) ?ice?eoe noaaeaiiy *e/a??ia aei aeooaeueieo i?iaeai ?icaeoeo ?in??,
cie?aia e??iaoeoao, oa?aeoa?o aeaniino? ? nenoaie noni?eueieo
a?ae?iinei, iia’ycaieo c iath.

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o iiaoaiiiio aea/aii?
?ioaeae?ooaeueii? niaaeueie *e/a??ia, oiio ui inyaoe nooi?noue eiai
iiaeyae?a iiae?eeai eeoa o an?e ?? ??ciiiai?oiino? ? /aniaiio
?icai?oaii?, iai’yoath/e aiaeii/an i?i niaoeeo?eo eiai oa?i?iieia??, ui
ciooo? aaoi?a /anoi aaea?aaoeny aei aea/aiiy caaaeueiiai e iniaeeaiai o
iiaeyaeao *e/a??ia ? eiai iiia?aaeiee?a oa no/aniee?a. Aeey oeueiai
canoiniaoaaany ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/?iee, oa ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiee iaoiaee,
iniaeeai i?e ?ice?eoo? eiai non?i?eue?ii-iie?oe/ieo ?aeae. Ie??i oiai,
i?e aeine?aeaeaii? aaiethoe?? eiai iiaey?ae?a oa a?aeoai?aiiy a?ia?ao??
aeei?enoiaoaaany ?noi?eei-o?iiieia?/iee ia?oiae.

Ia iaoiaeieia?/i? i???ioe?e aena?oeaiiy ?noi?eei-o?einionueei?
eii?oeai?oe?? *e/a??ia aieeioee oai?aoe/i? i?eioeeie, cai?iiiiiaai? a
i?aoeyo A.O.Aniona, A.Ae.Ci?uee?ia, I.I.??ea?ia oa ?i.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeeth/a? a naaa oai?e ye naiiai *e/a??ia, oae ? eiai
no?/aniee?a, a oaeiae a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe. An? aeaea?aea
i?ae?icae?eythoueny ia aea? a?oie: a?o?ai? oa iioae?eiaai?. Aei a?o?aieo
iaeaaeaoue, ia?o ca ana, /a??iaoee eiai niiaaae?a, iai?eeeaae ia?o?
aeaae, ye? ia oa?eoee o aeaeai? a 1930-o? ??. “Ainiiieiaiey”, a oaeiae
ai?noiey???.

Iioae?eiaai? aeaea?aea, a naith /a?ao, iiae?eythoueny ia aeaa
??ciiaeaee: oai??e *e/a??ia ? i?aoe? eiai no/aniee?a, ye? aai ni?aaeee
aieea ia eiai ?iaioe, aai nai? a?ae/oee aieea eiai ?aeae. Aei ia?oeo
iaeaaeaoue i?aoe? O.I.A?aiianueeiai, E.Ae.Eaaae?ia, N.I.Nieiaeiaa, a aei
ae?oaeo – A.I.Eeth?/aanueeiai, I.?.Iiaai?iaeoeaaa,
I.I.Iaaeiaa-N?eueaainueeiai, A.N.Nieiaeiaa oa ?i.

Oai?e ae *e/a??ia oiiaii iiaeia ?iciiae?eeoe ia aeae?eueea a?oi:

 o?einionuee?: “Iaoea e ?aeeaey”, “Iniiaaiey eiaeee e iaoaoe?ceee”,
“Iieiaeeoaeueiay oeeinioey e aaeeinoai iaoee” oa ?i.;

 ?noi?e/i?: “Iaeanoiua o/?aaeaeaiey ?innee a XVII aaea”, “Iiu?ou ii
enoi?ee ?onneiai i?aaa” oa ?i.;

 iie?oeei-nioe?ieia?/i?: “Eo?n ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoee”, “Enoi??ey
iieeoe/aneeo o/aiee”, “Nianoaaiiinoue e ainoaea?noai”, “Oeeinioey
i?a?aa”, “I ia?iaeiii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa” oa ?i.;

 ioae?oeenoeea (noaoo? a “Eieieiea”, “Aieinao ec ?innee”, “Aoaiaa”,
“?onneii aanoieea” oa ?ioeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo oiai /ano);

 iaioa?e ? eenooaaiiy.

Cacia/eii, ui o *e/a??ia nooi o?einionueeeo, ?noi?e/ieo ? o.i. ?ia?o
ia?ia? ? /anoi o? aai ?io? iiaeyaee ieneeoaey aeeeaaeathoueny a ??cieo
ii aeai??o ? oa?aeoa?o i?aoeyo, ui iaoiiaeth? aeayeo iniaeea?noue
aeae?eaieo a?oi.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui, ii-ia?oa, aiia ?
ia??oei aa??aioii ocaaaeueithth/iai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ia?ao?? oa
iiaeyae?a *e/a???ia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ia??iaeecaoe??th, aeeeaaeaiith a
ia?o?e aeaa?. Ii-ae?oaa, i?e aiae?c? ?noi?e/ieo iiaeyae?a ieneeoaey
aaoi? caa?oa? oaaao ia o?eueee ia iniaeeaino? /e/a??inueeiai
ae?aeaeoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?noi?e/?iiai i?ioeano, a iaaeoi
oa?i?iieia?th *e/a??ia, cie?aia, ia iniaeeaee niene, ui aeeaaea?oueny
iei a iiiyooy “a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai”, a oaeiae ia oie oaeo, ui a
eiai eiioeaioe?? aieiaiei oai?oeai ?noi??? iaieioo?oueny ia aea?aeaaa,
ye noaa?aeaeoaaee aeaye? a/ai?, a “o?yaeiaa ia/aei”.

Ii-o?ao?, i?e aeine?aeaeaii? iiaeyae?a *e/a??ia noaaeeanue iaoa aeaoe ?i
ii iiaeeeaino? iiao ioe?ieo o a?aeiia?aeiino? c no/anieie oyaeaiiyie i?i
iaoeiao ia’?eoeai?noue, a oaeiae c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie oiai, /iio eiai
e?aa??aeuei? ?aea? aeyaeeenue iacao?aaoaaieie a oo aeiao.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, /a?ac i?iaeaio aeaniino? ?icaeyaea?oueny aaaeeeaa i?ia?eaia
/e/a??inueeiai na?oiaeyaeo – aca?iia?aeiineie iniae, aea?aeaae ?
non?i?eue?noaa.

