EE?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE E?IAA?NOE*IEE

OIIAA?NEOAO

OAeE 802.0 — 561

OAA*AIEI I?eia Naiai?aia

INOI?E*IA AeEIAI?IEA

I?AAIAOE*IEO AEANOEAINOAE

AIAEIENUeEIAI IEOAEUeIIAI ?A*AIIss

(16—20 no.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ia?aeeaaeo oa aiae?enueei? iiae

Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

II*AIOeIA AAI?A?E AAI?A?EIAE*,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e a?aiaoeee oa ?noi??? aiae?enueei? iiae

Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EAAEOeUeEEE A?EOI? AANEEUeIAE*,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?iaoeueei? iiae oa caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa

*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

I?CAOeUeEA A??A ss?INEAA?AIA,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?iicaiieo iia

Iaeanueei? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

OAA*EI NA?OEAIA IEAEN??AIA,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ia?aeeaaeo

Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.?.?.Ia/i?eiaa I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a a?aiaoeee aiae?enueei? iiae, i. Iaeana

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 7 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.054.02 o Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
e?iaa?noe/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (252650, Ee?a, aoe *a?aiiia?i?enueea, 73).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «2» aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.A.
EAEEOA

O ?aoa?iaai?e aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeththoueny eiioeaiooaeuei? iniiae
?noi?eei-i?aaiaoe/ii? ia?aaeeaie a e?iaa?noe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo oa
cae?enith?oueny aiae?c ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae
aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy.

Ia’?eoii aea/aiiy ? aiae?enueea ieoaeueia ?a/aiiy o iiaeaii?a?e
eiioi?eaoe?? 16 — 20 no.

I?aaeiao aiae?co neeaaeathoue i?aaiaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aiae?enueeiai
ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy a iiaeaii?aiio aeo? oa aeeneo?n? a ?o ?noi?e/i?e
aeeiai?oe?.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae coiiaeaiee eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy aa??thaaiiy
i?aaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a aiae?enueeiai ?a/aiiy a oaenoao 16 — 20 no. I?e
oeueiio aeyaeeeny ooiaeaiaioaeuei? ca’ycee i?aaiaoe/ieo, iiaieo,
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oa aoiiineoieia?/ieo eiiiiiaio?a, ui coiiaeei iiaa
ii?ooaiiy ieoaiiy i?i i?ioeanoaeueio, aaiethoe?eio i?e?iaeo aa?aaeueii?
eiioi?eaoe??. Aiia ?icoi??oueny ye nenoaia, ui ?icaeaa?oueny, ui
ooieoe?iio? o /an?, i?inoi?? oa noni?euenoa?, c o?aooaaiiyi aca?iiae??
/eiiee?a iiaiiai oa iicaiiaiiai ?yaeo. Ia?aaeoiiae oaeiai i?aeoiaeo
i?noyoueny a i?aoeyo I.I.Aaoo?ia, TH.Ae.Aeaoa???aa, A.Iaoey, I.I.
Iioaai?, A.I.Nieioeaaa, A.A.Noaiaiiaa, E.A.Ua?ae oa ?i.

Ae?oaa iieiaeia 20 noi??//y noaea na?aeeii ?icea?oo oe?eiai ?yaeo
eiioi?eaoeaii i???ioiaaieo iai?yie?a aiae?co, na?aae yeeo
i?aaiae?iaa?noeea — iaeia c iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo. Nueiaiaei? oea
aeciaiee ia?niaeoeaiee iai?yiie iiaiciaanoaa, yeee iaeiie/ea cia/iee ca
ianyaii iaoa??ae oai?aoe/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai ieaio, ui noino?oueny, a
iniiaiiio, no/aniiai noaio iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe?? (A.C.Aeai’yieia,
A.A.Ii/aioeia, I.A.Ii/aioeia, ?.I.Nonia, J.Austin, P.Grice, G.Leech,
J.Searle oa ?i.), a oaeiae eiio?anoeaieo i?aeeoeueoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
(S.Blum-Kulka, M.Clyne, T.A. van Dijk, J.House, G.Kasper, M.Sifianou,
D.Tannen oa ?i.). Iaeiae aaaaoi iniiaiiieiaeieo iiiyoue
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee (nooi?noue iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa eiai aniaeoe,
oeiieia?y iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, eiioi?eaoeai? i?eioeeie ? o.i.) ana ua ia
ciaeoee caiai ae??oaiiy, ?icieea/anoi ie?aneai? iaae? oeueiai iai?yieo.

I?iaeaie ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee aieeaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaeaiiy, ye?
aoee i?aeiyo? o i?aoeyo i?iaoeueeeo e?iaa?no?a (P.Polenz,
B.Schlieben-Lange, H.Sitta oa ?i.), ua ia ae?noaee ae/a?iiiai
aena?oeaiiy, i?ae oei ?o aeooaeuei?noue aaaeei ia?aioe?ieoe. C iaeiiai
aieo, eiaeia e?iaa?noe/ia aeenoeeie?ia, ye a?aecia/aa ua A.Eina??o, ia
iiaea caieeaoeny o iaaeao no/aniiai noaio aeine?aeaeoaaieo yaeu ?
iiaeiia aooe aeiiiaiaia a?aeiiinoyie i?i ?o ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie, c
?ioiai, aeine?aeaeaiiy a ieai? ae?ao?ii?? aeicaieythoue i?ieeoe na?oei
ia iaae??oai? ieoaiiy neio?ii?/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee. Iaiao?aeii
a?aecia/eoe, ui ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo iaoee c??n ?ioa?an aei
aiae?co ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeo?a eiioi?eaoe??
(A.?.Ea?aaai, I.Ae.Iao?iaa, A.Ae.Oae/aiei), ui aeiaaa? iiaeo i?aeoiae?a
o aeine?aeaeaii? oeueiai eiiieaeniiai yaeua.

Ona?aeiieaiiy ?iaiaioii? ?noi?e/iino? iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, iaiaaeaiiai
oa?aeoa?o iaio?ii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o i?aaiae?iaa?noeoe? iinoaaeei
ia?aae e?iaa?noaie caaaeaiiy noai?eoe eiiieaenio oai??th aaiethoe??
i?aaiaoeee. Aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ni?iaith iaaeeceoeny aei ae??oaiiy
oe??? i?iaeaie oeyoii aeyaeaiiy eiioeaiooaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee
?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee ye iiai? aeine?aeieoeueei? ia?aaeeaie,
anoaiiaeaiiy ?? ia’?eoo, iaoiaeieia?? oa iaoiae?a, iaae ? o.?i.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aeaia ?iaioa ? a?aeaoeii ia iio?aae aecia/aiiy
ia?aaeeaiaeueiiai noaoono ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee ? ?ic?iaee
i?aeoe/ieo iniia aiae?co ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae
?a/aiiy.

?noi?e/ia aeeiai?ea i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe??
? aaaaoi??aiaaei i?ioeanii. Caa?iaiiy aei aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee ?
aeooaeueiei e o ca’yceo c iaiao?aei?noth aecia/eoe iaoiaeieia?/io aaco
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? aaiethoe?? i?aaiaoeee, eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa?
yei? aaa/a?oueny o aca?iica’yceo oa aca?iiiaoiiaeaiino? ??ciiiai?oieo
aniaeo?a aa?aaeueii? eiioi?eaoe?? (iiaiiai, ?ioaioe?iiaeueiiai,
aoiieoeueoo?iiai, nioe?i- oa ineoie?iaa?noe/iiai), yea o?aeoo?oueny ye
ae?yeuei?noue ? ?acoeueoao ae?yeueiino?, ye aeooae?caoe?y noni?eueieo
a?aeiioaiue, a?aeia?aaeaiiy nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae oa ii?i, ye
oi?ia ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee acaaae?.

A?aenooi?noue caaaeueiiaeciaieo iaoiae?a iieno iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa
aeeneon?ei?noue aaaaoueio eiai ia?aiao??a coiiaeee iaiao?aei?noue
noai?aiiy iiaeae? iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, ui aeicaiey? iiaeaethaaoe ye i?yi?,
oae ? iai?yi? iiaeaii?a? aeoe. Aeooaeuei?noue ?ic?iaee iiaeae?
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, aeae?eaiiy ?? aieiaieo aeie?a ? aniaeo?a
iineeth?oueny oei oaeoii, ui o iao /an e?iaa?noeea ia aieiae?? aia?aoii
iiaeaethaaiiy iiaeaii?aiai aeoo i? a ieai? ae?ao?ii??, i? a ieai?
neio?ii??.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia oaeiae
e?iaai-aiinaieia?/iith cia/ou?noth i?iaeai ae?ao?ii?/ii? aa??aoeaiino?
i?aaiaoe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a. Iio?aao? ooi/iaiiy naia iiiyooy
?noi?eeii?aaiaoe/iiai ?iaa??aioa e aa??aioa. A?aeaeath/e iaeaaeia
iaoeiaiio aei?iaeo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a o aeine?aeaeaii?
ae?ao?ii?/iiai aa??thaaiiy ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a iiaeaiiy (E.A.Aa?aa,
A.?.Ea?aaai, A.A.Iaaae/oe, N.A.Oeth?a, E.I.*aoiyi, N.Allen, D.Cherubim,
U.Fries, G.Fritz, W.Hullen, A.Jucker, J.Lennard, B.Schlieben-Lange,
E.Traugott, L.van de Walle oa ?i.), ia iiaeia ia aeciaoe, ui /eiaei
i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee ana ua caeeoathoueny
iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aieie. Aein? ia noaaeeiny ieoaiiy i? i?i
nenoaiaoecaoe?th oaiaeaioe?e ? iai?yie?a ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee
aiae?enueeiai ?a/aiiy, i? i?i ia??iaeecaoe?th ?noi??? i?aaiaoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe??.

Aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ia?aeeaaeo e aiae?enueei? iiae Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aeaia ?iaioa ia? aaciina?aaei?e ca’ycie ?c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie eaoaae?e. Oaia aeena?oaoe??
a?aeiia?aea? i?io?eth cae?enithaaieo ia eaoaae?? aeine?aeaeaiue,
ia’?aeiaieo o iaaeao oaie “Ethaeeia oa ?? iiaeaii?aa iiaaae?iea” (iiia?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0195U006395).

Iaoith aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, yea aaco?oueny ia
oai??? iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? oa nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae?, ? eiiieaeniee
aaaaoianiaeoiee iien ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae
ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy o iiaeaii?aiio aeo? oa aeeneo?n?, ui cae?enith?oueny
o ?one? ia?aaeeaie ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee, yea iaµ?oioiao?oueny o
?iaio?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe a ?iaio? ae??oothoueny oae? caaaeaiiy:

— aecia/eoe eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee ye
iiai? aeine?aeieoeueei? ia?aaeeaie; ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ??
ianoaiiaii-ia?aaeoiiai?, i?aaeiaoii-i?ciaaaeuei? oa i?ioeaaeo?i?
eiiiiiaioe; aeoiaey/e c nenoaiii-ae?yeuei?niiai o?aeooaaiiy iiaeaii?ai?
eiioi?eaoe??, aeyaeoe iaoiaeieia?/io aaco ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee;
iaµ?oiooaaoe iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co
aaiethoe?? i?aaiaoeee iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi ye
e?iaa?noe/ieo, oae ? nioe?iaoiieoeueoo?ieo aeaiaio?a oe??? ae?yeuei?nii?
nenoaie; anoaiiaeoe ia?aaeeaiaeueiee noaoon ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee
oa ?? i?noea na?aae ?ioeo eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaieo iai?yie?a o
e?iaa?noeoe?;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?eioeeie iiaeaethaaiiy iiaeaii?aiai aeoo; ia iniia?
cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae?, ui neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio aeie?a ? aeeth/a?
aeaa’youe aniaeo?a (aae?anaioiee, aae?anaoiee, ?ioaioe?iiaeueiee,
eiioaenooaeueiee, neooaoeaiee, iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiee, aeaiioaoeaiee,
eieooeaiee, ?eeieooeaiee), aeyaeoe e iienaoe ?noi?e/io aeeiai?eo
aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aiai aeoo a ieai? ?oiueiai ci?noo, ae?aaeaiiy e
?aae?caoe?? a iiaeaii?;

— ooi/ieoe nooi?noue iiiyooy aa??aoeaiino? noiniaii ?noi?e/ii?
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee; aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? oa caeiiii??iino? ae?ao?ii?/iiai
aa??thaaiiy i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy
o 16 — 20 no. ia ??ai? iiaeaii?aiai aeoo ? aeeneo?no oa nenoaiaoecoaaoe
ye?ni? e e?euee?ni? aeai? niaeo?o aa??thaaiiy i?aaiaoe/ieo ci?iieo;
cai?iiiioaaoe ia??iaeecaoe?th ?noi??? ?icaeoeo i?aaiaoe/ii? nenoaie
aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy.

sse iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii o?aaiaioe aiae?enueeiai aeeneo?no,
ui i?noyoue ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy, acyo? c a?eoainueeeo ooaeiaei?o oai??a
(caeaa?eueoiai ae?aie) i’yoe ?noi?e/ieo c??c?a: 16 no. — ii/aoie 17 no.,
na?aaeeia 17 no. — e?iaoeue 17 no., 18 no., 19 no., 20 no. Aea?? oeeo
ia?aiao??a ia ? aeiaaeeiaei: ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoiiaeththoue anoaiiaeaiiy “ieaeiuei?” iaae? aiae?co ia ?ai?oa 16
no., ine?eueee naia a oeae /an a?aeaoaa?oueny noaiiaeaiiy aeai?o
ae?aiaoo?a?? — iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoiiai aeaea?aea a?aeiiinoae i?i ?aaeueia
?iciiaia iiaeaiiy (N.N.Aa?eia?, I.A.?iiaiia, A.?.Oae?c?a). Iaae? i?ae
ie?aieie ?noi?e/ieie c??caie aecia/athoueny ye ?icaeoeii iiae e
e?oa?aoo?e, oae ? ci?iaie eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? caaaeii, aeaiaioe
yei? caeaaeaoue a?ae nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ia?aiao??a noni?euenoaa,
i?eeiyoeo o iueiio noeeth (aoino) oa ii?i ni?eeoaaiiy.

Oi/a eiaeeo?eiaaia onia ?iciiaia iiaeaiiy, iaaaaeaia a ooaeiaei?e
e?oa?aoo??, eeoa ?i?oo? aeanoeaino? ?aaeueiiai ?iciiaiiai iiaeaiiy,
aiii, aac noii?ao, aea? ?o aa?io iiaeaeue (A.I.Aieia?i, I.I.Cainueea) ?
? a??ia?aeiei iaoa??aeii aeey aea/aiiy i?aaiaoeee (J.Adams, R.Sell), ai
i?e oeueiio caa??aathoueny /eiaei c ?? iaeiaeeo?eiaaieo aeanoeainoae,
ye? ia i?eoaiaii? eiaeeo?eiaaiei oaenoai (?.I.Oe?y?a). Oaeei /eiii,
eiioi?eaoeai? aeanoeaino? ?iciiaiiai iiaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
?aeiino?oeiaai? c ?ioa?i?aoiaaiiai iiaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (Henne
H., Rehbock H. Einfuhrung in Gesprachsanalyse. — Berlin: Mouton, 1982. —
330 S.). A oe?eiio ianya i?iaiae?ciaaiiai iaoa??aeo neeaaea? a?ey

20 000 iiaeaii?aeo o?aaiaio?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/ii aeine?aeaeaiiy µ?oioo?oueny ia nenoaiii-ae?yeuei?niiio
i?aeoiae? aei yaeu iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe??, iia’ycaiiio c eiioeaioe??th
?icaeoeo ye ?iaiaioii? aeanoeaino? nenoaie. O?einionueea eiioeaioe?y
iino?eiiai ?icaeoeo ye aacia?a?aiiai i?ioeano aeei?enoiao?oueny iaie o
noa?? e?iaa?noeee c o?aooaaiiyi iaiao?aeieo aeiiouaiue, coiiaeaieo
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icaeyae aa?aaeueii? eiioi?eaoe?? ye i?ioeano
aaco?oueny ia oiio, ui i?ae aeaiia oi/eaie ia oeae? /ano, yeeie
aeecueeeie aiie a ia aoee, caaaeaee ? iaaia a?aenoaiue. sse ae ia
ciaiooaaeany a?aenoaiue ia oe?e oeae? i?ae aeaiia a?ae??ceaie
iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe??, oeae i?ii?aeie caaaeaee i?noeoue aeayeo ci?io.
Aeania eaaeo/e, ci?ie a?aeaoaathoueny aacoieiii ? aoaeue-ye? aeaa
“iiiaioaeueieo ci?iee” ia aoaeooue oioiaeieie.

Aeciaiiy aaiethoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o aa?aaeueiiai ni?eeoaaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ooaa?aeaeaiiy aeeoioii?? noaoeee oa aeeiai?ee, i?iaieioaiiy
aaaeeeaino? ?noi?e/ii? ia?niaeoeae aiae?co. Ie ia aaniethoeco?ii i?
neio?ii?/iiai, i? ae?ao?ii?/iiai i?aeoiae?a. Eiaeiee c ieo ye ?ino?oiaio
i?ciaiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaiith aoaeoeai?noth, ie?aei?noth,
aa?enoe/ieie iiaeeeainoyie ? aeiiiaith? ?ioee. Oiio a aeai?e ?iaio? aiie
aeei?enoiaothoueny o eiiieaen?, ui aeicaiey? aeeaoa ona?aeiieoe
??ciiiai?oi?noue ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee i?ioean?a iiaeaii?ai?
eiioi?eaoe??.

