3

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO A?OAIEIA??

EIEEAAIEI IEAENAIAe? AIEIAeEIE?IAE*

OAeE 902/904 (477.5) “653”

?NOI?E*IA OIIIA?AO?ss

IA?AssNEAAEss ?ONUeEIAI

(O – ia?oa iieiaeia O??? no.)

?noi?e/i? iaoee — 07.00.04 — a?oaieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? aeaaiuei?onueei? oa na?aaeiueia?/ii?

a?oaieia?? ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie

Oiei/ei Iao?i Iao?iae/,

?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAIO,

aee?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

?aae?i Ae?a TH??eiae/,

?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAIO,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eiaaeaiei Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/,

*a?i?a?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith a?oaieia?? oa aoiieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo ?noi??? IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e ?noi???
na?aaei?o a?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 23 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.234.01 aeey caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe i?e
?inoeooo? a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252655 Oe?a?ia, Ee?a-210,
i?iniaeo Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 12.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a, i?iniaeo Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 12).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 20 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Iao?aoaiei A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

E?oiieniee Ia?ayneaaeue, o?ao? i?noi I?aaeaiii? ?on? (i?ney Ee?aa oa
*a?i?aiaa), e aein? caeeoa?oueny ii??aiyii iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiei.
Niaoeeo?ea aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? oiiia?ao?? oeaio??a
caiaeue-eiyc?anoa niiioea? aei nenoaiaoecaoe?? an?o iayaieo aeaea?ae c
?o aeaieie oa eiiieaeniiai aiae?co o?iiieia??, i?inoi?iaiai ?icaeoeo ?
iniiaieo noi??i eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? oiiia?ao?? Ia?ayneaaey aeicaiey? ia o?eueee
oyaeoe i?inoi?iao iiaoaeiao oeueiai aaeeeiai oaiaeaeueiiai oeaio?o, aea
e c?iaeoe aaaeeea? aeniiaee noiniaii ?noi??? ?icaeoeo oa no?oeoo?e
aeaaiuei?onueeiai i?noa acaaae?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia’?ii? a?oaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia oa?eoi???
no/aniiai Ia?ayneaaa, i?iaaaeai? o O?O-OO no., noai?eee aeaea?aeuei?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey aeaoaeueii? ?ic?iaee ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c ?noi?e/iith
oiiia?ao??th oeueiai aeaaiuei?onueeiai i?noa. Cie?aia, eieae?ciaaii
cia/io /anoeio e?oiienieo oiiii?i?a. A i?ioean? ?iceiiie ciaeaeaii
iaa?aeii? ?ai?oa ia’?eoe iiioiaioaeueii? a?o?oaeoo?e, ye? nooo?ai
?icoe?eee oyaeaiiy i?i ieaioaaeueio no?oeoo?o oa ?noi??th i?nueei?
caaoaeiae. ? ana ae, iacaaaeath/e ia iiiaae 150-??/io ?noi??th
a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, noai ?ic?iaee ieoaiue ?noi?e/ii?
oiiia?ao?? Ia?ayneaaey caeeoa?oueny iacaaeia?eueiei. Aein? ua iaia?
niaoe?aeueii? ocaaaeueithth/i? i?aoe?, yea a ia no/aniiio iaoeiaiio
??ai? nenoaiaoecoaaea iayaio ?ioi?iaoe?th oa anaa?/ii oa?aeoa?ecoaaea
?noi?e/io oiiia?ao?th Ia?ayneaaey O – ia?oi? iieiaeie O??? no.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii c
ieaiiaith oaiith a?aeae?eo aeaaiuei?onueei? oa na?aaeiueia?/ii?
a?oaieia?? ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie “Aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??ieaieo
iinaeaiue O???-O??? no. ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie”.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?noi?e/ia oiiia?ao?y Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai,
a ia’?eoii – noeoii?noue ienaiieo, ea?oia?ao?/ieo oa a?oaieia?/ieo
aeaea?ae, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue oea aeaaiuei?onueea i?noi ye oe?e?nio
nenoaio.

Aieiaiith iaoith ?iaioe ? ?aeiino?oeoe?y ?noi?e/ii? oiiia?ao??
aeaaiuei?onueeiai Ia?ayneaaey ia iniia? an??? noeoiiino? a?aeiieo ia
aeaiee /an aeaea?ae. Oe?e iao? i?aeii?yaeeiaaii caaaeaiiy:

1) ?icaeyae i?iaeaie iioiaeaeaiiy Ia?ayneaaey;

2) aecia/aiiy ?noi?eei-oiiia?ao?/ii? no?oeoo?e Ia?ayneaaey, neeaaeiaeo
/anoei eiai oa?eoi???;

3) eieae?caoe?y oa ao?eaooe?y a?o?oaeoo?ieo ia’?eo?a oa nii?oae;

4) ea?oia?aooaaiiy an?o aeyaeaieo eiiieaen?a ? noai?aiiy a?oaieia?/ii?
ea?oe i?noa;

5) aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo i?noiaoae?aaeueii? no?oeoo?e
Ia?ayneaaey oa aoai?a oi?ioaaiiy i?nueei? oa?eoi???;

6) c’ynoaaiiy nioe?aeueii-oiiia?ao?/ii? no?oeoo?e;

7) ?icaeyae ieoaiue aeaiia?ao??.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/athoueny /anii ?nioaaiiy
Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai – oeaio?o Ia?ayneaanueei? caie? oa eiyc?anoaa (O –
ia?oa iieiaeia O??? no.).

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ?iaioe ? i?eioeei ?noi?ecio, ui aeicaiey?
ia’?eoeaii aena?oeeoe i?ioean aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo i?noa. Canoinoaaiiy
nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aea? iiaeeea?noue iaeiiai?oa a?aeoai?eoe oe?e?nia
oyaeaiiy i?i Ia?ayneaaeue a on?e noeoiiino? eiai ?noi?eei-oiiia?ao?/ieo
ia’?eo?a. Canoiniaai? iaoiaee: eiiieaeniee aiae?c an?o iniiaieo aeae?a
aeaea?ae; iaoo?ia ianoaaeaiiy; ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c; iaoiae ?noi?e/ii?
?aeiino?oeoe??, aeaiaioe i?inoi?iaiai aiae?co.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia ? ia?oei niaoe?aeueiei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi, i?enay/aiei ?noi?e/i?e oiiia?ao?? aeaaiuei?onueeiai
Ia?ayneaaey. A i?e ocaaaeueiai? an? a?aeii? ioae?eaoe?? oa aeaea?aea c
oiiia?ao?? i?noa, a oaeiae aaaaeai? aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iia? iaoa??aee
inoaii?o ?ia?o ia eiai oa?eoi???, a oiio /ene? e ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a. Ia iniia? aiae?co aeaieo ienaiieo oa
a?oaieia?/ieo aeaea?ae ?ic?iaeaii o?iiieia?th oa aeae?eaii aoaie
?icaeoeo i?noa, oi?ioaaiiy eiai ?aeii?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? ?? aeei?enoaiiy i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c aeaaiuei?onueeiai ia??iaeo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, a aeniiceoe?ei?e ?iaio? e?a?ciaa/eo oa a?oaieia?/ieo
ioca?a, i?aeaioiaoe? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a, a oaeiae aeey /eoaiiy
caaaeueieo ? niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao.
Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue iaoeiao iniiao aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
eiiieaenii? ioi?iie ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie Ia?ayneaaa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy o aenooiao ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo oa ?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/ieo nai?ia?ao:
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee (1991), Aaooie/? (1992),
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee (1992, 1994, 1996, 1998) oa ioae?eaoe?? iecee
noaoae.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o 9
ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo aaoi?a.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, nieneo nei?i/aiue,
aeiaeaoe?a, a oiio /ene? ?ethno?aoe?e.

Ianya aeena?oaoe??. Anueiai – 337 n., oaeno – 174 n., nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e – 24 n. (299 iaeiaioaaiue), a?o?ai? iaoa??aee –
7 n. (69 iaeiaioaaiue), aeiaeaoee – 125 n. (6 iaeiaioaaiue),
?ethno?aoe?? – 36 n. (36 ?enoie?a), nienie ?ethno?aoe?e – 4 n.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

ANOOI

O iueiio iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, aecia/athoueny ??
o?iiieia?/i? iaae?, oi?ioeth?oueny iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoiae, aecia/a?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a, aeacothoueny aeai? i?i ?o ai?iaaoe?th, no?oeoo?o
?iaioe oa ?? ianya.

