EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OAeE 543.42.064:541.135.5

AACAEUe ss?ineaa ?oaeieueoiae/

?III? ANIOe?AOE AOeEAeIEIIIEAEN?A IAOAE?A C IIE?IAOEIIAEIE

AA?AIEEAIE O OIOIIAO?E*IIIO AIAE?C? OA ?IIIIAO???

02.00.02 — aiae?oe/ia o?i?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?i?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? Oaeai?iaenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe 1. aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aioiiiae/ Aaea??e Iaaeiae/,

O?ceei-o?i?/iee ?inoeooo IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa. a?aeae?eii

2. aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaaeaaiaoeue Aiaaeai Eineiiae/,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?

Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e aiae?oe/ii? o?i??

3. aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oaa/oe ?aai Ieaen?eiae/,

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith aiae?oe/ii? o?i??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Euea?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,

i.Euea?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” ethoiai 2000 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.03 o Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith:

252033 i.Ee?a, aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64, o?i?/iee oaeoeueoao, Aaeeea
o?i?/ia aoaeeoi??y

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (i.Ee?a, aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “4” n?/iy 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee e.o.i., aeioeaio Ieaenaiei E.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?ney oiai, ye A.Aa??aa o 1927 ?ioe? aia?oa
niinoa??aaa ?aaeoe?th ooai?aiiy ?iiieo anioe?ao?a (?A) ca o/anoth
iniiaieo aa?aiee?a, a A.?.Eociaoeia o 40-o ?ieao iiyniea iaoai?ci oaeeo
?aaeoe?e, iaoiaee oioiiao?e/iiai aiae?co c aeei?enoaiiyi iniiaieo
aa?aiee?a ii/aee no??iei ?icaeaaoenue, aeinyaoe i?eo ?ioa?ano aei ieo o
70-80 ?ieao.A oeae /an aoee ?ic?iaeai? aeinoaoiuei iaae?ei? oa /ooeea?
iaoiaeeee aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy oaeeo aeaiaio?a, ye
Noea?e, Oae?e, ?ai?e, Ia?eo??e, Ao?oi. O ?iaioao A.E.Aaaea, ?.A.Aethia
oa I.I.E?oa c?iaeai? ia?o? ni?iae nenoaiaoecaoe?? oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ia?aoiaeo a?ae aii??e/iiai i?aeai?o oiia aeno?aeoe?? ?A aei na?aeiiiai
aeai?o eiiiiiaio?a nenoaie.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, ?ioa?an aei iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy oaeeo nenoai
caeeoeany — a ca’yceo c oe?eei ?yaeii iaae??oaieo i?iaeai ?
ia?aae?ciaaieo iiaeeeainoae. Oae, o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey oeueiai iaoiaeo
iniiai? aa?aieee o?eoai?eiaoaiiaiai oa ?iaeai?iiaiai ?yaeo ia
caaeia?eueiythoue no/anieo aeiia noiniaii /ooeeaino?, naeaeoeaiino? oa
iaae?eiino? aecia/aiiy. I?iiiiiaai? aeey oe??? iaoe a?noe?ai?iia?
aa?aieee oi/a e caaacia/othoue aenieo /ooeea?noue aecia/aiiy aeayeeo
aeaiaio?a, aea ? iac?o/ieie ? iaeiaeinooiieie aeey niiaeeaa/a, oiio ui
ia aeioneathoueny o??iaie-ae?iaieeaie, a ?o neioac ? iai?inoei
oaoiieia?/iei caaaeaiiyi.

Iaei oaaae i?eae?eyeinue ?icaeoeo aacaeno?aeoe?eieo iaoiae?a aiae?co ca
o/anoth iniiaieo aa?aiee?a. I?aeoe/ii ia aea/aieie caeeoaeenue ieoaiiy
inaaeaeaiiy ?A, ooai?aieo ai?iiieie aoeeaeieiiieaenaie iaoae?a c
iniiaieie aa?aieeaie. A oie aea /an aeae?eai? ?A iiaeooue neoaeeoe
aoaeoeaieie aiae?oe/ieie oi?iaie aeey oioiiao?e/iiai oa ?iiiiao?e/iiai
aecia/aiiy aaaaoueio aeaiaio?a.

A e?oa?aoo?? a?aenooi? aeai? i?i iiaeeea?noue aeno?aeoe?? ?A c
aiaeii-i?aai?/iiai na?aaeiaeua, oi/a a?aeiii, ui oaeee i?eeii o
oioiiao??? iiaea aooe aeineoue aoaeoeaiei.Oa e ?icaeoie
aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a ia?aaaaeii eoia ii oeyoo
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy aocueeiai eiea aeaiaio?a(Sb, Tl, Hg,
Au, Re, Oa oa ?io?). A oie aea /an aeey oaeeo aeaiaio?a, ye A?aaiooi,
Eoi?oi, Eiaaeueo, Ieaoeia, Iie?aaeai, Aieueo?ai, iaoiaee c aeei?enoaiiyi
iniiaieo aa?aiee?a aoee i?aeoe/ii iaa?aeii?. Iaei aeine?aeaeaii
aeno?aeoe?th ?A, ooai?aieo inaaaeiaaeiaai?aeieie eiiieaenaie aeaiaio?a
/e ieneai?iiaie oa iniiaieie aa?aieeaie. Iaa?oue aeey oaeiai iioe?aiiai
e?aaiaeo, ye o?ioe?aiao, nenoaiaoe/i? aeai? aoee a?aenooi?.

Oiio aea/aiiy oiia oa caeiiii??iinoae ooai?aiiy, inaaeaeaiiy ?A
aeaiaio?a c ?aaaioaie iiaiai iieie?iiy- iniiaieie iie?iaoeiiaeie
aa?aieeaie, aeno?aeoe?? ?o c aiaeiiai oa aiaeii-i?aai?/iiai na?aaeiaeua,
noai?aiiy ia iniia? ?A ?iiinaeaeoeaieo aeaeo?iae?a, ?ic?iaea iiaeo
aoaeoeaieo aiae?oe/ieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a oioiiao?e/iiai,
aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai oa ?iiiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a
aa/eoueny ia?niaeoeaiei oa aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi aiae?oe/ii? o?i??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue o a?aeiia?aeiino? c eii?aeeiaoe?eiei
ieaiii AI N?N? oa AI O?N? c aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? ia 1986-1990 ??. c
i?iaeaie «Enneaaeiaaiea eiiieaeniia?aciaaiey iaoaeeia n
yeaeo?iio?eoeaoaeueiuie eeaaiaeaie e i?aaie/aneeie iniiaaieyie e
aiaeeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea ia?acothueony niaaeeiaiee»(Iinoaiiaa I?aceae??
AI O?N? N210 a?ae 21.05.1986?., N aea?ae.?a?no?aoe?? 0186.0115800),
ieaiaie aaaeeea?oeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
eii?aeeiothoueny I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie «Aea/aiiy iiaeo i?aai?/ieo ?aaaaio?a,
?o ?aaeoe?e c iai?aai?/ieie ?iiaie ? ?ic?iaea iiaeo aeniei/ooeeaeo ?
naeaeoeaieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy aeii?oie o aeniei/enoeo iaoa??aeao ?
ia’?eoao ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua»(1991-1993 ??., N aea?ae.?a?no?aoe??
01.9.0024659), «?ic?iaea niaeo?ioioiiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy
i?e?ie?eueeinoae iai?aai?/ieo ? i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei a ia’?eoao
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? aeniei/enoeo iaoa??aeao c aeei?enoaiiyi
iniiaieo aa?aiee?a»(1994-1996 ??., N aea?ae.?a?no?aoe?? 0194U038521),
«?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo iniia noai?aiiy aeaeo?io?i?/ieo oa iioe/ieo naini??a
ia iniia? ?iiieo anioe?ao?a aeaiaio?a c iniiaieie aa?aieeaie»(1997-1999
??.). ?iaioa aoea /anoeiai i?aeo?eiaia i?aeia?iaeiei oiiaeii
«A?ae?iaeaeaiiy».

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? a nenoaiaoe/iiio
aea/aii? iioe/ieo oa aeaeo?io?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae iniiaieo iie?iaoeiiaeo
aa?aiee?a oa ?o ?iiieo anioe?ao?a c oe?ieei eieii aeaiaio?a,
aeei?enoaii? aea/aieo ?A ye aoaeoeaieo aiae?oe/ieo oi?i aeey
oioiiao?e/iiai, aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai oa ?iiiiao?e/iiai
aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a, iiaeaeueoiio ?icoe?aii? iiaeeeainoae iaoiae?a
aiae?co c aeei?enoaiiyi iniiaieo aa?aiee?a.

Aeey ae??oaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

1. Io?eiaoe aeai? i?i i?ioie?oe/i? oa niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? aeanoeaino?
iiaeo i?aai?/ieo ?aaaaio?a — iniiaieo iie?iaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a o aiaeieo,
aiaeii-i?aai?/ieo oa iaaiaeieo na?aaeiaeuao.

2. Aea/eoe iia? eieuei?ia? oaa?aeioaci? ?aaeoe?? aoeeaeieiiieaen?a
iaoae?a c iie?iaoeiiaeie aa?aieeaie o aiaei?e oac?. Anoaiiaeoe /eiieee,
ui aecia/athoue /ooeea?noue oa naeaeoeai?noue iaoiae?a aacaeno?aeoe?eii?
oioiiao???.

3. Aeine?aeeoe caeiiii??iino? aeno?aeoe?? ?iiieo anioe?ao?a ca o/anoth
iie?iaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a c aiaeiiai oa aiaeii-i?aai?/iiai na?aaeiaeua.
Aea/eoe o?i?ci oa e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeano aeno?aeoe??, ui
aeicaieeei a i?iaiicoaaoe aeno?aeoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? ??cieo ?A.

4. Noai?eoe ia iniia? aeae?eaieo ?A ieanoeo?eiaai? ?iiinaeaeoeai?
aeaeo?iaee, aea/eoe ?o o?i?ei-aiae?oe/i? aeanoeaino?.

5. Io?eiaoe iia? aiae?oe/i? oi?ie c iiaeie aiae?oe/ieie iiaeeeainoyie,
i?eaeaoi? aeey oioiiao?e/iiai aiae?co oa ?iiiiao???. ?ic?iaeoe iia?
iaoiaeeee aiae?co.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaoa?ioeeee?/i? acioai?uoth/? aa?aieee iie?iaoeiiaiai
?yaeo ooai?ththoue ?A c ai?iiieie eiiieaenaie iaoae?a. C’yniaaii iniiai?
niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iie?iaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a (IA)
caaaeueii? oi?ioee [R1 -(CH)n = R2]+Cl-, aee R1, R2 -iio?aei?
?iaeie?th, aaico?acie?th, o?iie?i?th, a n=1-3 ? aeyaeaii ei?aeyoe?th
i?ae aeaeo?iiiaeiii?i?noth cai?niee?a o ?o iieaeoeao oa i?ioie?oe/ieie
aeanoeainoyie. Ia iniia? eaaioiaio?i?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a ?iciiae?eo ca?yaeo
o iieaeoeao IA, a oaeiae ?o niaeo?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?iiiio?oueny
?iia??iee iaoai?ci i?ioie?oe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a iieaeoeao IA. Aecia/aii
aaaeeea?o? niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? oa i?ioie?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?aiee?a
o aiaeii-i?aai?/ieo oa iaaiaeieo na?aaeiaeuao ? aeyaeaii aoaeo
iiaeaaeaiiy aeno?aeoe?? IA i?e aaaaeaii? ci?ooth/eony c aiaeith
aeiii?ii-aeoeaieo ?ic/eiiee?a.