?c oeoia/aiiy iiae oa iiaeaiiy ye /anoei nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? noia?nenoaie
aeieeaa? ?icoi?iiy ci?ie e ?icaeoeo eiioi?eaoe?? a?aeiia?aeii aei
caaaeueieo caeii?a nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? aeeiai?ee.

I?aaiaoe/ia aaiethoe?y ?a/aiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iane?aeie ?icaeoeo
nenoaie iiae, nioe?oio oa eoeueoo?e a ?oi?e aca?iiae?? oa
aca?iicaeaaeiino?.

Iaoiaee aiae?co. Aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? aaaaoianiaeoiee
?ao?iniaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?. Iniaeea?noue nenoaiii-ae?yeuei?nii?
i???ioaoe?? ?iaioe iieyaa? a eiiieaeniiio canoinoaaii? iaoiae?a
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee oa noi?aeieo iai?yie?a o iaaeao ?ioa?i?aoaoeaii?
e?iaa?noe/ii? ia?aaeeaie, ui a?aeiia?aea? caaaeuei?e ianoaiia? no/anii?
iaoee ia ieth?ae?ci aeine?aeieoeueeeo i?aeoiae?a.

O ?iaio? aeei?enoiaothoueny eiioi?eaoeaii-?ioaioe?iiaeueiee,
eiioaenooaeueiee ? eia?ei-naiaioe/iee aiae?c, iaoiae iiaeaii?aiaeoiaiai
iiaeaethaaiiy. Canoiniaothoueny oae? iia?aoe?? aiae?co, ye ?iaeoeoe?y e
aeaaeoeoe?y, eeaneo?eaoe?y oa nenoaiaoecaoe?y, ii??aiyiiy e c?noaaeaiiy.

Caeo/athoueny aeaiaioe noaoenoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy aeaieo, ui
aacothoueny ia iaoiae? c?noaaeaiiy /anoie, aecia/aiiy ?o eaaae?aoe/iiai
a?aeoeeaiiy (A.I.Aieia?i, A.?.Ia?aaeei?n) ? ia ia/eneaii? ia?aiao??a
a?aeaeaeaiiy oa i??e a?aei?iiino? yaeu, ui aea/athoueny, o ieai?
ae?ao?ii??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, coiiaeaia aeai?ii ia’?eoa,
iaoiaeieia?? e iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaea aooe ocaaaeueiaia a oaeeo
iieiaeaiiyo:

1. Ia?oee aeina?ae oai?aoe/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy ia?aaeeaiaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee cae?enithaaiiai iai?yieo aiae?co — ?noi?e/ii?
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee — aaco?oueny ia ona?aeiieaii? ?iaiaioii? ?noi?e/iino?
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, iayaiino? a iueiio ae?ao?ii?/ieo noaeeo oa ci?iieo,
iia’ycaieo ?c eiie?aoiei nioe?oiii, aoinii, eoeueoo?ith ? nenoaiith
iiae. Oea aeicaiey? ?icoe?eoe iaae? i?aaeiaoii? oea?eie
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee oa, ?icaeaath/e eiioeaioe?th iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a ?
eiioi?eaoeaieo i?eioeei?a o ieai? ae?ao?ii??, aia?oa ?ic?iaeoe iniiae
ae?ao?ii?/iiai iieno i?aaiaoeee ?a/aiiy o iiaeaii?aiio aeo? oa
aeeneo?n?.

?noi?e/ia i?aaiae?iaa?noeea ye iniaeeaee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiue
iaea?aeo? iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ? iiaa oeoia/aiiy: µ?oiooth/enue ia
ae?yeuei?niiio i?aeoiae? oa aeoiaey/e c ?icoi?iiy eiioi?eaoe?? ye
nenoaie, ?noi?e/ia i?aaiae?iaa?noeea aea/a? noae? oa ci?ii? aeaiaioe
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa aeeneo?no e ?icaeyaea? aeeiai?/i? i?ioeane o
aa?aaeuei?e eiioi?eaoe?? ye ?acoeueoao naii?icaeoeo iiae e ci?i
eiioi?eaoeaieo iio?aa, coiiaeaieo aeeiai?eith eoeueoo?e oa noni?euenoaa.

2. I?aaiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy ia ??ai?
iaai?o ?aae?ciaaieo iei iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a aia?oa ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
nenoaia, o ye?e ae?ao?ii?/ieie noaeeie aenooiathoue i?aaiaoe/i? oeie
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, a ci?iieie — i?aeoeie iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a ? eiiiiiaioe
ie?aieo aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aiai aeoo. O i?ioean? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
aeyaey?oueny ye?nia e e?euee?nia ae?ao?ii?/ia aa??thaaiiy ci?iieo, a
oaeiae e?euee?ni? ci?ie ?iaa??aio?a i?e caa?aaeaii? ?o nooo?aeo
oa?aeoa?enoee. sseui ia?oa a?aeiia?aea? aeeiai?/iiio oa?aeoa?o nenoaie,
yea ?icaeaa?oueny, oi ae?oaa caaacia/o? ?? noaa?euei?noue.

3. Aeey aea/aiiy i?ioean?a ae?ao?ii?/iiai aa??thaaiiy i?aaiaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ?a/aiiy o ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny aniaeoia iiaeaeue
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, ui neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio aeie?a ? aeaa’yoeo
aniaeo?a: a) aae?anaioiee, aae?anaoiee oa ?ioaioe?iiaeueiee aniaeoe
neeaaeathoue aio?iiioeaio?e/iee aeie; a) eiioaenoiee, neooaoeaiee ?
iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiee aniaeoe ooai?ththoue aeie oiia ? niinia?a ?aae?caoe??
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo; a) aeaiioaoeaiee, eieooeaiee oa ?eieooeaiee aniaeoe
neeaaeathoue oeaio?aeueiee iiaeaii?aiaeoiaee aeie, yeee aecia/a?
aieeaiao neeo aeneiaethaaiiy, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue iiaeaethaaiiy i?yieo
? iai?yieo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a ? iieno i?aaiaoe/ieo ooieoe?e ?a/aiiy a
aeeneo?n? i?ioyaii ?o ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo.

4. O eieooeaiiio aniaeo? iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, ?aae?ciaaieo aiae?enueeeie
ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie, aia?oa aeyaeaii i?aaiaoe/ii ?aeaaaioi? oa
?iaeeoa?aioi? eiiiiiaioe, iienaii ?o ?noi?e/ia aa??thaaiiy.
Aa??aoeai?noue i?aaiaoe/ii ?aeaaaioieo eiiiiiaio?a eieooe?? ?, c iaeiiai
aieo, ?noi???th oi?i, ui neeaaeathoue eieooeaio i?aenenoaio, a c ?ioiai,
— /anoeiith ?noi??? i?aaiaoe/ii? nenoaie ye aano?aeoiiai oe?eiai, ui
µ?oioo?oueny ia eiaa?aioiino? ?? aeaiaio?a. Na?aae ci?i i?aaiaoe/ii
?aeaaaioieo eiiiiiaio?a o 16 — 20 no. aeae?ey?oueny cieaeaiiy
/anoioiino? oa ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ia?oi?iaoeaieo ae??ne?a, ye?nia
nei?i/aiiy iaai?o ia?ea??a aeeneo?no, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ?noi?e/iiai
cnoao a niiniaao ?aae?caoe?? iiaeaii?aiaeoiai? ?ioaioe?? a?ae ia?aaaaeii
a?ia?aenie?oeeoiiai ? aenie?oeeoiiai a ?aiiueiiiaiaiae?enueeiio ia??iae?
aei ia?aaaaeii aenie?oeeoiiai e ?iie?oeeoiiai a no/aniiio iiaeaii?.

O oiae? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a eieooe?? ?oi?e noaoon
caeaoiee o?ainoi?ioaaoeny c i?aaiaoe/ii ?aeaaaioiiai ia ?iaee-oa?aioiee
? iaaiaee ye iane?aeie ci?i nenoaie iiae e nioe?aeueieo ii?i
ni?eeoaaiiy.

5. O ?iaio? aia?oa ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ?eieooeaiee iioaioe?ae
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a — ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue o 16 — 20 no. ia ??ai? oei?a
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo caeeoa?oueny noaa?eueiei, caaaeath/e ia ?o
oi?aa?naeueio ineoieiai-eiai?oeaio i?e?iaeo, aea ia ??ai? ??ciiaeae?a
(i?aeoei?a) iiaeaii?aiai aeoo o?ainoi?io?oueny. A?i aeeth/a? a naaa
ieoaeuei?noue, aeni?aneai?noue oa ioe?ii?noue, iaoaeiioi?eaoeai?noue
(oaoe/i?noue), niiioeaeuei?noue, eiinoaoaoe?th, ia?oeyieo oa
i?iiiceoe?th, iia?ico. sse caaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y i?aaiaoe/iiai
aa??thaaiiy a?aecia/a?oueny ye?nia ?icoe?aiiy ? e?euee?nia c?inoaiiy
noa?e iai?yieo ?aae?caoe?e iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a aei 20 no. ca ?aooiie
cieaeaiiy /anoioiino? i?yieo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a — ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue, o
/iio aaa/a?oueny ca’ycie ?c caaaeueieie i?ioeanaie ?icaeoeo
oeea?e?caoe?? a?ae aiiiaaiieo aei aaoa?iaaiieo oi?i.

6. Iiaei ? aeyaeaiiy oa iien ae?ao?ii?/iiai aa??thaaiiy aae?anaioiiai ?
aae?anaoiiai (?ioa?ia?niiaeueiiai) aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a,
i?aaenoaaeaieo ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie. Aeyaeai? ye?ni? e e?euee?ni? ci?ie
aeaieo aniaeo?a o noa?? aaeeaaiiy caa?oaiue aeicaieythoue i?inoaaeeoe
aca?iica’ycie oaiaeaioe?e aeaiie?aoecaoe?? iiaeaii?aiai ni?eeoaaiiy,
ni?iuaiiy ii?i iiaeaii?aiai aoeeaoo ? ?icaeoeo iiaieo cania?a
aae?anaoe?? ca ia??iae, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny.

7. Niaoeeo?ea ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee aeaiioaoeaiiai aniaeoo iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a, ?aae?ciaaieo ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie, ui aia?oa noaea i?aaeiaoii
niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeyaey?oueny a ciaioaii? eiai ianyao a
i?inoeo iiaeaii?aeo aeoao ? cieaeaii? e?eueeino? i?inoeo iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a-eiiiiiaio?a o neeaae? neeaaeieo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a ca inoaii? 500
?ie?a, ui ca?aa?oueny c caaaeueiith oaiaeaioe??th nei?i/aiiy ianyao
aeneiaethaaiiy a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?.

8. A ?noi?e/ieo ci?iao iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiiai aniaeoo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a,
?aae?ciaaieo ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie, aeyaey?oueny ae?ao?ii?/ia
aa??thaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?eioeeio aa?/eeaino?. O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa
aecia/aii iaa?? eiioi?eaoeaieo no?aoaa?e, ui ?aae?cothoueny oeeie
?a/aiiyie, aeyaeaii iai?yiee ?o ?noi?e/ieo ci?i ye o ye?niiio, oae ? a
e?euee?niiio ieai?. Ae?ao?ii?/i? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiiai
aniaeoo iiaeaii?aiai aeoo a?aeiia?aeathoue caaaeueiiio iai?yieo ?icaeoeo
a?eoainueeiai aoino a oe?eiio a?ae i???ioaoe?? ia iiceoeaio aa?/eea?noue
o 16 no. aei ia?aaaae iaaaoeaii? aa?/eeaino? o 20 no.

9. Nenoaiaoecaoe?y io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co aeeiai?ee
i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy aeicaiey?
?ic?iaeoe ia?oo a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ia??iaeecaoe?th oeueiai i?ioeano.
A?aecia/aia aeii?ioaaiiy aioo??oi?o ci?i o nenoai? iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a,
?aae?ciaaieo ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie, i?ioyaii ?? ?noi?e/-iiai ?icaeoeo ca
inoaii? i’youe noie?oue na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui nenoaia aoea a?aeiinii
noi?iiaaia aei ii/aoeo 16 no. Ine?eueee aeyaeai? ae?ao?ii?/i? eieeaaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a o 16 — 20 no. aeyaeythoue
noiae?noue i?ia?aeieo oaiaeaioe?e ? iai?yiee ?o aa??thaaiiy iathoue
caaaeuei? oi/ee ia?an?/aiiy o /an?, iniiaieie aoaiaie ?icaeoeo
i?aaiaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy ca
?icaeyaeoaaiee ia??iae ne?ae aeciaoe: ia?oee — c ii/aoeo 16 no. aei
na?aaeeie 18 no. ? ae?oaee — c ae?oai? iieiaeie 18 no. aei 20 no.,
i?e/iio na?aaeeia 18 no. ? nai???aeiei iiai?ioiei ioieoii o oiae?
?icaeoeo iiaeaii?aiai aeoo e aeeneo?no.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e
?ic?iaeythoueny iniiae aiae?co e cae?enith?oueny ae?ao?ii?/ia aea/aiiy
i?aaiaoeee ?a/aiiy ia ??ai? iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa aeeneo?no:

— aeoiaey/e c aeciaiiy ?iaiaioii? ?noi?e/iino? iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa
iayaiino? a iueiio ae?ao?ii?/ieo ?iaa??aio?a ? aa??aio?a,
?icoe?ththoueny iaae? i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee;

— ooi/ith?oueny iiiyooy aa??aoeaiino? noiniaii ae?ao?ii?/iiai aiae?co
i?aaiaoeee;

— µ?oiooth/enue ia nenoaiii-ae?yeuei?niiio ?icoi?ii? iiaeaii?ai?
eiioi?eaoe?? e aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui ?? i?e?iaea i?ioeanoaeueia ? oaea,
ui ?icaeaa?oueny, aia?oa aecia/a?oueny ia?aaeeaiaeueiee noaoon
?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee ye iaeiiai c iai?yie?a
eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? ia?aaeeaie a iiaiciaanoa?, yea
aeine?aeaeo? i?aaiaoe/i? aeanoeaino? iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe??
(iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa aeeneo?no) a ?oiueiio ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo;

— oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy ia?aaeeaiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?noi?e/ii?
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee aeiiiaith? eiioeaioe?th eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
e?iaa?noe/ii? ia?aaeeaie ? ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaeniiai canoinoaaiiy
nioe?i-, ineoi- ? i?aaiae?iaa?noe/ieo i?aeoiae?a i?iaeia-aeo? caaaeueiee
?icaeoie no/anii? iaoee o iai?yieo ii?aeiaiiy ia?aaeeai;

— nooi?noue ?noi?e/ieo aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a o iiaeaii?a?e eiioi?eaoe??
oai?aoe/ii iaµ?oioiao?oueny ye ?acoeueoao naii?icaeoeo nenoaie iiae ?
ci?i eiioi?eaoeaieo iio?aa, coiiaeaieo aeeiai?eith eoeueoo?e oa
noni?euenoaa;

— i?iiiio?oueny iiaeaeue iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, yea neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
aeie?a, ye? aeeth/athoue aeaa’youe aniaeo?a, ui aeicaiey? iiaeaethaaoe
i?yi? oa iai?yi? iiaeaii?a? aeoe;

— iiaeeaeth?oueny oyaeaiiy i?i nooi?noue eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?eioeeio
aa?/eeaino? oa oaiaeaioe?? eiai ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo;

— a ?acoeueoao? nenoaiaoecaoe?? io?eiaieo ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo aeaieo
?icaeoeo i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy

?ic?iaey?oueny ?o ?noi?eei-i?aaiaoe/ia ia??iaeecaoe?y o eiioi?eaoe?? 16
— 20 no;

— iien ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo i?aaiae?iaa?noe/iiai aniaeoo eiioi?eaoe??
ni?ey? a?eueo iiaiiio inieneaiith i?aaiaoe/ieo i?ioean?a ? yaeu o ieai?
neio?ii??: aac ciaiiy ieioeiai noaio nenoaie eiioi?eaoe?? ia iiaeia
aaeaeaaoii ioe?ieoe ?? no/ani?noue ? i?iaiicoaaoe iaeaooi? i? a iiaiiio,
i? a ooieoe?iiaeueii-iiaeaii?aiio ieai?;

— eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co aa?aaeueii? eiioi?eaoe?? a
ae?ao?ii??, yeee o?aeoo? ?? ye iio?aeio a?ae aoiieoeueoo?ieo ?
e?iaainioe?aeueieo oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaeaiiy, ni?ey? iiaeieaiith
?aaeoeoe?ii?nonueeiai i?aeoiaeo aei oai??? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee o no/ani?e
iaooe?;

— ?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? i?eioeeie aiae?co ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee
i?aaiaoeee aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy e iiaeaii?aiai aeoo caaaeii
iiaeooue aooe aeno?aiieueiaai? ia iaoa??ae ?ioeo iia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
eiai iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a o eo?nao ?noi??? aiae?enueei? iiae,
oai?aoe/ii? oa i?aeoe/ii? a?aiaoeee, caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa, i?e
oeeaaeaii? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a, o i?aeoeoe? ia?aeeaaeo. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii a niaoeeo?n? ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiaoeee ? a
eo?nao a?aiaoeee aiae?enueei? iiae e caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa, ui
/eoathoueny aaoi?ii aeey nooaeaio?a oa ani??aio?a Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo; aiie aeei?enoiaothoueny a eo?niaeo ?
aeeieiiieo ?iaioao, ui aeeiiothoueny i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a. Io?eiai?
aeniiaee iiaeooue noaiiaeoe oai?aoe/io aaco aeey ?ic?iaee ?
aaeineiiaeaiiy eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaieo iaoiae?a aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo
iia.