?ICAe?E 1. ?NOI??IA?AO?ss ? AeAEA?AEA

1.1. ?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie. Ia?o? ?iaioe, a yeeo cae?eniaii ni?iae
?noi?eei-oiiia?ao?/iiai aiae?co ??cieo e?oiienieo iia?aeiieaiue,
iia’ycaieo c Ia?ayneaaii, c’yaeythoueny o e?ioe? OO??? – ia ii/aoeo O?O
no. [A.I.Oao?uaa, I.I.Ua?aaoia, I.I.Ea?aic?i, I.N.A?oeeaaoaa,
I.?.Iaae?aeae?i, A.A.Iannae].

A i?aoeyo ?noi?ee?a O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. aoei iiaeeaeaii oeae iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiue [I.I.Iaeneiiae/, I.I.Iiaiae?i, E.I.Iaaie?i, I.I.Aa?nia,
A.A.Eynei?iinueeee, A.N.?eiii?eia, I.N.A?ooaanueeee, A.A.Noi?iaeaiei,
E.A.Iaaeaeea].

I?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie OO no. aeaaiueiio Ia?ayneaao aoei i?enay/aii
cia/io e?euee?noue ?ia?o. E??i ioae?eaoe?e ?acoeueoao?a a?oaieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oeueiai /ano oa ia?oeo ni?ia aeayeeo ocaaaeueiaiue,
c?iaeaieo naieie aaoi?aie ?iceiiie, aeae?ey?oueny ua iecea i?aoeue. Ia?o
ca ana oea ?iaioe ocaaaeueithth/iai oa iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o
[I.I.Oiei/ei, ?.I.TH?a, I.I.Eo/a?a, A.A.Eoca, I.I.Ei??iiee].

Iaaecae/aeii ie?aeii o oeae ia??iae ?ic?iaeyeanue oaeiae
a?o?oaeoo?ii-a?oaieia?/ia oaiaoeea [I.A.Oieinoaiei, I.I.Ai?ii?i,
I.E.Ea?aa?, I.I.?aiiiii?o, I.?.Eiia/ A.I.Ee?ie/i?eia, I.A.Iae?anueea,
I.A.Eiaaei, A.I.Oa?eaiia, A.A.O?io?iaiei].

1.2. Ienaii? aeaea?aea. Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii a?aeiiinoae c ?noi?e/ii?
oiiia?ao?? Ia?ayneaaey O – ia?oi? iieiaeie O??? no. aenooia?
aeaaiuei?onueea e?oiienaiiy. Ia?ayneaaeue aoa iaeiei c iaeaeaai?oeo eiai
oeaio??a. Iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i Ia?ayneaaeue
oo?eiothoue a nia? oae? e?oiiene ye Eaa?aio??anueeee, ?iao??anueeee,
Ieeii?anueeee, ?aaecea?ee?anueeee, noaoo? yeeo aeiianee aei ian iacae
ia?ayneaanueeeo o?ai?a, ai??o, iaaeieeoi?o iiianoe??a, n?e oa o?i/eu.

Aeayeo ?ioi?iaoe?th aei ?noi?e/ii? oiiia?ao?? aeaaiueiai i?noa aeathoue
niiaaaee iaiae??aiee?a OO?? no [A.E. aea Aiieai, Iaaei Aeainueeee].

1.3. Ea?oia?ao?/i? iaoa??aee. Aaaeeeao a?oio aeaea?ae c ?noi?e/ii?
oiiia?ao?? Ia?ayneaaey O – ia?oi? iieiaeie O??? no. noaiiaeyoue
?ino?oiaioaeuei? ieaie i. Ia?ayneaaa oa ia?ayneaanueei? oi?oaoe?
OO???-O?O no., noiooi? ?i iiene, ieaie ie?aieo /anoei i?noa oeueiai ae
/ano, a oaeiae no/aniee oiiia?ao?/iee ieai. Aiae?c oe??? a?oie aeaea?ae
aeicaiey? neeanoe aeineoue aeia?a oyaeaiiy i?i iai?iii? oe??ieaiiy
OO??-OO??? no. Ia?ayneaaeue o oe?eiio caa??a aeai/eaiio no?oeoo?o nai?o
oe??ieaiue, yeo a?i iaa ua a aeiiiiaieuenueeo aiioo. Ea?oia?ao?/i?
iaoa??aee na?ae/aoue, ui caa?aaeany ia eeoa no?oeoo?a oe??ieaiue, a e ?o
?icoaooaaiiy. Aaee O-O??? no. noaee iniiaith oe??ieaiue OO??-OO??? no.,
?o na?oeaaeiith, iacaaaeath/e ia aeaoooaaiiy a ieo /eneaiieo aano?ii?a
oa ?ioeo oi?oeo?eaoe?eieo nii?oae.

1.4. A?oaieia?/i? aeaea?aea. Iniiaiei aeaea?aeii aeey ?ic?iaee anueiai
eiiieaeno i?iaeai ?noi?e/ii? oiiia?ao?? Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai ?
iaoa??aee a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeeeth/ii caaaeyee ?i aoei
aeyaeaii cia/io e?euee?noue iiaeo ?noi?eei-oiiia?ao?/ieo aeaieo, ye?
iaiiaeeeai aoei io?eiaoe c ?ioeo aeaea?ae.

Aeania a?oaieia?/i? ?iceiiee ia oa?eoi??? Ia?ayneaaa o?eaathoue oaea
iiiaae 150 ?ie?a [I.N.Ai?ieia]. ?iceiiee eo?aaiieo iiaeeueiee?a
Ia?ayneaaey i?ioyaii O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. i?iaiaeeee O.?.Eai?inueeee,
Ae.ss.Naiieaania, I.TH.A?aiaeaiao?a, A.I.Ua?aae?anueeee. I.Eaoea?ueiaei
aoei ?iceiiaii iaaaeeeo o?aiiao nii?oaeo i?ae Oniainueeith oea?eaith.

I?aenoiiaoth/e ?acoeueoaoe, aeinyaioo? ia ia?oiio aoai? a?oaieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue Ia?ayneaaa (1840-1914 ??.), ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui /ioe?e c
oanoe ia?oeo aeine?aeiee?a i?iaiaeeee ?iceiiee eo?aaiieo iae?iiie?a
i?noa.

?iaioaie A.I.?eaaeiaa 1945 ?. iieeaaeaii ii/aoie a?oioiaiiio
a?oaieia?/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith oa?eoi??e aeeoeioey oa “ieieueiiai
i?noa”. A iiaeaeueoiio ooo i?iaiaeeee ?iceiiee I.E.Ea?aa?,
I.I.?aiiiii?o, A.I.Ee?ie/i?eia, TH.N.An??a, I.A.Iae?anueea,
I.TH.A?ae/aanueeee, I.?.N?ei?nueeee, ?.I.TH?a.

I?ioyaii ae?oaiai aoaio a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue (1945-1966) aoei
c?iaeaii iaea?eueoee aianie o ni?aao aea/aiiy ?noi?e/ii? oiiia?ao??
i?noa. Ca 22 ?iee ?iceiiie aaeaeiny aeyaeoe ? aeine?aeeoe iaeaea an?
a?aeii? ca e?oiienaie iai’yoee iiioiaioaeueii? eai’yii? a?o?oaeoo?e, a
oaeiae aeaye? iaa?aeii? c e?oiien?a nii?oaee. I?aeoe/ii iiai?noth
aeine?aeaeaii oa?eoi??th ?ieneiinueei? /anoeie aeeoeioey (niai? na.
A?o?no?aoeaa Ieoa?ea c i?eaoaeiaaie, ?ieneiinuee? ai?ioa, oea?eaa na.
Aiae??y a?ey ai??o, eai’yia no?ia ?ieneiinueeiai aeai?o, aacnoiaiia
oea?eaa-oneiaeueiy, “?ieneiinueeee iaeaoe”), /anoeiai – oa?eoi??th
eiyaeiai aeai?o (oea?eaa Oni?iiy Aiai?iaeeoe?, eaieeoey O?? no.). Aea?
eai’yi? a?o?oaeoo?i? nii?oaee a oeae ia??iae aeine?aeaeaii a “ieieueiiio
i?no?” (iaeiiiaaio oea?eao-oneiaeueith O? no. oa o?eiaaiee oanoenoiaiiee
o?ai O?? no.). E??i oiai, ye ia aeeoeioe?, oae ? a “ieieueiiio i?no?”
Ia?ayneaaey aoei ?iceiiaii caaeeaeai? aeeoea ?yaeiaeo iaoeaioe?a,
aeyaeaii caeeoee ??ciiiai?oieo ?aianae. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aae?a aeeoeioey e
“ieieueiiai i?noa” aeicaieeee ?aeiino?othaaoe nenoaio iai?iiieo
oe??ieaiue.