Aea/aii iia? eieuei?ia? oaa?aeioaci? ?aaeoe?? aoeeaeieiiieaen?a iaoae?a
c iie?iaoeiiaeie oa aeayeeie ?ioeie aaoa?ioeeee?/ieie acioai?uoth/eie
iniiaieie aa?aieeaie o aiaei?e oac?. Iieacaii, ui ?A ? aoaeoeaieie
aiae?oe/ieie oi?iaie aeey aacaeno?aeoe?eiiai oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy
i?e?ie?eueeinoae Ag, Pb, Hg, Bi, Mo, W, Pd, Pt, Zn, Co, Re ca noaiith:
1) caaa?aeai? ?A noaa?e?cothoue aaaaeaiiyi ia?iiiaaiieo
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei c iine?aeoth/ei ?o oioiiao?oaaiiyi; 2) inaae
?A a?aeae?eythoue oeaio?eooaoaaiiyi, ?ic/eiythoue o iiey?iiio ?ic/eiieeo
? oioiiao?othoue. Ioe?iaii a?ae?ioiai?noue ?A, ?ic?aoiaaii ?o aeiaooie
?ic/eiiino?. Ia i?eeeaae? IA iio?aeieo 1, 3, 3-o?eiaoee-3I-?iaeie?th
aeyaeaia caeaaei?noue i?ae aeiaaeeiith iie?iaoeiiaiai eaioethao,
i?e?iaeith cai?niee?a o iieaeoeao aa?aiee?a oa ?o ?aaeoe?eiith
caeaoi?noth. Ca iaeiaeiaeo oiia neiao?e/i? IA inaaeaeothoueny o aeaeyae?
?A a??oa, i?ae ianeiao?e/i?.Aia?oa iieacaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei aeey noaa?e?caoe?? ?A, ooai?aieo a nenoai?
?ii iaoaeo-?iaeeae-iniiaiee aa?aiee.Aeyaeaii, ui eao?iii? oa ai?iii? IA?
anooiathoue a eiieo?oth/? ?aaeoe?? c ?iiaie -neeaaeiaeie ?A ? oiio
iaeii?eaeaoi? aeey noaa?e?caoe?? oaeeo nenoai. Aoaeoeaia noaa?e?caoe?y
?A ia?iiiaaiieie IA? aeinyaa?oueny i?e ?o eiioeaio?aoe??, aeecuee?e aei
e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?oeaeiooai?aiiy.

C’yniaaii o?i?ci aeno?aeoe?? ?A c aiaeii-i?aai?/iiai na?aaeiaeua ye
aoaeoeaiee niin?a iie?auaiiy o?i?ei-aiae?oe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a aiae?co c aeei?enoaiiyi iniiaieo
aa?aiee?a. ?ic?aoiaai? eiinoaioe aeno?aeoe?? oa anioe?aoe?? ?A.
?ic?iaeai? caaaeuei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
i?aai?/ieo ?ic/eiiee?a, ui ci?oothoueny c aiaeith, aeey
aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a iniiaieie aa?aieeaie.
Io?eiaii iia? aiae?oe/i? oi?ie ?A c o/anoth A?aaiooio, Eoi?oio, A?niooo,
Ieaoeie, Iie?aaeaio, Aieueo?aio oa iniiaieo aa?aiee?a.

Anoaiiaeaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?A ye aeaeo?iaeiaeoeaieo ?a/iaei
ieanoeo?eiaaieo ?iiinaeaeoeaieo aeaeo?iae?a, aecia/aii ?o aaaeeea?o?
o?i?ei-aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Noai?aii ?iiinaeaeoeai? aeaeo?iaee
aeey aecia/aiiy Oeeieo, Ia?eo??th, Iaeaae?th, a oaeiae ia?oei?ao-,
ia??aiao-?ii?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii?
aea/aieo nenoai aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeo oioiiao?e/ieo,
aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/ieo oa ?iiiiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy Pb,
Ag, Fe, Ga, In, Tl, Bi, Zn, Co, Cu, Pd, Pt, Re, Mo, W a iiaeaeueieo
noi?oao, nieaaao, aeniei/enoeo iai?ai?ia?aeieeao, a?ieia?/ieo ia’?eoao
oa ia’?eoao iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (iia?o?y, aiaee). Iaoiaeeee
aea?aeii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae a?aeiieo aenieith /ooeea?noth,
naeaeoeai?noth aecia/aiiy, ui a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe
aiae?c c?ace?a aac iiia?aaeiueiai eiioeaio?oaaiiy aeii?oie oa
a?aeae?eaiiy iae?ieiiiiiaio?a. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue aeno?aeoe?eiiai
?icae?eaiiy aeaiaio?a c aeecueeeie o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie (Ni i Co; Pd
i Pt; Cu, Ag, Pb, Bi; Ga, In, Tl). Iiaecia, i?ea?iaeuei?noue ? i?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiae?a i?aeoaa?aeaeai? 6 aaoi?nueeeie
na?aeioeoaaie oa 5 iaoaioaie Oe?a?ie ia aeiaoiaee, a oaeiae aeoaie i?i
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a caaiaenueeeo, ee?i?ei-ae?aaiinoe/ieo,
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaai?aoi??yo oa o/aiaiio i?ioean?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a iaoeia? ?ic?iaee, aeeiiai? a ni?aaaoi?noa?,
iieyaaa o aeai?? oa oi?ioaaii? iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue, caaaeuei?e
iinoaiiaoe? caaaeaiue, aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? o an?o aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo, aiae?c?, ia?iaoe? oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a, oi?ioaaii? oa iaa?oiooaaii? aeniiae?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeeth/ai? aei aeena?oaoe??,
ii?eethaeiaii ia ne?aeoth/eo iaoeiaeo c’?caeao, eiioa?aioe?yo, ia?aaeao,
nai?ia?ao: VI??-X eiioa?aioe?yo ii o?i?? aeno?aeoe?? (E?aniiy?nuee,
1987; Iineaa, 1991, 1994), X?-XIV Oe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo c
iai?aai?/ii? o?i?? (N?ioa?iiieue, 1989; Oaeai?iae, 1986, 1992, Ee?a,
1996), V Iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? c aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? I?eaaeo?enueeeo
?anioae?e, A?ei?onueei? ?N? oa Eae?i?ia?aaenueei? iaeano? (A?eueithn,
1986), VI Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?aai?/i? ?aaaaioe a aiae?oe/i?e
o?i??»(Na?aoia, 1989), XV Ananithci?e *oaa?anuee?e ia?aae? ii o?i??
eiiieaenieo niieoe (Ee?a, 1985), II Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c
aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? (Oaeai?iae, 1985), O?aeuenuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «No/ani?
iaoiaee aiae?co ? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?i?/iiai neeaaeo iaoa??ae?a
iaoaeo?a??, iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, ia’?eo?a ioi/oth/iai
na?aaeiaeua»(?aeaanuee, 1985), ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «I?aeaeuaiiy yeino? eiio?ieth iaoa??ae?a iaoaeo?a?eiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1986), III I?aeaoc?anueeiio iaoeiaiio
nai?ia?? iieiaeeo a/aieo c aeno?aeoe?? (Aeiiaoeuee, 1987), VIII
Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? «Noai oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo iaoiae?a
iaea?aeaiiy ? aiae?co oa?eoiaeo iaoa??ae?a ? ne?iaeie aeey ieo»
(Aeiiaoeuee, 1987), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii aeno?aeoe?? ISEC’88
(Iineaa, 1988), Iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iiaa a iaea?aeaii? ? aeei?enoaii?
oino?ae?a ? oinoi?ai?uoth/eo nieaa?a»(Aeia-Aoa, 1988),
Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoeia? ?ic?iaee ? aeinyaiaiiy iieiaeeo
a/aieo-ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noao»(Oaeai?iae, 1988), Iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoea-ae?iaieoeoao»(Oaeai?iae, 1988), Ananithci?e
eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo c aeno?aeoe?? (Aeiiaoeuee, 1990),
Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? «No/ani? iaoiaee aiae?co iaoae?a, nieaa?a,
ia’?eo?a ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua Aiae?c-90″(?aeaanuee, 1990), III
Ananithci?e ia?aae? c iaoiae?a eiioeaio?oaaiiy a aiae?oe/i?e o?i??
(*a?iiaieiaea, 1990), Iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeei?enoaiiy a
ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? i?e?iaeieo iaoa??ae?a oa a?aeoiae?a i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa»(Oaeai?iae, 1990), Ananithci?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «No/ani? iaoiaee eiio?ieth yeino? ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua
oa oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a»(E?aniiaea?, 1991), I?aeaea?aeaai?e eiioa?aioe??
«O?i?y ?aae?iioee?ae?a oa iaoae-?ii?a o i?e?iaeieo ia’?eoao»(I?inuee,
1992), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c aeno?aeoe?? i?aai?/ieo niieoe
ISECOS’92 (Ai?iiaae, 1992), VIII Iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «O?i?y,
o?ceea oa oaoiieia?y oaeueeiaai?ae?a oa oaeueeiaaeiaai?ae?a»(Ee?a,
1994), I Oai?nueei-Oe?a?inuee?e aeieia?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? Ea?iaonueeiai
?a?i?aa?iio (Oaeai?iae, 1994), Anaoe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo c
aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? (Ee?a, 1995, Oaeai?iae,1998), I?aeia?iaeiiio
aeieia?/iiio eiia?an? (Ai?iiaae, 1996), I?aeia?iaeiiio ?aa?iiaeueiiio
nai?ia?? «Ioi?iia aeiae?eey:no/ani? aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeieia?? ?
i?e?ia?ieia??»(Oaeai?iae, 1997), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c
aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? (Iineaa, 1997), ??? Ana?in?enuee?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeiaiae?oeea-98” (E?aniiaea?, 1998), O? ?in?enuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c
aeno?aeoe?? (Iineaa,1998), XVI Iaiaeaea?anueeiio c’?cae? c caaaeueii? oa
i?eeeaaeii? o?i?? (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1998), ?a?iiaenueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo c
aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? Euroanalysis IX, O (Aieii?y, 1996, Aacaeue,1998),
i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo Oaeai?iaenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Oaeai?iae, 1985-1998), can?aeaii?
iaoeiai? eii?aeeiaoe?eii? ?aaee c aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie oa AIAO
Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii o 32
noaooyo o i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao, 50 oacao aeiiia?aeae ia
i?aeia?iaeieo oa a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo, 6 aaoi?nueeeo
na?aeioeoaao ? 5 iaoaioao.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, 8 ?icae?e?a, aei yeeo aoiaeeoue e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae, iaoiaeeea ?
oaoi?ea aenia?eiaioo, ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (320 iaeiaioaaiue) oa aeiaeaoeo. Aeena?oaoe?th
aeeeaaeaii ia 303 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ?iaioa i?noeoue 73
?enoiee oa 77 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iiaeaia caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe, iaa?oioiaaia
aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue, iaoa ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e ? e?oa?aoo?iei iaeyaeii.?icaeyaeathoueny aaaeeea?o?
ieoaiiy oai??? ooai?aiiy oa aeno?aeoe?? ?iiieo anioe?ao?a
aeaiaio?a.Iieacai? aeinyaiaiiy oai??? oa i?aeoeee aeei?enoaiiy aa?aiee?a
o aiae?oe/i?e o?i??, ia?niaeoeai?noue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy oaeeo
nenoai. Aea?oueny iien a?aeiieo ?iiinaeaeoeaieo aeaeo?iae?a ia iniia? ?A
c o/anoth iniiaieo aa?aiee?a. Aeaco?oueny ia iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeai?
ieoaiiy oai??? ooai?aiiy oa aeno?aeoe?? ?A, iaiaaeaia /enei aa?aiee?a,
ui ciaeoee aeei?enoaiiy a aiae?c?.?icaeyaeathoueny caaaeaiiy, ae??oaiiy
yeeo aeicaieeei a c?iaeoe ye?nii iiaee e?ie a ieoaiiyo oai??? oa
i?aeoeee aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo aa?aiee?a a aiae?c?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iaoiaeeea ? oaoi?ea
aenia?eiaioo.Iienaii niiniae i?eaiooaaiiy ? noaiaea?oecaoe?? ?iai/eo
?ic/ei?a.Ooo aea i?eaiaeyoueny iacae ? no?oeoo?i? oi?ioee aeei?enoaieo o
?iaio? iniiaieo aa?aiee?a iiaiai iieie?iiy — aaoa?ioeeee?/ieo
acioai?uoth/eo ?aaaaio?a iie?iaoeiiaiai ?yaeo oa aeayeeo ?ioeo (anueiai
51 aa?aiee), a oaeiae aaaeeea?o? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo
?a/iaei.Iiaeathoueny iaoiaeeee neioaco, i/enoee oa ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
iie?iaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a, a oaeiae iaoiaeeee neioaco ieanoeo?eiaaieo
?iiinaeaeoeaieo aeaeo?iae?a ia iniia? ?A aeaiaio?a c iie?iaoeiiaeie
aa?aieeaie.