Ai?iaaoe?y io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiia?aeaeeny e iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo i?aeia?iaeieo,
?anioae?eainueeeo ? i?aeaoc?anueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo oa neiiic?oiao (1990 —
1999) o Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio, Iinueeiio, Oa?e?anueeiio, I?/?aainueeiio
(Aii-A?ai?) ? *eeacueeiio oi?aa?neoaoao, ?inoeooo? iiaiciaanoaa ?AI, ia
eiioa?aioe?yo anioe?aoe?e IATEFL — Ukraine, Alliance Francaise a
Oe?a?i?, aa?iai?no?a Oe?a?ie, Midwest Linguistic Association of the USA.
Aiie iiai?noth aeeeaaeai? a iiiia?ao?? “Enoi?e/aneay aeeiaieea
i?aaiaoeee i?aaeeiaeaiey: aiaeeeneia aii?ineoaeueiia i?aaeeiaeaiea (16 —
20 aa.)” (Oa?e?a: Eiinoaioa, 1998. — 168 n.) ? 16 iaoeiaeo noaooyo,
iioae?eiaaieo o i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
ye? ioiieththoue iaeeiaaeoeyoue i?ae?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a,
niene?a aeei?enoaii? iaoeiai? oa ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e, nieneo
eaeneeia?ao?/ieo aeia?aeiee?a ? aeiaeaoe?a.

O anooi? aeeeaaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? e iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iienothoueny eiai ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao, iaµ?oioiaothoueny
aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe,
aecia/athoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy, iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aiae?co.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Ieoaiiy oai??? ?noi?eei-i?aaiaoe/iiai aiae?co
iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe??” cae?enith?oueny eiioeaiooaeueiee aiae?c
e?iaa?noe/ieo iai?yie?a, ?aeaaaioieo aeey ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee,
ui iathoue ni?eueio iniiao —oai??th iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?, a naia:
neio?ii?/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee, nioe?ie?iaa?noeee, ineoie?iaa?noeee,
aoiieoeueoo?iiai i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co iiaeaiiy. E?eoe/ii aiae?cothoueny
?nioth/? ae?ao?ii?/i? iai?yiee aiae?co iiaeaii?aiai ni?eeoaaiiy a iaaeao
?ioa?i?aoaoeaii? ia?aaeeaie. ?ic?iaeythoueny iaoiaeieia?/ia ? iaoiaee/ia
iniiae ?noi?eei-i?aaiaoe/iiai iai?yieo a e?iaa?noe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo,
iaaiai?ththoueny i?eioeeie iieno eiiiiiaio?a ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeo?a
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa aeeneo?no a ieai? ae?ao?ii??. I?iiiio?oueny
iiaeaeue iiaeaii?aiai aeoo ye iniiaiee ?ino?oiaio aeine?aeaeaiiy
ae?ao?ii?/ieo ci?i i?aaiaoeee ?a/aiiy. Aecia/a?oueny ia?aaeeaiaeueiee
noaoon ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee oa ?? i?noea a
eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeuei?e ia?aaeeai? a iiaiciaanoa?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?noi?e/ia aeeiai?ea i?aaiaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy” aiae?c cae?enith?oueny a?aeiia?aeii
aei cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? iiaeaii?aiai aeoo. Iaµ?oioiaothoueny
i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? iaoa??aeo aiae?co ? eiai iaoaiaoe/iiai
ii?aoethaaiiy, aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?noi?e/ia aa??aoeai?noue noaeeo ?
ci?iieo aeaiaio?a iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa aeeneo?no. Aea/a?oueny aeeiai?ea
eieooeaiiai, ?eieooeaiiai, aae?anaioiiai oa aae?anaoiiai, aeaiioaoeaiiai
aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, ?aae?ciaaieo aiae?enueeeie ieoaeueieie
?a/aiiyie. Aaiethoe?y iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiiai aniaeoo iiaeaii?aiai aeoo
?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?iya ?noi?e/iiai aa??thaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaiiai
i?eioeeio aa?/eeaino? a a?eoainueeiio aoin?. I?iiiio?oueny
ia??iaeecaoe?y i?aaiaoe/ii? ?noi??? ?a/aiiy.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee e ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co, aeeeaaeathoueny iniiai? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??,
iae?aneththoueny iai?yiee iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

O aeiaeaoeao iaaiaeyoueny oaaeeoe?, ui i?noyoue ?acoeueoaoe
iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee io?eiaieo aeaieo.

Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 373 noi??iee oaenoo, nienie
aeei?enoaii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e iae?/o? 426 aeaea?ae, nienie ooaeiaei?o
oai??a — 113, aeiaeaoee i?noyoue 21 oaaeeoeth oa 1 iaethiie.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Inoaii?i /anii o iao?e e?a?i? e ca ?oaaaeai aea/a?oueny ?noi?e/-ia
i?ieea?noue ie?aieo aniaeo?a i?aaiaoeee iiaeaiiy, iaeiae aein? ia aoei
cai?iiiiiaaii aaeaeaaoii? e caaaeueiiaeciaii? oai??? ?noi?e/ii?
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee. Oea iiaeia iaaiith i??ith a?aeianoe ca ?aooiie
iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeieia?/ii? aace aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaii?
iica?/iino? oa o?aaiaioa?iino? iai?yie?a iaoeiaeo iiooe?a.

Caaaeii na?aae ae?ao?ii?/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeaii?ai?
eiioi?eaoe??, ie??i ?noi?eei-i?aaiaoe/iiai, aeae?eythoueny
o?einionueeee, ineoieia?/iee, nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iee. O?einionueeee oa
ineoieia?/iee iaaeathoue o ?icii?yaeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee
a?aeiiino? i?i ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie aa?aaeueiiai ieneaiiy oa eiai oei?a o
i??o ci?ithaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ethaeae o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?icaeoeii
eoeueoo?e, c iaioaeuei?noth iaaii? aiioe. ?noi?e/ia nioe?ie?iaa?noeea
(?iaiiaaia oaeiae nioe?aeueiith ?noi???th iiae) aeoeaioo? aa??aoeai?noue
aa?aaeueii? eiioi?eaoe?? ye iane?aeie ci?i a noni?euenoa? oa aoin?,
i?inoaaeo? nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/i? iniaeeaino? eiioi?eaoe?? oa
ae?ao?ii?/i? ci?ie ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiae.

Ii/aoie aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaiaoeee iiaeaiiy a ae?ao?ii?/iiio aniaeo?
iia’ycaiee c ?iaioaie i?iaoeueeeo e?iaa?no?a, ye? iioe?ththoue
ae?ao?ii?/ia aea/aiiy iiae ia iaeanoue i?aaiaoeee aai canoiniaothoue
ae?ao?ii?/iee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co iiaeaiiy. A iniia? aeine?aeaeaiue
?noi?e/-ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee (historische Sprachpragmatik) eaaeeoue
iieiaeaiiy A.Oe?aai-Eaiaa i?i oa, ui “ia ?nio? oi?aa?naeueieo iiaieo
ae?e, aea o?eueee ?noi?e/ii coiiaeai?, ??ciiiai?oi?,
eiiaaioe?iiae?ciaai? iiai? ae??”(Schlieben-Lange B. Traditionen des
Sprechens. — Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1983. —S.114). ?noi?e/i?noue
i?aaiaoe/iiai aiae?co iinooeth?oueny ye eiai nooi?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea.
Oeae iai?yiie ioiieth? aaeeeee niaeo? caaaeueiio?einionueeeo i?iaeai
eiioi?eaoe??, cie?aia, aca?iicaeaaeiino? iiaii? nenoaie oa
eiioi?eaoeaieo iio?aa noni?euenoaa: c? ci?iith nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e
ci?iththoueny eiioi?eaoeai? iio?aae a ?iaeea?aeo-aeuei?e ? iania?e
eiioi?eaoe??, ? iiai? caniae a?aeiia?aeathoue ia oe? ci?ie,
i?enoiniaoth/enue aei iiaeo iio?aa.

Iai?yiie ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee oi?io?oueny a ?a?iiaenuee?e
e?iaa?noeoe? i?ioyaii 70 — 80-o ?ie?a ? ia nueiaiaei? noaiiaeoue niaith
cia/ia yaeua a iiaiciaanoa?, oi/a e caeeoa?oueny oai?aoe/ii ?ic’?aeiaiei
? aii??e/ii ia??aiicia/iei. O oe?eiio neeaeiny o?e a?aeiinii
??ciini?yiiaaieo, aea aca?iiiia’ycaieo i?aeoiaee aei aiae?co
i?aaiaoe/ieo aniaeo?a iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe?? a ?noi?e/ieo eiioaenoao:

1. Iioe?aiiy ?noi??? eiie?aoii? iiae ia noa?o i?aaiaoeee, noai?aiiy
i?aaiaoe/ii? ?noi??? iiae. Aeey O.C?ooe, N.Ciiaea?aaaa?a, E.Iaoooaea?a,
A.Eaiia?ca?a oa ?i. aiia aenooia? ia?aaeon?i ye iiaeeaeaiiy e ?icaeoie
?noi?e/iiai iai?yieo a iiaiciaanoa? (pragmatikorientierte
Sprachgeschichte), iieeeeaiiai caiiaieoe i?iaaeeio a ?yaeo
?noi?eeie?iaa?noe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? caeiyoe nai? i?noea na?aae
a?aiaoe/iiai, naiaioe/iiai, oiiaoe/iiai ?icae?e?a ?noi??? eiie?aoieo
iia. Ine?eueee aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai iai?yieo iinyoue o nai?e
a?eueoino? oai?aoe/iee oa?aeoa?, aaoi?e /ano?oa iinooeththoue
iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy iniaeeaeo iaoiae?a aiae?co, i?ae noai?ththoue
?o.

2. Oi?iaaaeaeaiiy i?aaiaoeee a ?noi?eei-nioe?ie?iaa?noe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaiee I. oii Iieaioeai, oeae iai?yiie
ciaoiaeeoueny ia iaae? ?noi?e/ii? nioe?ie?iaa?noeee oa i?aaiae?iaa?noeee
(soziopragmatische Sprachgeschichte). Aeoeaiooth/e nioe?aeueiee aniaeo
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee, a?i aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui ?ai?oa oai??y iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a iai?aaii??ii iaiaaeoaaeany aea/aiiyi ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
?ioa?aeoe??, oiae? ye ?aaeueia eiioi?eaoe?y ia? a iniia? noni?euei?
a?aeiioaiiy, ? iiaa a oe?ieiio cia/aii? ? ia?aaeoiiaa, ?ino?oiaio ?
i?iaeoeo noni?eueii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie.

3. I?eaianaiiy ae?ao?ii?/iiai eiiiiiaioa a i?aaiae?iaa?noe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa noai?aiiy ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee (historische
Sprachpragmatik). Oeae iai?yiie iaea?eueo ?aeaaaioiee aeey iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Eiai iniiae caeeaaeai? a ?iaioao A.?.Ea?aaaia,
A.Oe?aai-Eaiaa, Ae.Oa?oa?ia, I.Oaa?oea, I.Aaena, O.Oaiia oa ?i.

Oaeee iiae?e aeoaea oiiaiee, ai ia??aeei nai? aaoi?e aeei?enoiaothoue
aeae?eueea i?aeoiae?a iaeii/anii, ia ?iciaaeiaoth/e ?o oa?i?iieia?/ii.
Oi/a caaaeii iaeiie/aii aeina?ae ?noi?e/iiai aiae?co ie?aieo oei?a
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, ia?ea??a aeeneo?no, ia?oi?iaoeaieo ae??ne?a,
no?aoaa?e ? oaeoee iiaeaii?ai? ?ioa?aeoe??, eiioi?eaoeaieo i?eioeei?a ia
iaoa??ae? eiioi?eaoe?? iaei??? e?iaaieoeueoo?ii? ni?eueiioe
(aiae?enueei?, i?iaoeueei?, o?aioeocueei? oa ?i.) ? a eiiia?aoeaiiio
ieai?, aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee i?aaiaoe/ii? nenoaie
eiioi?eaoe?? caeeoathoueny iaoiaeieia?/ii oa iaoiaee/ii iaaeinoaoiuei
?ic?iaeaieie oa ?ic??ciaieie, aiie iio?aaothoue oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy
oa ocaaaeueiaiiy, a oaeiae aii??e/iiai iiaeeaeaiiy.

Eiioeaioe?y ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee, cai?iiiiiaaia o aeai?e
?iaio?, aaco?oueny ia nenoaiii-ae?yeuei?niiio i?aeoiae? aei iiaeaii?ai?
eiioi?eaoe??. Iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiue ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee i?aaiaoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae ?a/aiiy a iaoiio ?icoi?ii? ? oai??y iiaeaii?ai?
ae?yeueiino? ye iaeia c iaea?eueo iiaieo ao?eaiue no/anii?
eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? ia?aaeeaie. Aa?enoe/ia ?ieue iiiyooy
iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiii aaiaeeoue o iiaeaeue
iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe?? iniaeno?noue eiioi?eaio?a o an?e noeoiiino? ?o
nioe?aeueii-neooaoeaieo ?ieae, eiioi?eaoeaieo iio?aa ? iaae/ie
iiaeaii?aiai ni?eeoaaiiy. Oae? eaoaai??aeuei? iciaee iiaeaii?ai?
ae?yeueiino? ye /eiieee ?? oe?eani?yiiaaiino? oa noni?eueii? i?e?iaee
aeaiiino?othoue ca’ycie iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? c a?eueo caaaeueiith
nenoaiith ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino? caaaeii. sse neeaaeiee inoaiiuei?,
iiaeaii?aa ae?yeuei?noue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny nioe?aeueiith
aeaoa?i?iiaai?noth ? i?ieea?noth caeaaeii a?ae eiie?aoiiai nioe?oio,
eoeueoo?e, aoino a iaaiee ia??iae ?oiueiai ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Noni?eueiee oa?aeoa? iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? coiiaeth? iniaeeao oaaao,
ui i?eae?ey?oueny a ?noi?e/i?e i?aaiae?iaa?noeoe? iniaeno?niiio aniaeoo
iiaeaiiy ? aecia/a? ?? ca’ycie c ?ioeie noi?aeieie aeenoeeie?iaie. Ii
noo? any eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueia ia?aaeeaia a e?iaa?noeoe? iiaea
aooe iacaaia ae?yeuei?niei iai?yieii, i???ioiaaiei ia iniaeno?noue.
A?aooaaiiy ni?eueiino? ciaiue eiioi?eaio?a i?i na?o, ?oi?o iaae/ie
ni?eeoaaiiy, eiioi?eaoeaieo cania?a ? o.?i. ? caaaeueiith ?enith an?o
?ioa?i?aoaoeaieo i?aeoiae?a o e?iaa?noeoe?, oi/a a?aeaeaa?oueny a ieo
ii-??ciiio. Oae, o ineoie?iaa?noe/i?e iiaeae? ia?aaeoiiaith eiioi?eaoe??
aecia?oueny ni?euei?noue eiioi?eaoeaieo iaae/ie, ianoaiia, ciaiue i?i
na?o (nioe?aeueio nenoaio oa eoeueoo?o), aaiaeeoueny iiiyooy
e?iaai-eoeueoo?ii? ni?eueiioe oa aoino. O nioe?ie?iaa?noeoe? oe? ?aea?
a?aeaeaathoueny a iiiyoo? eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe??, ui aeeth/a? a
naaa iiaio, nioe?aeueio ? ineoio?ce/io eiiiaoaioe?th. A ?noi?e/i?e
i?aaiae?iaa?noeoe? aeai? iieiaeaiiy aeathoue ciiao oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
ia?aiao?e iin??a iiae iaaii? aiioe oa eoeueoo?e, aecia/eoe aoe/i?
ianoaiiae ?oiuei? iiaeaii?ai? aca?iiae??, aiie coiiaeththoue eiioaeno ?
neooaoe?th eiie?aoiiai ai?ciaeo eiioi?eaoe??.