Ii-i’yoa, /e ia aia?oa ?icaeyaea?oueny eiai e?eoeea nioe?ae?noe/ieo
oa?i???e ? aecia/a?oueny i?noea *e/a??ia a noni?eueiiio aeeoo? ?in??
ae?oai? ii?eiaeie XIX – ii/aoeo OO no. ? ?ieue eiai niaaeueie aeey
no/aniino?.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue aanue ia??iae aeeooy ?
oai??/i? ae?yeueiino? A.I.*e/a??ia c iiiaioo eiai anooio aei
Iineianueeiai oi??aa?neoaoo a 1844 ?. ? aei eiai nia?o? a 1904 ?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoai?iy ??
iaoa??aeo oa aeniiae?a i?e noai?aii? niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue c ?noi???,
o?einio??, iie?oeee oa i?aaa. E??i oiai, aena?oethth/e iiaeyaee
ieneeoaey, iaieio/a aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue ni?anoaaeaiiy eiai
“no?aoaa??” ? “oaeoeee”, aea/aiiy aca?iia?aeiinei c i?aaenoaaieeaie
??cieo noni?eueieo ? aeaaea?i?/ieo e?e, a /iio aeena?oaoe?y oaeiae iiaea
aooe i?e iaaiae?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
aee?na?oaoe?? aoee ai?iaiaai? ia anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
“OO noi?e?ooy – noie?ooy ?aaiethoe?e”, yea i?ioiaeeea ia aac? eaoaae?e
oe?a?ii?ciaa?noaa ? iie?oieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? A??ie/i? Aeaaeai??
Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae ia i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo AeAeO ?
/ioe?ueio ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a.

?iaioa iaaiai?thaaeanue ia eaoaae?? ?noi??ia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? io?eiaea iiceoeaio
ioe?i?eo.

NO?OEOO?A ? INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe??

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? i?aeii?yaeeiaaia iao? ? caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa iia’ycaia c iaiao?aei?noth iine?aeiaiiai aea/aiiy na?oiaeyaeo
*e/a??ia. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio aeaa, aeniiae?a oa
nieneo aeei??enoaieo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e.

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ? iaoeiaa iiaecia oaie ? i?ia?eaie
aeena?oaoe??, ?ice?eoa iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai
iaoiaeieia?y, o?i?ii?eia?/i? iaae?, i?iaaaeaiee iaeyae aeaea?ae oa
?noi??ia?ao??.

A ia?o?e aeaa? – “AEeoo?aee ? oai?/ee oeyo A.I.*e/a??ia” –
i?inoa?aeo??oueny oi?ioaaiiy e aaiethoe?y na?oiaeyaeo, iaoeiaa ?
a?iiaaenueea ae?yeue?i?noue ieneeoaey. Aeine?aeaeoth/e a?ia?ao?th
*e/a??ia, aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo i?i iaaei?a/i?noue iiae?eo eiai
a?ia?ao?? ia o?e ia??iaeo (1828-1861; 1861-1864; 1864-1904), ye?
cai?iiiiiaai? oii?yaeieeaie aioeeeeiiaaee/iiai neiaieea A?aiao (aei
?a/?, oea ?aeeia ia??iaeecaoe?y, yeo iai aaeaeiny a?aeoo?eaoe) ? aaaaea?
aeioe?eueiei ?iciiae?eeoe eiai aeeoo?aee oeyo ia /ioe?e ia??iaeo
(1828-1849; 1849-1869; 1869-1883; 1883-1904). O a?aeiia?aeiino? c oe??th
ia???iaeecaoe??th aena?oethaaeanue eiai a?ia?ao?y, ui aeaei i?aenoaae
c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iiae??, ye? noaeeny ai?iaeiaae eiaeiiai
aoaio iaeeaaeaee niaoeeo?/iee a?aeaeoie ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? ? iiaeyae?a ien?eeoaey.

Oeae i?ioean ?icii/aany ua a aeeoy/? ?iee i?ae aieeaii aaouee?a oa ?o
ioi?/aiiy, ye? iiaeaeoaee a?eueoa i?ae iaa?oue nenoaiaoe/ia ina?oa
i?iaoae?aeoaaee a ae?oyo ?ioa?an aei ioi/oth/iai na?oo ? i?iaeai, ui
oaeethaaee non?i?euenoai. A oeueiio ?yaeo aa?oi iacaaoe ? aeooiaio
aoiinoa?o Iineianueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ia th?eaee/iiio oaeoeueoao? yeiai
a oie /an, a ia??iae ?iciaeo iieai?ee i?ae cao?aeieeaie ? neia’yiio?eaie
neiioeaio?oaaeenue i?ioani?e i?icao?aeii? i???ioaoe??, ia?aeiiaiiy yeeo
canai?a ? *e/a??i. Ooo aea a?i ca?oi?ieany aaaae?anueeith o?einio??th,
yea aecia/eea iniaeeaino? eiai o?ei?nionueei? e ?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/ii?
eiioeaioe??.

Iiae?? ii/aoeo iaoeiai?, ioae?oeenoe/ii? ? aeeeaaeaoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
noo?o?ai aieeioee ia ooaa?aeaeaiiy ieneeoaey ia iiceoe?yo iii??eiaaiiai
e?aa?ae?cio. *eiaeo ?ieue ooo a?ae?a?aea ? iieai?ea *e/a??ia c
Aa?oeaiii.

O?ae noni?eueiiai aeeooy i?ae /an o?aoueiai (1869-1883) ia??iaeo
ia?a?eiiaee eiai a iaiao?aeiino? iaiaaeaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa
eiinoeoooe??th caae?ey oieeiaiiy ?aaiethoe?eiiai aeaooo. Inoaiith e?aieo
a oeueiio ia?aei?iaii? iinoaaeea eiai a?aenoaaea a 1883 ?. c iinaaee
Iineianueeiai i?nueeiai ai?eiae i?ae oeneii Ieaenaiae?a III.

AEeoo?aee ? oai?/ee oeyo ieneeoaey ia i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeniiaeo oeo
aein?e?aeiee?a (iai?eeeaae I.?.Iiaai?iaeoeaaa), ye? iaceaathoue
e?aa?ae?ci *e?/a???ia “io?aieoaeueiui”, iineeath/enue ia oa, ui a?i nai
eiai oae iaceaaa. Iiaeeeai, aiie iaaeinoaoiuei a?aoiaothoue niaoeeo?/iee
oa?aeoa? oa?i?ii?eia?? ieneeoaey. Ia iaoo aeoieo, a?eueo i?eeiyoiei ?
oa?i?i “iii??ei?aaiee e?aa?ae?ci”, yeee a e?ioe? aeeooy ieneeoaey, ye
aeo/ii caoaaaeea I.?.Iia?ai?iaeoeaa, ia?aoai?eany ia iiiceoe?eiee
e?aa?ae?ci.