NOAI AAOA?IOeEEE?*IEO ACIOAI?UOTH*EO INIIAIEO AA?AIEE?A O AIAeIEO,
AIAeII-I?AAI?*IEO OA IAAIAeIEO NA?AAeIAEUAO

Aea/aii o?i?ei-aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa noai o ?ic/eiao
aaoa?ioeeee?/ieo acioai?uoth/eo iniiaieo aa?aiee?a iie?iaoeiiaiai ?yaeo.
Aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iayai?noth eaioethao ni?yaeaieo iiaea?eieo
ca’yce?a, ui neeaaea?oueny c iaoeiiaeo a?oi oa aeaeo?iiiaeiii?ieo
cai?niee?a oeio

[R1-(CH)n=R2]+X- , aea R1, R2 — iio?aei? ?iaeieai?io, aaico?acieo,
aaic?i?aeacieo, o?iie?io ;X- — Cl-, Br-, I-, ClO4-; n=1-3.

A ?iaio? aeei?enoaii ne?aeoth/? iie?iaoeiia? aa?aieee:

Iiiiiaoeie (n=1):

AeOEOeIOEOeIA

Aeeiaoeie (n=2):(AA*: R3- CH3, R4- C2H4Cl; AO: R3,R4- C2H5; A*: R2-
CH3,R3- C2H5,R4- C2H4Cl;

A*3G: R3- C2H5,R4- C6H5; AA*: R3,R4- CH3; E?: R3- CH3,R4- C2H4Cl; EO:
R3-H,

R4- C6H5OC2H5; E*O: R3- CH3,R4- C6H5OCH3; IA*: R2- CH3,R3- C2H5,R4-
C2H4CN;

NA*: R2- CH3,R3,R4- C2H5; 5IEIN: R1- CH3COO,R3,R4- CH3; 5IIN,6IIN:
R1-NO2,

R3,R4- CH3)

O?eiaoeie (n=3):Aa?aieee AA*, AAE, AAE4C, AI, AO, A*, A*3G, AA*, E?, EO,
E*O, IA*, IA, IOe, NA*, O* ? eiia?oe?eieie i?aia?aoaie ? aeioneathoueny
??cieie o??iaie-ae?iaieeaie. ?io? aa?aieee neioaciaai? a ?inoeooo?
i?aai?/ii? o?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie oa ia eaoaae?? aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? OaeAeO.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy na?oeiiiaeeiaiiy aiaeieo oa aiaeii-i?aai?/ieo ?ic/ei?a
aa?aiee?a o oe?ieeo iaaeao eeneioiino? iieacaei, ui aiie iiaeooue
ia?aaoaaoe o o?ueio oi?iao — iaeiica?yaei?e (R+), i?ioiiiaai?e
aeaica?yaei?e (RH2+) ? a?ae?ie?ciaai?e (oeio inaaaeiiniiae ROH), ?en.1.

I?ioie?oe/i? ??aiiaaae a ?ic/eiao aa?aiee?a iiaeia oyaeoe, ye

HR2+ +OH-
(1)

R+ +H2O

ROH +H+
(2)

??aiiaaaa (1) aecia/a? iiaiioo i?ioie?co aa?aieea ye iniiae, a ??aiiaaaa
(2) -ye eeneioe. Aecia/ai? iaie eiinoaioe i?ioie?co, a oaeiae
niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ??cieo oi?i aeayeeo iie?iaoeiiaeo
aa?aiee?a i?eaaaeai? a oaae.1.

Oaaeeoey 1

Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? oa i?ioie?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?eiaoeiiaeo
aa?aiee?a

Aa?aieemax,
ii10-4pKipKaR+RH2+ROHR+RH2+ROHA?E5363202309,31,31,5-0,7212,7Ae?E53832534
514,33,22,9-1,8213,95I??K560—11,2—3,4811,86I??E536—15,1—3,4611,72O
?E550—7,9—0,22-4O?E5933253308,51,00,81,3014,1IOe614—4,1—2,5613,3Iaea
aae/a i?ioiiothoueny o?eiaoeiia? aa?aieee, i?e/iio pK i?ioiioaaiiy ?o
ca?eueoo?oueny ?c ciaioaiiyi iniiaiino? aaoa?ioeeee?/ieo o?aaiaio?a, ui
aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo ?o iieaeoe a ?yaeo:
5-(6-)i?o?i-1,3,3-o?eiaoee-3I-?iaeie?e — 1,3,3-o?eiaoee-3I-?iaeie?e —
aaico?acie -2-o?iie?i — 4-o?iie?i. Caeaoi?noue aei i?ioiioaaiiy
aeeiaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a iio?aeieo 1,3,3-o?eiaoee-3I-?iaeie?th
aecia/a?oueny iniiai?noth o?aaiaio?a cai?niee?a i?e ai?iia?oi? (?en.2).

?en.1. Ae?aa?aie aeoiaeo ?iiii?, i?ioiiiaaii? oa a?ae?ie?ciaaii? oi?i
210-5 iieue/e ?ic/eio aa?aieea NA* (1-3) a?ae eeneioiino?
na?aaeiaeua?en.2. Caeaaei?noue pK i?ioiioaaiiy IA a?ae noie
aeaeo?iiiaeiii?iino? ( + ) cai?niee?a i?e aoii? acioo ai?iia?oie IA:
1-NA*; 2-AO; 3-AA*; 4-A*; 5-E?; 6-IA*; 7-AA*Aea/ai? iaie iie?iaoeiia?
aa?aieee ia?aaaaeathoue ca nai?ie o?i?ei-aiae?oe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
iaeiioe?ai?o? a aiae?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe? o?eoai?eiaoaiia? oa ?iaeai?iia?
aa?aieee. Oiio aa?aieeai oeueiai eeano i?eae?eyeanue iniaeeaa oaaaa.

Aeey a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy iaoai?cio i?ioie?oe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a
?ic/eiao IA i?iaaaeaii eaaioiaio?i?/iee ?ic?aooiie ?iciiae?eo ca?yaeo a
?o iieaeoeao. Aeyaeeinue, ui iaeneiaeueiee aeaeo?iiaaaoeaiee ca?yae
cina?aaeaeaiee ia -aoaeaoeaaiio aoii? iie?iaoeiiaiai eaioethaa oa aoii?
acioo ai?iia?oie.Oiaoi, oe? aoiie iiaeii? aooe iaea?eueo a?aceeaeie
uiaei aeaeo?io?eueii? aoaee i?ioiiii. Iaea?eueoee iiceoeaiee ca?yae
cina?aaeaeaiee ia aoii? aoaeaoeth ?iaeie??ai? a?oie (C-2). Oiio ne?ae
i/?eoaaoe, ui i?e a?ae?ie?c? ye?ac aei oeueiai aoiio aoaea
i?e?aeioaaoenue a?ae?ieneeueia a?oia. Aeai? niaeo??a II? (oaae.2)
na?ae/aoue ia ei?enoue i?e?aeiaiiy i?ioiio aei aoiio acioo ai?iia?oie
aa?aieea. A oie aea /an aeey iecueeiiniiaieo aa?aiee?a (EO, E*O), a
oaeiae aeiaaieaioethaiaeo (n>2) aa?aiee?a ia?aaaaeath/ei aoaea
i?e?aeiaiiy i?ioiio aei -aoaeaoeaaiai aoiio iie?iaoeiiaiai eaioethao.
Nei??oa anueiai, i?ae aeaiia iiaeeeaeie i?ioiiiaaieie oi?iaie IA ?nio?
??aiiaaaa, ui iiaea ci?uoaaoenue a iaaio noi?iio caeaaeii a?ae i?e?iaee
o?aaiaio?a cai?niee?a o iieaeoe?.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aeai? niaeo??a II? iie?iaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a

Aa?aiee?ic/eiieeA?aeianaiiy neaiae?a o niaeo?ao
(i./.)AOAeINI-D63,55(4H,2CH2CH3); 1,18(6H,2CH2CH3); 7,25(1H,=CH-);
8,32(1H,-CH=)CF3COOD3,87(4H,2CH2CH3); 1,37(6H,2CH2CH3); 7,76(1H,=CH-);
8,43(1H,=CH-)A*AeINI-D63,62(2H,CH2CH3);1,18(3H,CH2CH3); 2,56(3H,Ph-CH3);
3,86(2H,CH3CH2Cl); 6,90(1H,=CH-);
8,34(1H,-CH=)CF3COOD3,97(2H,CH2CH3);1,39(3H,CH2CH3); 2,75(3H,Ph-CH3);
4,19(2H,CH2CH2Cl); 7,76(1H,=CH-) ;
8,43(1H,-CH=)E?AeINI-D63,18(3H,CH3);3,90(2H,CH2CH2Cl); 7,35(1H,=CH-);
8,37(1H,-CH=)CF3COOD3,62(3H,CH3);4,20(2H,CH2CH2Cl); 7,72(1H,=CH-);
8,40(1H,=CH-)AeINI:CF3COOD(1:1)3,26(3H,CH3);4,00(2H,CH2CH2Cl);
7,60(1H,=CH-); 8,40(1H,=CH-)Aia?oa aecia/ai? eiinoaioe i?ioie?co
aa?aiee?a o aiaeii-i?aai?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao, ui i?noyoue aei 50%(ia.)
aiaei?ic/eiiiai i?aai?/iiai ?ic/eiieea (iaoaiie, aoaiie, ae?ienai,
AeIOA, AeINI oa ?i.). Aaaaeaiiy i?aai?/iiai ?ic/eiieea i?eaiaeeoue aei
nieueaaoio?iiiiai (aaoio?iiiiai) aoaeoo ? ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaineaiino?
na?oeiiiaeeiaiiy ?ic/ei?a aa?aiee?a.O aiaeii-i?aai?/iiio na?aaeiaeu?
nooo?ai ?icoe?th?oueny oaeiae ?ioa?aae pH aeii?ioaaiiy iaeiica?yaeii?
oi?ie aa?aiee?a R+. Iaaiee aieea ia noai oa aeanoeaino? aa?aiee?a
cae?enith? ?iiia na?aaeiaeua. I?e ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?ii?a,ye?
iathoue aenieo anioe?aoeaio ae?th (ClO4-, ReO4-) niinoa??aa?oueny
aeai?ioiioaaiiy HR2+ ? cnoa ia?aoiaeo ci?ie caaa?aeaiiy a iaeanoue
ieae/eo cia/aiue pH. Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? iaei noeeueieo aei
anioe?aoe?? c eao?iiii aa?aieea R+ aaeiaai?ae-?ii?a, iaaiaee,
i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy cia/aiue pEi.