Iiaeaii?aa ae?yeuei?noue ia? nenoaii?noue ye eiinoeoooeaio aeanoea?noue
? iiaea aooe eaae?o?eiaaia ye iaaeneeaaeia nenoaia — “nenoaia nenoai”.
?noi?e/ia i?aaiae?iaa?noeea µ?oioo?oueny ia aeciaii? nenoaiiino? e iiae,
? iiaeaiiy. Nenoaii?noue ?icoi??oueny ye iaeaaaeeea?oa aeanoea?noue
iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?, yea i?iyaey?oueny a oiio, ui ?? aeaiaioe
neeaaeathoue eiiieaenio eiaa?aioio no?oeoo?o, ??ai? yei? (iiaa,
iiaeaiiy) aecia/athoueny aca?iiae??th oeeo aeaiaio?a, i?e/iio eiaeiee
??aaiue iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaiee o aeaeyae? ie?aii? nenoaie.
?iciianthaeaeaiiy nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo ia noa?o ae?ao?ii?? aeicaiey?
?icaeyaeaoe aeaiaioe eiioi?eaoe?? c oi/ee ci?o i?iyao nenoaiieo
a?aeiioaiue, ui aeieeathoue i?ae ieie a iaaiee ia??iae /ano (a?nue
neio?ii??) ? c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?noi?e/ieo ci?i (a?nue ae?ao?ii??).

Oaeei /eiii, a ?noi?eei-i?aaiaoe/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? nenoaia
eiioi?eaoe?? ye i?iaeoeo aca?iiae?? iiae e iiaeaiiy aea/a?oueny ia a
aeaio, a a /ioe?ueio ?ioaa?iaaieo aniaeoao: oea aniaeoe i?aai?caoe?? oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie o neio?ii??, a oaeiae aniaeoe ?noi?e/ii? ci?ie
iiaieo oi?i ? ae?ao?ii?/iiai aa??thaaiiy ?o iiaeaii?aiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. O ieai? neio?ii?? nenoaia iiaeaii?aiai aeoo
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?aei?oieie ?enaie aniaeo?a ? ?o iniaeeaei
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi o a?aeiia?aeiino? c eiie?aoiei ?noi?e/iei ia??iaeii. O
ieai? ae?ao?ii?? i?ae i?aaiaoe/iith ?noi???th nenoaie ?icoi??ii ci?io ??
noai?a (noaeiai /e ianoaeiai) caeaaeii a?ae oeio ci?i ie?aieo aniaeo?a.

Iiceoeaiith ?enith ia?aiiai nenoaiii-ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo aei
iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? ye aaiethoe?eiiai i?ioeano ? oa, ui a?i
aeicaiey?, ia i?ioenoaaeyth/e noi?aei? aaeoc? aeine?aeaeaiue, /?oei
ie?aneeoe iaae? i?aaiaoe/ii? ia?aaeeaie, ui ?icaeaa?oueny a aeai?e
?iaio? a ieai? ae?ao?ii??.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei aeaea?aeii ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee ? neio?ii?/ia
i?aaiae?iaa?noeea, ui o?aeoo?oueny ye ?ioaa?aoeaia aeenoeeie?ia.
Iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?noi?e/i?e i?aaiae?iaa?noeoe? ? iiaia
eiioi?eaoe?y a?aeaeaeaieo ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a, aeinooiia aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy a ienueiia?e oi?i?. A ao?i, aiia yaey? niaith aeinoaoiuei
iaae?eiee iaoa??ae aeey aea/aiiy eiioi?eaoe??. Iaeeieoeath aiae?co
aecia?oueny iiaeaii?aee aeo.

I?iiiio?oueny iiaeaeue iiaeaii?aiai aeoo aeey i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iiaeaii?aee aeo iiaeaeth?oueny o aeaeyae? o?ueio aeie?a:
aio?iiioeaio?e/iiai, yeee neeaaea?oueny c aae?anaioiiai, aae?anaoiiai oa
?ioaioe?iiaeueiiai aniaeo?a, aeieo oiia ? niinia?a ?aae?caoe??
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, ui ia’?aeio? eiioaenoiee, neooaoeaiee ?
iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiee aniaeoe, a oaeiae oeaio?aeueiiai iiaeaii?aiaeoiaiai
aeieo, yeee aeeth/a? aeaiioaoeaiee, eieooeaiee oa ?eeieooeaiee aniaeoe,
ui a?aeiia?aea? ieaio ci?noo, ieaio ae?aaeaiiy oa aeooae?caoe??
aeneiaethaaiiy o iiaeaii?:

O ci?no? aniaeoo aae?anaioa a?aeaeaathoueny nioe?aeuei? oa neooaoeai?
?ie? iiaoey, eiai eiioi?eaoeai? oa ineoieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, eoaee
aoiaeyoue eiioi?eaoeaia eiiiaoaioe?y, no?oeoo?a iniaenoino?,
oaiia?aiaio, oeno ? o.i. ?ieue oeueiai aniaeoo a caaaeuei?e iiaeae?
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo iaaecae/aeii aaeeea: ii-ia?oa, a?i aecia/a? ci?no
iia?aeiieaiiy ? eiai ?eeieooeaio neeo (ine?eueee ooieoe?? ia ?
aioo??oiuei i?eoaiaiieie ia’?eoo ?aaeueiino?, a caeaaeaoue a?ae
niinoa??aa/a), iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i “nea?iaoth/o”, oieonoth/o ?ieue
aniaeoo aae?anaioa a iiaeaii?aiio aeo?. Ii-ae?oaa, o aeneiaethaaii?
caaaeaee iayai? ??ciiiai?oi? a?aeiiino? i?i aae?anaioa, ia iniia? yeeo o
neooa/a aeieea? ia?ac aae?anaioa, ui aieeaa? ia iiaeaeueoo iiaeaii?ao
iiaaae?ieo neooa/a. Caaaeyee oeueiio aeaiee aniaeo iaaiith i??ith oi?io?
no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee eiioi?eaoe??.

Iiiyooy aae?anaoiiai (?ioa?ia?niiaeueiiai) aniaeoo aeeth/a? a naaa
neooa/a a noeoiiino? eiai nioe?aeueieo ? neooaoeaieo ?ieae, iioea?a oa
oe?eae, ciaiue i?i na?o ? o.?i. Nioe?aeueii-neooaoeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
neooa/a aaaeeea? aeey aecia/aiiy ?ioa?ia?niiaeueii? e?i?? aae?anaio —
aae?anao o iiaeaii?aiio aeo?.

?ioaioe?y aeneiaethaaiiy aeieea? o aae?anaioa ia iniia? eiai ieioeiai
aeina?aeo e eiioi?eaoeaii? neooaoe??. Aaaeeea?noue oeueiai aniaeoo
aaaeei ia?aioe?ieoe: oe?eueiaa ianoaiiaa, iai?? — ?oo?eia neea
ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee, a oiio /ene? iiaeaii?ai?.

Onoaiiaeoe oa?aeoa? eiioi?eaoeaii? ?ioaioe?? aeneiaethaaiiy-?a/aiiy,
eiai ?eeieooeaio neeo, ioe?ieoe i?aaiaoe/iee aoaeo iiaeia o?eueee a
oe?ieiio eiioaeno? c o?aooaaiiyi eiai aca?iica’yce?a c ?ioeie ?a/aiiyie.
Naia i?iiiceoe?y ?a/aiiy ci?ith?oueny ?acii c? ci?iith eiioaenoo,
ine?eueee aei neeaaeo i?iiiceoe?? aoiaeyoue aeaiaioe ?aoa?aioe??,
aeaeenena ? o.i. Na?aae aace?/? i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy
eiioaenoo aeey aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiei ?
nioe?i?noi?e/iee, ui aecia/a?oueny ye oa?aeoa?ii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
iaoa??aeo — ienueiiaeie oi?iaie aeeneo?no, a yeeo ca a?aenooiino?
ci?noioa??ieo eiiiiiaio?a iiaeaiiy, ui cao/eoue (oeio ?ioiiaoe?? ?
o.i.), eiioaeno ? i?aeoe/ii ?aeeiei aeaea?aeii a?aeiiinoae oaeiai ieaio,
oae ? aaaeeea?noth nioe?i?noi?e/iiai eiioaenoo ye iin?y ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
aeno?ae?iaaaeuei? /eiieee iiaeaiiy (aoe/i? ii?ie eiioi?eaoe??
eiie?aoiiai ia??iaeo oa ?i.).

Cia/ia ?ieue o aecia/aii? eiioi?eaoeaii? ?ioaioe?? eiie?aoiiai
?a/aiiy-aeneiaethaaiiy ? eiai ?eeieooeaieo ooieoe?e a?aeaiaeeoueny
/eiieeo neooaoe??. Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
?a/aiiy-aeneiaethaaiiy iaea?eueo a?aeiia?aea? aecia/aiiy iiaeaii?ai?
neooaoe?? ye ?aoa?aioa aeneiaethaaiiy.

Iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiee aniaeo a?aeaeaa? oe?ieee niaeo? a?aeiiinoae: i?i
i?eioeeie aeai?o eaiaeo ca’yceo, eiai ?iaioo, iiai? aeaiaioe, ui
caaacia/othoue oeth ?iaioo (oaoe/ia ooieoe?y), i?i “oaoi?eo” aaaeaiiy
eiioi?eaoe??, i?i no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee eiioi?eaoe??. Oaeei /eiii, aei
iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiiai aniaeoo ie a?aeiineii oaoe/i? caniae, ui
caaacia/othoue anoaiiaeaiiy, i?iaeiaaeaiiy ? ?icieeaiiy iiaeaii?aiai
eiioaeoo, a oaeiae eiioi?eaoeai? i?eioeeie, iaeneie aa?/eeaino?.

Aeaiioaoeaiee aniaeo (i?iiiceoe?y) neeaaea? yae?i ci?noo iia?aeiieaiiy.
I?iiiceoe?y aeae?ey?oueny iaie c a?eueo oe?ieiai iiiyooy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
ci?noo aeneiaethaaiiy. Ie aeoiaeeii c ?nioaaiiy o?ueio aeae?a
?ioi?iaoe??: eiai?oeaii?, ?iaeaenaeueii?, ?aaoeyoeaii?, ui aea?
aaaeeeaee ?ino?oiaio aeey aecia/aiiy i?aaiaoe/ii? ooieoe?? i?iiiceoe?? a
iiaeaii?aiio aeo?. Eiaeiee iiaeaii?aee aeo neoaeeoue aeey ia?aaea/? o???
/e ?ioi? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?, caaaeyee oeueiio, aeey ci?ie iiaaae?iee
eiioi?eaio?a, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie ci?ie ??aiy ciaiue i?i ia’?eo
eiioi?eaoe??.

sse oi?ia ae?aaeaiiy ci?noo aeneiaethaaiiy eieooeaiee aniaeo oaeiae
iaeaaeeoue aei /enea oeaio?aeueieo aeaiaio?a iiaeae? iiaeaii?aiai aeoo.
A ?noi?e/i?e i?aaiae?iaa?noeoe? eieooeaiee aniaeo iiaeaii?aiai aeoo
iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy, ine?eueee oaenoe a?aeaeaeaieo ia??iae?a
i?noyoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue iiaieo eiiiiiaio?a, niaoeeo?/ieo aeey
aeaiiai ia??iaeo, aaaaoi c yeeo aeeoee c oaeeoeo a iao /an: iai?eeeaae,
ia ??ai? ii?oieia?? oea caeiaiieee thee/you oa ?o iio?aei?, ia ??ai?
eaeneee oea ia?ea?e pray, i’faith ? o.i., ia ??ai? neioaeneno oea
aacae??ne?ai? oi?ie niiioeaeueieo ?a/aiue o ?aiiueiiiaiaiae?ene?e iia?,
ui ?aae?cothoue niaoeeo?/i? aee?aeoeae, oa ?i.

Ieeieooeaiee aniaeo — iaea?eueo cia/ouee, a?i yaey? niaith
“?acoeueooth/o” aaee/eio o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie aniaeoaie iiaeaii?aiai
aeoo. Ca Aeae.Na?eai ? Ae.Aaiaea?aaeaiii, eiaeia ?eeieooeaia neea yaey?
niaith “oii?yaeeiaaio iine?aeiai?noue naie aeaiaio?a”: ?eeieooeaii?
iaoe, niiniao aeinyaiaiiy ?eeieooeaii? iaoe, ?ioaineaiino? ?eeieooeaii?
neee, oiia i?iiiceoe?eiiai ci?noo, iiia?aaei?o oiia, oiia a?aeaa?oino?,
?ioaineaiino? oiia a?aeaa?oino? aeaii? ?eeieooeaii? neee, i?e/iio i?ae
oiiaaie a?aeaa?oino? a oe?e oi?ioe? ?icoi??oueny noeoii?noue
ineoieia?/ieo noai?a iiaoey (Na?eue Aeae., Aaiaea?aaeai Ae. Iniiaiua
iiiyoey en/eneaiey ?a/aauo aeoia// Iiaia a ca?oaaaeiie eeiaaenoeea. —
I.: I?ia?ann, 1986. — Aui.18. N.261-262).

sseui eieooeaiee oa ?eeieooeaiee aeoe ia?ic?eai?, ine?eueee i?e
?aae?caoe?? aoaeue-yeiai eieooeaiiai aeoo cae?enith?oueny aeayeee
?eieo-oeaiue aeo, oi ia?eieooeaiee aeo ia aoiaeeoue o oeae
a?ia?eiiieaen, a ? iane?aeeii eiai ?aae?caoe??. Ia?eieooeaiee aoaeo ? ia
ui ?ioa, ye “o?ae o a?aeiia?aeue”, caaaeyee /iio a neioaaiaoe/iiio ieai?
aniaeo ia?eieooe?? (ca aeiyoeii caaa?oaeueieo ?aie?e ni?eeoaaiiy) ia?
iiaea?eiee oa?aeoa? aiaeii/an ? noeioeo, ? ?aaeoe?? oa yaey? niaith
naiino?eiee iiaeaii?aee aeo. Ia oe?e i?aenoaa? ie ia aeeth/a?ii aniaeo
ia?eieooe?? o iiaeaeue iiaeaii?aiai aeoo.

Aeey aecia/aiiy noaoono ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee nei?enoa?iinue
iiiyooyi e?iaa?noe/ii? ia?aaeeaie ye iai?aiiai a oo /e ?ioo aiioo
iiaeyaeo ia iiao, iia’ycaiiai c iaaiith o?einionueeith oa/??th,
iai?yieii o ienoaoeoa?, noeeai ieneaiiy a iaooe?. Ne?aeii ca I.N.
Eoa?yeiaith aeae?ey?ii o?e aeiee aeaiaio?a (aai eaiie), ui neeaaeathoue
iiiyooy ia?aaeeaie: (1) ianoaiiaii-ia?aaeoiiai?, (2)
i?aaeiaoii-i?ciaaaeuei?, (3) i?ioeaaeo?i?, aai “oaoi?/i?” ( Eoa?yeiaa
A.N. Yaiethoeey eeiaaenoe/aneeo eaeae ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO aaea (iiuo
ia?aaeeaiaeueiiai aiaeeca) // sscue e iaoea eiioea 20 aaea /Iiae ?aae.
TH.N.Noaiaiiaa. — I.: Ei-o ycueiciaiey ?AI, 1995. — N.144-238).

Cae?eniaiee aiae?c ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee a oa?i?iao iaoeiai?
ia?aaeeaie ciaiue aeicaieea aecia/eoe ?? iniiai? neeaaeieee: i?ia?aeiith
ianoaiiaith, aeo?aeiei oai?aoe/iei iieiaeaiiyi ? ia’?ae-iaiiy
ia?a?aoiaaieo aeua i?aeoiae?a ? ii?aeiaiiy ia?aaeeai, i???ioaoe?y ia
ciai?oith e?iaa?noeeo. ?acii c oei, nenoaiia ?icoi?iiy i?ioeano
eiioi?eaoe?? a?ae??ciy? ?noi?e/io i?aaiae?iaa?noeeo a?ae ?ioeo
?ioa?i?aoaoeaieo iai?yie?a: nenoaii?noue ia?aaeaa/a? eiiieaeniee aiae?c
yaeu (o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo eiioi?eaoe??) c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ia ieo
eiiiiiaio?a, ye? ia aoiaeyoue o nenoaio (?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e,
noni?euenoaa oa ?i.).

I?aaeiaoii-i?ciaaaeueia eaiea a ?noi?e/i?e i?aaiae?iaa?noeoe? aeeth/a?
a naaa an? aniaeoe iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, i?aaiaoe/i? eiiiiiaioe aeeneo?no —
no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee iiaeaii?ai? ?ioa?aeoe??, eiioi?eaoeai? i?eioeeie, ui
aea/athoueny o ieai? ae?ao?ii??. Aaaeeeaith oa?aeoa?enoeeith
i?aaeiaoii-i?ciaaaeueii? eaiee ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee ?
iaiiaeeea?noue aaoiiaoe/iiai ia?aiino ?aeae neio?ii?/ii?
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee ia iaeanoue ae?ao?ii??: ine?eueee ?noi?e/ia
i?aaiae?iaa?noeea oieono? oaaao ia aiae?c? ?noi?e/ii a?aeaeaeaiiai
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa aeeneo?no, ae?ao?ii?/ieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo ?o
eiiiiiaio?a, aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeai i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? ?noi?e/ii?
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee, iia’ycaieo c i?ieea?noth o /an?, iaiao?aeia caeo/aiiy
aeaieo ?noi?e/-iiai ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e e nioe?oio, ye? aecia/athoueny
ia’?eoeaiith ?noi?e/iith i?ieea?noth oi?i ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?.