Na?aae i?e/ei, ye? i?eaaee aei aeayei? ?cieueiaaiino? *e/a??ia, aa?oi
iacaaoe, ianaiia?aae, nai???aeio “caaeao?noue” e?aa?aeueii? ?aeaieia??
i?ae eii?na?aaoeaiei oa ?aaeeeaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iei oaai?aie, ye?, oae
ae iiaeoe, aeaeee o e?aa?ae?a “nioe?aeueiee a?oio” c-i?ae i?a. E??i
oiai, o?yae ia i?e?ioneaa iaa?oue aeoiee i?i iiaeeea?noue iie?oe/ieo
?aoi?i, ia iaa?aeai?io?iino? yeeo iaiieyaaa e?aa?ae. Ona oea, a oaeiae
neeaaei?noue ? noia?a/eea?noue naii? iniaenoino? ieneeoaey ni?e/eieeiny
aei oiai, ui eiai ?aea? aoee ia?ca?o?aaoaaieie, oi/, i/aaeaeii, *e/a??i
ana ae oaee ni?aaea iaaiee aieea ia noni?euenoai ?, aacia?a/ii, caeiya a
iaooe? iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue.

A ae?oa?e aeaa? – “O?einionuee? ? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeiea?/i? iniiae
na??oia?eyaeo A.I.*e/a??ia” – ?icaeyaea?oueny o?einionueei-?noi?e/ia
eiioeaioe?y *e?/a??ia, aeaui ?iaeoa i?ae a ?nioth/?e e?oa?aoo??
ioe?ith?oueny eiai aaaaeue?yinoai ? ae?aeaeoeea, aea/athoueny iniiai?
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie /e/a???inueeiai oyaeaiiy i?i ?icaeoie
anana?oiuei-?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano. I?iaa?aea?iee aiae?c an?o oeeo i?iaeai
aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui nenoaia ?in?e?nueeiai o?einioa a oe?eiio
ia? naiino?eiee oa?aeoa?, oi/ aeayeith i??ith e nie?a?oueny ia
iieiaeaiiy o?einio?? Aaaaey ? iiaea aooe oe?eeii aecia/aia, ye
“nenoaiinoai?thth/a ieneaiiy”, ai iioya aei nenoaie, ia iaoo aeoieo, aoa
a iueiai oaeei aaeeeei, ui /anoi noaaaa i?e/eiith eiai iiieeie.

Cia/io oaaao i?eae?eaii /e/a??inuee?e noai? aoai?a ?icaeoeo o?eini?o?? ?
?ae?a?? oa caeiiii??iino? ? ae?aeaeoeoe? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa,
ye? iathoue a?aei?iiino? a?ae aaaae?anueei? noaie.

I/aaeaeii oa, ui caa?iaiiy aei o?einio?? ?noi??? aeey iueiai ye aeey
ia?aeiiaiiai i?eoeeueieea ?aoi?i, aoei iaeiei ?c cania?a iaa?oiooaaiiy
e?aa?aeueii? i?ia?aie ia?aoai?aiue, ine?eueee eiai oe?eaaea ia no?eueee
nai ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa, ne?eueee niin?a ? oa?aeoa? oeueiai ?icaeoeo,
ia?aaeon?i o ia?ao?aei? aiioe.

Iaiaeiaaaeia cia/aiiy ia? i?iaeaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ii?ae? ? i?aaa,
iai??eiaoth/e yeo, *e/a??i i?eeoia aei ni?aaaaeeeai? aeoiee i?i oa, ui
i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy ii?ae? (oea a?aenoithaaa A.N.Nieiaeia) iiaea
i?ec?aanoe aei i?/ei ia iaiaaeaii? aeeeoaoo?e.

Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui aea/aiiy ?noi?eei-o?einionueei? eiioeaioe??
*e/a??ia a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?icoi?ii? oeo niinia?a ? iaoiae?a, c
yee?ie *e/a??i i?aeoiaeea aei i?iaeaie ?noi?e/iiai ?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?ic?aeoeo, i?iaeai aca?iiae?? i?aa iniae,
aea?aeaae ? noni?euenoaa, e?eoeee nioe?ae?noe/ieo oai??e.

A o?ao?e aeaa? – “?aeaei? ? eiie?aoii-?noi?e/i? oyaeaiiy *e/a??ia i?i
?i?n?enueeee ?noi?e/iee i?ioean” – eaeaoueny i?i i?iaeaie ?in?enueeiai
?noi??e/?iiai ?icaeoeo a nenoai? iiaeyae?a *e/a??ia. I?e oeueiio
a?aecia/aii oie oaeo, ui aaeeea cia/aiiy a?i iaaeaaaa i?e?iaeiiio ?
aaia?ao?/iiio oaeoi??ai o oi?ioaaii? ye ia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?o, oae ?
iniaeeainoae ?noi?e/iiai oeyoo ?in??. A?i iaaieiooaaa ia aeoaea cia/i?e
?ie? aea?aeaae a ?noi??? e?a??ie ? any eiai ?noi?e/ia eiioeaioe?y aoea
aeaoaeoaaia iaaeiei oe??? ?aea?, yea iaea aeey *e/a??ia i?eioeeiiaa
cia/aiiy. *e/a??i aaaaeaa, ui ?in?enueeee ia?iae aoa iacaeaoiei
naiino?eii aeinyaoe aea?aeaaii? ?aeiino?, a oiio ia a?ae?i??io a?ae
ia?iae?a Caoiaeo, ciooaiee aoa caa?iooeny aei aa?ya?a, ye? e noai??eee o
no?aeieo neia’yi aea?aeaaiee eaae. Oey i?aeoeea i?ieoea /a?ac anth
?noi??th ?in?enueeiai noni?euenoaa, a i?ioean? yei?, ia/aaoi aeey
noni?eueiiai aeaaa, aoee “noai?ai?” oa “iie??ia/ai?” noaie. Aea?aeaaa
ae, ia eiai ia?aei?iaiiy, noi?ioaaea e iaueio, ui iaea o?neaeueia ?
iaa?oue iie?oeaenueei-aaei?i?no??aoeaia cia/aiiy aeey noni?euenoaa.