Aea/aiiy niaeo??a iiaeeiaiiy aiaeieo ? aiaeii-i?aai?/ieo ?ic/ei?a
aa?aiee?a ??cii? eiioeaio?aoe?? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui IA ia i?iyaeythoue
caeaoiino? aei ooai?aiiy iie?ia??a iaaiiai aeaeo (aeeia?e, o?eia?e
oiui), ye oea ia? i?noea, iai?eeeaae, aeey aaaaoueio o?eoai?eiaoaiiaeo
/e ?iaeai?iiaeo aa?aiee?a. I?ioa a i?enooiino? aaeeeeo ca ?ici??ii
i?inoeo aai eiiieaenieo ai?ii?a niinoa??aa?oueny inaaeaeaiiy aa?aiee?a,
nooi?iue yeiai c?inoa? c ?inoii eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?iio. Oaeee aoaeo
oe?iei aeei?enoaiee iaie aeey ?ic?iaee aacaeno?aeoe?eieo iaoiae?a
oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aaaaoueio aeaiaio?a.

I?enooi?noue i?aai?/ieo ?ic/eiiee?a, ui ci?oothoueny c aiaeith, nooo?ai
aieeaa? ia caeaoi?noue aa?aiee?a aei inaaeaeaiiy.Oae, o
aiaeii-i?aai?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao c ai?noii AeIOA 10-50%(ia.) inaaeaeaiiy
a?eueoino? aa?aiee?a ia a?aeaoaa?oueny iaa?oue i?e noai?aii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?ii?a 0,01-1 iieue/e. Aieea i?e?iaee ?ic/eiieea ia
na?oeiiiaeeiaiiy aa?aiee?a aeaoaeueii aea/aii ia i?eeeaae? aa?aiee?a
E*O, A*, IA*.

Ca?eueoaiiy ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? ?ic/eiieea aeeeeea? aaoio?iiiee
cnoa iaeneioi?a iiaeeiaiiy (=5-30 ii).A ?ic/eiieeao, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaenieith iiey?i?noth, aea neeueiith aeiii?iith
caeaoi?noth(o?eaooeeoinoao, oao?aa?ae?ioo?ai) ?ioaineai?noue caaa?aeaiiy
aa?aiee?a nooo?ai cieaeo?oueny, ui iiynith?oueny ?o niaoeeo?/iith
nieueaaoaoe??th.

EIEUeI?IA? OAA?AeIOACI? ?AAEOe?? AEAIAIO?A C IIE?IAOEIIAEIE
AA?AIEEAIE O AIAeI?E OAC?

Iieacaii, ui ?A, ooai?ai? aeayeeie aeaiaioaie oa IA, iiaeooue neoaeeoe
aoaeoeaieie aiae?oe/ieie oi?iaie aeey i?yiiai aacaeno?aeoe?eiiai
oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy i?e?ie?eueeinoae aeaiaio?a o aiaei?e oac?. I?e
oeueiio i?aeoe/ii ?aae?ciaai? aeaa aa??aioe aecia/aiiy — o i?enooiino?
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei (IA?) oa aac ieo. Ca?aeii ia?oiai — ?A
noaa?e?cothoue ??cieie IA? ? oioiiao?othoue. Ca ae?oaei — inaae ?A
a?aeae?eythoue oeaio?eooaoaaiiyi aai o?eueo?oaaiiyi, ?ic/eiythoue a
iiey?iiio i?aai?/iiio ?ic/eiieeo ? oioiiao?othoue.

?A, ia a?aei?io a?ae nai?o neeaaeiaeo, aeaeo?iiaeo?aeuei?, oiio
i?iyaey?oueny a?ae?ioiaiee aoaeo. I?ioa aoaeoeaii inaaeaeothoueny o
aeaeyae? ?A c IA eeoa aaeee? ca ?ici??ii («nooeoo?i?oeioth/?»)
ai?iie.Aea/aii aieea ??cieo oaeoi??a ia i?ioean inaaeaeaiiy. I?e iaaieo
eiioeaio?aoe?eieo oiiaao iiaeeeaa ooai?aiiy ae??aiie?enoae?/ii?
noniaic??, eie?? yei? ??cei a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae eieuei?o aeania
aa?aieea. sse i?eeeaae, ia ?en.3 i?eaaaeaia caeaaei?noue iioe/ii?
aonoeie aiaeiiai ?ic/eio AA* oa /anoee inaaeaeaiiai aa?aieea a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?ao(VII)-?ii?a.

Aeey ioe?iee a?ae?ioiaiino? ooai?aieo ?A ?ic?aoiaoaaee ?o aeiaooie
?ic/eiiino? E?A. I?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao cia/aiiy E?A ciaioothoueny ?c
ciaioaiiyi ia?aiao?o a?ae?aoaoe?? ai?ii?a (Ga?ae?.) a ?yaeo Cl->Br-
NO3->I->SCN->ClO4->ReO4-. I?e aaaaeaii? aeaeo?io?eueieo cai?niee?a o
o?aaiaioe iieaeoe aa?aiee?a i?e ai?iia?oi? i?iyaey?oueny a?aeiia
aaeaeeoeai?noue aieeao no?oeoo?ieo a?oi eao?ii?a ? ciaioaiiy
a?ae?ioiaiino? ?A. Iaeiaio ?ic/eiieie ? ?A, ooai?ai? iecueeiiniiaieie
aa?aieeaie 5-I?N, 6-I?N, 5-IE?N.

?en.3. Caeaaei?noue iioe/ii? aonoeie aiaeiiai ?ic/eio AA* (1-3) oa
/anoee inaaeaeaiiai o aeaeyae? ?A aa?aieea (4-6) a?ae eiioeaio?aoe??
oei?aoo (VII)

1,010-4 iieue/e AA*; 1,4 — 0,05 iieue/e Na2SO4; 2,5- 0,075 iieue/e
Na2SO4; 3,6- 0,10 iieue/e Na2SO4Aea/aiiy aieeao oiiiaiai aeaeo?ie?oo
iieacaei, ui ii nai?e ae?? ia inaaeaeaiiy ?A ?o iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia
aea? a?oie.Oae, i?e aaaaeaii? ?ic/eio Na2SO4 niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy
aaee/eie E?A. Aiaeia?/iee aeniethth/ee aoaeo i?iyaey?oueny ? i?e
aaaaeaii? ?ic/eio NaCl, i?ioa ae?aaeaiee a?i cia/ii neaaoa. Aaaaeaiiy
?ic/ei?a NaBr, NaNO3 i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?ioeeaaeiiai(aniethth/iai)
aoaeoo, ui iiaea aooe iiyniaii eiieo?aioe??th a?aeiia?aeiiai ai?iio
oiiiaiai aeaeo?ie?oo ca i?noea a ?A, a ia eiai aeniethth/ith ae??th.

Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia inaaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a niinoa??aa?oueny i?e ?o
ia?aaaaeaii? a ai?iii? ?iaeeaeiee /e o?ioe?aiaoiee eiiieaene. Oae?
eiiieaene iathoue iaeneiaeueiee ia?aiao? a?ae?aoaoe?? (Ga?ae?.>-200
eAeae/iieue). Nooo?aei ? ? oa, ui a oaeeo eiiieaenao oeaio?aeueiee ?ii
i?iyaey? iiieaeaia eii?aeeiaoe?eia /enei, oiio aiie ? iecueeica?yaeieie,
a, cia/eoue, caeaoieie aei anioe?aoe?? c eao?iiaie IA.

?A inaaeaeothoueny o oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? eeneioiino?, yeee aecia/a?oueny
i?ioie?oe/ieie aeanoeainoyie aa?aieea oa aeaiaioa. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iaeneiaeueiiai inaaeaeaiiy ?A iaiao?aeii noai?eoe a ?ic/ei? iaaio
eiioeaio?aoe?th ?iaeeae-(o?ioe?aiao-)?ii?a, ui aecia/a?oueny, a
iniiaiiio, no?ee?noth a?aeiia?aeieo iaoaeieiiieaenieo ai?ii?a. Oae,
i?aeoe/ii iiaia inaaeaeaiiy ?A ia?eo??th(II) oa a?niooo(III) c
?iaeeae-?iiaie ? aa?aieeii E?, aeinyaa?oueny aaea i?e eiioeaio?aoe??
?iaeeaeo eae?th 10-3 iieue/e. ?iie aeaiaio?a, ui ooai?ththoue neaao?
?iaeeaei? eiiieaene (Pb(II), Ag(I)), inaaeaeothoueny i?e eiioeaio?aoe??
KI ia ii?yaeie aeu?e.

Aeae?eai? a inaae ?A aeia?a ?ic/eii? a iiey?ieo ?ic/eiieeao. A aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao niinoa??aa?oueny ei?aeyoe?y i?ae ae?aeaeo?e/iith i?iieei?noth
?ic/eiieea oa cia/aiiyi iiey?iiai eiao?oe??ioo iiaeeiaiiy ?A

Oioiiao?e/ia aecia/aiiy aeayeeo aeaiaio?a, ui aaco?oueny ia ?o
inaaeaeaii? o aeaeyae? ?A ? ianooiiiio ?ic/eiaii? a iiey?iiio
?ic/eiieeo, iiaea aooe aeoaea aeniei/ooeeaei. Iiey?iee eiao?oe??io
iiaeeiaiiy i?e aeei?enoaii? aoaeoeaieo aa?aiee?a aeey ??cieo ?A aeinyaa?
cia/aiiy =(0,8-2,3)105. Oea iaea?eueo /ooeea? ?c a?aeiieo oioiiao?e/ieo
?aaeoe?e ia Hg(II), Bi(III), Ag(I), oaae.3.

Oaaeeoey 3

Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic/ei?a ?A aeaiaio?a c IA

?A?ic/eiieemax, ii10-4Cmin 103,
iea/ie[HgI4](IOAO?)2aoeaoii58011,81,5[HgI4](OAeNO)2aoeaoii57010,52,0[HgI
4](IOAO?)2iaoaiie56211,31,8[HgI4](E?)2aeeiaoeenoeueoieneae54012,51,6[AgI
3](E?)2aoeaoii53012,00,9[AgI2](AeOAO?)iaoaiie5485,61,9[BiI4](IOAO?)iaoai
ie5788,52,5[BiI4](E?)aeeiaoeenoeueoieneae5408,22,5[CdI4](E?)2aeeiaoeenoe
ueoieneae54011,61,0[PdI4](E?)2aoeaoii54010,81,0I?ioa aeaiee iaoiae
i?eaeaoiee eeoa aeey aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a, caeaoieo ooai?thaaoe aeoaea
no?ee? ?iaeeaei? /e o?ioe?aiaoi? eiiieaene. Oea iaiaaeaiiy iiynith?oueny
oei, ui i?e ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? ?iaeeae-(o?ioe?aiao-)?ii?a o
?ic/ei?, iaiao?aeii? aeey cnoao ??aiiaaae Men+ +mX- =MeXm-(n-m)
(3) ai?aai, iiaeeeaa inaaeaeaiiy i?inoeo nieae aa?aiee?a oeio RI /e
RSCN. Oeae iaaeie?e iiaea aooe a cia/i?e i??? onoiaiee aaaaeaiiyi IA?.
I?e?iaea ? eiioeaio?aoe?y IA? nooo?ai ci?iththoue niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?A, ui i?i?ethno?iaaii ia ?en.4. I?e oeueiio eao?iii? oa
ai?iii? IA? aeyaeeenue iaeii?eaeaoieie aeey noaa?e?caoe?? ?A.