*ei a?eueoa ni?eueiiai a oa?aeoa?? i?aaeiaoii? ae?yeueiino?
??ciiiai?oieo oeea?e?caoe?e, eoeueoo?, nioe?oi?a, oei a?eueoa ca?a?a
iiaeia i/?eoaaoe a iaai?? iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, aeinooiieo aeey iiaieo
iniaenoinoae — /eai?a oeeo nioe?oi?a. Ine?eueee aeey ci?ie a iaai??
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a iiaeii? a?aeaooeny iaai? ci?ie a oa?aeoa?? i?aaeiaoii?
ae?yeueiino?, ui ? ii??aiyii o?eaaeei ?noi?e/iei i?ioeanii, iaa??
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a (a ?o iaea?eueo ocaaaeueiaiiio aeaeyae?) ni?aaaaeeeai
aaaaeaoe a?aeiinii iino?eiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith eiioi?eaoe??.

Cia/ii a?eueoa e?euee?noue ?noi?e/ieo ci?i ? c a?eueoith oaeae-e?noth
a?aeaoaa?oueny a niiniaao ?aae?caoe?? iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a o eiie?aoieo
iiaao ? eiie?aoieo nioe?oiao. Ca iaoeie aeaieie oa ca aeaieie ?ioeo
aeine?aeiee?a ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiaoeee iiaeaiiy, aiie oi?eathoueny
i?aeoe/ii an?o aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aiai aeoo. Oiio ?o iiaeia aaaaeaoe
aa??aaaeueieie, ci?iieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aa?aaeueiiai ni?eeoaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, o i?aaeiaoi?e iaeano? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiaoeee
aeae?eythoueny a?aeiinii noae? e a?aeiinii ci?ii? aeaiaioe, nooi?iue ?
oaeaee?noue i?ieeaino? yeeo iia’ycaia c? ci?iaie a nenoai? iiae oa
aeaeao ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie.

I?aaeiaoia iaeanoue aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?noi?e/i?e i?aaiae?iaa?noeoe? ia
ia? aei?noeeo iaiaaeaiue ? aeeth/a? a naaa an? aniaeoe iiaeaii?aiai
aeoo, i?aaiaoe/i? eiiiiiaioe aeeneo?no — no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee iiaeaii?ai?
?ioa?aeoe??, eiioi?eaoeai? i?eioeeie, ui aea/athoueny a ieai?
ae?ao?ii??.

O “oaoi?/i?e”, aai iaoiaee/i?e, eaioe? ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee
iaea?eueo aaaeeeaa, c iaoi? oi/ee ci?o, ? oa, ui an? yaeua, ye?
aea/athoueny, ?icaeyaeathoueny ia a?ae??aaii a?ae eiie?aoiiai /ano
(iaio?ii?/ii), a o?eueee ye aeaiaioe aa?aaeueii? eiioi?eaoe?? iaaiiai
nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua, e?iaaieoeueoo?ii? ni?eueiioe.
?noi?e/i?noue ye ?iaiaioia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaiaoeee iiaeaiiy
aeyaey?oueny a oiio, ui eiaeiee aeine?aeaeoaaiee oaiiiai ia?aaea?oueny
ia aea/aiiy ye aeaiaio nenoaie a ieai? eiai i?eiaeaaeiino? aei o??? /e
?ioi? aiioe e eoeueoo?e. Oea coiiaeth? eiiieaeni?noue ? aca?iica’ycie
canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a ? ie?aieo iaoiaeee nioe?i- oa
aoiiineoie?iaa?noeee, eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai aiae?co, naiaioe/ieo
?ioa?i?aoaoe?e, eia?/iiai aiae?co, ui aeiiiaiththoue aeania
i?aaiae?iaa?noe/i? iaoiaee aiae?co.

Oaeei /eiii, o ia?aaeeaiaeueiiio a?aeiioaii? ?noi?e/ia
i?aaiae?iaa?noeea ? iaeiei c iai?yie?a eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
ia?aaeeaie a iiaiciaanoa?, ui aeine?aeaeo? i?aaiaoe/i? aeanoeaino?
iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe?? (iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa aeeneo?no) a ?o
?noi?e/-iiio ?icaeoeo.

Y?oiooth/enue ia ae?yeuei?niiio i?aeoiae? e aeoiaey/e c ?icoi?iiy
eiioi?eaoe?? ye nenoaie, ?noi?e/ia i?aaiaoeea aea/a? noae? e ci?ii?
aeaiaioe iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa aeeneo?no, ?icaeyaea? aeeiai?/i? i?ioeane
o aa?aaeuei?e eiioi?eaoe?? ye ?acoeueoao naii?icaeoeo iiae oa ci?i
eiioi?eaoeaieo iio?aa, coiiaeaieo aeeiai?eith eoeueoo?e e noni?euenoaa.

I?noea ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiaoeee na?aae ?ioeo i?aeoiae?a o iiaiciaanoa?
aecia/a?oueny ye iaeia c iaeeo ia?aaeeai o neeaae?
eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? ia?aaeeaie ii?yae ?c neio?ii?/iith
i?aaiae?iaa?noeeith, nioe?i- oa ineoie?iaa?noeeith.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? cae?enith?oueny aiae?c ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee
i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy a 16 — 20
no.

Uia aaeaeaaoii iienaoe eiioi?eaoeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy
o iiaeaii? a?aeaeaeaiiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo iaiao?aeia eiiieaenia
canoinoaaiiy oe?eiai ?yaeo i?ioeaaeo? aiae?co, i?eeiyoeo a
?ioa?i?aoaoeaieo e?iaa?noe/ieo aeenoeeie?iao. Iai?eeeaae, iao no/aniee
ia a?ae/oaa? iaei?aoeaiino? o caa?oaii? oaeni???anueeiai ia?niiaaea aei
a?aoa c? neiaaie fair cousin, i?ae oei o 16 no. aiii aeeeeeaei oeaae
iao?aiiy oa ia?aco a eieeoiueiai ei?iey ??/a?aea, eiee aei iueiai
iiae?aiei ia?acii caa?ioany eiai eieeoi?e i?aeaeaiee Aai??o, yeee noaa
ei?ieai:

“Fair Cousin? I am greater than a king. For when I was a king,

my flatterers Were then but subjects. Being now a subject, I have a

king here to my flatterer.”/Shakespeare, Richard II, iv,1,305-308/.

Aeey aaeaeaaoiiai iiyniaiiy i?e/ei i?aaiaoe/ii? o?ainiiceoe??
ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy, ui ?aae?co? a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iai?yiee iiaeaii?aee
aeo aeni?anea, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ae?ao?ii?/i? ci?ie i?eioeei?a
iiaeaiiy, iniaeeai i?eioeeio aa?/eeaino?, yeee caeaaeeoue, o naith
/a?ao, a?ae caaaeueiiai noaio aoino, i???ioiaaiiai ia ia?aaaaeii
iiceoeaio aai iaaaoeaio aa?/eea?noue. Aiii?eo?/ia caa?oaiiy fair o
aeaiiio cia/aii? aeoiaeeoue c oaeeoeo a no/aniiio iiaeaii?.

Aiioeaia ?eeieooeaia neea aeaiiai iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oaeiae iia’ycaia c
ii?iaie iiaiiai aoeeaoo ? oe?eith ieceith /eiiee?a, ui aecia/athoue
aieeaiaee iioaioe?ae aeneiaethaaiiy: a oeueiio i?eeeaae? oi?ie caa?oaiue
neoaothoue ?iaeeeaoi?aie a?aeiioaiue i?ae noia?ieeaie a ai?iouea? ca
o?ii. Aeiee ??/a?ae Ieaioaaaiao — ei?ieue, Aai??o Othaei? o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?eeiyoith ii?iith caa?oa?oueny aei iueiai oaiiaeeai:
my gracious sovereign (lord), my most loving liege, a ??/a?ae iaceaa?
eiai oai?euey?ii: cousin, fair cousin, cousin of Hereford. I?ney
c?a/aiiy ??/a?ae oeooeo? Aai??oa king, a Aai??o iaceaa? eiai fair
cousin, ui i?e?iii aeey i?aeaeaiiai ye oaea. Aea ??/a?ae, iacaeeeee aei
oaei? oai?euey?iino?, a?ae/oaa? naaa i?eieaeaiei.

Ia iaio cia/ou? aeey i?aaiaoe/iiai oeoia/aiiy oeueiai ?a/aiiy ci?ie
oeiiaeo noa? ? oai ni?eeoaaiiy a nioe?oi? (a ?eecaaaoeinuee?e Aiae??
aeeooy aeai?o iaei iac??aiyiii a?eueoa cia/aiiy aeey noni?euenoaa, i?ae
o no/ani?e aea?aeaa?), ci?ie i?aaeiaoieo iniia ae?yeueiino?, a oiio
/ene? iiaeaii?ai? (nieeaa? a ieioea e?eaaaa ai?ioueaa ca o?ii, oeiiaa
aeey na?aaei?o a?e?a).

Coiei?iiny a?eueo aeaoaeueii ia oaiaeaioe?yo ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee
ie?aieo aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a — ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue. Oae, o
eieooeaiiio aniaeo? iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, ?aae?ciaaieo aiae?enueeeie
ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie, ca inoaii? 500 ?ie?a aeyaeythoueny oae? oeie
ae?ao?ii?/ieo ci?i: aeieeiaiiy/cieeiaiiy aai ci?ia ooieoe?e i?aaiaoe/ii
?aeaaaioieo eiiiiiaio?a, o oiio /ene? eiaeeo?eiaaieo (ia?ea??a
aeeneo?no, ia?oi?iaoeaieo ae??ne?a, aeaiaio?a iniaiai? aeaeeoeee oa
?i.), a ?acoeueoao? /iai a?aeaoaathoueny ci?ie ie?aieo aniaeo?a nenoaie
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo; ci?ia noaoono i?aaiaoe/ii ?aeaaaioieo oa
?iaee-oa?aioieo eiiiiiaio?a o ?acoeueoao? ?icaeoeo nenoaie iiae e
i?aaiaoe/ii? nenoaie.

O i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy iiaii? ii?ie o? aeaiaioe iiae, ui ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue iiai?e ii?i?, iaaoaathoue i?aaiaoe/ii? ia?eiaaiino? a
iiaeaii? (ii/eiath/e c 18 no. iiaea?eia caia?a/aiiy, a?eueia aa??thaaiiy
to be/to have o neeaae? aiae?oe/ii? oi?ie ia?oaeoa, iiaia ae??ne?aia
?iaa?n?y a ieoaiiyo, ?ai?oa i?aaiaoe/ii ?iaeeoa?aioi?, noathoue
i?aaiaoe/ii ?aeaaaioieie). O naith /a?ao, aeaiaioe eieooe??, ui ia
aoiaeeee a iiaio ii?io, ia?aaoaath/e o i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy (iai?eeeaae,
ae??ne?ai? oi?ie Continuous ?ai?oa 18 — 19 no.), ? oiio aoee
i?aaiaoe/ii ia?eiaaieie, i?ney iaaoooy oconiiai noaoono ia?aoiaeyoue aei
?ic?yaeo i?aaiaoe/ii ?iaeeoa?aioieo.

Caeeoath/enue i?aaiaoe/ii ?aeaaaioieie i?ioyaii ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo,
ie?ai? aeaiaioe ci?iththoue nai? ooieoe??: iai?eeeaae, caeiaiiee thou c
ia?ea?a ia?aaaaeii nioe?aeueii-?ieueiaeo a?aeiioaiue noa? noee?noe/iei
ia?ea?ii, ia?oi?iaoeaia ae??neiai pray noa? caniaii
aiioe?eii-noee?noe/iiai ia?eoaaiiy iiaeaiiy oa ?i.

Ia?oi?iaoeai? ae??neiaa o 16 — 20 no. caciathoue i?ioean?a a?oa?caoe??
(beseech, charge), naiaioe/ieo ci?i (cia/aiiy i?ioaiiy o ae??neiaa pray
a 16 — 18 no. aeoeneo?oueny cia/aiiyi aeaaaiiy a 19 — 20 no.;
ae??neiai protest, yea o 16 no . ia? cia/aiiy “caiaaiyoe, ?iaeoe
cayao”, a 18 no. iaaoaa? cia/aiiy “i?ioanooaaoe, caia?a/oaaoe”, yea ia
nueiaiaei? aeoeneo? iiia?aaei?; ae??neiai warrant o 16 no. icia/a?
“i?ineoe, caia?a/oaaoe”, a o 18 no. iaaoaa? cia/aiiy “noaa?aeaeoaaoe,
?o/aoeny, aa?aiooaaoe”). Ie?ai? ae??neiaa, ye? ooieoe?iiothoue ye
ia?oi?iaoeai? o 16 — 17 no., i?ci?oa ao?a/athoue oeth caeaoi?noue aai
aaeeaathoueny ai?ciaee/ii (blame, bid, entreat, forewarn, salute, sin
etc). O oie aea /an aeaye? iaia?oi?iaoeai? ae??neiaa 16 no. iaaoaathoue
ia?oi?iaoeaieo aeanoeainoae o 18 — 20 no. (argue, introduca, refuse
etc.).

Na?aae ia?oi?iaoeaieo ae??ne?a ca?a?no?iaai? aeiaaeee no?oeoo?ieo
a?aeoeeaiue a?ae ?o o?aaeeoe?eii? oi?ie ia?oi? iniae iaeieie
?iaeeeaoeaa: a 16 no. iiaeeea? oi?ie iaeaooiueiai /ano, ianeao,
iiiaeeie, oiiaiiai niiniao, ii?aeiaiiy c iiaeaeueieie ae??neiaaie oa
ae??ne?aieie ?ioaineo?eaoi?aie; o 18 no. aei ieo i?e?aeiothoueny oi?ie
?iia?aoeao, Continuous ? oe? iiaeeeaino? ?icoe?ththoueny aei 20 no.

*anoioi?noue ia?oi?iaoeaieo ae??ne?a cieaeo?oueny c 16 aei 20 no.
a?eueo i?ae o 10 ?ac?a. sseui iiaeaii?a? aeoe 16 — 17 no.
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaei??iith aenie?oeeoi?noth ae?aaeaiiy ?ioaioe??, oi
no/ani?

iiaeaii?a? aeoe iaaoaathoue a?eueo ?iie?oeeoiiai oa?aeoa?o, ooieoe??

ia?oi?iaoeaieo ae??ne?a /anoeiai aa?a ia naaa ?aia?ea, aaoi?nueeee
iien, eiioaeno.

I?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo aeiaaeeia ieoaeueiiai
?a/aiiy, ui neeaaea? eieooeaiee aniaeo iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, ciaioo?oueny
ca ?aooiie iiaeeaeaiiy i?ioeano ae?ioecaoe?? no?oeoo?e ?a/aiiy ?
ciaioaiiy aeiaaeeie aeneiaethaaiiy.

Na?aae i?aaiaoe/ieo ia?ea??a aeeneo?no a iiaeaii?aeo aeoao, ye?
?aae?ciaai? ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie, iaea?eueo /anoioieie ? i?aaiaoe/i?
ia?ea?e ieoaeueiino?, aa?/eeaino?, aieaoeai?, aeni?aneai?, niiioeaeuei?
aei aiai??iiy. ?o ?iaa??aioieie aeanoeainoyie ? a?eueiee oei
neioaene/iiai ca’yceo c? no?oeoo?ith, a ye?e aiie aaeeaathoueny;
oaeoeueoaoeai?noue aaeeaaiiy; iaeaaei?noue aei ??cieo a?aiaoe/ieo eean?a
ne?a; i?ecia/ai?noue aei aeeiiaiiy ?iaeaenaeueii? ooieoe?? aooe
niieo/iith eaieith i?ae iiaoeai, neooa/ai, i?noeai oa /anii.

Ca iaoeie aeaieie, ca inoaii? 500 ?ie?a o aeae?eueea ?ac?a ciaioo?oueny
ye?nia ??ciiiai?oi?noue ia?a?aoiaaieo ia?ea??a aeeneo?no i?e ?o
a?aeiini?e e?euee?ni?e noaa?eueiino?. Oae, o 16 — 18 ? 19 — 20 no.
i?inoaaeo?oueny ?noi?e/ia aa??thaaiiy ia?ea??a ieoaeueiino? a?ae what,
why, I pray, I beseech, I say aei tell me, would you mind telling me, I
wonder etc.; ia?ea??a aa?/eeaino? a?ae pray (prithee, pr’ythee), (an) it
please (smb), humbly aei please, kindly, possibly; aieaoeaieo ia?ea??a
a?ae Marry, ha aei I say, etc.; ia?ea??a aeni?aneaiino? a?ae what, why,
O ye Gods, fie (fye, fy), tush(e), lo, pish, zook(er)s, alack, zounds,
egad (ecod), Lord (lud) aei alas, oh etc.; ia?ea??a niiioeaiiy aei
aiai??iiy a?ae come (o i?aiiceoe?? aei eaaneoeao) aei come on, say,
speak, tell. Ia?ea?e a?aeaa?oino? in (by) my troth, i’faith, forsooth,
before God ? o. i., aeniei/anoioi? a 16 — 18 no., aeoiaeyoue ?c oaeeoeo
a 19 — 20 no. O 16 no. a?aecia/a?ii aaeeaaiiy aeae?eueeio ??ciioeiieo
ia?ea??a aeeneo?no a iaeiiio iiaeaii?aiio aeo?, ui iaoeiiai aeey
iiaeaiiy 20 no.