C iaoi? oi/ee ci?o, aeaui ia oi/iith ? aeoiea aeayeeo aeine?aeiee?a
(iai??eeeaae, A.?.?eea?eoeueeiai) i?i oa, ui i?aoe? *e/a??ia noaaeee,
ia?aaeo?n?i, iaoo a?aoiaiooaaoe eiai aea?aeaaieoeueeo oai??th. Aaaea?ii,
ui ?noi?e/?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ieneeoaey i?eaaee eiai aei oi?ioaaiiy
eiioeaioe?? nioe??aeueii-iie?oe/ii? ?ie? aea?aeaae, ui ciaeoei
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a eiai iiii?a?ao?yo “Iaeanoiua o/?aaeaeaiey ?innee a XVII
aaea”, “Iiuou ii enoi?ee ?on?neiai i?aaa”, “I ia?iaeiii
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa” oa ?i. Iniaeeai aeooaeueii ia oie /an cao/aee
/e/a??inuee? aeniiaee c i?iaeai e??iaoeoaa, noai?a ? iaueie
iaia?aaeiaei? ao?aeoacieo ?aoi?i 60-70-o ??. XIX no., oiio ui aoee
iieeaaeai? a iniiao i?iaeo?a noni?eueieo ia?aoai?aiue.

Ua iaeiei aaaeeeaei iiiaioii a ?noi?e/i?e eiioeaioe?? *e/a??ia ? aeoi?ea
i?i i?eioeeiiao ?aei?noue ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ?in?? oa Cao?aeii?
?a??iie, iacaaaeath/e ia ieceo niaoeeo?/ieo ?en ?in?enueeiai ?noi?e/iiai
i?i?oeano. Oey ?aeay caeiaea a oai??? *e/a??ia oeaio?aeueia i?noea ?
aaea aei aeniia?eo i?i iaiao?aei?noue ? iiaeeea?noue ?ioaa?aoe?? ?in?? a
?a?iio. I?ioa, aeey oeuei?ai, iaaieiooaaa ieneeoaeue, iaiao?aeii
cae?enieoe aeiei??ii? ?aoi?ie ?, ia?o ca ana, neanoaaoe e??iaoeoai,
ia?aoai?eaoe naeyi ia a?eueieo caiea?aean?iee?a. Aei ?a/?, aeoiea i?i
noiae?noue ?in?? ? Caoiaeo a?ae??ciy? *e/a??ia a?ae ?ioeo i?aaenoaaiee?a
“aea?aeaaii? oeiee”, cie?aia E.Ae.Eaaae?ia.

Aiae?c aea?aeaaieoeueei? eiioeaioe?? ieneeoaey aeyaey? eiai aino?a
aa?aeaiiy ia?aeiiaoe o?yae a oiio, ui naia a?i iiaeiai noaoe ia /ie?
ia?a?oai?aiue, aeeoo?ai iaiao?aeieo aeey ?in??, ai a i?ioeeaaeiiio
aeiaaeeo ?? i/??eo? ?aaiethoe?eiee oain.

*e/a??i iaiaeii?aciai aeneiaethaaany uiaei iai?eionoeiino?
?aai?eth?oe?eiiai niiniao ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo eie?c?e a noni?euenoa?,
ai aoa ia??a?eiiaiee, ui ?aaiethoe?y iiaea eeoa a?aeeeiooe noni?euenoai
iacaae, ui ai?ia caeaoia i?eianoe eeoa a?aee, a?ae yeeo no?aaeaeaoeiooue
oaeiae ? ianooii? ii?eie?iiy. Iaeiae, *e/a??i aeciaaaa oie iacaia?a/iee
oaeo, ui ?aaiethoe??, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny a ?noi???, aoee aeeeeeai?
iacaeaoi?noth noni?euenoaa ? i?aa?ey/eo e?e ie?ii, oeea?e?ciaaii
ae??oeoe aino?? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? i?ia?eaie.

?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ieneeoaey c i?iaeai aea?aeaae, noai?a, iaue?ie,
e??iaoeoaa i?eaaee eiai aei ?ic?iaee a/aiiy i?i eiinoeoooe?eio
iiia??o?th, ye “?aeaaeueiee” iie?oe/iee eaae aeey ?in??, yae?ii yeiai ?
i?eioeeie i?a?aiai? aea?aeaae. Oea, ia iao iiaeyae, iaeei c iaea?eueo
aaaeeeaeo caeiaooe?a *e/a??ia, i?ioa aeine?aeaeaiee a?i, ia aeaeue,
iaaeinoaoiuei iiaii, ye ? i?ia?eaia aeaniino?. A iaaeao a/aiiy i?i
eiinoeoooe?eio iiia?o?th a?i aeneiaea ieceo oe?iieo aeoiie, cie?aia i?i
iaiao?aei?noue ia?eaiaioo ? iiae?eo aeaaee ia o?e a?eee: caeiiiaeaa/o,
aeeiiaa/o oa noaeiao. Oaeei /eiii, a?i noi?io?ethaaa caoiaee oaei?
iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, yea nie?a?oueny ia iaoai?ci “no?e?ioaaiue ?
i?ioeaaa”. Cacia/aia nenoaia ia? ia aae-yeo aeooaeuei?noue ? aeey
no?/anieo aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?. ?acii c oei, o?aaa
neacaoe, ui o e?ioe? XIX – ia ii/aoeo OO no. oey aeoiea iiae?eyeanue
aeaeaei ia an?ia. Oa e aeey *e/a??ia aiia aoea aeineoue iiaith ? oiio
a?i a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao i?e?ioneaa iiaeeea?noue aeayei? ia?aaaae iaei???
c a?eie aeaaee.

A /aoaa?o?e aeaa? – “Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia yae?i noni?eueii-iie?oe/?ieo
iiaeyae?a A.I.*e/a??ia” – ?icaeyaeathoueny /e/a??inuee? iiaeyaee ia
i?aaa oa naiaiaee iniae ? ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c aea?aeaaith oa
noni?euenoaii, nioe??aeue?ia ooieoe?y i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, e?eoeea c
oeeo iiceoe?e nioe?ae?noe/ieo oai??e, oiaoi o? ieoaiiy, ye? i?aeoe/ii ia
aea/aeenue a iiia?aaei?e e?oa?a?oo??.