?en.4. Na?oeiiiaeeiaiiy ?iaeeaeiiai eiiieaeno A?aaiooio c E? a
i?enoo-iino? ??cieo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei 410-5 iieue/e Ag+; 0,08
iieue/e I-;210-4 iieue/e E?; pH 3

1-0,03% II-7;2-0,03% iiiiaoaiie-ai?aeo; 3-0,05% aeaeaoeie; 4-0,03%
eao?eenoeueoaoo; 5-aac IA?; 6-?ic/ei ii??aiyiiy (aac Ag+).Anoaiiaeaii,
ui oea aeeeeeaii ?o caeaoi?noth anooiaoe a eiieo?aioi? ?aaeoe?? c
?iiaie-neeaaeiaeie ?A. Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? eao?iiieo IA? ni?ey?
cai?uaiith IA a ?A, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy na?oeiiiaeeiaiiy ?A.
Ai?iii? IA? aca?iiae?thoue c eao?iiii aa?aieea, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei eiai
aeo?niaiiy c ?A ? ooai?aiiy iiai? niieoee (R+)(AIA?-). Iaea?eueo
i?eaeaoieie aeey noaa?e?caoe?? ?A aeyaeeenue ia?iiiaaii? IA?.
Cai?iiiiiaaii ?iia??iee iaoai?ci noaa?e?coth/i? ae?? IIA?. Nooo?aee
aeeaae i?e noaa?e?caoe?? aiinyoue aca?iiae?? iaaeaeo?inoaoe/iiai
oa?aeoa?o. *anoeiee aeenia?nii? oace aaeni?aothoue ia nai?e iiaa?oi?
IA?, aiane?aeie /iai aiie ia iiaeooue caeeceoeny aei a?aenoai?, eiee
aia?a?y i?eoyaaiiy noaea a aeinoaoiueith aeey ?o ia’?aeiaiiy a aa?aaaoe.
Aoaeoeaia noaa?e?caoe?y ?A aeinyaa?oueny i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? IIA?,
aeecuee?e aei e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?oeaeiooai?aiiy, ui na?ae/eoue
i?i aca?iiae?th ?A c IA? ia i?oeaey?iiio ??ai?.E?aueie noaa?e?coth/eie
aeanoeainoyie aieiae?thoue II-10, II-7, II-40, ea?aieneiaoeeoeaetheica.

A i?eioeei?, aiae?oe/iee neaiae, ui iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee aeey
oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a o oaeeo nenoaiao, iiaea aeieeiooe ca
?aooiie aeaio aoaeo?a. Ia?oee oa?aeoa?iee aeey aa?aiee?a, no?eeeo aei
i?ioie?oe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ? i?iyaey?oueny ca ?aooiie eieuei?iai?
oaa?aeioacii? ?aaeoe?? c iine?aeoth/ith noaa?e?caoe??th ?A ia?iiiaaiieie
IA?. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo na?oeiiiaeeiaiiy noaa?e?ciaaieo ?A iaeneiaeueia
? noaa?eueia a oe?ieeo iaaeao eeneioiino?. ?aeeiith i?iaeaiith oaeiai
i?aeoiaeo iiaea aooe iaeeaaeaiiy caaa?aeaiiy i?inoi? nie? aa?aieea ia
caaa?aeaiiy noaa?e?ciaaieo ?A. Oi/a aeey iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo aa?aiee?a
oaeee iaaeie?e iaeaea ia i?iyaey?oueny, oiio ui eiio?anoi?noue ?aaeoe??
aeinyaa? 100 ii ? a?eueoa. Ae?oaee aoaeo i?iyaey?oueny i?e aeei?enoaii?
aa?aiee?a, ui aieiae?thoue ae?aaeaieie pH-?iaeeeaoi?ieie aeanoeainoyie.
Oae? aa?aieee i?ioiiothoueny aaea a neaai eeneeo na?aaeiaeuao, i?e /iio
ia?ao?ae a?ae iaeiica?yaeii? aei i?ioiiiaaii? oi?ie (??aiyiiy 1)
a?aeaoaa?oueny o aocueeiio ?ioa?aae? eeneioiino?. A i?enooiino?
ai?iiiiai eiiieaeno aeaiaioo, ui ca’yco? ?iie R+ a no?eeee ?A,
a?aeaoaa?oueny cnoa ??aiiaaae (1) a a?e aeai?ioiiiaaii? oi?ie. Iaea?eueo
c?o/ieie ? aeiaaeee, eiee i?ioiiiaaia oi?ia aa?aieea aacaa?aia. Oae,
iai?eeeaae, aa?aiee i?iaaa?aeie i?e pH5 i?aeoe/ii aacaa?aiee (aeii?io?
oi?ia RH2+). A oie aea /an a i?enooiino? ?iaeiiethiaaoo /e
?iaeia?niooaoo i?e oe?e aea eeneioiino? ooai?ththoueny ?A ?ioaineaii
/a?aiiiai eieuei?o, aeanoeaiai ?iiai aa?aieea R+. ?aeeiei na?eiciei
iaaeie?eii oaeeo nenoai ? iaiao?aei?noue ?aoaeueii eiio?iethaaoe
eeneioi?noue na?aaeiaeua.

Oaaeeoey 4

Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic/ei?a ?A aeaiaio?a c IA,
noaa?e?ciaaieo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie

Aeine?aeaeoaaia nenoaiaC IA?, %pHiio.,ii10-4AE/ARAg+ -I- -IA*II-10,
0,0256306,15,9Ag+ -I- -E?II-10, 0,0246405,06,1Ag+ -SCN- -IA*II-10,
0,0386304,84,1Bi3+ -I- -E?IAN, 0,0126006,38,8Bi3+ -I- -OIEIOe, 0,0054I
H3PO46206,016,6Mo(VI)-SCN- -AA*II-10, 0,020,4IH2SO45308,65,0Zn2+ -SCN-
-AA*EIOe, 0,00515607,514,1Pt(IV)-Cl- -Ae?EII-10, 0,021I
H2SO46206,311,2Pt(IV)-SCN- -Ae?EII-10, 0,021I
H2SO46108,23,8W(VI)-5IAe?EII-10, 0,01164012,18,5A aeayeeo aeiaaeeao
a?ae?ioiai?noue ooai?aieo ?A iiaea aooe iano?eueee aenieith, ui ?o ia
aaea?oueny aoaeoeaii noaa?e?coaaoe IA?. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue
?aaoethaaoe ?ic/eii?noue ?A aaaaeaiiyi aeniethaa/?a, a oaeiae
aiaei?ic/eiieo i?aai?/ieo ?ic/eiiee?a. Oea aeicaieeei io?eiaoe iia?
oi?ie ?A ca o/anoth ?ii?a Pt(IV), Mo(VI), W(VI). A oaaeeoe? 4 i?eaaaeaii
aaaeeea?o? niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?A, noaa?e?ciaaieo IA?,
i?eaeaoieo aeey o?i?ei-aiae?oe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy. ?aaeoe?? ooai?aiiy ?A
aeaiaio?a c IA o aiaei?e oac? ? aeniei/ooeeaeie. Aaaeeeaith ia?aaaaith
aacaeno?aeoe?eii? oioiiao??? ? i?inoioa ? aeni?ani?noue i?e
caaeia?euei?e naeaeoeaiino? ? a?aeoai?thaaiino?. Oae? ?A iiaeooue
neoaeeoe c?o/ieie aiae?oe/ieie oi?iaie aeey aacaeno?aeoe?eiiai
oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy i?e?ie?eueeinoae aeaiaio?a (Ag, Bi, Pb, Hg,
Zn, Pd, Pt, Mo, W) a ??cieo ia’?eoao. Ia?aaaaith aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo
nenoai ? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe aecia/aiiy a i?enooiino? aaeeeeo
iaaeeeoe?a i?o?ao?a, oei?ao?a, a?ii?ae?a, oei?eae?a, ui /anoi
caaaaeathoue aecia/aiith aeaiaio?a o aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiio
aa??aio?. Iniiaiei iaaeie?eii oaeeo nenoai ? eiei?aeiee oa?aeoa?
caaa?aeaieo ?ic/ei?a (o i?enooiino? IA?). Aeno?aeoe?y oaeeo niieoe
i?aai?/ieie ?ic/eiieeaie i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaea?aeaiiy ?noeiieo ?ic/ei?a
?A, ui a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iie?auo? ye niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i?, oae ?
iao?ieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoiae?a.

CAEIIII??IINO? AENO?AEOe?? AEAIAIO?A O AEAEssAe? ?A C
IIE?IAOEIIAEIE AA?AIEEAIE

Iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a ca aeiiiiiaith
iniiaieo aa?aiee?a ? naeaeoeaia aeno?aeoe?y ?A aeaiaioo i?e
i?i?iaeueiiio aeeo/aii? i?inoi? nie? aa?aieea. Ia aeaeue, aeno?aeoe??th
ye ?A, oae ? i?inoi? nie? aa?aieea ea?othoue iaei? ? o? ae oaeoi?e:
eeneioi?noue na?aaeiaeua, i?e?iaea ? eiioeaio?aoe?y ?aaaaioo,
aoeeaeie?aaiaeo, aeno?aaaioo oiui. Oiio i?e aeei?enoaii? oaeeo nenoai
/anoi iaiao?aeii eoe ia eiii?ii?n — aeiaeaaoenue ia iaeneiaeueiiai
aeeo/aiiy ?A, a caaeia?eueii? ??cieoe? iioe/ii? aonoeie aeno?aeo?a ?A oa
i?inoi? nie? aa?aieea i?e i?i?iaeueiiio aeeo/aii? inoaiiuei?. O?eueee a
oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia aeinoaoiuei aenieo /ooeea?noue,
naeaeoeai?noue, oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy.