Iniaeea?noth no/aniiai aoaio a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeaaiuei?onueeiai Ia?ayneaaa (1974-1998 ??.) ? aeoeaia o/anoue o ieo
i?noeaaeo aeine?aeiee?a: ni?a?ia?oiee?a Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai caiia?aeieea oa
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaae?inoeoooo. Ia oeueiio aoai?, c ii/aoeo
90-o ??., ?icii/aeenue ieaiii??i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeiaio aea/aieo o
a?oaieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? ?aeii?a i?noa – ia?aaeai?iaeue, ye? aei
oeueiai aeiaaeaee c iiey ci?o iaoeiaoe?a. I?ioyaii anueiai ia??iaeo
a?oaieia?/ieo ?iceiiie ia oa?eoi??? i?noa aoei ?ice?eoi aeecueei 10000
ea. i. ieiu?, c ieo aeecueei 4 000 ea. i (40 %) – i?ae ea??aieoeoaii /e
ca aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? aaoi?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?ICAe?E 2.

I?E?I-AAIA?AO?*I? OA OIIIA?AO?*I? OIIAE OA?EOI???

IA?AssNEAAEss OA I?IAEAIA EIAI AEIEEIAIIss

2.1. Iniiai? aoaie aeaaiueiai canaeaiiy oa?eoi??? Ia?ayneaaey.

A?oaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia oa?eoi??? Ia?ayneaaueie ia aeaiee /an
aeicaieythoue neeanoe oyao i?i iniiai? aoaie ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano a
iacaaiiio ?aeii?. ?icaeyae oeeo aoai?a aea? iiaeeea?noue c’ynoaaoe,
iane?eueee aeieeiaiiy i?noa ia icia/ai?e oa?eoi??? aoei coiiaeaia
iiia?aaei?i oiaeii ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo. Iaoa??aee a?oaieia?/ieo
?ica?aeie oa ?iceiiie ia i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue oaco i?i caeiiii??ia
“ae?inoaiiy” i?noa Ia?ayneaaey c na?aaeiaeua iai’yoie iiia?aaeiueiai
?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo.

2.2. I?e?i-aaia?ao?/i? oa oiiia?ao?/i? oiiae oa?eoi??? i?noa. Aeieeiaiiy
an?o cia/ieo oeaio??a ?on? – ye aaiaoe/ii iia’ycaieo c iiia?aaei?ie
iai’yoeaie, oae ? iiaicaoaeiaaieo ia iacanaeaieo ?ai?oa i?noeyo, –
caaaeaee coiiaethaaeinue aeiyoeiai aea?aeieie i?e?i-aaia?ao?/ieie ?
oiiia?ao?/ieie oiiaaie i?noeue ?o ?icoaooaaiiy.

I?noi Ia?ayneaaeue aoei iinoaaeaii ia e?ath (onooi?) ae?oai?
iaaecaieaaii? (eaniai?) oa?ane e?aiai aa?aaa ?. Aei?i?i. A oeueiio
i?noe? oa?ano i?i??cothoue aea? ??ee – O?oa?ae oa Aeueoa, i?noea
c’?aeiaiiy yeeo oaeoe/ii ni?aiaaea? c i?noeai aeoiaeo aeieeie ?. O?oa?ae
ia e?ae eaniai? oa?ane. Naia ooai?aiee ??. Aeueoith e O?oaaaeai ia
aeoaea aenieee ien aoei aeei?enoaii aeey caaoaeiae.

Aaaeeeaith iniaeea?noth aeaii? i?noeaaino? aoa a??ae /a?ac ?. O?oa?ae (a
?acii c iei – ua e /a?ac ?. Aeueoo). Ia?ayneaaeue ?onueeee aoei
caoaeiaaii aaciina?aaeiuei ia i?noe? aaaeeeaiai o?ainii?oiiai aocea. Ooo
noiaeeeeny aeaa aeaai?o iaa?no?aeueieo nooiiooieo oeyoe:
e?aiaa?aaeiiaei?i?ianueeee (aai?o aei Ee?aa) oa aanainueei-ca?oanueeee
(aei Ca?oanueeiai a?iaeo).

Ieieeoe? Ia?ayneaaey – oea iaea?eueo caoeuaiee o i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/iiio
a?aeiioaii? ?aa?ii Ia?ayneaanueei? caie?. Aeiaeaoeiaa i?aeneeaiiy
i?e?iaeieo ?oaaae?a – aie?o oa aieioenoeo caieaa ??. O?oaaaea oa
A?iaa?ee – o?ueiia e?i?yie “Ci?eiaeo” aae?a, aeicaieeei oaeaeei
ia?aoai?eoe oeth i?noeaa?noue o iaea?eueo aonoiianaeaio oa?eoi??th
Ia?ayneaanueei? caie?.

Iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeieeiaiiy oa iiaeaeueoiai oni?oiiai ?icaeoeo
aaeeeiai i?noa ? oaeiae aeinoaoiy ne?iaeiia aaca. C oe??? oi/ee ci?o
Ia?ayneaaeue oaae aea?aeii ae??ciyany c-iii?ae ?ioeo non?aei?o oa?eoi??e
E?aiaa?aaeaey Aei?i?a.

2.3. I?iaeaia aeieeiaiiy Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai. Aea? iniiai? ?nioth/?
oi/ee ci?o ia ieoaiiy aeieeiaiiy Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai ei?ioei iiaeia
noi?ioethaaoe oae:

1. Ia?ayneaaeue aeiee aei ii/aoeo X no. ye iaeei c aeaai?o neia’yinueeeo
ieai?iieo oeaio??a ia iniia? iaeiiai iinaeaiiy /e ai?caea c e?eueeio
?aii?o ?iaeiaeo iinaeaiue;

2. Ia?ayneaaeue caniiaaiee a ?acoeueoao? caoiae?a ee?anueei?
aaeeeieiyc?anueei? aeaaee o e?ioe? X no. (eiie?aoii – Aieiaeeie?a
Nayoineaae/a o 992/993 ?.) ia iaiaaeeoiio ?ai?oa i?noe? e iae?aco c?
ni?aaaeiueith i?nueeith nioe?aeueii-ieaioaaeueiith no?oeoo?ith.

Aiae?c e?oiienieo noaoae X no. aea? i?aenoaae ?icaeyaeaoe aeieeiaiiy
Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai ye ?acoeueoao aea?aeaaieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
caaaeaiiai Aieiaeeie?a Nayoineaae/a ? aeaooaaoe eiai /anii c 988 ii
992/993 ??. AEiaeia c ?iicaiieo aeaea?ae O no. ia iaceaa? na?aae
?onueeeo i?no Ia?ayneaaeue.

?nio? o?niee ca’ycie i?ae iioiaeaeaiiyi aeania i?noa ? eiai iacae. Ia
iaoo aeoieo, neeaaei?noue i?iaeaie iioiaeaeaiiy iacae “Ia?ayneaaeue”
iieyaa? o oiio, ui aiia aeieeea ia ia iniia? i?noeaaeo,
iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo ?aae?e, a aoea ia?aianaia nthaee o noi?iiaaiiio
aeaeyae?. Oa?aeoa? a?aei-?onueei-aieaa?nueeeo noinoie?a 985-992 ??.
aeicaiey? aaa/aoe iioeiaeuei? oiiae aeey ia?aianaiiy oiiii?io “I?aneaa”
naia a oeae ia??iae.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i /an aeieeiaiiy
Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai ? a?oaieia?/i? iaoa??aee. Ia?ae?e aeaai?o
iai’yoie, aeyaeaieo o iaaeao eiai oe??ieaii? /anoeie, ae/a?io?oueny
aeiaaeeiaith ciao?aeeith iaaaeeei? a?caio?enueei? aioi?e VI no. oa
e?eueeiia oeaieaie /a?iyo?anueei? ea?ai?ee, ciaeaeaieie i?ae /an
?iceiiie i?ae aaeii aeeoeioey. An? ?io? iaoa??aee aeaoothoueny e?ioeai O
– ia?oith iieiaeiith O??? no.