Oeaio?aeueia i?noea a iie?oe/iiio na?oiaeyae? *e/a??ia, c iaoi? oi/ee
ci??o, iin?aeaea oai??y aeaniino?, oiio ui i?iiiiiaai? iei i?iaeoe
ia?a?oai?aiue aeoiaeeee c ?aea? iaaeioi?eaiino? i?aaa aeaniino?. *e/a??i
aeaa oe?e i?iaeai? iaea?eueo nenoaiaoe/ia oeoia/aiiy, ui aeiaiaeeoue
ni?anoaaeaiiy eiai iiaeyae?a c iiaeyaeaie ?ioeo ieneeoae?a, a naia:
A.Ni?oa, E.Ia?ena, O.Aiaaeuena, N.TH.Aeanieoeueeiai, I.I.?aaeeuaaa,
aeaeaa?eno?a, iao?aoaaoe?a, I.?.Aa?oeaia, I.I.Iaa?ueiaa,
I.A.*a?ieoaanueeiai, I.?.C?aa?a oa ?i. Aec?iath/e niieiia?/io ??ai?noue
an?o ethaeae, a?i aaaaeaa, ui iaeiiaa ia??ai?noue ? oa, ui iaei?
aieiae?thoue a?eueoith aeani?noth, a ?io? iaioith, caeaaeeoue a?ae
iniaenoeo yeinoae eiaeiiai ?iaeea?aea. Naia oea ? i?e/eiith ia??aiino?
yeo iaiiaeeeai cieueoe, ia cieueaoe naiaiaeo ethaeeie, yea ? aeaea?aeii
an?o i?aa iniae.

?icaeyaeath/e niiniae iaaoooy aeaniino?, *e/a??i coieiyany ia aeaio
aieiaieo: iaieiae?iiy ? o?oae, c yeeo inoaiiueiio iaeaaeeoue
caa?oi?noue. I?e?/i?io, i?aai ia i?eaaoio aeani?noue iaaea? ia eeoa
o?ce/ia i?aoey, aea e i?a?oey ?ioaeaeooaeueia. Aiia aea? ethaeei?
iiaeeea?noue iaaooe o aeani?noue iae?ii oa eai?oae ? ?? i?aaa ia ieo i?
a yeiio ?ac? ia iiaeii? iaiaaeoaaoenue. Ieneeoaeue i?eioneaa eeoa
iacia/i? iaiaaeaiiy i?aaa aeaniino?, oa e oi ca?aaee noni?eueiiai aeaaa.
Na?aae ?ioeo iaiaaeaiue *e/a??i iniaeeai a?aeie??ai?ethaaa oae caaia
i?aai ia /oaeo ??/, yea oi/a e aaaaea?oueny /oaeith aean?i?noth, aea
i?aaa ?? aieiaea?y caoaeothoueny ia ei?enoue oeo, eiio iiaea ca?oeiaeeoe
ceiaaeeaaiiy eiai nai?th aeani?noth. I?ioa, ? oae? ii?ooaiiy
ien?ee?oaeue iaceaaa ia cian?i ni?aaaaeeeaeie, aea ?icoi?a, ui aac ieo
caa?aaoe noni?eueiee ii?yaeie iaiiaeeeai. Oiio a?i i?eioneaa o?eueee
th?e?aee/i? iaiaaeaiiy, ye? aiaeii/an ? caoenoii i?aa ? naiaiae ?ioeo
ethaeae.

Aenooiath/e i?ioe nioe?ae?noe/ieo oai??e, *e/a??i aeiaiaeea, ui ?aeay
caaaeueii? iaeiiai? ??aiino?, aoaeo/e ao?eaiith a aeeooy, iiaea i?eaanoe
aei ooo/iiai i?aeo?eioaaiiy an?o ethaeae ia iecueeiio ??ai? aeooiaiiai
?ic?aeoeo, onoiooe i?eioeei nioe?aeueiiai ciaaaiiy.

Ui noino?oueny /anoee ?ia?oiee?a a i?eaooeo ae?iaieoeoaa, oi ien?eeoaeue
oaeee aa??aio a?aeeeaeaa, cayaeyth/e, ui ?ia?oieee aaea io?eiaee ?? o
aeaeyae? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ? i? ia ui ?ioa i?aaa ia iathoue. Iaeiae oea,
ia eiai aeoieo, ia aeeee/a iia??oaiiy ?o iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua, oiio
ui ?ia?oieee iio??ai? i?aei?e?ioeth ia iaioa, i?ae eai?oae, yeee aac ieo
aeyaeoueny ia?oaei nea?aii. Ainiiaea? ae?iaieoeoaa, aeacoaaa *e/a??i,
ia? i?eeoaaoeny i?i aeia?iaoo ?ia?oiee?a, ai, a i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo,
a?i ?ici?eoueny aian?e?aeie ?o ia?aoiaeo ooaee, aea oiiae i?aoe? e?au?,
a ca?ia?oia ieaoa a?eueoa. sseui ae eiieo?aioe?y ?ia?oiee?a iioyaia ca
niaith cieaeaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, oi eiieo?aioe?y i?aei?e?ioe?a (ia
?eieo i?aoe? ca ?iai/? ?oee) oa ?o ea?i??oae?a iaa?iaoueny ??
c?inoaiiyi. Oiio ?ia?oieee iathoue aooe caoe??eaaeai? o iaeiie/aii?
eai?oae?a, a ioaea, o iaioaaii? a?aeiia?aeii? iie??oe/ii? nenoaie, oiaoi
eai?oae?cio, a ia nioe?ae?cio. Ooaa?aeaeaiiy nioe??ae?noe/ieo a?aeiinei,
iaaiaee, iiaea i?eaanoe aei e?ea?aeaoe?? i?e?iaeiiai noeioeo
ae?iaieoeoaa, iniaeeai? caoe?eaaeaiino?, ath?ie?aoe/iith ?ooeiith ?
oi?iae?ciii, aiane?aeie /iai noaiaoueny iaa?aeai?ioia nei?i/aiiy
ae?ia?ieoeoaa. Oa ae aeiey aeiaaea e eai?oaeo, yeui a?i iio?aieoue a
?oee aea?aeaae. Inoaiiy iieeeeaia aeeiioaaoe a noni?euenoa? ?aaoethth/o
?ieue, a cian?i ia aecia/aeueio, oiio ui iicaaaeaia yeinoae, iaiao?aeieo
i?aei?e?ioeth. Eai?oae a ?oeao aea?aeaae ia?anoa? i?eiiiaeoaaoenue, ? ia
a?iiaaeyi /aea? iiaia coaiae?iiy. Eiioi?ci, aaaaeaa *e/a??i, iiaeeeaee
o?eueee oai, aea eth?aee a?aeiiaeythoueny a?ae ie?nueeeo iiiene?a,
caaeey iioiea?/iiai aeeooy; ?ioeie neiaaie, eiioi?ci iiaeeeaee eeoa o
oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui ethaee ii?aiaeaeothoueny ia oea aeia?ia?eueii. Eiee
ae oaea nenoaia aaiaeeoueny i?eio?ni?ai, oi eiioi?ci iaieio/a
ia?aoai?th?oueny ia ?aanoai (I.?.Aa?oeai iace?aaa ?? “eiioi?noe/iith
aa?ueiith”). Oiio eiioi?ci ia caeaoai noaoe ia o?eue?ee inoaoi/iei, aea
ia eiai ia?aeiiaiiy, iaa?oue ? ia?ao?aeiei nooiaiai a ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa.