Iaie i?iaaaeaia ioe?iea aeno?aeoe?eii? caeaoiino? IA a i?enooiino?
ai?ii?a, ui iae/ano?oa aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ia?aaiaeo aeaiaio?a o
?aaeoe?eiicaeaoio ai?iiio oi?io. sse aeaeii c ?en.5, yeui o aiaeiiio
?ic/ei? ?iiia oi?ia aa?aieea AA* aeii?io? a iaaeao eeneioiino? pH 2-11,
oi i?ney aeno?aeoe?? oieoaiii aaea i?e pH10 aiia i?aeoe/ii a?aenooiy.I?e
ia?aoiae? a?ae oei?eae- aei o?ioe?aiao-?ii?a ianiaa /anoea aa?aieea, ui
caeeoa?oueny o aiaei?e oac? i?ney aeno?aeoe?? oieoaiii, caeiiii??ii
ciaioo?oueny. Iaeii/anii ?icoe?th?oueny ?ioa?aae aeii?ioaaiiy ?iiii?
oi?ie aa?aieea. Ua neeuei?oa oaea oaiaeaioe?y i?iyaey?oueny i?e
aeei?enoaii? aeoeaieo ?ic/eiiee?a. Ca caeaoi?noth iie?auoaaoe
aeno?aeoe?th IA aeine?aeaeai? ai?iie ?ici?uothoueny a ?yae: SO42- < Cl- ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy ??»?? ???&? ?MathType??a?
???u?????????»????-?????<e???<???u?th??????a aeey ?aaeoe?? (5), ye wmetafile8? ??‘??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy®yyya??.?? ???&? ?MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-?????<u???<C???u?th??????Ca?aeii ??aiyiiy (4) ia?aaaaeii aeno?aaothoueny ?A, ooai?ai? eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iane/aieie iaoaeieiiieaenieie ai?iiaie oa IA, ca?aeii ??aiyiiy (5) -aeaiaioe, ui ooai?ththoue eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iaiane/ai? ai?iii? eiiieaene. sseui oe? oyaeaiiy a??i?, oi aeno?aeoe?y ?A, ooai?aieo ca ?aaeoe?yie (4) ? (5), iiaeiia nooo?ai ??cieoeny, ui ? aeieacaii aenia?eiaioaeueii. Ae?ace aeey eiinoaioe aeno?aeoe?? (6) ? (7) na?ae/aoue, ui aeno?aeoe?y oaeeo ?A ? aeoaea neeaaeiith ? aecia/a?oueny, ye i?i?ioi, oaeeie ia?aiao?aie, ye: -oa?aeoa? ?A (neeaae, ?ici??, no?ee?noue) -i?e?iaea ? eiioeaio?aoe?y e?aaiaeo X- (Cl-, Br-, I-, SCN-, N3-, SeCN-) -i?e?iaea ? eiioeaio?aoe?y IA -i?e?iaea ? eiioeaio?aoe?y aeno?aaaioo (?iiae? a noi?o? c ?icaaaethaa/ai) -aeoeai?noue ?ii?a aiaeith -eiao?oe??ioe aeoeaiino? an?o o/aniee?a ?aaeoe?? I?aenoaaeaoe cia/aiiy ?ioeo noaeeo, ui iiaeooue aecia/aoe aeno?aeoe?th oaeeo nenoai, o ae?ace (6) ? (7) ? c?iaeaoe ianeeaaei? ia?aoai?aiiy, io?eia?ii aeineoue i?inoa ??aiyiiy K ex =Kd Kan (8) Oiaoi, aeno?aeoe?y ?A aeaiaio?a c IA a i?eioeei? aecia/a?oueny no?ee?noth a?aeiia?aeiiai ai?iiiiai iaoaeieiiieaeno (), caeaoi?noth oeueiai eiiieaeno anooiaoe a ?aaeoe?th anioe?aoe?? c eao?iiii aa?aieea (Ean.) oa ?iciiae?eii ?A i?ae aiaeiith oa i?aai?/iith oacaie (Kd). ?*-niaeo?e aa?aiee?a, aeae?eaieo o aeaeyae? ?A c ??cieie ai?iiaie, aeecuee?; a ieo ia niinoa??aa?oueny nooo?aeo ci?i a iaeano? oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo /anoio. Iaaaeee? ci?ie a iieiaeaii? iaeneioio aeaeo?iiieo niaeo??a iiaeeiaiiy aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a aa?aiee?a oa aeno?aeo?a ?o ?A iiyniththoueny aoaeoii nieueaaoio?ii??. Niaeo?e II? aa?aiee?a c ??cieie ai?iiaie oaeiae aeecuee?. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i iaeiaeiaee oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?? i?e ooai?aii? oa aeno?aeoe?? ?A ??cieo aeaiaio?a c IA, a ye?e aeii?io? aeaeo?inoaoe/ia aca?iiae?y i?ae iaoaeieiiieaeniei ai?iiii ? eao?iiii IA. Aecia/ai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a a ?A na?ae/aoue ia ei?enoue ia?aaaaeiiai ooai?aiiy ? aeno?aeoe?? ?A c ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi MeX-n :R+=1:1 (??aeoa 1:2). Oiaoi, o aeaeyae? eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iane/aieo ai?iiieo eiiieaen?a aoaeooue aeno?aaoaaoeny ia?aaaaeii iaeii- oa o?eaaeaioi? aeaiaioe, a o aeaeyae? eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iaiane/aieo - aeaiaaeaioi?. I?ioa caaaeai? aeaiaioe ? ??cieie ii i'yeino?, ooai?ththoue iaoaeieiiieaene oa ?A ??cii? no?eeino?. Aiane?aeie oeueiai eeoa Cu(I), Au(I, III), Tl(III) ooai?ththoue c iie?iaoeiiaeie aa?aieeaie ?A, ui aeia?a aeeo/athoueny o?aaeeoe?eieie aeey oaeeo nenoai aeno?aaaioaie-a?iiaoe/ieie aoaeaaiaeiyie. ?iie Ga(III) ? Fe(III) (aei?noe? eeneioe ii I??niio) aeeo/athoueny eeoa c oei?eaeieo ?ic/ei?a. Iai?ai'ye? ?iie In(III), Bi(III) aeno?aaothoueny o aeaeyae? ?A c a?ii?aeieo oa ?iaeeaeieo na?aaeiaeu. I?e oeueiio o an?o aeiaaeeao aeno?aeoe?y ?A no??iei ia?inoa? a ?yaeao aeaiaio?a: Ga(III)N-iaoeeoi?iai?ae>N,N-aeeiaoeeoi?iai?ae>N,N-aeeiaoeeaoeaoai?ae>
N,N-aeeaoeeaoeaoai?ae>aaenaiaoeeoinoi?o?eai?ae, ui aeia?a
ocaiaeaeo?oueny ?c ciaioaiiyi aeoeaiino? aiaee a AeA? aeey
a?iioaoe/ii-?icaaaeaiiai ?ic/eio a-1 H2O,S, a oaeiae ca?eueoaiiyi ?o
aeiii?ieo /enae ii Aooiaio. Aaaaeaiiy ?ic/eiiee?a, ui iathoue aaeeea
cia/aiiy a-1 H2O, S ? iecueeo aeiii?io caeaoi?noue (iaoaiie, aoaiie,
aoeaoii) aeyaeeinue aoaeoeaiei eeoa i?e aeno?aeoe?? aeaiaio?a, caeaoieo
ooai?thaaoe aeoaea no?ee? o?ioe?aiaoi? eiiieaene (Pd, Pt).

Iaoai?ci aeyaeaieo aoaeo?a iiynith?oueny niaoeeo?/iith nieueaaoaoe??th
AeA? neeaaeiaeo ?A — ai?iiiiai o?i-(?cio?i-)oe?aiaoiiai eiiieaeno
aeaiaioo oa eao?iio IA. O aiaeii-i?aai?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao a?aeaoaa?oueny
ia eeoa ca?eueoaiiy no?eeino? o?ioe?aiaoieo eiiieaen?a aeaiaio?a ca
?aooiie ciaioaiiy ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? oaeeo ?ic/ei?a o ii??aiyii?
c /enoi aiaeieie, a e ciaioaiiy nooiaith a?ae?aoaoe?? ?ii?a iaoaeo ca
?aooiie cai?uaiiy iieaeoe aiaee iieaeoeaie AeA? (??aiiaaaa 5). I?e
iaaieo oiiaao iiaeeeaa ? ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? aoeeaeie?aaiae?a o
eii?aeeiaoe?ei?e noa?? aiane?aeie eiieo?aioe?? i?ae e?aaiaeii ? AeA? ca
oeaio?aeueiee ?ii.

?en.7. Caeaaei?noue aeno?aeoe?? ?A ieaoeie(II) c o?ioe?aiao-?iiaie oa
Ae?E(1, 2) oa o?ioe?aiaoo Ae?E(3, 4) a?ae ai?noo AeIOA o aiaei?e oac? 2
10-5 iieue/e Pt(II);510-4 iieue/e SCN-;1 10-4 iieue/e Ae?E; 0,12 iieue/e
H2SO4. Aeno?aaaioe:1, 3-ai?eaoeaoao:2, 4-oieoai.?en.8. ?iciiae?e
o?ioe?aiaoo AA* i?ae aiaeii-i?aai?/iith oacith oa ai?eaoeaoaoii caeaaeii
a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? AeA? o aiaei?e oac?. 2 10-5 iieue/e AA*; 0,5 iieue/e
SCN-; pH 5 ; 1-ae?ienai; 2-oi?iai?ae; 3-iaoeeoi?iai?ae;
4-aeeiaoeenoeueoieneae; 5-aeeiaoeeoi?-iai?ae;
6-aaenaiaoeeoinoi?o?eai?aeI?ioa AeA? caeaoi? niaoeeo?/ii nieueaaooaaoe
ia eeoa o?ioe?aiaoi? eiiieaene aeaiaio?a, a e eao?ii IA, iniaeeai
neeueii — i?noey c iaea?eueoei cina?aaeaeaiiyi ca?yaeo. I?e oeueiio
ianeiao?e/i? aa?aieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?eueoith aeaeo?iiiith
aneiao???th, nieueaaoothoueny neeuei?oa, i?ae neiao?e/i?. I?e ?ioeo
??aieo oiiaao ioeeaio?eueia nieueaaoaoe?y IA oaeeie ?ic/eiieeaie, ye
aeeiaoeenoeueoieneae, aeeiaoeeoi?iai?ae, oi?iai?ae (ia?aiao?e
ioeeaio?eueiino? B a?aeiia?aeii ??ai? 362, 291, 270) i?iyaey?oueny
cia/ii neeuei?oa, i?ae aoeaoiiii, iaoaiieii, aoaiieii (B a?aeiia?aeii
224, 224, 218). Aea, e??i aoaeoa nieueaaoaoe??, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe
?iciiae?e i?ae oacaie naiiai AeA?. Ii oeueiio e?eoa??th ie ?icae?eeee
AeA? ia aea? a?oie:AeA?, ui a cia/i?e i??? (Kd>>0,01) ia?aoiaeyoue o
oaco oieoaio ? AeA?, ye? i?aeoe/ii ia ia?aoiaeyoue(Kd<<0,01) o i?aai?/io oaco. sse aeaeii c ?en.8, inoaii? ? i?iyaeythoue aioaaii?noe/iee aoaeo, iiaeaaeyth/e aeno?aeoe?th o?ioe?aiaoii? nie? IA. Aeei?enoaaoe a?ao?/io caeaaei?noue lg (Kd/D-1) - lg [S]o, ?ic?aoiaai? nieueaaoi? /enea ? eiinoaioe nieueaaoaoe?? o?ioe?aiaoieo nieae IA aeayeeie AeA?. Ia i?eeeaae? ?A Iaeaae?th ie i?ine?aeeoaaee ca ci?iith aeno?aeoe?eieo aeanoeainoae ?A i?e cai?i? o?ioe?aiao-?ii?a ia ?io? aeaeo?ia?ae'?ii? e?aaiaee. No?ee?noue ?A iaeaae?th ia?inoa? a ?yaeo e?aaiae?a NCO-2105).A ?iaio? iienaii iaiaaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy IA aeey
aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aeayeeo aeaiaio?a. A oie aea /an
aaeaeiny aeinyaiooe iiceoeaiiai aiae?oe/iiai aoaeoo i?e aeno?aeoe?? ?A
Ieaoeie, yea ca ?aooiie ?ia?oiino? a?aeiia?aeieo iaoaeieiiieaen?a
i?aeoe/ii ia aeno?aao?oueny IA ca cae/aeieo oiia. Iiia?aaei? eei’yo?iiy
?ic/eio eiiiiiaio?a i?ioyaii 15-30 oaeeei aai ae?y OO-aei?ii?ithaaiiy
aeicaieeee aeoeaoaaoe i?ioean eiiieaeniooai?aiiy ieaoeie ? ?ic?iaeoe
aoaeoeaio iaoiaeeeo aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy ieaoeie a
i?enooiino? iaeaae?th. Aaaeeea?o? niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeno?aeo?a aeayeeo ?A aeaiaio?a c o?ioe?aiao-?iiaie oa IA, a oaeiae
oiiae ?o io?eiaiiy oa aeno?aeoe?? i?eaaaeai? a oaae.6. Aenie? cia/aiiy
iiey?iiai eiao?oe??ioo na?oeiiiaeeiaiiy aeno?aeo?a ?A (=6,0-26,0)104
na?ae/aoue i?i iaaecae/aeii aenieo /ooeea?noue ?aaeoe?e ?
ia?niaeoeai?noue ?o aeei?enoaiiy a aiae?c?.