Iayai? ia aeaiee /an aeaea?aea aeicaieythoue aeciaoe iaea?eueo
?aaeueiith aeaoith canioaaiiy Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai 992/993 ??.

?ICAe?E 3. ?NOI?E*IA OIIIA?AO?ss AeEOEIOess

3.1. Iai?iii? nii?oaee. A aeaiee /an oi?ia, ?ici??e oa eiino?oeoeai?
iniaeeaino? oe??ieaiue (aae?a oa ?ia?a) ia?ayneaanueeiai aeeoeioey
aaaaeathoueny aeinoaoiuei aea/aieie. Iaia? oaeiae i?yeeo noii?a?a ? a ?o
aeaooaaii?. Eiino?oeoe?y aae?a aeeoeioey aiaeia?/ia eiino?oeoe??
oe??ieaiue A?eai?iaea Ee?anueeiai, a oaeiae ai?iaeeua a?ey n. Ca??//y ia
?. Nooai?, ui aeicaieeei a?aeianoe caaaeaiiy an?o o?ueio iai’yoie aei
iaeiiai, aeineoue aocueeiai, o?iiieia?/iiai ia??iaeo – e?ioey O no.

Oey eiino?oeoe?y neeaaeaeany c aeoaiaeo c?oa?a, eiaeai c yeeo iaa o?e
ee?o?. ?ici??e c?oa?a: acaeiaae in? aaeo – 3,7 i, aiiia?ae – aeecueei 9
i. A i??o ia?iuoaaiiy aenioe c?oa?a ai?eooe aei ?o ciai?oiuei? no?iee
caiaeeeanue eiino?oeoe?y c oeaaee-ne?oeth. Ii aa?oo aaeo aeeoeioey
i?ioiaeeea e?i?y aea?aa’yieo oe??ieaiue – o?eno?iieo c?oa?a, ui aoee
eiino?oeoeaiei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi aioo??oi?o /ioe?eno?iieo. I?noey e?ooeo
iiai?io?a aaeo o?enoaaeenue aea?aa’yieie aaooaie. Caa?oo no?i
?ici?uoaaeenue niaoe?aeuei? eiino?oeoe?? – e?oiieni? caai?iea.
Oe??ieaiiyie aoei ioi/aii ieiuo aeecueei 12 aa.

3.2. Ai?ioa aeeoeioey. Aeeoeiaoeue Ia?ayneaaey iaa aeai? ai??o:
?ieneiinuee? oa Eiyae?. Eiyae? ai?ioa ?icoaoiaoaaeenue ii?o/ c eiyaeei
aeai?ii. sse ? ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue a?aeiieo ia aeaiee /an eai’yieo
nii?oae aeeoeioey, eiiieaen ?ieneiinueeeo ai??o ? ?acoeueoaoii
aoae?aaeueii? ae?yeueiino? aia?a?eiiai ia?ayneaanueeiai ?ieneiia ?o?aia.
O e?oiieni?e noaoo? 1089 (1090) ?. caaaeaii o?e /anoeie oeueiai
eiiieaeno – aeania ai?ioa, iaaea?aiio oea?eao na. Oaiaei?a oa eai’yio
no?io (“a?aae eaiaiu”), ui ii/eiaeanue a?ae oea?eae na. Oaiaei?a.
A?oaieia?/ieie ?iceiieaie aoei ?ice?eoi ua e /aoaa?oo neeaaeiao oeueiai
eiiieaeno – noiaeiao aaaeo, ia caaaeaio a e?oiieni?e noaoo?.

Aeae?eyth/e cia/i? eiooe ia aoae?aieoeoai eai’yieo ai??o, ?ieneii ?o?ai
aeaaa ia o?eueee i?i noai?aiiy ia?aaeiiai a’?caeo aei i?noa, aea e i?i
cai?io noa?eo, i/aaeaeii, aaea cia/ii iioeiaeaeaieo ca naith iaeaea
90-e?oith ?noi??th aea?aa’yieo ai??o ?ieneiinueei? /anoeie aeeoeioey, ia
a?eueo i?oei? eai’yi?.

3.3. ?ieneiinueeee aea??. Aieiaiith nii?oaeith
a?o?oaeoo?ii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai eiiieaeno, aeii?iaioith ?ieneiinueei?
/anoeie aeeoeioey, aoa niai? na. A?o?no?aoeaa Ieoa?ea. Aei eiai
i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai eooa i?eeyaaa caoaeiaaiee o cia/i?e nai?e /anoei? ua
a e?ioe? O? – ia?o?e iieiaei? O?? no. eiiieaen iioiaaeueieo iai’yoie –
oneiaeaiue. A e?oiienao ? iecea caien?a, ui iia?aeiieythoue i?i
iioiaaiiy i?e Ieoaee?anueeiio niai?? ??cieo in?a (Nayoineaa
Aieiaeeie?iae/, Aiae??e Aieiaeeie?iae/ Aeia?ee, ?inoeneaa TH??eiae/,
Aieiaeeie? Ae?aiae/, ss?ineaa Inoeneaae/ E?aniee). Aei eiiieaeno nii?oae
?ieneiinueeiai aeai?o aoiaeeea oaeiae eai’yia a?iiaaenueea nii?oaea –
e?oiienia “no?iaiuea aaiueiia eaiaii”. Aiia aoea caoaeiaaia o e?ioe? O?
no., oiaoi aoiaeeea aei /enea ia’?eo?a, caaaeaieo ia aeeoeioe?
a?caio?enueeith aoae?aaeueiith a?o?eeth eiooaie ?ieneiia ?o?aia.

A ?ieneiinuee?e /anoei? aeeoeioey ciaoiaeeeanue ua iaeia iiioiaioaeueia
eai’yia nii?oaea – oea?eaa Aicaeaeaeaiiy *anoiiai O?anoa Ainiiaeiy, a
oaeiae aea?aa’yi? nii?oaee (aeeoeia? i?ei?uaiiy), aea iaa i?iaeeaaoe
?ieneii oa eiai ee??in, ??ci? aeiiii?aei? oa ainiiaea?nuee? i?ei?uaiiy,
e?ea?iy, aea cae?enithaaeiny e?eoaaiiy oai?eo.

?ieneiinueeee aea?? aoa ioi/aiee eai’yiith no?iith, caoaeiaaiith i?ney
caaa?oaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa eiiieaeno ?ieneiinueeeo ai??o oa ?ioeo eai’yieo
nii?oae oe??? /anoeie aeeoeioey. Ca iaoeie i?ae?aooieaie caaaeueia
ieiua, yeo iaee caeiaoe an? ia?a?aoiaai? aeua ia’?eoe, neeaaeaea
aeecueei 1,85 aa. A aieiaieo nai?o ?enao ainaiaeue ?ieneiinueeiai aeai?o
noi?ioaaany o e?ioe? O? no., iaeiae eiai oa?eoi??y aoea aeae?eaia ua a
e?ioe? O no., eiee caniiaoaaeinue i?noi.

3.4. Oea?eaa na. Aiae??y. Ii?yae c ?ieneiinueeei aeai?ii, iaai?ioe
aoiaeo, ?icoaoiaoaaeanue oea?eaa na. Aiae??y, ui iaiaaeoaaea c i?aii/?
iaaaeeeo ieiuo. Aeaia oea?eaa ?icaeyaea?oueny a?o?oaeoi?aie ye
oeiieia?/ii iaeaeeae/a aei ia?ayneaanueeiai Ieoaee?anueeiai niai?o. Aiia
aoea iaaaeeeei i?eoiaenueeei o?aiii. Ia ei?enoue oeueiai na?ae/eoue ??
?icoaooaaiiy ca iaaeaie ?ieneiinueei? /anoeie aeeoeioey.

3.5. Eiyaeee aea??. A e?oiieno ? eeoa iaeia i?yia caaaeea i?i iueiai –
i?ae 1098 ?., aea iiia?aea?oueny i?i caaaeaiiy Aieiaeeie?ii Iiiiiaoii
oea?eae Oni?iiy Aiai?iaeeoe? ia eiyaeiio aeai??. Eiyaeee aea??
Ia?ayneaaey, ?acii c ?ieneiinueeei aeai?ii, aoa iaea?eueo ?noioiei
eiiiiiaioii o oi?ioaaii? i?noa (a iaoiio aeiaaeeo – aeeoeioey) ? iaeiei
c iaeaaaeeea?oeo oeaio??a eiai iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo.