O aeniiaeao aeeeaaeai? caaaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy:

 A.I.*e/a??i aoa iaei??th c aeaeaoieo o?ao? o o?einionuee?e,
?noi??e/i?e ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? ?in?? ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX –
ii/aoeo OO no. ? ca oe?ioith oa a?oioiai?noth a?oaeeoe?? noiya aeua
aaaaoueio nai?o no/aniee?a;

 a oeaio? an?o nai?o iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a?i iinoaaea aeooaeuei?
non?i?eueii-iie?oe/i? ieoaiiy, na?aae yeeo: aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie
aea?aeaae oa ?? ?ieue a ?noi???, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c noni?euenoaii,
aeani?noth ? i?aaaie ini?ae; ?noi?e/ia i?n?y iniae; i?iaeaia
ia?eaiaioa?ecio; ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oeai?o?aeueii? oa i?noeaai? aeaaee,
i?aaa ? ii?ae?, iie?oeee ? ii?ae?; ?ieue ?noi???? a nueiaiaeaii? ?
iaeaooiueiio;

 iaeiei c aieiaieo noeioe?a aei iaoeiai?, ioae?oeenoe/ii? ?
aee?ea?aeaoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aoea iino?eia oaaaa *e/a??ia aei
i?ioean?a no/anii? ei?io ae?eniino?, aaaeaiiy a?aoe a ieo o/anoue c
iaoith ia?aeiiaoe i?aaey/? ei?ea i?iaanoe e?aa?aeuei? ?aoi?ie;

 oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee na?oiaeyaeo *e/a??ia aacothoueny ia
oaeeo caeiiao oa caeiiii??iinoyo, ye neeaaeia aca?iiae?y o?einio?? oa
?ae?a??, ae?aeaeoe/i? i?eioeeie ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae,
aaiethoe?e?iee o?ae noni?eueiiai aeeooy, oioiaei?noue ?noi?e/ieo oeyo?a
?in?? ? Cao?aeii? ?a?iie oiui;

 aea/ath/e ?in?enueeee ?noi?e/iee i?ioean, a?i ia?aeiieeai aei?ai?aeea
iai?eeiyoi?noue iaoai?/iiai ia?aiino ?iicaiieo ?inoeooo?a ia i?n?oeaaee
a?oio;

 a “aea?aeaai?e oeie?” *e/a??i, ye ? o an?e ?noi?e/i?e, iie?oe/i?e ?
o?einionuee?e iaooe? ?in??, iin?aea? iniaeeaa i?noea, ine?eueee aoa
iine?aeia?iei cao?aeieeii, iaeii/anii aeciath/e a?aeiia?aeaeueio
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/io i?n?th aea?aeaae, ?, oei ia iaioa, noaaey/e
?ioa?ane ? i?aaa iniae aeua ca ana;

 oeaio?aeueiith ?aea?th ?noi?e/ieo oyaeaiue *e/a??ia ? noi?ioeuei?aaia
iei oai??y “iie??ia/aiiy”, ca yeith ? noaie, ? iaueia, ye i?aaie
i?n?oeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ? cainuee? niai?e ooai?ai? c ?i?oe?aoeae
aea?aeaae, ui ea?o?oueny nai?ie ?ioa?anaie;

 c oai??? “iie??ia/aiiy” *e/a??i aeaiaeea ? i?iaeaio neanoaaiiy
e???iaoeoaa, aaaaeath/e, ui oey “a?eiaa iani?aaaaeeea?noue”
iaa?aeeeaaeii ia? aooe e?ea?aeiaaia; iaeiae *e/a??i, ye ? ?io? e?aa?aee
aeiaiaeea, ui naeyie ii?aeii? aeeoieoe nai? caiaeuei? iaae?ee ii
anoaiiaeai?e o?yaeii oe?i?;

 iiceoe?y *e/a??ia noiniaii ?inoeoooo noaiiaino? neeaaeia: c iae?ii?ai
aieo, a?i aaaaeaa, ui a iaaecia/aiiio iaeaooiueiio ?aeaaeii
nioe?aeue?ii?ai ono?ith aeey ?in?? iiaeiia aooe, i/aaeaeii, Aiae?y, a c
ae?oaiai – ia iaa?iiio ia?ao?aeiiio aoai? a?i aeiioneaa ea??aio ?ieue
aeai?yinoaa, ye ina??/aiiai noaio, yea, iaeiae, iiaeiii iicaooeny nai??
“i?eaaoii? ei?eno?” ? aeiaanoe, ui iei “aeaaeaao aeoo iieeoe/aneee”,
oiaoi i/ieeoe i?ioean ?a?oi???io?aaiiy ?in??. A?i aoa aiaaiaiee, ui
o?aaa noai?eoe ni?eyoeea? oii?ae aeey c?inoaiiy o?aoueiai noaio, yea
iiaeiia noaoe ca’ycoth/ith eaieith i?ae aeuei oa ieae/ei noaiaie, ia
aeiionoeoe ai?iaeia/? i?ae ieie;