Oaaeeoey 6

Iniiai? o?i?ei-aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?A aeaiaio?a c
o?ioe?aiao-?iiaie oa IA i?e aeno?aeoe?? ?A c aiaeii-i?aai?/iiai
na?aaeiaeua

Oiiae ooai?aiiy ? aeno?aeoe?? ?A
?iiAa?a-ieepHCAeA?,%(ia.)aeno?aaaiomax., ii10-4Ae/ArA?A,
%lgKexAg(I)Ae?E5AIOOA, 12oieoai55810,07,397,6-5AeIOA, 12oieoai
5589,85,586,810,4Ae?AeE3AeINI, 30oieoai65915,618,0—Hg(II)Ae?E3AeIOA,
14oieoai55611,310,795,014,4Co(II)6I??E5AeIOA,
10oieoai55221,18,794,0-5AIOOA, 4oieoai55123,110,4—5AeINI,
12oieoai55020,09,0—Cu(II)IA*5AeIOA,
12oieoai5554,73,1—In(III)6I??E3AeIOA,
10oieoai55110,03,9—Fe(III)6I??E3AeIOA,
12oieoai5517,83,3—Au(IIIIA*5AeIOA, 12oieoai5559,68,2—Pd(II)Ae?E1AeIOA,
16oieoai55514,21896,216,94O?E1AeIOA, 14oieoai6138,35198,018,8A?E0,
5aoeaoii, 24oieoai55512,87,297,217,7Pt(II)Ae?E1AeIOA,
16aaicai55611,55,995,6-1AeIOA, 16oieoai55612,73189,316,75IAe?E1AeIOA,
16aaicai56613,816—6IAe?E1AeIOA, 16aaicai56314,420—Zn(II)NA*5AeIOA,
18oieoai57118,24,298,39,7IA*5AeIOA, 12oieoai5559,87,098,5-Ae?E3AeIOA,
28oieoai55520,96,099,0-6I??E5AeIOA,
16oieoai55425,32099,2-Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeno?aeoe?th c aiaeii-i?aai?/ieo
na?aaeiaeu, aaeaeiny aeno?aaoaaoe o aeaeyae? ?A c IA aenieica?yaei?
ieneai?iie aieueo?aio (VI) ? iie?aaeaio (VI). A?aeiiino? i?i
iiaeeea?noue aeno?aeoe?? oaeeo ?ii?a iniiaieie aa?aieeaie a e?oa?aoo??
a?aenooi?.Iniaeeai oe?iiei ? oa, ui aaaaeaiiy aei neeaaeo aiaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua AeA? i?eaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai ?inoo aeno?aeoe?? ?A
Aieueo?aio ? iaeii/anii iiaeaaey? aeno?aeoe?th iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a
ReO4-, ClO4-, IO4-, SCN-. Oea aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo
aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aieueo?aio a i?enooiino? Mo(VI),
V(V), Re(VII). Ca?eueoeoe nooi?iue aeeo/aiiy o aeaeyae? ?A c IA
ieneai?ii?a NO3-, ClO4-, IO4-, ReO4-, CrO42- aaeaeiny, aeei?enoiaoth/e
noi?o? ?ic/eiiee?a, a oaeiae aoaeo aeniethaaiiy.

?III? ANIOe?AOE AEAIAIO?A C INIIAIEIE AA?AIEEAIE ssE AEAEO?IAeIAEOEAI?
?A*IAEIE AeEss ?III-NAEAEOEAIEO AEAEO?IAe?A

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iiinaeaeoeaieo aeaeo?iae?a (?NA) io?eiaei a inoaii?e /an
oe?ieee ?icaeoie. Iaea?eueo c?o/ieie a aenieoaoaoe?? ? ieanoeo?eiaai?
aeaeo?iaee — ??aee? iaia?aie, iii?uai? a iie?ia?io iniiao, iae/ano?oa-
iie?a?i?eoei?eae. A i?eioeei? a?aeiii, ui aeaeo?iaeiaeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie
?NA iiaeooue aenooiaoe ?A ca o/anoth iniiaieo aa?aiee?a. I?ioa a
e?oa?aoo?? ? aeoaea iaei a?aeiiinoae i?i oae? aeaeo?iaee. Caeaa?eueoiai
iienai? ??aeeii? aeaeo?iaee, a yeeo ?iii/ooeeaith iaia?aiith ? ?ic/ei ?A
a i?aai?/iiio ?ic/eiieeo. I?ioa eiino?oeoe?y oaeeo aeaeo?iae?a ?
aeineoue neeaaeiith ? iaaeineiiaeith.

Iaie iieacaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeae?eaieo a oaa?aeiio aeaeyae?
?A aeayeeo aeaiaio?a c IA ye aeaeo?iaeiaeoeaieo ?a/iaei aeey ?NA.
Iioaioe?aeaecia/oaaieie ?iiaie oaeeo aeaeo?iae?a iiaea aooe ye eao?ii,
oae ? ai?ii. Oiio aeae?eai? ?A iiaeia oiiaii iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie.
Aei ia?oi? a?aeiinyoue ?A, ooai?ai? «i?inoeie» ai?iiaie (ClO4-, IO4-,
ReO4-, SCN-, I-) oa IA. I?e aeei?enoaii? oaeeo ?A ye aeaeo?iaeiaeoeaieo
?a/iaei a ?NA iioaioe?aeaecia/oaaieie ?iiaie aenooiathoue a?aeiia?aeiee
ai?ii oa iaeiica?yaeiee eao?ii aa?aieea R+. Iniiaiei iaiaaeaiiyi
aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo ?A aeyaeeanue ?o ?ic/eii?noue. Aiia ia? aooe
aeinoaoiuei iaeith, ?iaeoa ?A aoaea aeieaaoeny c iaia?aie. Aei ae?oai?
a?oie ie a?aeiineii ?A, ooai?ai? iaoaeieiiieaenieie ai?iiaie (Zn(NCS)4
2-, Hg(SCN)4 2-, Pd(SCN)4 2-) oa aa?aieeaie. A i?eioeei? oae? aeaeo?iaee
iiaeooue aeaaaoe a?aeaoe ia aeaa aeaee eao?ii?a (iaoaeo oa aa?aieea) ?
aeaa aeaee ai?ii?a -i?inoee ? eiiieaeniee. ?ic/eii?noue oaeeo ?A cia/ii
ieae/a. I?ioa ?A ca o/anoth aeoaea a?ae?ioiaieo aa?aiee?a aeyaeeenue
iaeii?eaeaoieie aeey noai?aiiy ?NA. Iaia?aie ia iniia? oaeeo ?A /anoi
io?eiothoueny iaiaeii??aeieie, c aaoa?iaaiieie ae?aieaiiyie ?A.

?ic?iaeaii ?NA aeey aecia/aiiy ieneai?ii?a ClO4-, IO4-, ReO4- ia iniia?
a?aeiia?aeieo ?A c IA. A?aeaoe oaeeo iaia?ai ia ieneai?iie caeaaeeoue
a?ae i?e?iaee ?ic/eiieea, ieanoeo?eaoi?a, ?A. Oae, ?NA ia iniia? ?A
oei?aoo(VII) c aa?aieeii Ae?E, aea? aeia?ee a?aeaoe ia ci?io
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ii?a ClO4- a iaaeao 10-1-10-4 iieue/e (?en.9). I?ioa
e?ooecia ooieoe?? (s) aeecueea aei oai?aoe/ii? ( 54 iA/pC) eeoa aeey ?NA
c ai?noii ?A o iaia?ai? 5%. E?aueie i?aai?/ieie ?ic/eiieeaie aeey
i?eaiooaaiiy oaeeo iaia?ai ? oeeeeiaaenaiii oa oao?aa?ae?ioo?ai.
Aeei?enoaiiy a yeino? ieanoeo?eaoi?a aeeaooee- /e aeeieoeeooaeaoo aea?
i?aeoe/ii ?aeaioe/i? ?acoeueoaoe. I?ioa e?euee?noue ieanoeo?eaoi?o i?e
i?eaiooaaii? iaia?ai ia? aooe no?iai aecia/aiith (1-1,5-e?aoiee
iaaeeeoie ii a?aeiioaiith aei e?eueeino? iie?a?i?eoei?eaeo). I?e ?ioeo
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo io?eiaoe iaia?aie aeinoaoiuei? ieanoe/iino? ?
aiiiaaiiino? ia aaea?oueny.

?en.9. Caeaaei?noue aeaeo?iaeiiai iioaioe?aeo ?NA ia iniia? ?A

(ClO4-)(Ae?E+) a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?ao (VII)-?ii?a; 0,5 iieue/e
Na2SO4;pH 9 Ai?no ?A a iaia?ai? ?NA, %: 1-1;2-5;3-7?en.10. Aieea pH ia
aeaeo?iaeiee iioaioe?ae oei?ao(VII)-naeaeoeaiiai aeaeo?iaeo

5% ?A (ClO4-)(Ae?E+) a iaia?ai?; pClO4-: 1-1;2-2;3-3;4-4Aaaeeeaith i?e
aei??thaaii? aeaeo?iaeiiai iioaioe?aeo ? i?e?iaea ? eiioeaio?aoe?y
oiiiaiai aeaeo?ie?oo. Eiai ai?ii ia iiaeiai eiieo?oaaoe c
iioaioe?aeaecia/oaaiei ai?iiii ca i?noea a iaia?ai?. Oiio iaee?aua
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a yeino? oiiiaiai aeaeo?ie?oo ?ic/ei Na2SO4 (ai?ii SO42-
ia? i?i?iaeueiee ia?aiao? a?ae?aoaoe?? Ga?ae?.=-320 eAeae/iieue). A
oaaeeoe? 7 aeey i?eeeaaeo i?eaaaeaii iniiai? o?i?ei-aiae?oe/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaia?aiieo ?NA ia iniia? ?A (ClO4-)(Ae?E+) i?e
aeei?enoaii? a yeino? oiio ?ic/eio Na2SO4 ??cii? eiioeaio?aoe??. Iaaea
aeyaeaiiy iaeieae/a aeey ?NA c ai?noii ?A a iaia?ai? 5% ? iaei
caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? Na2SO4. Eao?iiia ooieoe?y aeaeo?iaeo
i?iyaey?oueny a cia/ii aoae/iio ?ioa?aae? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? IA
(10-3-10-4 iieue/e) c eooii iaoeeo 50 iA/pC.

?iai/a iaeanoue pH ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaeo?iaeo aecia/a?oueny
i?ioie?oe/ieie aeanoeainoyie neeaaeiaeo ?A ? niinoa??aa?oueny a
aeinoaoiuei oe?ieeo iaaeao eeneioiino? (?en.10).

Oaaeeoey 7

Iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ieanoeo?eiaaieo ?NA ia iniia? ?A oei?aoo(VII) c
Ae?E

Ai?no ?A aOii 0,1 iieue/e Na2SO4Oii 0,5 iieue/e Na2SO4iaia?ai?,

% s, iA/pClO4-a, iieue/ec min., iieue/es, iA/pClO4-a, iieue/ecmin.,
iieue/e1500.1-10-4810-5520.1-10-4810-53530.1-10-4610-5520.1-10-4410-5554
0.1-10-4310-5540.1-10-4410-57510.1-10-4810-5510.1-10-4810-5Ciaioaiiy
ai?noo aeaeo?iaeiaeoeaii? ?a/iaeie a iaia?ai? i?eaiaeeoue aei caoaeaiiy
?ioa?aaeo pH ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy. «A?e» ??cieo aeaeo?iae?a ??ciee ?,
?iia??ii, aecia/a?oueny ?ic/eii?noth a?aeiia?aeiiai ?A oa /anoioith
ei?enooaaiiy iaia?aiith. Ca /an, ui i?ieoia c iiiaioo aeaioiaeaiiy
aeaeo?iaeo, eiai aeaeo?iaei? aeanoeaino? iiaeooue nooo?ai ci?ieoeny.
Oae, ?aiao (VII)-naeaeoeaiee aeaeo?iae ? /a?ac 1 ??e c /ano eiai
i?eaiooaaiiy caeeoa?oueny ?iiinaeaeoeaiei, aea e?ooecia eiai ooieoe??
ciaioo?oueny aei 30-45 iA/pC. I?e aea/aii? ?NA ia iniia? ?A, ooai?aieo
?iaeeae- aai o?ioe?aiao-?iiaie oa IA, niinoa??aa?oueny iia??oaiiy ?o
iao?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aaea /a?ac 2-3 oeaei? c iiiaioo i?eaiooaaiiy
iaia?aie. Aacoiiaii, a eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo ci?io aaniethoiiai
cia/aiiy aaee/eie aeaeo?iaeiiai iioaioe?aeo ne?ae ei?aeooaaoe
eae?a?oaaiiyi aeaeo?iaeo ia?aae aei??thaaiiyie.