Ine?eueee Ia?ayneaaeue aoa caeeaaeaiee o e?ioe? O no. ia iacaaoaeiaaiiio
aei oeueiai i?noe?, ia a?iae? /a?ac ?. O?oa?ae, oi an? iniiai? e
iaea?eueo aaaeeea? ia’?eoe aeeoeioey – a?aie, aoeeoe?, ieiu?,
?ieneiinueeee oa eiyaeee aeai?e, aeai?e cia/ieo aiy?-oaiaeae?a –
ieaioaaeeny c naiiai ii/aoeo. A iiaeaeueoiio, c? c?inoaiiyi ianaeaiiy
i?noa ? i?aeaeuaiiyi eiai noaoono ye oeaio?o Ia?ayneaanueei? caie? ?
eiyc?anoaa, ieaioaaeueia no?oeoo?a i?noa iiaea aeaeici?ithaaoeny. C?
noiaeo, a?ae?aco ca oea?eaith Oni?iiy, i?ioiaeeea oeaio?aeueia aoeeoey
aeeoeioey, ui c’?aeioaaea Eiyae? oa ?ieneiinuee? ai?ioa. Oaeei /eiii,
eiyaeee aea?? caeiaa oa?eoi??th i?ai?/ii? /anoeie aeeoeioey e
iaiaaeoaaany c? noiaeo oeaio?aeueiith aoeeoeath, c i?aii/? oa caoiaeo –
aaeii aeeoeioey, c i?aaeiy – iiia?a/iith aoeeoeath, ui a?aeoiaeeea a?ae
oeaio?aeueiiai iaeaeaio aeeoeioey.

Eaieeoey ia?oi? iieiaeie O?? no. ?icoaoiaoaaeanue i?eaeecii ca 80 i ia
i?aaeaiiee cao?ae a?ae oea?eae Oni?iiy Aiai?iaeeoe?. Ia iaoo aeoieo,
aiia oaeiae iaea aoiaeeoe aei oa?eoi??? eiyaeiai aeai?o. ?oeioaaiiy o
1124 ?. niai?o na. A?o?no?aoeaa Ieoa?ea – aieiaiiai o?aio eiyc?anoaa ?
?iaeeiii? oneiaeuei? Iiiiiaoiae/?a – noaei i?e/eiith i?e?caeo a
Ia?ayneaaeue aoae?aaeueii? a?o?e?. Ia caiiaeaiiy ss?iiieea
Aieiaeeie?iae/a, e??i ?aiiioo “?iaeeiiiai” Ieoaee?anueeiai niai?o, aoei
caoaeiaaii e iaaaeeeo aeiiiao oea?eao ia oa?eoi??? eiyaeiai aeai?o.

3.6. ?aoeai??a aea??. Oa?eoi??th ua iaeiiai oaiaeaeueiiai aeai?o
aeeoeioey Ia?ayneaaey aecia/a? i?noea ?icoaooaaiiy iaaaeeei? oea?eae
e?ioey O? no. ia no/ani?e aoe. ?aaeyinuee?e, 7. A??ia?aeii, ??
caiiaieeii aoa iaeei c aieeaiaeo ia?ayneaaeuenueeeo aiy?, ui caeiaa
cia/ia i?noea a eiyae?e aaei?i?no?aoe?? ? i?a, i?ney caaaeaiiy Iiiiiaoii
oea?eae Aiai?iaeeoe? o 1098 ?., cai?ineoe a?o?eue aoae?aaeueiee?a aeey
iiaoaeiae aeaniiai aio/eiiiai o?aio – aiy?ei ?aoeai?. Iiaeeeai,
caoaeiaaia iei oea?eaa aoea i?enay/aia ?iai? na. Eeeiaioa,
iao?iiaeueiiai nayoiai ?aoeai?a. Aea?? ?aoeai?a caeiaa i?ino?? i?ae
?ieneiinueeei oa eiyaeei aeai?aie. A?i iaaeoaaa c ieie, a?aeiia?aeii, c
i?aaeiy oa i?aii/?. C? noiaeo eiai ai?ioa aeoiaeeee ia oeaio?aeueio
aoeeoeth, ?c caoiaeo a?i i?eeyaaa aei aaeo aeeoeioey. Ieiua aeai?o –
i?eaeecii 1,8 aa.

3.7. Naaeeae ?yaeiaiai ianaeaiiy. O no?aei?e /anoei? aeeoeioey
i?iaeeaaee /eneaii? ?ai?nieee oa ?io? eaoaai??? ?yaeiaiai ianaeaiiy,
iia’ycai? c ianeoaiaoaaiiyi ?ieneiinueeiai, eiyaeiai oa ?ioeo cia/ieo
oaiaeaeueieo aeai??a. Oey /anoeia aeeoeioey aaciina?aaeiuei i?eeyaaea
aei oa?eoi??? eiaaeuenueei? neiaiaee, a?aeiii? ca ?icoaoiaaieie ii?yae
e?oiienieie Eocia/eie ai?ioaie.

?ICAe?E 4. “IEIEUeIA I?NOI”

4.1. Iai?iii? nii?oaee. Aiae?c e?oiienieo na?ae/aiue oa iaoa??aee
a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui oe??ieaiiy
“ieieueiiai i?noa” aoee caoaeiaai? i?ae na?iiai 1136 ?. oa n?/iai 1142
?., ca ?i?oe?aoeaith ia?ayneaanueeiai eiycy Aiae??y Aieiaeeie?iae/a
Aeia?iai. Eiino?oeoeaii aiie a?ae??ciyeenue a?ae oe??ieaiue aeeoeioey,
iath/e a iniia? eeoeaai? noi?iie aaeo iaaenieee aeoaiaee c?oa eeoa c
e?eueeio eieiae. Caa?oo aaeo ciaoiaeeeenue aea?aa’yi? eiino?oeoe?? o
aeaeyae? no?ie-/anoieieo. Oe??ieaiiy ioi/oaaee ieiuo i?eaeecii a 66 aa.

4.2. Ai?ioa “ieieueiiai i?noa”. “Ieieueia i?noi” Ia?ayneaaey iaei o?i?
ai??o – Aeueoeoeuee?, Ee?anuee? oa Eocia/?, inoaii? c yeeo cana?ae/ai? a
e?oiienao. I?noey ?icoaooaaiiy Aeueoeoeueeeo oa Ee?anueeeo ai??o
o?enothoueny, a?aeiia?aeii, ca ?icoaooaaiiyi Aeueoeoeueei? oa Ee?anueei?
a?ai OO??-OO??? no. Eocia/? ai?ioa ciaoiaeeeenue o o?e ae?eyioe?
oe??ieaiue “ieieueiiai i?noa”, ui i?eeyaaea aei oe??ieaiue aeeoeioey ia
i?aaiio aa?ac? ?. O?oa?ae, ieae/a i?noey c’?aeiaiiy aeaio ?oeaa?a oe???
??ee.

4.3. Ieaioaaeueia no?oeoo?a. Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy oe???
oa?eoi??? ye i?nueeiai ?aeiio ?icii/aeiny iaeii/anii c oi?ioaaiiyi
aeeoeioey, oiaoi ia ?oaaae? O oa O? no. Oa?eoi??y “ieieueiiai i?noa”
canaeyeanue iinooiiai, acaeiaae iniiaieo iaa?no?aeae oa a?ey
o?ainii?oieo aoce?a, a?o?oaeoo?ieo aeii?iaio.

Ia oa?eoi??? oe??? /anoeie i?noa ia?aoeiaeeny, iaeii/anii noai?thth/e
iniiao eiai ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e, aea? o?ainii?oi? iaa?no?ae? –
e?aiaa?aaeiiaei?i?ianueea (aai?o aei Ee?aa) oa aanainueei-ca?oanueeee
oeyo. E??i ieo, aaaeeeao ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? aoee/ii? n?oee a?ae?a?aaaee
aea? ae?aaiiaeuei? aoeeoe?, ui c’?aeioaaee Aeueoeoeueeo oa Eocia/o a?aie
c Ee?anueeith.

A?ey o?ueio ai??o “ieieueiiai i?noa”, ana?aaeei? eiai oa?eoi???, oa
ia?aae Eiyaeeie ai?ioaie aeeoeioey ?icoaoiaoaaeenue iaaaeee? ieiu?.
Oeaio?aeueiee (a?/iaee) iaeaeai – i?nueeee oi?a, caeiaa oa?eoi??th a
oeaio?? “ieieueiiai i?noa”, ia iaeiaeia?e a?aenoai? a?ae on?o eiai
ai??o.