 *e/a??i iaaeaaaa aaeeeiai cia/aiiy iie?oe/iiio ?aoi?ioaai?ith ?in??,
iaeiei c ia?oeo e?ie?a yeiai ?, c eiai oi/ee ci?o, aaaaeaiiy cainoa ye
i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, i?ioa a?i a?aeaeaeya iiaiee
?ic??aeoie nenoaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy a /ane, eiee aeey oeueiai aeieeiooue
a?ae?iia?aei? oiiae;

 ui noino?oueny iiaeyaeo *e/a??ia ia aa?a?iee ono??e, oi aeey iuei?ai
?aeaaeueiei aa??aioii aoei ?icoiia ii?aeiaiiy aaeeei?, na?aaeiuei? oa
ae??a?ii? caiaeueii? aeaniino? (c ia?aaaaeaiiyi na?aaeiuei?), ui
anoaiiaeth??oue?ny “naii niaith”, ?ioeie neiaaie, naiaiaea aeaniino? –
eaeoiioea an??? /e/a??inueei? ?noi?eei-iie?oe/ii? eiioeaioe??;

 yae?ii eiai ?noi?eei-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a ? aiieia?y i?aaiai?
aea??aeaae ye iaoe anueiai ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo, ui a?oioo?oueny ia
i?eioee?iao ia?eaiaioa?ecio, aa?aio?? i?aa ? naiaiae iniae, a oaeiae ia
iaaeioi??eaiiino? i?eaaoii? aeaniino?;

 /e/a??inueeee na?oiaeyae, oaeei /eiii, oe?eeii iiaea aooe ioe??iaiee,
ye “nenoaiinoai?thth/a ieneaiiy”, i?e/iio iaao?eiia i?aaiaiiy aei
nenoaie noaei i?e/eiith oeo oea, a ye? a?i aiaaeaa i?e aena?oeaii?
i?i?oeano eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ?in??;

 oe?ii?noue /e/a??inueei? niaaeueie aeey no/aniino?, ia iao iiaeyae,
iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiai o?aeoiaea i?iaeai aeaniino?, i?aaiai? aea?aeaae,
?ic?ii?ae?eo aeaaee ia o?e a?eee c nenoaiith “no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa”,
ia?eaiaioa?ecio, i?aaa ? ii?ae? oa ?i. iiaea aooe, c aeayeeie
canoa?aaeaiiyie, aeei?enoaia a i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy aaaeeeaeo aeey
Oe?a?ie ?aoi?i.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

1. AEeoo?aee oeyo A.I.*e/a??ia // A?niee AeAeO. Na?. ?noi??y,
a?oai?eia?y. 1998. ?3. N.85-96.– 0,6 ae?oe.a?e.

2. Aeeyiea eaeae iaiaoeeie oeeinioneie oeieu ia oe?aeineeo e ?onneeo
iuneeoaeae (eiiaoe XIX – ia/aei OO aa.) // Oe?aeia – Aa?iaiey:
yeiiiie/aneia e eioaeeaeooaeueiia nio?oaeie/anoai (XIX-OO aa.).
Iaaeaocianeee nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia: A 2-o o. Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998.
O.2. N.167-173.– 0,4 ae?oe.a?e.

3. sseith ia? aooe aeani?noue? // Ai?enoai. 1999. ?2. N.15-17.– 0,75
ae?oe.a?e.

4. A.*e/a?ei i ?aaiethoeee // OO aae – aae ?aaiethoeee. Oacenu e
anaoe?aeineie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee 29-30 iay 1997 a. Aeiai?iiao?iane,
1997. N.166-168.– 0,2 ae?oe.a?e.

AIIOAOe?ss

C?ie?i I.A. ?noi?e/i? oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? iiaeyaee A.I.*e/a??ia.–
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo ia?oe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.06 – ?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aeiciaanoai oa
niaoe?aeue?i? ?noi?e/i? aeenoeeie?ie. Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao, Aei?i??i?iao?ianuee, 1999.

A aeine?aeaeaii?, nie?ath/enue ia iaoeiao niaaeueio *e/a??ia ?
e?oa?a?oo?o i?i iueiai, aea/aiee aeeoo?aee oeyo ieneeoaey, eiai iiaeyaee
ia i?iaeaie eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai ? non?i?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo
?in??. ?ic?iaeaia ia??iaeecaoe?y aeeoo?aiai ? oai?/iai oeyoo *e/a??ia,
i?iaiae?ciaai? eiai o?einionueei-?noi?e/ia oa aea?aeaaieoeueea
eiioeaioe?y, noaaeaiiy aei naiiaea?aeaanoaa, noai?a oa i?aenoaiiaeo
a?aeiinei, ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo iaueie, cainueeeo niai??a, ieoaiiy
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? oaiaeaeueii-e???iin?ieoeueeiai eaaeo.
Aena?oeth?oueny i?iaeaia i?aa ? naiaiae iniae, ni?aa?ae?ii?oaiiy ?o c
aea?aeaaith ? noni?euenoaii, i?iaeaia aeaniino?, ioe?iea ?aai?eth?oe??,
nioe?ae?cio oa ?i. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i i?ea?iaeuei?noue /e/a??inueei?
eiioeaioe?? oa cia/ei?noue eiai iiaeyae?a aeey no/aniino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: e?aa?ae?ci, i?aaiaa aea?aeaaa, eiinoeoooe?eiee eaae,
ia??ea?iaioa?eci, noaie, ?aoi?ie, aeani?noue, i?aaa iniae, nioe?ae?ci.

SUMMARY

Zenkin M.V. Historic, social and political ideas of B.N.Chicherin
(Manuscript).

Dissertation for scientific degree of candidate of history on speciality
07.00.06. Historiography, Source Studies and specific history
disciplines. Dnipropetrovsk State University. Dnipropetrovsk, 1999.

In this research, based on the theoretic legacy of Chicherin and the
literature about him, ideas of the thinker on social and political
development of Russia are investigated. Periodization of his life and
work way was developed the conception of philosophical, historical and
state development are analyzed as well as his attitude to monarchy,
feudal order, estates and interstate relations, historical development
of community, zemsky cathedrals and problems of local self-governing.

The problem of personal rights and freedoms, their relationship with
state and society, the problem of property and evaluation of revolution,
socialism, etc. are researched. The conclusion on originality of
Chicherin’s conception and the importance of his ideas for our time is
made.

Key words: liberalism, legal state, constitutional system,
parlamentarism, estate, reforms, property, human rights, socialism.