Caaaeii a?aecia/a?oueny aaiethoe?y niinia?a ?aae?caoe?? iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie: c?inoa? oaiaeaioe?y aei ia?aaaaeiiai
aaeeaaiiy aenie?oeeoieo oa ?iie?oeeoieo niinia?a ?aae?caoe??
iiaeaii?aiaeoiai? ?ioaioe?? a no/aniiio aiae?enueeiio aeeneo?n? o
ii??aiyii? c ia?aaaaith a?ia?aenie?oeeoiiai ? aenie?oeeoiiai ciinia?a ??
ae?aaeaiiy o ?aiiueiiiaiaiae?enueeiio iiaeaii?.

?eeieooeaiee iioaioe?ae ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy ia ??ai? oei?a iiaeaii?aiai
aeoo o 16 — 20 no. caeeoa?oueny noaa?eueiei ? aeeth/a? a naaa
ieoaeuei?noue, aeni?aneai?noue e ioe?ii?noue, iaoaeiioi?eaoeai?noue
(oaoe/i?noue), niiioeaeuei?noue, a oaeiae eiinoaoaoe?th, ia?oeyieo ?
i?iiiceoe?th, iia?ico. O oeueiio i?iyaey?oueny noaa?euei?noue
ineoieiai-eiai?oeaii? aace ethaenueeiai ni?eeoaaiiy. Caaaeii ieoaeuei?
?a/aiiy ?aae?cothoue oae? oeie iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a (?icoaoiaai? a ii?yaeeo
ciaioaiiy /anoioiino?): eaaneoeae, aeni?aneae, aee?aeoeae, oaoe/i?
iaoaeiioi?eaoeae, eiinoaoeae, eii?neae. ??ciiaeaee (i?aeoeie) aeaieo
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a ?noi?e/ii aa??ththoueny.

I?ia?aeiith oaiaeaioe??th aa??thaaiiy ?eeieooeaiiai aniaeoo iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a — ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue o 16 — 20 no. ? ye?nia ?icoe?aiiy oa
e?euee?nia c?inoaiiy noa?e ?o iai?yieo ?aae?caoe?e — aeni?anea?a,
aee?aeoea?a, oaoe/ieo iaoaeiioi?eaoea?a, eiinoaoea?a, eii?nea?a (a?ae
12% aei 38%) ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? i?yieo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a —
eaaneoea?a (a?ae 78% aei 62%).

O iaaeao ie?aieo oei?a iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, ye? ?aae?cothoueny
ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie, a ieai? ae?ao?ii?? niinoa??aathoueny ye?ni? e
e?euee?ni? ci?ie, ui ia ii?ooothoue nooo?aeo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ia?aeii?
?eeieooeaii? neee:

— o eaaneoeaao aa??ththoueny caniae oa niiniae iiaeeo?eaoe??
?eieo-oeaii? neee (cie?aia, caa?oaiiy, ia?ea?e aeeneo?no, no?oeoo?i?
oeie ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue). Aeine?aeaeoaai? ?a/aiiy caciathoue
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i: oae, iiaa neioaene/ia eiino?oeoe?y — naaiaioiaaia
ieoaiiy (tag-question), yea c’yaey?oueny a aiae?enuee?e iia? o 16 no. ?
caaaeii caeaoia ?aae?coaaoe eaaneoeae, oaoe/i? iaoaeiioi?eaoeae,
aeni?aneae, aee?aeoeae, o ia??iae naiai aeieeiaiiy /ano?oa ooieoe?iio?
ye i?yiee iiaeaii?aee aeo — eaaneoea (36%), a o 19 — 20 no. — ye
iai?yiee oaoe/iee iiaeaii?aee aeo (49%).

I?ia?aeia ?eeieooeaia neea eaaneoea?a caeaoia ii?aeioaaoenue ?c
noiooi?ie ?eeieooe?yie aeni?aneaiino?, anoaiiaeaiiy e i?iaeiaaeaiiy
iiaeaii?aiai eiioaeoo oa ?i. Noiooi? ?eeieooe??, iniaeeai
aeni?aneai?noue e ioe?ii?noue, ?noi?e/ii o?ainoi?iothoueny ye ?acoeueoao
ia?a?iciiae?eo iaae eieaeii-e?oa?aoo?ii? e ?iciiaii? eaeneee a i?ioean?
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? aiae?enueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae oa ?i. *anoea eaaneoea?a
o caaaeuei?e aea??oe? ?noioii cieaeo?oueny (a?ae 78% o 16 no. aei 62% o
20 no. );

— a aeni?aneaao ae?ao?ii?/i? ci?ie noinothoueny no?oeoo?ii-eaene/iiai
??aiy ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue, aeei?enoaiiy ooaeiaei?o i?eeii?a, ui iia’ycaii
c ?icaeoeii eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe?? noni?euenoaa ? aeai?iaith
??ciiiai?oi?noth ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e (a aiioo A?ae?iaeaeaiiy
ia?aaaaea? iaaia a?ia?aie?caoe?y a?aeia?aaeaiiy aiioe?e, aoeea 18 no.
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ieoiiiiai?noth, na?onueeith aaeaioi?noth, a a ae?ai?
19 — 20 no. a?aecia/a?oueny i?aaiaiiy aei ?aae?noe/iiai cia?aaeaiiy
aiioe?eii-ioe?iii? noa?e ia?niiaae?a). Cie?aia, ?eoi?e/i? ieoaiiy, a
yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ainieneaiiy ?o i?iiiceoe??? (?? — ia ?!) o
i?ioean? iiaeaii?aiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy, neoaothoue oeiiaei aeey iiaeaiiy
16 no. noee?noe/iei caniaii ?ioaineo?eaoe?? nooiaiy ?eeieooeaii? neee,
yea i?ci?oa ao?a/a? nai? cia/aiiy.

Iniiaiee iaa?? ?aae?ciaaieo aiioe?e — aio?iiioi?aa?naeueiee oaiiiai — ?
iino?eiei, a niiniae ae?aaeaiiy aiioe?e o iiaeaii? —
aoiieoeueoo?iiniaoeeo?/ia yaeua — aa??aaaeuei? a ieai? ae?ao?ii??.

Ca iaoeie aeaieie, aeni?aneae — iaea?eueo /eneaiiee oei iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a, ?aae?ciaaieo ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie o iai?yiee niin?a, i?e/iio ?o
/anoea o 16 — 20 no. ?noioii c?inoa? (c 12% aei 23%) ca ?aooiie
ciaioaiiy /anoee eaaneoea?a o caaaeuei?e aea??oe?. Oea oaeiae iia’ycaii
c? ci?iith i???ioaoe?? eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?eioeeio aa?/eeaino? o
a?eoainueeiio aeeneo?n? ca aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae /ano c iiceoeaii? ia
iaaaoeaio: iai?yiee niin?a ae?aaeaiiy aiioe?e oa ioe?iie cieaeo?
nooi?iue caa?ice nioe?aeueiiio “ia?aco” aae?anaoa ? oaeei /eiii
noeioeth? i?iya iaaaoeaii? aa?/eeaino? aae?anaioa;

— o aee?aeoeaao ?noi?e/ia aeeiai?ea noino?oueny a?eueoith i??ith
ye?niiai, i?ae e?euee?niiai aniaeoo (4% — 6%). Oi?aa?naeueiith iniiaith
iai?yiiai ae?aaeaiiy niiioeaiue ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie ? i?eioeei
aa?/eeaino?. I?ioyaii 16 — 20 no. ooieoe?iiothoue a?a?eaei? iiaeaii?a?
aeoe — ?aeaanoeae oeio Will you do p?, iai?yi? ?aeaanoeae — naaiaioiaai?
ieoaiiy oeio You can do p, can’t you?, ne?eo?, aai ?iie?eiaai?,
?iia?aoeae (why-questions, iai?aaeai? ia i?eieiaiiy iaaaaeaii? ae??, ?
o.?i.), ioi?ieai? a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeaii?aeo ii?i eiie?aoiiai
ia??iaeo.

Ca aeine?aeaeoaai? 500 ?ie?a naiaioe/ii-i?aaiaoe/i? i?aeaeaee iai?yieo
niiioeaiue ? eaeneei-naiaioe/i? oi?ie ?oiuei? ?aae?caoe?? ieoaeueieie
?a/aiiyie iaaoaathoue a?eueoi? ??ciiiai?oiino?: o 16 — 17 no. iai?yi?
aee?aeoeae, ye i?aaeei, ?aae?cothoue ?ioaioe?? i?ioaiiy, caai?iie,
oiiaeyiiy; aaaeeea?oa oiiaa ?o oni?oiino? — caieo i?i aaaeaiiy aae?anaoa
aeeiiaoe ae?th (May it please you to…? Please it your Highness to
…?); o 18 no. aei iacaaieo aeae?a niiioeaiue aeiaeathoueny ii?aaee, a
a 19 — 20 no. — cai?ioaiiy, eeiiioaiiy, niiioeaiiy, ia?aeiioaaiiy a
i?ioeeaaeiiio, i?iiiceoe?? ni?eueieo ae?e, iiia?aae-aeaiiy, iaeace ?
o.i. O 19-20 no. c’yaeythoueny ? noathoue oeiiaeie caieoe i?i
iiaeeea?noue/aaaeaiiy aeeiiaoe ae?th c ae??neiaaie could, would (Nould
you/Would you do p?);

— ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy iino?eii ?icoe?ththoue iiaeeeaino? ?aae?caoe??
iiaeo i?aeaeae?a oaoe/ieo iaoaeiioi?eaoeaieo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a ia an?o
noaae?yo iiaeaii?aiai ni?eeoaaiiy. O 16 no. aiie ?aae?cothoue aea?
ooieoe?? (a?oaiiy-eiioaeoianoaiiaeaiiy oa ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aae?anaoa) ia
noaae?? anoaiiaeaiiy iiaeaii?aiai eiioaeoo oa o?e (ia?aa??ee ?iaioe
eaiaeo ca’yceo, caaacia/aiiy oaaae, i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?noeiiino?
aeneiaethaaiiy) ia noaae?? i?iaeiaaeaiiy eiioaeoo. C 18 no. ?oi?e
?icaeoie iia’ycaiee c iiyaith ?iaeo na?onuee?e “aac?ioi?iaoeaii?”
aan?aee, ni?yiiaaii? ia i?aeo?eiaiiy nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae?? — small
talk, ui a?aeiia?aea? caaaeuei?e ia?ai???ioaoe?? aiae?enueeeo aoe/ieo
i?eioeei?a c iiceoeaii? ia iaaaoeaio aa?/eea?noue. O no/aniiio iiaeaii?
iiaeaii?a? aeoe — ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy oaeiae ooieoe?iiothoue ia noaae??
i?iaeiaaeaiiy eiioaeoo ye caniae caiiaiaiiy iaoc (“i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeuei?
ieoaiiy” oeio Is it so? Really? ? o.i.), ia noaae?? ?icieeaiiy eiioaeoo
ye ia?aaecaaa?ooaaeuei? aeneiaethaaiiy. Eiaeeo?eiaai?
eaeneei-neioaene/i? oi?ie a?oaiue ? i?iuaiue caciathoue ?noioieo ci?i
a?ae How now? Hey day? How dost thou? aei How do you do? How are you?
Helli! Hi! oa ?i. *anoea oaoe/ieo iaoaeiioi?eaoea?a na?aae ?ioeo oei?a
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a ca?eueoo?oueny aei 20 no. (a?ae 3% aei 7%).

— aeine?aeaeoaai? ?a/aiiy caeaoi? ai?ciaee/ii ?aae?coaaoe eiinoaoeae oa
eii?neae (i?ii?neae, iaianeae). Ine?eueee ieoaeueia oi?ia iai?yieo
eiinoaoea?a noia?a/eoue oiiaai ?noeiiino? aeey oeueiai oeio iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a, aiie a?eueo aei?a/i? aeey ae?aaeaiiy noa’?eoeaii? oi/ee ci?o,
i?ae eaoaai?e/iiai oaa?aeaeaiiy, ii?.: “queclaratives” (J. Sadock),
“statement-questions” (M. Halliday). Ca iaoeie aeaieie, oae? eaaneoeae,
ye i?aaeei, i?aaenoaaeai? naaiaioiaaieie ieoaiiyie (tag-questions).

Aae?anaioiee ? aae?anaoiee aniaeoe iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, ui ?aae?cothoueny
ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie, ca ?icaeyaeoaaiee ia??iae /ano caciathoue
?noioieo ci?i, ye? iniaeeai iii?oi? ia i?eeeaae? caa?oaiue: o
?acoeueoao? aeaiie?aoecaoe?? nioe?aeueii? noa?e i?iyaey?oueny caaaeueia
oaiaeaioe?y aeaiie?aoecaoe?? iiaeaii?aiai ni?eeoaaiiy, ni?iuaiiy ii?i
iiaeaii?aiai aoeeaoo. A oe?eiio a?aecia/a?oueny cieaeaiiy /anoioe
caa?oaiue o neeaae? oaeeo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a: yeui a 16 no.
nioe?aeueii-?aaoeyoeaia ooieoe?y caa?oaiue a?ia?o?ioiaaia /a?ac iano?eio
iaiao?aei?noue aeoeaiooaaoe nioe?aeueiee noaoon ? aeenoaioe?th i?ae
eiioi?eaioaie, oi a no/aniee ia??iae oey ooieoe?y caeia? ??aiii?aaio
iiceoe?th na?aae ?ioeo ooieoe?e caa?oaiue.

Ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa e?euee?ni? c?ooaiiy a?aeaoaathoueny o aaeeaaii?
ie?aieo oei?a caa?oaiue: caa?oaiiy, ui i?noyoue aiii?eo?/i? i?eeiaoieee
(my noble/good/sweet/gentle/honest friend, my most gracious lord, good
my lords etc), o 16 — 17 no. aeeiiothoue caeaa?eueoiai
nioe?aeueii-?aaoeyoeaio ooieoe?th, a a 18 — 20 no. —
aeni?aneaii-ioe?iio; /anoioa oaeeo oi?i o iiaeaii? cieaeo?oueny c 18%
aei 5% aea??ee c 16 aei 18 no., a a 19 — 20 no. aiie a?oa?cothoueny ?
i?aeoe/ii aeoiaeyoue ?c oaeeoeo.

Caa?oaiiy 16 — 18 no. mistress, master a a?eueo i?ci?e ia??iae
ci?iththoueny ia missis/miss, mister; oi?ia sirrah noa? a?oa?/iith ?
aeoiaeeoue ?c iianyeaeaiiiai aaeeoeo.

*anoea caa?oaiue ia ?i’y o 16 — 20 no. ?noioii ca?eueoo?oueny ca
?aooiie ci?i iiaeaii?aiai aoeeaoo, iioe?th?oueny iaeanoue ?o aaeeaaiiy,
ui iniaeeai iii?oii o iiaeaii? ae?iie (a?ae 11% aei 28%), a /anoea
eiaeeo?eiaaieo aoeeaoieo caa?oaiue iaaea? (a?aeiia?aeii c 24% aei 17%).

Niaoeeo?ea ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee aeaiioaoeaiiai aniaeoo iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a, ?aae?ciaaieo ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie, aaa/a?oueny a caaaeuei?e
oaiaeaioe?? aei ciaioaiiy eiai ianyao ye o i?inoeo, oae ? a neeaaeieo
iiaeaii?aeo aeoao ca aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae /ano (c 5 i?inoeo
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a o neeaae? neeaaeiiai iiaeaii?aiai aeoo a 16 no. aei 2
i?inoeo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a o 20 no.). Ie?ai? i?iyae no/anii? i?ioeeaaeii?
oaiaeaioe?? eeoa i?aee?aneththoue caaaeueiee iai?yiie ?icaeoeo.

Aaiethoe?y nenoaie i?inoeo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a c oi/ee ci?o
aeaiioaoeaiiai aniaeoo eaea ii e?i?? nei?i/aiiy e?eueeino? ?ioi?iaoe??,
ui ia?aaea?oueny.

O nenoai? neeaaeieo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a a?aecia/athoueny ye?ni? ci?ie, ui
ioiieththoue aca?ii? ia?aoiaee i?aeoei?a neeaaeieo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a,
ye? ia ii?ooothoue nooiino? ?oi?o iniiaieo oei?a (eiiieaenieo,
eiiiiceoieo, neeaaeaieo), ui na?ae/eoue i?i a?aeiinio noi?iiaai?noue
nenoaie aei ii/aoeo ia??iaeo, ui aea/a?oueny.

O iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiiio aniaeo? iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, ?aae?ciaaieo
ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie, aeyaeythoueny ae?ao?ii?/i? ci?ie, ye?
ae?aaeathoueny o aa??thaaii? eiioi?eaoeaieo no?aoaa?e aa?/eeaino? a 16 —
20 no. Ae?ao?ii?/ia aa??thaaiiy iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiiai aniaeoo iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a — ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue coiiaeaia eiiieaenii e?iaa?noe/ieo ?
aeno?ae?iaaaeueieo /eiiee?a, na?aae yeeo ?icaeoie iai?yieo niinia?a
?aae?caoe?? iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a o a?e e?euee?niiai c?inoaiiy ? ye?niiai
?icoe?aiiy; ?icaeoie a?eoainueeiai aoino caaaeii ii oeyoo a?ae
ia?aaaaeii iiceoeaii? aei ia?aaaaeii iaaaoeaii? i???ioaoe?? i?eioeeio
aa?/eeaino?; ci?ie ii?i iiaeaii?aiai aoeeaoo; ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie
e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeiuei? o?aaeeoe?? a ae?aiaoo?a??.

O 16 — 20 no. caaaeii aiae?ciaai? ?a/aiiy caeaoi? ?aae?coaaoe a?n?i ?c
i’yoiaaeoeyoe a?aecia/aieo I.A?aoi ? N.Eaa?iniiii (Brown P., Levinson S.
Politeness: Some universals in langiage use. — London, New York etc.:
Cambridge University Press, 1987. — 345 p.) no?aoaa?e cieaeaiiy caa?ice
iiceoeaiiio “ia?aco” aae?anaoa. I?ioyaii onueiai oeueiai ia??iaeo
iaea?eueo /anoioieie caeeoathoueny no?aoaa?? aeei?enoaiiy
?aeaioeo?eaoe?eieo ia?ea??a iaeaaeiino? aei a?oie (caa?oaiue),
ci?oeithaaiiy ni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a eiioi?eaio?a (iii’yeoaieo i?ioaiue),
caieo?a i?e/ei, i?iya?a neiiao?? aei aae?anaoa. Iaio /anoioieie ?
iiceoeai? no?aoaa?? ?icoi?iiy iio?aa aae?anaoa, iiooe?a caiaee, aea?o?a,
i?iiiceoe?e/ia?oeyiie.

O 16 — 18 no. ca?a?no?iaai? a?n?i aeuaiacaaieo no?aoaa?e iiceoeaii?
aa?/eeaino?, a a 19 ? 20 no. — n?i, ine?eueee a oeae /an ieoaeuei?
?a/aiiy, ui ?aae?cothoue no?aoaa?th iiooeo caiaee oa noaaeaiiy aae?anaoa
ca aeiiiiiaith niaoeeo?/ieo aeey 16 — 18 no. ia?ea??a aa?/eeaino?,
aeoiaeyoue ?c oaeeoeo.

Ca aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae /ano ieoaeuei? ?a/aiiy aeyaeythoue
caeaoi?noue ?aae?coaaoe /ioe?e no?aoaa?? iaaaoeaii? aa?/eeaino?,
iaea?eueo cia/ou? c yeeo — no?aoaa?y iai?yiiai niiniao ae?aaeaiiy,
iaiaa’yceeaino? oa ooeeueiino?, a oaeiae no?aoaa?? iiaaaeeeaiai
noaaeaiiy aei aeoiee aae?anaoa, ?iia?niiae?caoe?? aeneiaethaaiiy.

sse i?ia?aeia i?inoaaeo?oueny ia’?eoeaia oaiaeaioe?y ia?aaaae no?aoaa?e
iiceoeaii? aa?/eeaino? o ae?aiao 16 — 17 no. ? iaaaoeaii? aa?/eeaino? a
19 — 20 no. O aeeneo?n? 18 no. no?aoaa?? iiceoeaii? e iaaaoea-

ii? aa?/eeaino? ?aae?cothoueny iaeiaeiaith i??ith (ii?. iao? aeai? ca
noie?ooyie i?i aeeiai?eo no?aoaa?e aa?/eeaino? o 16 — 20 no.: iiceoeai?

70% — 67% — 52% — 40% — 38% oa iaaaoeai?, a?aeiia?aeii, —

30% — 33% — 48% — 60% — 62%).

Aeey aeiaaeueii? noaoenoe/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ci?i aeine?aeaeoaaieo
aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aiai aeoo a 16 — 20 no. aaaaeaii ia?aiao? a?aenoai? d,
yeee aeicaiey? iienaoe eiaeiee aniaeo caaaeii. Ii??aiyiiy oeeo
a?aenoaiae na?ae/eoue, ui iaea?eueoee nooi?iue i?ieeaino? a?ae??ciy?
ae?ao?ii?/ia aa??thaaiiy aae?anaioiiai e aae?anaoiiai aniaeo?a
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo a ieai? ooieoe?iioaaiiy caa?oaiue (d=1,41), a iaeiaioa
— ?eeieooeaiee aniaeo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, ?aae?ciaaieo ieoaeueieie
?a/aiiyie, o ieai? oei?a iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a (d=0,41). I?ii?aeio iiceoe?th
ca nooiaiai aa??thaaiiy caeiathoue: eieooeaiee aniaeo a ieai?
ia?oi?iaoeaieo ae??ne?a (d=1,15) ? iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiee aniaeo a ieai?
no?aoaa?e aa?/eeaino? (d=0,975). Oei naiei noaoenoe/ii
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aenoiooa a?iioaca i?i ??cio oaeaee?noue ? nooi?iue
?noi?e/ieo ci?i ??cieo aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa aeaiiino?o?oueny
iaea?eueoa noaa?euei?noue eiai ?eeieooeaiiai aniaeoo.

Caaaeii ae?ao?ii?/i? eieeaaiiy /anoie ??cieo aniaeo?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a aeyaeythoue ?noioi? ?ica?aeiino? a ae?aiaciiao 16 —
18 no. ? 16 — 20 no., oiae? ye ?o ?ica?aeiino? i?ae 16 — 17 no. ? 16 —
19 no. ia?aaaaeii ianooo?a?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue ia??iae?a
a?eueo ??ceeo c?ooaiue ? a?eueo ieaaieo aaiethoe?eieo ci?i i?aaiaoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy. Ona neacaia oaeiae
aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?aaiaoe/ia nenoaia aiae?enueeiai
ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy aoea a iniiaiiio noi?iiaaia aei ii/aoeo 16 no. Oe?
i?aenoaae aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iaµ?oioiaaii aeae?eeoe aeaa ia??iaee a
?noi??? ae?ao?ii?/ieo ci?i i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aiae?enueeiai
?a/aiiy ca inoaii? i’yonio ?ie?a: ia?oee — c ii/aoeo 16 no. aei
na?aaeeie

18 no. ? ae?oaee — ?c ae?oai? iieiaeie 18 no. aei iei?oiueiai /ano,
i?e/iio 18 no. neoao? nai???aeiei iiai?ioiei ioieoii a iai?yieao oeeo
aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee i?aaiaoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe
oae? aeniiaee:

1. Iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiue ?noi?e/ii? aeeiai?ee i?aaiaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoe ?a/aiiy ? oai??y iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? ye iaeia c
iaea?eueo iiaieo ao?eaiue no/anii? eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
ia?aaeeaie.

2. Nenoaii?noue ? eiinoeoooeaiith aeanoea?noth iiaeaii?ai?
ae?yeueiino?, yea iiaea eaae?o?eoaaoeny ye iaaeneeaaeia nenoaia —
“nenoaia nenoai”, i?e/iio ?noi?e/ia i?aaiae?iaa?noeea aaco?oueny ia
aeciaii? nenoaiiino? e iiae, ? iiaeaiiy. O ieai? ae?ao?ii?? i?ae
i?aaiaoe/iith ?noi???th nenoaie ?icoi??ii ci?io ?? noai?a — noaeiai aai
ianoaeiai — caeaaeii a?ae oeio ci?i ?? ie?aieo aniaeo?a.

3. Iaeaaaeeea?oei aeaea?aeii ?noi?e/ii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee ? neio?ii?/ia
i?aaiae?iaa?noeea, ui o?aeoo?oueny ye ?ioaa?aoeaia aeenoeeie?ia, yea
ia’?aeio? aca?iiiia’ycai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeaii?aiai aeoo oa
aeeneo?no — oai??th iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a ? eiiaa?naoe?eiee aiae?c. A
?noi?e/i?e i?aaiae?iaa?noeoe? oe? iai?yiee iaea?aeothoue ?icaeoie ia
iaoa??ae? iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe?? a?aeaeaeaieo ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a, ui
aeicaiey?, c iaeiiai aieo, anoaiiaeoe oa?aeoa? ae?ao?ii?/ieo ci?i o
iiaeaii?aiio aeo? oa aeeneo?n? (eiai i?eioeei?a, no?aoaa?e ? oaeoee), a
c ?ioiai, aeeaoa ona?aeiieoe no/aniee noai i?aaiaoe/ii? nenoaie.

4. ?noi?e/ia i?aaiae?iaa?noeea ? iaei??th c iaeeo ia?aaeeai o neeaae?
?ioaa?aoeaii? ia?aaeeaie a e?iaa?noeoe?. ?? i?ia?aeiith ianoaiiaith,
aeo?aeiei oai?aoe/iei iieiaeaiiyi ? ia’?aeiaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?aeoiae?a ? ii?aeiaiiy ia?aaeeai,
i???ioaoe?y ia ciai?oith e?iaa?noeeo; i?aaeiaoii-i?ciaaaeueia eaiea a
?noi?e/i?e i?aaiae?iaa?noeoe? ioiieth? an? aniaeoe iiaeaii?aiai aeoo,
i?aaiaoe/i? eiiiiiaioe aeeneo?no — no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee iiaeaii?ai?
?ioa?aeoe??, eiioi?eaoeai? i?eioeeie, ui aea/athoueny a ieai?
ae?ao?ii??; o nai?e iaoiaee/i?e eaioe? ?noi?e/ia i?aaiae?iaa?noeea
i???ioo?oueny ia eiioi?eaoe?th iaaii? aiioe, ?? e?iaai-eoeueoo?io
ni?euei?noue, o /iio aaa/a?oueny iiaeieaiiy iaeiiai c iaaeie?e?a
no/anii? i?aaiae?iaa?noeee — iaio?ii?/iino?.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaia o ?iaio? iiaeaeue iiaeaii?aiai aeoo neeaaea?oueny c
o?ueio aeie?a ? aeaa’yoe aniaeo?a: a) aae?anaioiee, aae?anaoiee ?
?ioaioe?iiaeueiee aniaeoe neeaaeathoue aio?iiioeaio?e/iee aeie; a)
eiioaenoiee, neooaoeaiee oa iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiee aniaeoe ooai?ththoue aeie
oiia ? niinia?a ?aae?caoe?? iiaeaii?aiai aeoo; a) aeaiioaoeaiee,
eieooeaiee oa ?eeieooeaiee aniaeoe neeaaeathoue oeaio?aeueiee
iiaeaii?aiaeoiaee aeie, yeee aecia/a? aieeaiao neeo aeneiaethaaiiy, ?
a?aeiia?aeathoue ieaio ci?noo, ae?aaeaiiy e aeooae?caoe?? aeneiaethaaiiy
a iiaeaii?. Caaaeii oea aeicaiey? iiaeaethaaoe i?yi? e iai?yi?
iiaeaii?a? aeoe oa ? c?o/iei ?ino?oiaioii aiae?co ?o ae?ao?ii?/iiai
aa??thaaiiy.

6. O eieooeaiiio aniaeo? iiaeaii?aiai aeoo aeae?eythoueny i?aaiaoe/ii
?aeaaaioi? oa ?iaeeoa?aioi? eiiiiiaioe, ui caciathoue ??cii-ni?yiiaaieo
ci?i o ieai? ae?ao?ii??. C iaeiiai aieo, ie?ai? aeaiaioe eieooe??
ci?iththoue na?e i?aaiaoe/iee noaoon: iaaoaathoue aai ao?a/athoue
i?aaiaoe/io ia?eiaai?noue o iiaeaii? i?ioyaii ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo, a
iniiaiiio, a ?acoeueoao? noaiiaeaiiy iiaii? ii?ie. C ?ioiai aieo,
caeeoath/enue i?aaiaoe/ii ?aeaaaioieie i?ioyaii ?noi?e/-iiai ?icaeoeo,
ie?ai? aeaiaioe ci?iththoue nai? i?aaiaoe/i? ooieoe??.

Na?aae i?aaiaoe/ii ?aeaaaioieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e eieooeaiiai aniaeoo
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a — ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue a 16 — 20 no. aeae?eythoueny:
nei?i/aiiy iaai?o, ci?ia oi?i ? cieaeaiiy /anoioe ia?oi?iaoeaieo
ae??ne?a; ye?nia nei?i/aiiy iaai?o ia?ea??a aeeneo?no oa ?i. Caaaeii oea
aecia/a? ni?yiiaai?noue aaiethoe?? iiaieo niinia?a ?aae?caoe??
iiaeaii?aiaeoiai? ?ioaioe?? a?ae ia?aaaaeii a?ia?aenie?oeeoiiai ?
aenie?oeeoiiai a ?aiiueiiiaiaiae?enueeiio ia??iae? aei ia?aaaaeii
aenie?oeeoiiai oa ?iie?oeeoiiai a no/aniiio iiaeaii?.

7. ?eeieooeaiee iioaioe?ae ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy ia ??ai? oei?a
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo a 16 — 20 no. caeeoa?oueny noaa?eueiei ? aeeth/a? a
naaa caieooaaiiy, aeni?aneai?noue e ioe?ii?noue, iaoaeiioi?eaoeai?noue
(oaoe/i?noue), niiioeaeuei?noue, a oaeiae eiinoaoaoe?th, ia?oeyieo oa
i?iiiceoe?th, iia?ico. Caaaeueiith oaiaeaioe??th ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ?
ye?nia ?icoe?aiiy e e?euee?nia c?inoaiiy noa?e iai?yieo iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a — ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino? i?yieo
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a.

O a?oi? eaaneoea?a aa??ththoueny ?oiy /enaeuei?noue, caniae
iiaeeo?eaoe?? ?eeieooeaii? neee e noiooi? ?eeieooe??. Na?aae aeni?anea?a
c?inoa? ?oiy /anoioi?noue i?e caa?aaeaii? aio?iiioi?aa?naeueiiai iaai?o
aiioe?e. O a?oi? aee?aeoea?a iaea?eueo? ci?ie a?aeaoaathoueny a
ye?niiio aniaeo?. Na?aae oaoe/ieo iaoaeiioi?eaoea?a ?icoe?th?oueny iaa??
i?aeaeae?a oeeo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a ia an?o noaae?yo iiaeaii?aiai
ni?eeoaaiiy.

8. Aae?anaioiee ? aae?anaoiee aniaeoe iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a — ieoaeueieo
?a/aiue aeyaeythoue ?noioi? ci?ie o noa?? caa?oaiue: aiii?eo?/i?
i?eeiaoieee, oeiia? aeey iiaeaiiy 16 — 17 no., ci?iththoue naith
ooieoe?iiaeueio ni?yiiaai?noue ?c nioe?aeueii-?aaoeyoeaii? o 16 — 17
no. ia aeni?aneaii-ioe?iio o 18 — 20 no. O no/aniiio iiaeaii? aiie
a?oa?cothoueny e aeoiaeyoue ?c oaeeoeo, ye ? caa?oaiiy mistress, master.
*anoea caa?oaiue ia ?i’y ?noioii ca?eueoo?oueny, a /anoea eiaeeo?eiaaieo
aoeeaoieo caa?oaiue ciaioo?oueny.

9. ?noi?e/ia aeeiai?ea aeaiioaoeaiiai aniaeoo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a,
?aae?ciaaieo ieoaeueieie ?a/aiiyie, i?iyaey?oueny a ciaioaii? eiai
ianyao ye a i?inoeo, oae ? a neeaaeieo iiaeaii?aeo aeoao.

10. Aeeiai?ea iaoaeiioi?eaoeaiiai aniaeoo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a —
ieoaeueieo ?a/aiue a?aeiia?aea? caaaeueiiio iai?yieo ?icaeoeo
aeeneo?neaiiai i?eioeeio aa?/eeaino? a a?eoainueeiio aoin? a?ae
ia?aaaaeii iiceoeaii? i???ioaoe?? aei iaaaoeaii?. A ??ci? aiioe
aiae?enueea ieoaeueia ?a/aiiy ?aae?co? ??ci? iaai?e iiceoeaieo ?
iaaaoeaieo no?aoaa?e aa?/eeaino?, i?e/iio e?euee?nia ia?aaaaa iiceoeaieo
no?aoaa?e o aeeneo?n?

16 no. ci?ith?oueny ia?aaaaith iaaaoeaieo o 20 no.

11. Ca iaoeie aeaieie iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia?aiao??a, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue nooi?iue ci?ie aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aiai aeoo a /an?,
caaaeii ci?ie an?o aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny,
iaea?eueo ?noioi? i?ae o?ueiia ?noi?e/ieie c??caie: 16,17 no. — 18 no. —
19,20 no., a oie /an ye aa??thaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo yaeu o

16 — 17 no. ? 19 — 20 no., iineoue a?eueo ieaaiee, aaiethoe?eiee
oa?aeoa?, ?o iaoaiaoe/i? ?ica?aeiino? ia?noioi?. Aoaiaie ?icaeoeo
i?aaiaoe/ii? nenoaie aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy ca inoaii? i’youe
noie?oue ne?ae aeciaoe: ia?oee — c 16 no. aei na?aaeeie 18 no. ? ae?oaee
— c na?aaeeie 18 no. aei nueiaiaei?.