4.4. Eoeueoia? nii?oaee “ieieueiiai i?noa”. C iaio noi??i oeaio?aeueiiai
iaeaeaio ?icoaoiaoaaeenue aeaa iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaene. O?eiaaiee
oanoenoiaiiee niai? iaeiiai c ieo aeyaeaii ? aeine?aeaeaii a?oaieia?/ii.
Oa?eoi??y oeueiai iiianoe?y caeiaea anth i?ai?/ii-no?aeio /anoeio
“ieieueiiai i?noa”. I/aaeaeii, oai ?icoaoiaoaaany ua iaeei o?ai – na.
O??eoe?, ia i?noe? iaeiieiaiii? oea?eae OO?? no. Iiianoe?nueeee niai?
Aine?an?iiy O?enoiaiai aoei caoaeiaaii i?ae o?aaiai 1124 ?. oa ea?oiai
1132 ?. eiycai ss?iiieeii Aieiaeeie?iae/ai.

Ae?oaee iiianoe?nueeee eiiieaen ?icoaoiaoaaany ia oa?eoi??? no/aniiai
Aicianainueeiai iiianoe?y. Ia cao?ae a?ae iueiai ciaoiaeeeanue naaeeaa
iaeiiai c aieeaiaeo ia?ayneaaeuenueeeo aiy? – iiaeeeai, I?iainoy, ui
caoaeoaaa ia ?oaaae? O? oa O?? no. iaeiiaineaeio aeainoiaiio
oea?eao-oneiaeueith na. Niana.

E??i aeaio a?oaieia?/ii aeine?aeaeaieo eoeueoiaeo nii?oae (oea?eae Niana
oa Aine?an?iiy) ia oa?eoi??? “ieieueiiai i?noa” Ia?ayneaaey aoee e ?io?
oea?eae – eai’yi? oa aea?aa’yi?.

4.5. Naaeeae ?yaeiaiai ianaeaiiy. A?oaieia?/ii aeine?aeaeai? ye caeeoee
ieaei?o (i?aeaaeueieo) i?ei?uaiue – i?aeee?o?a aaaaoeo aiy?nueeeo
naaeea, oae ? caeeoee aeeoae ?yaeiaeo iaoeaioe?a (anueiai 65 nii?oae).
I?aeee?o aiy?nueeiai aeeoea a?ey Eiyaeeo ai??o iaa eioeiaai ?ici??ii
i?eaeecii 8o8,2 i, na?aaei? ?ici??e caaeeaeaieo aeeoae ?yaeiaeo
iaoeaioe?a neeaaeaee 3,5-4o3,5-4 i.

Aeey “ieieueiiai i?noa” Ia?ayneaaey oa?aeoa?iei ? noaea ieaioaaiiy
naaeea, ui i?eaiaeeei aei a?aeiiaeaiiy nii?oae ia ?o noa?eo i?noeyo.
Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue caaeeaeaieo nii?oae aeaoo?oueny O?-O?? no., ui
na?ae/eoue i?i iie?oeei-aeiiii?/ia oa eoeueoo?ia i?aeianaiiy i?noa a
oeae /an.

?ICAe?E 5. IA?AAeAI?IAeAess, IAE?IIIE? OA IEIEEOI? ?AEIIE IA?AssNEAAEss

5.1. Ia?aaeai?iaeaey. I?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
?iceiiee ia ia?aaeai?iaeaeyo Ia?ayneaaey aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe, ui oe?
?aeiie canaeyeenue ia i?ney inai?iiy oa?eoi??e aeeoeioey ? “ieieueiiai
i?noa”, a i?aeoe/ii iaeii/anii c ieie, ia ?oaaae? O oa O? no. Ua iaeei
oe?eaaee oaeo, yeee aaeaeiny aeyaeoe i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiue a o?. Eoa,
Iaieiiue oa Ia?/aieia? eoee, – oea oaeo ??ceiai e iaeii/aniiai
i?eieiaiiy ?o ?nioaaiiy. Aa?oiy o?iiieia?/ia iaaea eiiieaen?a ea?ai?ee c
aeeoeiaeo oa ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae, yi – oea ia?oa iieiaeia O?? no.
Ea?ai?ee, yea a aeaooaaeany ae?oaith iieiaeiith O??-O??? no., ia
oa?eoi??yo iacaaieo o?i/eu ia aeyaeaii. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie i?e/eiaie, ui
i?ecaaee aei cieeiaiiy iacaaieo ia?aaeai?iaeue ?: ia?anaeaiiy /anoeie ?o
iaoeaioe?a i?ae caoeno iiaicaoaeiaaieo oe??ieaiue “ieieueiiai i?noa”;
ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai o ca’yceo c
ia?anaeaiiyie 30-40-o ??. O?? no. oa canioaaiiyi iiaeo i?no; i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy a?oioiaeo aiae.

5.2. Iae?iiie?. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue eo?aaiieo iiaeeueiee?a
Ia?ayneaaey aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aiie caeeoai? ?yaeiaeie
iaoeaioeyie i?noa. O?iiieia?/i? iaae? ?nioaaiiy an?o i’yoe
ia?ayneaanueeeo iiaeeueiee?a – e?iaoeue O-O??? no., ui a?aeiia?aea?
/ania? ?nioaaiiy i?noa. Aiae?c ?icoaooaaiiy ia?ayneaanueeeo iae?iiie?a
oa i?nueeeo aeeoeiaeo ?aeii?a aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe, iaoeaioe?a yeeo naia
?aeii?a oiaaee ia eiie?aoieo iiaeeueieeao.

5.3. Ieieeoi? ?aeiie Ia?ayneaaey. Ieieeoi? ?aeiie Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai
aeeth/aee aei naaa oa?eoi??th, aaciina?aaeiuei i?eeaaeo aei eiai
ia?aaeai?iaeue: cai?nuee? aeai?e, iiianoe??, oeyoe niieo/aiiy,
ia?ai?aae, a?iaee, noi?iaeia? ioieoe, i?ei?nuee? o?i/eua. Cia/io /anoeio
oeeo ia’?eo?a, a?aeiieo c e?oiien?a, eieae?ciaaii, iiaeaeueo?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiiiiaeooue anoaiiaeoe ?icoaooaaiiy ?ioeo. Iaaeiei
Ia?ayneaaey ciaoiaeeeenue iiianoe?? na. Naae oa ??caeaa Aiai?iaeeoe?,
cai?nueeee eiyaeee E?aniee aea??, Ca??eiaoeue – i?noea ?icaaaeaiiy e
iiethaaiiy ia ca???a, a oaeiae /eneaii? i?ei?nuee? naea. Iaoa??aee
?ica?aeeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a aeicaieythoue neeanoe ?aaeueia
oyaeaiiy i?i u?euei?noue canaeaiiy ieieeoeue Ia?ayneaaey o e?ioe? O –
ia?o?e iieiaei? O??? no.

AENIIAEE

1. Aeeoeiaoeue Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai aoei caoaeiaaii aaeeeei ee?anueeei
eiycai Aieiaeeie?ii Nayoineaae/ai o 988-992/993 ??. ia ia?ao?ano? aeaio
aaaeeeaeo nooiiooieo iaa?no?aeae, ui aaee c aieo noaio aei Ee?aa, ia
a?iae? /a?ac ?. O?oa?ae.

2. Iioiaeaeaiiy iacae “Ia?ayneaaeue” i?yii iia’yco?oueny c
?onueei-aieaa?nueeeie noinoieaie ae?oai? iieiaeie O no.

3. Aaea ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? ?nioaaiiy i?noa aoei caeeaaeaii
nioe?aeueii-oiiia?ao?/ia ?aeiioaaiiy aeeoeioey, aeae?eaii eiyaeo oa
?ieneiinueeo /anoeie, aeai?e aiy?, ?aeii iaoeaiiy ?yaeiaeo aeeoae?a.

4. Eiyaea /anoeia aeeoeioey ?icoaoiaoaaeanue a?ey eiai Eiyaeeo ai??o,
?ieneiinueea – a?aeiia?aeii a?ey ?ieneiinueeeo. Iacaai? ai?ioa eaaeaee
ia i?ioeeaaeieo e?ioeyo oeaio?aeueii? aoeeoe?, ui aoea, oaeoe/ii,
a?ae??ceii e?aiaa?aaeiiaei?i?ianueei? o?ainii?oii? iaa?no?ae? aei Ee?aa.