AIIIOAOeEss

Caieei I.A. Enoi?e/aneea e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea acaeyaeu
A.I.*e/a?eia.– ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.06 – Enoi?eia?aoey, enoi/ieeiaaaeaiea e
niaoeeaeueiua enoi?e/aneea aeenoeeieeiu. Aeiai?iiao?ianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

A enneaaeiaaiee, iie?aynue ia aiaeec enoi/ieeia e eeoa?aoo?u,
?anniio?aiu enoi?e/aneea e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea aicc?aiey
A.I.*e/a?eia – eaeaieiaa ?inneeneiai eeaa?aeecia. A niioaaonoaee n
?ac?aaioaiiie a ia?aie aeaaa aeenna?oaoeee ia?eiaeecaoeeae, eco/aaony
aai aeeciaiiue iooue a ea/anoaa eiioaenoa oi?ie?iaaiey aai ee/iinoe eae
eeaa?aea-caiaaeieea, o?ainoi?iaoeey aai acaeyaeia, a iniaaiiinoe
iieeoe/aneie iiceoeee, aeaeaaony iiiuoea ioaaoeoue ia aii?in i i?e/eiao
eciee?iaaiiinoe e iaaino?aaiaaiiinoe iuneeoaey.

Iniiauaaynue ia eeoa?aoo?a, iinayuaiiie oeeinioee A.I.*e/a?eia e aai
nianoaaiiuo oeeinioneeo o?oaeao, ?anniao?eaaaony oeeinionei-enoi?e/aneay
eiioeaioeey iuneeoaey e aai acaeyae ia i?ioeann anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneiai
?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa, auyaeyaony iauaa e iniaaiiia iaaeaeo oeeinioneeie
nenoaiaie Aaaaey e ?onneiai eeaa?aea.

E?iia oiai, enneaaeoy oeeinioneea e oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea iniiau
/e/a?eineiai ie?iaicc?aiey, a /anoiinoe aai i?aaenoaaeaiea i
caeiiiia?iinoyo enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey oeeinioee e ?aeeaee,
acaeiiioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ieie, aeeaeaeoe/aneii ?acaeoee iauanoaa e
ainoaea?noaa, i?iaeaia niioiioaiey i?aaa e i?aanoaaiiinoe, ioeaieaaaony
aai oeeinioneay iiceoeey e aa aeeyiea ia enoi?e/aneea e
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea acaeyaeu *e/a?eia.

Iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneei e iieeoe/aneei
aicc?aieyi *e/a?eia. Oae, auaeaeaiu iniiaiua iieiaeaiey aai enoi?e/aneie
eiioeaioeee, iaoiaeieiaey enoi?e/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, ?anniio?aii aai
iiieiaiea iooae enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa, aai
iniaaiiinoe, au/eaiythony oaeea aii?inu, eae niaoeeoeea
i?e?iaeii-aaia?aoe/aneeo oneiaee, a eioi?uo oi?ie?iaaeny ia?iaeiue
oa?aeoa?, ?ieue ainoaea?noaa e i?aaeoaeuenoaa a i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey e
“cae?aiiuaiey” nineiaee, ia?aciaaiey e ?acaeoey naeueneie iaueiu a
?innee, caineeo niai?ia e o.ae. Aaoi? iieacuaaao caiaaeie/aneoth
iiceoeeth enoi?eea, o.a. i?iaeaio iauaai e iniaaiiiai a enoi?e/aneii
?acaeoee ?innee e caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa. ?anniao?eaathony aai
acaeyaeu ia iaaenineiaiua ioiioaiey, i?iaeaio ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey,
e?anoueyineoth ?aoi?io 1861 a., aa?a?iue aii?in. Eco/aaony aai i?iaeo
“eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa (eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee), ioiioaiea e
?aaiethoeee, aiaeece?oaony ianoi A.I.*e/a?eia a “ainoaea?noaaiiie
oeiea”. Aeaeaaony auaiae i oii, /oi aai ie?iaicc?aiea
“nenoaiiniceaeathuaa”, a oaeaea i oii, /oi eiaiii yoi iaoaea?aeeiia
no?aieaiea e nenoaia iineoaeeei i?e/eiie oiai, /oi iiceoeey *e/a?eia
ioiineoaeueii nineiaee, e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, iaueiu e o.ae. ieacaeanue
ianeieueei ioeai/iie, eai oaa?aiiinoue iuneeoaey a enoeiiinoe aai
ainoaea?noaaiie/aneie eiioeaioeee i?eaaea aai e iaeioi?iio eneaaeaieth
eo enoeiiie nooe.

Iaiaeia aieiaiea oaeaeaii nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiio yae?o
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo acaeyaeia iuneeoaey, a eiaiii aii?ino
nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ue a nenoaia eeaa?aeueiuo iieeoe/aneeo aicc?aiee
*e/a?eia caieiaao oeaio?aeueiia ianoi, iineieueeo eiaiii /a?ac iaa ii
?anniao?eaae oaeea aaaeiaeoea a oi a?aiy i?iaeaiu, eae i?aaa e naiaiaeu
ee/iinoe, eo niioiioaiey n iauanoaii e ainoaea?noaii, a?aieoeu
iieiiii/ee iineaaeiaai a yeiiiie/aneie noa?a iauanoaa, niioiioaiea
/anoiie e ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, noaeueaa /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe, eaieoaea e anae yeiiiieee no?aiu a oneiaeyo
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey eie, o.a. enneaaeoaony e?eoeea *e/a?eia,
iai?aaeaiiay i?ioea iaae?aaoeo neeo ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX – ia/aea OO
aa. nioeeaeenoe/aneeo oai?ee. Ia iniiaa niiinoaaeaiey aai aicc?aiee e
i?aaenoaaeaiee i nianoaaiiinoe oaeeo iuneeoaeae, eae A.Nieo, E.Ia?en,
O.Yiaaeuen, N.A.Aeanieoeeee, A.I.?aaeeuaa, I.Ianoaeue, A.E.Aa?oeai,
I.I.Iaa?aa, I.A.*a?iuoaaneee, I.E.Ceaa? e ae?. aeaeaaony auaiae ia
i?eaeiaeueiinoe aai eiioeaioeee, a oaeaea i cia/eiinoe aai aicc?aiee
aeey nia?aiaiiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eeaa?aeeci, i?aaiaia ainoaea?noai, eiinoeoooeeiiiue
no?ie, ia?eaiaioa?eci, nineiaey, ?aoi?iu, nianoaaiiinoue, i?aaa
ee/iinoe, nioeeaeeci.

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