Ona neacaia aeicaiey? niiae?aaoenue, ui aeina?ae ae?ao?ii?/iiai aiae?co
i?aaiaoeee ?a/aiiy iiaea ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy a ?icaeoeo ?ioa?i?aoaoeaii?
(i?aaiaoe/ii?) ia?aaeeaie a e?iaa?noeoe? o o?eiaaiaoe/iiio ieai?;
ni?eyoe i?aeoe/iiio aea/aiith eiioi?eaoeaii-?ioai-oe?iiaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy a iiaeaii?aiio aeo? oa
aeeneo?n?; aniaeoia iiaeaeue iiaeaii?aiai aeoo iiaea aooe i?iaeoeoeaiith
aeey iieno i?aaiaoeee ?a/aiiy ye a ae?ao?ii??, oae ? a neio?ii??, ia
iaoa??ae? iaei??? iiae aai o c?noaaieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiai?noth a?aeaeoi a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

1) Enoi?e/aneay aeeiaieea i?aaiaoeee i?aaeeiaeaiey: aiaeeeneia
aii?ineoaeueiia i?aaeeiaeaiea 16 — 20 aa. (Iiiia?aoey). — Oa?ueeia:
Eiinoaioa, 1998. — 168 n. — 10,5 i.e.

2) I i?aaiaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoeeao naaiaioe?iaaiiuo aii?inia a
i?iecaaaeaieyo A.Oaenie?a // Aanoiee Oa?ueeia. oi-oa. — 1992. —

? 367. — N.114-117.

3) E i?aaiaoeea aii?ineoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee a i?iecaaaeaieyo
A.Oaenie?a // Aanoiee Oa?ueeia. oi-oa. — 1992.— ? 372. — N.122-126.

4) Einaaiiua ?a/aaua aeou ?aiiaiiaiaiaeeeneiai ia?eiaea (ia iaoa?eaea
aii?ineoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee) // Aanoiee Oa?ueeia. oi-oa. — 1994. — ?
382. — N.148-152.

5) I?aaiaoeea ?a/e a eiioaenoa eoeueoo?u // O/ai. cai. Oa?ueeia.
aoiaieoa?iiai ei-oa “IOA”. — 1995. — ?1. — N.274-286.

6) I?aaiaoeea ia?aaiaea ae?aiu: aniaeo aeeao?iiee // A?niee Oa?e?a.
oi-oo. — 1995. — ? 384. — N.190-194.

7) Eiioeaioeey i?aaiaoe/anee i?eaioe?iaaiiie enoi?ee ycuea a o?oaeao
iaiaoeeeo eeiaaenoia // A?niee Oa?e?a. oi-oo. — 1995. — ? 384. — N.13—15
(o ni?aaaoi?noa? c E.?.Aacoaeith).

8) Iaeioi?ua ya?enoe/aneea i?iaeaiu enoi?e/aneie i?aaiaeeiaaenoeee //
A?niee Oa?e?a. oi-oo. — 1996. — ? 386. — N.147-151.

9) Ia enoi?eeii?aaiaoe/aneie ia?aaeeaia a eeiaaenoeea // O/ai. cai.
Oa?ueeia. aoiaieoa?iiai ei-oa “IOA”. — 1997. — ?3. — N.293-297.

10) I?iaeaiu ia?auaiee e i?eaaonoaee a enoi?e/aneie i?aaiaeeiaaenoeea //
A?niee Oa?e?a. oi-oo. — 1997. — ? 390. — N.171-174.

11) Enoi?e/aneay aeeiaieea i?aaiaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee aiaeeeneeo
iaaeaeiiaoee // A?niee Oa?e?a. oi-oo. — 1998. — ? 406. — N.236-241.

12) I?eioeeiu iiaeaee?iaaiey ?a/aauo aeoia // A?niee Oa?e?a. oi-oo. —
1998. — ? 406. — N.51-58 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.A.?eaa?ii).

13) Aeaye? oaiaeaioe?? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo aiae?enueeeo ia?oi?iaoeaieo
ae??ne?a // A?niee *a?ean. oi-oo. —1998. — ? 7. — N.104-108.

14) Yaiethoeey i?eioeeia aaaeeeainoe a aiaeeeneii aeeneo?na 16 — 20 aa.
// A?niee Oa?e?a. oi-oo. — 1999. — ? 424. — N. 191-199.

15) Enoi?e/aneay aeeiaieea aeaiioaoeaiiai aniaeoa ?a/aauo aeoia// A?niee
Oa?e?a. oi-oo. — 1999. — ? 430. — N. 199-204.

16) I?iaeaiu aeeiaieee i?eioeeia aaaeeeainoe a ?a/aaie eiiioieeaoeee //
A?niee Noi. oi-oo. — 1999. — ? 1(12). — N. 174-178.

17) E ii?aaeaeaieth iiiyoey aeeneo?na a enoi?e/aneie i?aaiaeeiaaenoeea
// A?niee Oa?e?a. oi-oo. — 1999. — ? 435. — N.146-150. Iniaenoee aeeaae
aeena?oaioa a noaooyo, iaienaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?, iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:
(7) — aea?? oaie oa oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy aeeeaaeaiiai iaoa??aeo; (12) —
aea?? oaie, aecia/aiiy oai?aoe/ii? nooiino? aniaeo?a iiaeae?
iiaeaii?aiai aeoo e ooi/iaiiy ?o iaai?o.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oaa/aiei ?.N. ?noi?e/ia aeeiai?ea i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aiae?eneiai
ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy (16 — 20 no.). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe
?c niaoe?aeueiino? 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae. — Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? iniia aiae?co oa aea/aiith
?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aiae?enueeiai ieoaeueiiai
?a/aiiy. Anoaiiaeaii eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee ?noi?e/ii?
i?aaiae?iaa?noeee ye iiai? aeine?aeieoeueei? ia?aaeeaie, ui aaco?oueny
ia nenoaiii-ae?yeuei?niiio o?aeooaaii? iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe??.
Aaiethoe?y i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaeaii?ai? eiioi?eaoe?? caaaeii
?icaeyaea?oueny ye ?acoeueoao aioo??oiueiai ?icaeoeo iiae e ci?i
eiioi?eaoeaieo iio?aa, coiiaeaieo aaiethoe??th noni?euenoaa oa
eoeueoo?e.

Aeyaeaii ae?ao?ii?/i? noae? oa ci?ii? aeaiaioe aiae?enueeiai
ieoaeueiiai ?a/aiiy o iiaeaii?aiio aeo? (eiai aniaeoao) oa aeeneo?n?
(i?eioeei? aa?/eeaino?). ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, ui
neeaaea?oueny c aeaa’yoe aniaeo?a, ia’?aeiaieo o o?e aeiee, e iienaii
e?euee?nio oa ye?nio ?noi?e/io aeeiai?eo ie?aieo aniaeo?a iiaeaii?aeo
aeo?a, ?aae?ciaaieo aeine?aeaeoaaieie ?a/aiiyie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?noi?e/ia i?aaiae?iaa?noeea, ia?aaeeaia, ae?ao?ii?/ia
aa??thaaiiy, iiaeaeue iiaeaii?aiai aeoo, aniaeoe iiaeaii?aiai aeoo,
no?aoaa?? aa?/eeaino? o aeeneo?n?, aiae?enueea iiaa.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oaa/aiei E.N. Enoi?e/aneay aeeiaieea i?aaiaoe/aneeo naienoa aiaeeeneiai
aii?ineoaeueiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey (16 — 20 aa.). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 — aa?iaineea ycuee. — Eeaaneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue eeiaaenoe/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea iniia aiaeeca e eco/aieth
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey i?aaiaoe/aneeo naienoa aiaeeeneiai
aii?ineoaeueiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Ii?aaeaeaiu eiioeaiooaeueiua iniiaaiey enoi?e/aneie i?aaiaeeiaaenoeee
eae iiaiai enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai iai?aaeaiey a ?aieao
eiiioieeaoeaii-ooieoeeiiaeueiie ia?aaeeaiu a eeiaaenoeea. Iniiauaaynue
ia aeayoaeueiinoiii iiaeoiaea e enoiaey ec iiieiaiey eiiioieeaoeee eae
nenoaiu, enoi?e/aneay i?aaiaeeiaaenoeea eco/aao iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua
yeaiaiou ?a/aaiai aeoa (aeaeaa — ?A) e aeeneo?na e ?anniao?eaaao
aeeiaie/aneea i?ioeannu a aa?aaeueiie eiiioieeaoeee eae ?acoeueoao
naii?acaeoey ycuea e eciaiaiee eiiioieeaoeaiuo iio?aaiinoae,
iaoneiaeaiiuo aeeiaieeie eoeueoo?u e iauanoaa.

I?aaiaoe/aneee iioaioeeae aiaeeeneiai aii?ineoaeueiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey
ia o?iaia iaai?a ?aaeecoaiuo ei ?A ?anniao?eaaaony eae nenoaia, a
eioi?ie aeeao?iie/aneeie iinoiyiiuie aunooiatho i?aaiaoe/aneea oeiu ?A,
a ia?aiaiiuie — eiiiiiaiou eo ioaeaeueiuo aniaeoia. A ?acoeueoaoa
enneaaeiaaiey iaia?oaeaii ea/anoaaiiia e eiee/anoaaiiia enoi?e/aneia
aa?uee?iaaiea ia?aiaiiuo, a oaeaea eiee/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey eiaa?eaioia
i?e nio?aiaiee eo nouiinoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee. Anee ia?aia niioaaonoaoao
aeeiaie/aneiio, ?acaeaathuaiony oa?aeoa?o nenoaiu, oi aoi?ia
iaania/eaaao aa noaaeeueiinoue.

Iiene iiauo niiniaia eco/aiey i?ioeannia aeeao?iie/aneiai aa?uee?iaaiey
i?aaiaoe/aneeo naienoa i?aaeeiaeaiey iaoneiaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey
aniaeoiie iiaeaee ?A, ninoiyuae ec aeaayoe aniaeoia (aae?anaioiiai,
aae?anaoiiai e eioaioeeiiaeueiiai; eiioaenoiiai, neooaoeaiiai e
iaoaeiiioieeaoeaiiai; aeaiioaoeaiiai, eieooeaiiai e eeeieooeaiiai),
iauaaeeiaiiuo a o?e aeiea (aio?iiioeaio?e/aneee aeie, aeie oneiaee e
niiniaia ?aaeecaoeee ?A, oeaio?aeueiue ?a/aaeoiaue aeie), /oi aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue iiaeaee?iaaiey i?yiuo e einaaiiuo ?A.

A eieooeaiii aniaeoa ?A, ?aaeeciaaiiuo aiaeeeneeie aii?ineoaeueiuie
i?aaeeiaeaieyie, auyaeaii aa?uee?iaaiea i?aaiaoe/anee ?aeaaaioiuo e
eiaeeooa?aioiuo eiiiiiaioia. N?aaee o?ainoi?iaoeee i?aaiaoe/anee
?aeaaaioiuo eiiiiiaioia a 16 — 20 aa. auaeaeyaony nieaeaiea /anoioiinoe
e oiaiueoaiea /enea ia?oi?iaoeaiuo aeaaieia, ea/anoaaiiia nie?auaiea
iaai?a ia?ea?ia aeeneo?na, /oi i?eaiaeeo e enoi?e/aneiio naeaeao a
niiniaao ?aaeecaoeee ?a/aaeoiaie eioaioeee io i?aeiouanoaaiii
aeia?yenieeoeeoiiai e yenieeoeeoiiai a 16 a. e i?aaeii/oeoaeueii
yenieeoeeoiiio e eiieeoeeoiiio a nia?aiaiiie ?a/e. Aianoa n oai,
i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann acaeiiuo ia?aoiaeia eeeieooeaii ?aeaaaioiuo e
eiaeeooa?aioiuo eiiiiiaioia eieooeee ec iaeiiai ninoiyiey a ae?oaia.

A 16 — 20 aa. eeeieooeaiue iioaioeeae aii?ineoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee ia
o?iaia oeiia ?A nio?aiyaony, ii ia o?iaia ?aciiaeaeiinoae (iiaeoeiia) ?A
o?ainoi?ie?oaony. A ea/anoaa iauae oaiaeaioeee i?aaiaoe/aneiai
aa?uee?iaaiey ioia/aaony ea/anoaaiiia ?anoe?aiea e eiee/anoaaiiue ?ino
einaaiiuo ?aaeecaoeee ?A e 20 a. ca n/ao nieaeaiey /anoioiinoe i?yiuo ?A
— aii?ineoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee, a /ai aeaeeony naycue n iaueie
i?ioeannaie ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee io aiiiaaiiuo e aaoa?iaaiiui oi?iai.

I?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec aae?anaioiiai e aae?anaoiiai aniaeoia ?A —
aii?ineoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee e iaia?oaeaiiua eciaiaiey a noa?a
oiio?aaeaiey ia?auaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i acaeiinayce oaiaeaioeee
aeaiie?aoecaoeee ?a/aaiai iauaiey, oi?iuaiey ii?i ?a/aaiai yoeeaoa e
?acaeoey ycueiauo n?aaenoa aae?anaoeee ca ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae.

Niaoeeoeea enoi?e/aneie aeeiaieee aeaiioaoeaiiai aniaeoa ?A,
?aaeeciaaiiuo aii?ineoaeueiuie i?aaeeiaeaieyie, i?iyaeyaony a
oiaiueoaiee eai iauaia, nieaeaiee /enea i?inouo ?A a ninoaaa neiaeiuo ?A
ca iineaaeiea 500 eao, /oi niaiaaeaao n iauae oaiaeaioeeae nie?auaiey
iauaia auneacuaaiey a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea.

Ii?aaeaeai iaai? eiiioieeaoeaiuo no?aoaaee aaaeeeainoe, ?aaeecoaiuo
aii?ineoaeueiuie i?aaeeiaeaieyie, auyaeaiu iai?aaeaiey eo enoi?e/aneeo
eciaiaiee. Aeeao?iie/aneea o?ainoi?iaoeee iaoaeiiioieeaoeaiiai aniaeoa
?A niioaaonoaotho iauaio iai?aaeaieth ?acaeoey a?eoaineiai yoina a
oeaeii io i?eaioaoeee ia iiceoeaioth aaaeeeainoue a 16 a. e
i?aiaeaaeaieth iaaaoeaiie aaaeeeainoe a 20 a.

Ioia/aiiia i?aiaeaaeaiea aioo?aiieo eciaiaiee a nenoaia ?A,
?aaeeciaaiiuo aii?ineoaeueiuie i?aaeeiaeaieyie, ca ?anniao?eaaaiue
ia?eiae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi nenoaia auea ioiineoaeueii
noi?ie?iaaia e ia/aeo 16 a. Ii iieo/aiiui aeaiiui, iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiui
noaoenoe/anee, iniiaiuie yoaiaie ?acaeoey i?aaiaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee
aiaeeeneiai aii?ineoaeueiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey yaeythony: ia?aue — n 16 a.
ii na?aaeeio 18 a. e aoi?ie — ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu 18 a. ii ianoiyuaa
a?aiy, i?e/ai na?aaeeia 18 a. neoaeeo naiaia?aciui iiai?ioiui ioieoii a
?acaeoee ?A e aeeneo?na.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: enoi?e/aneay i?aaiaeeiaaenoeea, ia?aaeeaia,
aeeao?iie/aneia aa?uee?iaaiea, iiaeaeue ?a/aaiai aeoa, aniaeou ?a/aaiai
aeoa, no?aoaaee aaaeeeainoe a aeeneo?na, aiaeeeneee ycue.

ABSTRACT

Shevchenko I.S. Historical Dynamics of Pragmatic Features of English
Interrogative Sentences (16 — 20th c.). — Manuscript.

Doctorate dissertation in speciality 10.02.04 — Germanic Languages. —
Kyiv State Linguistic University, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is concerned with establishing the basis for analysis
and with studying the development of pragmatic features of interrigative
sentences in English. The suggested conceptual principles of a new
research paradigm of historical pragmatics are based on systematic and
action-centered understanding of speech communication. General evilution
of pragmatic features of speech communication is viewed as resulting
from inner language development and changes in communicative needs
arising from the society and culture evolution.

Diachronic constant and variable elements of English interrogative
sentences are established for speech act (its aspects) and discourse
(politeness principle). A speech act model comprising nine aspects
brought together in three blocks is elaborated, and qualitative and
quantitative historical dynamics of various aspects of speech acts
performed through sentences under consideration are described.

Key words: historical pragmalinguistics, paradigm, diachronic

variation, speech act model, speech act aspects, politeness strategies
in discourse, English.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 24.06.1999. Oi?iao 60o84/16.

Oiiai. ia/. a?e. 2,24. Cai. ? 57.

Iaeeaae 100 i?ei.

A?aeae?oeiaaii o oeiia?ao?? aeaeaaieoeoaa «Eiinoaioa».

Aae?ana: 310145, Oe?a?ia, i.Oa?e?a, aoe Eini?/ia, 26.

oae.: (0572) 30-36-88.

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