5. Oi?ioaaiiy oa?eoi??? “ieieueiiai i?noa” Ia?ayneaaey ?icii/aeiny
iaeii/anii c oi?ioaaiiyi aeeoeioey, oiaoi ia ?oaaae? O oa O? no. Aiia
canaeyeanue iinooiiai, acaeiaae iniiaieo oeyo?a oa a?ey o?ainii?oieo
aoce?a, a?o?oaeoo?ieo aeii?iaio.

6. Oe??ieaiiy “ieieueiiai i?noa” aoee caoaeiaai? i?ae 1136 oa 1142 ??.,
ca ?i?oe?aoeaith eiycy Aiae??y Aieiaeeie?iae/a. Aiie iaee o?i? ai??o –
Ee?anuee?, Aeueoeoeuee? oa Eocia/?.

7. Ia oa?eoi??? “ieieueiiai i?noa”, c aeaio noi??i oeaio?aeueiiai oi?ao
(a?/a), ?icoaoiaoaaeenue aeaa iiianoe?nueeeo eiiieaene, a oiio /ene?
?iai?anueeee iiianoe?, a oaeiae e?eueea eai’yieo oa aea?aa’yieo
eoeueoiaeo nii?oae. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiue aeae?eythoueny
aiy?nuee? naaeeae oa eaa?oaee c naaeeaaie ?yaeiaeo iaoeaioe?a.

8. C on?o aie?a Ia?ayneaaeue aoei ioi/aii ieceith ia?aaeai?iaeue,
oi?ioaaiiy yeeo a?aeaoaaeiny i?aeoe/ii iaeii/anii c oa?eoi??yie
aeeoeioey oa “ieieueiiai i?noa” – ia ?oaaae? O oa O? no.

9. I’youe ia?ayneaaeuenueeeo iae?iiie?a ni?aa?aeiinyoueny c i’youeia
?aeiiaie i?noa, aea i?iaeeaaei ?yaeiaa ianaeaiiy.

10. ?icaeoie i?noiaoae?aaeueii? no?oeoo?e Ia?ayneaaey i?ieoia aeaa
iniiaieo aoaie. Ia ia?oiio c ieo (e?iaoeue O – ii/aoie O?? no.)
caniiao?oueny i?noi, oi?iothoueny eiai iniiai? i?noiaecia/aeuei?
eiiiiiaioe – oi?oaoey-aeeoeiaoeue oa aaeeeee iaoe??ieaiee iinaae.
Iaeii/anii aeieea? iecea i?nueeeo ia?aaeai?iaeue. Caaaeueia ieiua i?noa
aeinyaa? 123-125 aa, /enaeuei?noue ianaeaiiy noaiiaeoue i?eaeecii
11-11,5 oen. /ie. Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (30-o? ??. O?? no. – ia?oa iieiaeia
O??? no.) caiaiaaea? /anoeia ia?aaeai?iaeue, caaaeueia ieiua i?noa
ciaioo?oueny ia 20-25 aa. Iaeii/anii, o ca’yceo c ia?anaeaiiyie 40-50-o
??. O?? no. ia 2-3 oen. /ie. ciaioo?oueny /enaeuei?noue i?nueeiai
ianaeaiiy, yea iio?i caeeoa?oueny noaa?eueiith aae aei ?ica?iio
Ia?ayneaaey iiiaiei-oaoa?aie o 1239 ?.

Ca oaiith eaiaeeaeaonueei? aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii oae?
?iaioe:

1. Aei ieoaiiy i?i e?oiienia ssi/eia n?eueoea // I?iaeaie aea/aiiy
na?aaeiueia?/iiai naea ia Iie?nn?. – *a?i?a?a: N?aa?yinueea aeoiea. –
1992. – N.62-66.

2. Aii/a?i? eeaeia c Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai // ?iaeia?ae. – 1994. – ? 7.
– N.44-46.

3. Iia? iaoa??aee aei ?noi?e/ii? oiiia?ao?? ieieeoeue Ia?ayneaaey
?onueeiai // ?noi??y oa eoeueoo?a E?aiaa?aaeaey Oe?a?ie. – E. — I?aeei:
IAeI?. – 1997. – N.9-12.

4. I?e?i-aaia?ao?/i? oa oiiia?ao?/i? oiiae oa?eoi??? Ia?ayneaaey
?onueeiai // Ee?anueea noa?iaeia. – 1998. – ? 4. – N.165-169.

5. I?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/i? oiiae oeaio?aeueii? Ia?ayneaaueie o O-O??? no.
// Iaoeia? caienee c oe?a?inueei? ?noi???. – E. —
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee — *a?i?aoe?: AO “Na?oa”. – 1998. – Aei.5. –
N.41-45.

6. ?icaeoie i?noiaoae?aaeueii? no?oeoo?e Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai o na?oe?
a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
O.Oaa/aiea. – 1998. – Aei.40. – N.18-20.

7. A?oaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a o?i/eu? Iaieiiue // Ia?ayneaanueea
caiey ? na?o ethaeeie. – E.- Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee: AO “Iaeuei??a”.
– 1998. – N.20-23.

8. I?i iioiaeaeaiiy Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai // A?oaieia?y. – 1999. – ? 1.
– N.47-59.

9. ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai // Iaoeia?
caienee c oe?a?inueei? ?noi???. – Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee: Cieio?
eeoaa?e, 1999. – Aei.6. – N.13-17.

Eieeaaiei I.A. ?noi?e/ia oiiia?ao?y Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai (O – ia?oa
iieiaeia O??? no.). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.04 – ?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeai? oi?ioaaiiy oa?eoi??? iaeiiai c
iaea?eueoeo oeaio??a ?onueei? caie? – Ia?ayneaaey ?onueeiai, c’ynoaaiith
iniiaieo aoai?a eiai ?icaeoeo, aea/aiith nioe?aeueii-oiiia?ao?/ii? oa
ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e ie?aieo neeaaeiaeo /anoei i?noa, eieae?caoe?? oa
ao?eaooe?? ??ciiiai?oieo ia’?eo?a, ieoaiiyi ?noi?e/ii? aeaiia?ao??.
C’yniaaii, ui Ia?ayneaaeue aeieea? o e?ioe? O no. (988-993 ??.) ye
aaeeea i?noi, ?icoaoiaaia ia ?oaaaeao ?on?, ia ia?ao?ano? aeaio
aaaeeeaeo oeyo?a, ui aaee c E?aiaa?aaeaey Aei?i?a aei Ee?aa.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy oa?eoi??? i?noa i?ioiaeeoue aeaa iniiaieo
aoaie. Ia ia?oiio c ieo (e?iaoeue O no. – 30-o? ??. O?? no.) iaeii/anii
c aoae?aieoeoaii aeeoeioey iinooiiai canaeythoueny oa?eoi??? “ieieueiiai
i?noa” oa ia?aaeai?iaeue, aiii aeinyaa? iaea?eueoeo nai?o ?ici???a (123
– 125 aa), /enaeuei?noue ianaeaiiy neeaaea? 11-11,5 oen. /ie. Ia ii/aoeo
ae?oaiai aoaio (30-40-a? ??. O?? no. – 1239 ?.) ieiua i?noa
ciaioo?oueny. Iaeii/anii c oeei aoaeothoueny oe??ieaiiy “ieieueiiai
i?noa” (1136-1142 ??.). *enaeuei?noue ianaeaiiy ciaioo?oueny ia 2-3 oen.
/ie., i?ney /iai caeeoa?oueny noaa?eueiith aae aei c?oeioaaiiy i?noa
iiiaiei-oaoa?aie o 1239 ?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Ia?ayneaaeue ?onueeee, ?noi?e/ia oiiia?ao?y,
aeeoeiaoeue, “ieieueia i?noi”, ia?aaeai?iaeaey, ieaioaaeueia no?oeoo?a.

Eieuaaiei A.A. Enoi?e/aneay oiiia?aoey Ia?ayneaaey ?onueneiai (O –
ia?aay iieiaeia O??? a.). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.04 – a?oaieiaey. – Einoeooo a?oaieiaee IAI
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey iaeiiai ec e?oiiaeoeo
oeaio?ia ?onueneie caiee – Ia?ayneaaey ?onueneiai, auyniaieth iniiaiuo
yoaiia aai ?acaeoey, eco/aieth nioeeaeueii-oiiia?aoe/aneie e
ieaie?iai/iie no?oeoo? ioaeaeueiuo ninoaaiuo /anoae ai?iaea,
eieaeecaoeee e ao?eaooeee ?aciiia?aciuo iauaeoia, aii?inai enoi?e/aneie
aeaiia?aoee. A ?aaioa aia?aua nenoaiaoece?iaai e iaiauai aanue
eiathueeny iannea eioi?iaoeee ii aeaiiiio aii?ino, aaaaeaiu a iao/iue
iai?io iaoa?eaeu a?oaieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee iineaaeieo eao ia
oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea, ?anniio?ai e ?aoai ?yae nii?iuo e iaeieco/aiiuo
aii?inia. Ia iniiaa eiiieaeniiai enneaaeiaaiey o?ao iniiaiuo eaoaai?ee
enoi/ieeia – ienueiaiiuo, ea?oia?aoe/aneeo e a?oaieiae/aneeo – a ?aaioa
?anniao?eaathony iniiaiua yoaiu ae?aaiaai canaeaiey oa??eoi?ee
Ia?ayneaaey e ie?oae, iee?iaaia?aoe/aneea e oiiia?aoe/aneea oneiaey yoie
oa??eoi?ee, a oaeaea i?iaeaia i?ienoiaeaeaiey ai?iaea e aai iacaaiey.
Auyniaii, /oi Ia?ayneaaeue aiciee a eiioea O a. (988-993 aa.) eae
e?oiiue ai?iae, ?aniieiaeaiiue ia ?oaaaeao ?one, ia ia?ana/aiee aeaoo
aaaeiuo iooae, eioi?ua aaee n Eaaiaa?aaeuey Aeiai?a e Eeaao:
eaaiaa?aaeiiaeiai?ianeie o?ainii?oiie iaaeno?aee e aanainei-ca?oaneiai
iooe. I?ienoiaeaeaiea iacaaiey “Ia?ayneaaeue” iaoiaeeony a i?yiie nayce
n ?onuenei-aieaa?neeie ioiioaieyie iineaaeiae /aoaa?oe O a. e anoue
?acoeueoaoii ia?aianaiey oiiiieia “I?aneaa” n oa??eoi?ee Aieaa?ee.

Aeaoeiaoe Ia?ayneaaey eiae ieiuaaeue ieiei 12 aa. Iaoa?eaeu
a?oaieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iaee/ee
nioeeaeueii-oiiia?aoe/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey aeaoeioea, eioi?ia auei
caeiaeaii oaea ia ia/aeueiii yoaia nouanoaiaaiey ai?iaea. Iniiaie
ieaie?iai/iie no?oeoo?u aeaoeioea auea oeaio?aeueiay oeeoea, eioi?ay
i?ioiaeeea io aai Aieneiineeo aei Eiyaeeo ai?io e, oaeoe/anee, auea
io?aceii eaaiaa?aaeiiaeiai?ianeie o?ainii?oiie iaaeno?aee. Ia
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo eiioeao yoie oeeoeu iaoiaeeeenue aieneiineee e eiyaeee
aeai?u. Ia aeaaioth oeeoeo auoiaeeee e ae?oaea oaiaeaeueiua aeai?u,
iai?eia?, aeai? ?aoeai?a, oyaioaee e iae oaeaea ana iaiyoieee
iiioiaioaeueiie eaiaiiie a?oeoaeoo?u aeaoeioea.

“Ieieueiue ai?iae” Ia?ayneaaey iaoiaeeeny n iaiieueiie noi?iiu
oe?aieaiee aeaoeioea e caieiae ieiuaaeue ieiei 66 aa. Aai canaeaiea
ia/aeinue aua a eiioea O a., ii i?ienoiaeeei iinoaiaiii, aaeieue
iniiaiuo iaaeno?aeae, ieiei a?oeoaeoo?iuo aeiieiaio. Aeaaiue oi?a
Ia?ayneaaey (aa/aaay ieiuaaeue) aue ?aciauai a oeaio?a “ieieueiiai
ai?iaea”, ?yaeii, n iaaeo noi?ii iaoiaeeeenue aeaa iiianou?neeo
eiiieaena. Aeaaiue (Aine?anaineee) niai? iaeiiai ec ieo – Eiaiiianeiai –
aue enneaaeiaai a?oaieiae/anee. E?iia oiai, ia yoie oa??eoi?ee auee e
ae?oaea eoeueoiaua nii?oaeaiey – eaiaiiua e aea?aayiiua. Inoaoee
iieiinoueth ?aneiiaiiie Nianneie oea?eae-onuiaeueieoeu O? a. oeene?otho
niaie ianoi onaaeueau iaeiiai ec aeeyoaeueiuo ia?ayneaaeueneeo aiy? –
aiciiaeii, I?iainoy.

Oe?aieaiey “ieieueiiai ai?iaea” auee aicaaaeaiu iaaeaeo aaaonoii 1136 a.
e yiaa?ai 1142 a. ii eieoeeaoeaa ia?ayneaaeueneiai eiycy Aiae?ay
Aeaaeeie?iae/a Aeia?iai.

Aie?oa aeaoo oe?aieaiiuo /anoae Ia?ayneaaey ?aniieaaaeenue
i?aaea?aaeuey, eioi?ua caieiaee ieiuaaeue ieiei 45 aa. Eo aicieeiiaaiea
aeaoe?oaony ?oaaaeii O e O? aa. A 30-o aa. O?? a. iaoiaeeaoeany a iieia
eaaiai aa?aaa ?. O?oaaae i?aaea?aaeuey i?ae?auatho naia nouanoaiaaiea.

Aiaeec ?aniieiaeaiey ia?ayneaaeueneeo iae?iiieae e ai?iaeneeo aeeeuo
?aeiiia iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue, aeeoaeae eaeeo eiaiii ?aeiiia oi?iieee ia
eiie?aoiuo iiaeeueieeao.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea i?ioiaeeo aeaa yoaia.
Ia ia?aii ec ieo (eiiaoe O a. – 30-a aa. O?? a.) iaeiia?aiaiii ni
no?ieoaeuenoaii aeaoeioea iinoaiaiii canaeythony oa??eoi?ee “ieieueiiai
ai?iaea” e i?aaea?aaeee, ai?iae aeinoeaaao iaeaieueoeo naieo ?acia?ia
(123-125 aa), /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ninoaaeyao 11-11,5 oun. /aeiaae. A
ia/aea aoi?iai yoaia (30-40-a aa. O?? a. – 1239 a.) aicaiaeyony
oe?aieaiey “ieieueiiai ai?iaea”, a iauay ieiuaaeue anaai ai?iaea
oiaiueoaaony. *eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey oaeaea oiaiueoaaony ia 2-3 oun.
/aeiaae, iinea /aai inoaaony noaaeeueiie aieioue aei ?aca?iia ai?iaea
iiiaiei-oaoa?aie a 1239 a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Ia?ayneaaeue ?onueneee, enoi?e/aneay oiiia?aoey,
aeaoeiaoe, “ieieueiue ai?iae”, i?aaea?aaeuea, ieaie?iai/iay no?oeoo?a.

Kolybenko O.V. Historycal Topography of Pereyaslavl Rusky (the Xth – the
first half of the XIIIth century). – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 07.00.04. — archaeology. —
The Institute of Archaelogy of the National Academi of sciences of
Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The author of the thesis considers the problem of forming the territory
of one of the biggest centres of the Rus Land – Pereyaslavl Rusky, he
determines the principal stages of it’s development, researches into
social and topographic as well as planning structure of separate
components of the town, examines the problems of historical demography,
localisation and attribution of various objects. It has been ascertained
that Pereyaslavl appeared at the elose of the Xth century (years
988-993) as a big town sitated at the border-line of Rus, at the
cross-roads of two important ways leading from the Dnieper’s Left Bank
Territory to Kyiv. It has been found out that the forming of the town’s
area had two stages. During the first stage (the end of the Xth – the
thirties of the XIIth century) simultaneously with the building of the
dytynets the territories of the town outskirts and suburbs were
gradually populated, the settlement increased to it’s biggest
proportions (123-125 hectares), the population was 11-11,5 thousand
people. In the beginning of the second stage (the thirties-forties of
the XIIth century – 1239) the fortifications of the town outskirts were
built, but the total area of the town decreased. The population
decreased too by 2-3 thousand, after which it remained stable till 1239
when the town was destroyed by Tatar-Mongols.

Key words: Pereyaslavl Rusky, historical topography, dytynets, town
outskirts, suburbs, planning structure.

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