Iiaeeeaino? iaia?ai ia iniia? ?A ae?oaiai oeio iieacaii ia i?eeeaae? ?A,
ooai?aieo o?ioe?aiaoieie eiiieaenaie Oeeieo, Ia?eo??th oa Iaeaae?th c
IA. Oae? aeaeo?iaee i?aeoe/ii ia aeathoue a?aeaoe ia ?iie Zn2+ , Hg2+ oa
SCN- i?e ?o ?icae?euei?e i?enooiino? a ?ic/ei?. A?aeaoe ia
iaoaeieiiieaeni? ai?iie (Zn(NCS)42-, Hg(SCN)42-, Pd(SCN)42-)
i?iyaey?oueny c e?ooeciith, aeecueeith aei oai?aoe/ii? aeey
aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a. *an aeeooy oaeeo aeaeo?iae?a aeiaoee. I?e ?o
iiia?aaeiueiio aeii/oaaii? a ?ic/ei? iioaioe?aeaecia/oaaiiai ?iio
naeaeoeai?noue aeaeo?iae?a i?iyaey?oueny ia iaioa 4 i?nyoe?a c /ano
i?eaiooaaiiy iaia?aie.

Eiao?oe??ioe naeaeoeaiino? (Kij) noai?aieo ?NA aecia/aee iaoiaeii, ui
aaco?oueny ia aei??thaaii? a.?.n. ?ic/ei?a, a yeeo eiioeaio?aoe?y
noi?iii?o ?ii?a caeeoa?oueny noaeith, a aecia/oaaiiai — ci?iiith (iaoiae
ci?oaieo ?ic/ei?a). Ia i?eeeaae? oei?ao(VII)-naeaeoeaieo aeaeo?iae?a
i?iaeaiiino?iaaii a?aeiio caeaaei?noue i?ae ?iiiei iai?iii oa aia?a??th
a?ae?aoaoe?? ?ii?a. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aaee/eie ia?aiao?o a?ae?aoaoe??
ai?ii?a (Ga?ae?.) ?o caaaaeath/ee aieea c?inoa?.Oae, a?aeiia?aei?
cia/aiiy Kij aeecuee? aei 10-4 aeey ai?ii?a SO4 2-, HPO4 2-; 10-3 aeey
B4O7 2-, SO3 2-, CrO4 2-, HCO3-, CH3COO-; 10-2 aeey Cl-, Br-, ClO3-,
NO3-. Aeey ai?ii?a ?c cia/aiiyi Ga?ae?.>-270 eAeae/iieue (I-, SCN-,
ReO4-) cia/aiiy Kij >0,1. Aeaiee aeaeo?iae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee ? ye
?iaeao(VII)-naeaeoeaiee, ine?eueee KClO4-/II4-= 1. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao
oeyoii aeii/oaaiiy iaia?ai aaea?oueny ci?ieoe ?o naeaeoeai?noue. Oaeee
oeyo iiaea aooe ia?niaeoeaiei aeey aecia/aiiy aenieiaaeaioieo iaoae?a,
aeey yeeo aeei?enoaaiy ?NA a i?eioeei? ? iaaoaeoeaiei (s<20 iA/pC). Oeyoii ia?aaaaeaiiy ?o a iaoaeieiiieaeni? ai?iie (TlCl4-, BiI4-, InBr4-) aaea?oueny i?i?i?coaaoe aaee/eio ca?yaeo ?iio. Ine?eueee aia?a?y a?ae?aoaoe?? oaeeo iaoaeieiiieaenieo ai?ii?a cia/ii ieae/a a?ae aia?a?? a?ae?aoaoe?? "i?inoeo" ai?ii?a, aeyaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe iia? ?NA oeyoii aeii/oaaiiy noai?aieo o a?aeiia?aeiiio ?ic/ei?. Oea oei a?eueo aaaeeeai, ui aeey noai?aiiy ?NA iaiao?aeii aeo?aoeoe aeinoaoiuei aaeeeo e?euee?noue aa?aiee?a, nia?aa?o?noue yeeo ? aenieith. Io?eiai? iaie aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui aeei?enoaiiy ?A ca o/anoth iniiaieo aa?aiee?a ye aeaeo?iaeiaeoeaieo ?a/iaei aeey ?NA ia? ia?niaeoeao ? iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaii aeey oe?ieiai eiea aeaiaio?a. ?III? ANIOe?AOE AEAIAIO?A C AAOA?IOeEEE?*IEIE ACIOAI?UOTH*EIE INIIAIEIE AA?AIEEAIE ssE AACIA? ?A*IAEIE AeEss OIOIIAO?E*IIAI AIAE?CO OA ?IIIIAO??? No/aniee noai ?icaeoeo aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? ia aeicaiey? iaeiicia/ii noi?ioethaaoe e?eoa??? aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai ?aaaaioo aeey aecia/aiiy eiie?aoiiai aeaiaioo. C aea/aiiai iaie eiea aaoa?ioeeee?/ieo acioai?uoth/eo iniiaieo aa?aiee?a (anueiai -50 ?aaaaio?a ??cieo eean?a) e?aueie aeyaeeenue iie?iaoeiia? aa?aieee. I?ioa /enei IA, i?eaeaoieo aeey aecia/aiiy ??cieo aeaiaio?a, aeyaeeinue ??ciei. Oae, aeey aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a, ui ooai?ththoue aaeiaai?aei? aai o?ioe?aiaoi? eiiieaene aeniei? no?eeino? (Tl(III), Pd(II), Cu(I), Hg(II)), i?eaeaoieie aeyaeeenue a?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeaieo aa?aiee?a, oi/a aoaeoeai?noue ?o ? ??ciith. A oie aea /an aeey aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy Eiaaeueoo, Iethiaoio, A?aaiooio e?euee?noue i?eaeaoieo aa?aiee?a iaiaaeo?oueny 2-3 ?aaaaioaie. I?iiiio?oueny aeai?eoi i?aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai aa?aieea aeey aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy, ui a?aoiao? aaaeeea?o? o?i?ei-aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaie. Noiaeee aeai?eoi aeei?enoaii ? aeey aeai?o ?A ye aeaeo?iaeiaeoeaii? ?a/iaeie aeey ?NA. Iiaoaeiaaii ?yaee c?inoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy IA aeey aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a.A ?iaio? i?eaiaeyoueny oaeiae aaaeeea?o? o?i?ei-aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee noai?aieo ?NA ia ?iie ClO4-, IO4-, ReO4-, Zn(NCS)42-, Pd(SCN)42-, Hg(SCN)42-. Ie?aii ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy naeaeoeaiino? iaoiae?a, ui aacothoueny ia ?aaeoe?yo ooai?aiiy, inaaeaeaiiy oa aeno?aeoe?? ?A aeaiaio?a c IA. Iieacaii, ui, ia aeeaey/enue ia iaeiaeiaee iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy ?A, naeaeoeai?noue aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a ca aeiiiiiaith IA iiaea aooe aeoaea aenieith. A oe?eiio naeaeoeai?noue aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a aacoiiaii aeua, i?ae aacaeno?aeoe?eieo. Ia?aaaaith inoaii?o, e??i i?inoioe ? aeni?aniino?, ? iiaeeea?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co a i?enooiino? aaeeeeo e?eueeinoae i?o?ao- ? oei?ao(VII)-?ii?a, ye? cae/aeii caaaaeathoue i?e aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiio aecia/aii?. I?iiiiothoueny niiniae i?aeaeuaiiy naeaeoeaiino? iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a ca aeiiiiiaith IA, na?aae yeeo aaaeeea?oeie ?:i?aea?? iioeiaeueiiai ?aaaaioo, i?aea?? ? ?aaoethaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aoeeaeie?aaiaeo, aeno?aeoe?y c eeneiai aai eoaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, aeno?aeoe?y c aiaeii-i?aai?/iiai na?aaeiaeua, iiia?aaeiy aeno?aeoe?y aeaiaioo aac aa?aieea, inaaeaeaiiy caaaaeath/eo aiae?co ?ii?a ia eieaeoi??, ci?ia nooiaith ieeneaiiy aeaiaio?a, ?aaeno?aeoe?y, aeei?enoaiiy ianeoth/eo cania?a. sse i?eeeaae, o oaae.8 i?eaaaeaia naeaeoeai?noue aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy oae?th(III) o aeaeyae? aaeiaai?aeieo eiiieaen?a aa?aieeii E? oa aeayeeo aeaiaio?a o aeaeyae? o?ioe?aiaoieo eiiieaen?a iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie aa?aieeaie. Oaaeeoey 8 Oaeoi?e naeaeoeaiino? aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a IA Noi?ii-i?e ?ii[TlCl4] (E?)[TlBr4] (E?)[TlI4] (E?)[Cu(SCN)2 (EO)[Pd(SCN)3] (Ae?E)[Co(NCS)4] (6I??E)2Ga(III)10020010010001000-In(III)500200101000800-Hg(II)5MM100220* Co(II)100010001000100001000Cd(II)20010M200006000100Fe(II)500505050001000 200Al(III)1000100050010000100001000Zn(II)100010001000300002000MCr(III)10 001000100040000100001000Cu(II)800100M-100050*Sn(II)1000100M100--Pb(II)10 00150M3000050010Mn(II)10001000100050000300007000Sb(III)50MM1000--Ni(II)1 00010001000500001000050000Fe(III)50010M2000100020*Ag(I)50MM1001015*Bi(II I)500500M10002008Au(III)MMM3*5*10** - a i?enooiino? ianeoth/eo ?a/iaei I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaeo iiaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo iaoiaeee oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy Ag(I), Bi(III), Pb(II), Mo(VI), W(VI), aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy Ag(I), Cu(I), Zn(II), Co(II), Pd(II), Pt(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), Ga(III), In(III), Tl(III), Fe(III), Re(VII), W(VI) oa ?iiiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy ClO4-, IO4-, ReO4-, Zn(NCS)42-, Pd(SCN)42-, Hg(SCN)42-. Aeniea /ooeea?noue ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee aecia/aiiy Ag, Bi, Ga, In, Tl, Pb, Re, W aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe eiio?ieue ca ai?noii aeaieo iaoae?a o i?e?iia’?eoao iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a. Ii?aeiaiiy aeniei? naeaeoeaiino? oa /ooeeaino? iaoiaeee aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Tl, Zn aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o aeey aiae?co neeaaeieo iaoa??ae?a (nieaae, aiaee, iia?o?y, e?ia) aac iiia?aaeiueiai ?icae?eaiiy /e eiioeaio?oaaiiy eiiiiiaio?a (oaae. 9, 10). A?eueo?noue ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee aiae?co iioae?eiaaii a ia??iaee/i?e e?oa?aoo??. I?ea?iaeuei?noue iaoiaeee i?aeoaa?aeaeaia 6 aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie oa 5 iaoaioaie ia aeiaoiaee, a ?o i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue - ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe aiae?oe/ieo eaai?aoi??e oa iaa/aeueiee i?ioean. Oaaeeoey 9 Ia?ae?e ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aeaiaio?a a ??cieo ia'?eoao ca aeiiiiiaith IA ?A10-4Ia caaaaeathoue aecia/aiith (e?aoi? e?eueeino?)I?iaiae?ciaai? ia'?eoe[AgI2](IA*)*6,1500-2000: Zn, Mn, Al, Ni, Co, Cr, 50-200: Fe, Cd, Gaiai?ai?ia?aeieeia? ie?aee Ag-P-S[Ag(SCN)2](Ae?E)10,01000-10000: Al, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Cd, Pbiai?ai?ia?aeieeia? ie?aee Ag-Ge(In)-S(Se)[BiI4](OI)*6,0500-1000:Al, Ni, Co, Zn, Cr, Fe, Ga, Ge;5-10:Cu, In, Tl, Zri?e?iia'?eoe iiiie?enoae?a Cs-Bi-Cl(Br)[BiBr4](Ae?E)8,7500-1000: Zn, Mn, Ni, Co, Fe, Ge, Cr, 10-500: Cu, Sn, Tliai?ai?ia?aeieeia? ie?aee Bi-P(Ge)-S(Se)[Co(NCS)4] (6IAe?E)221,01000-10000:Mn, Al, Cd, Cr, Ni,Fe,Ga,V;10-50:Ag, Hg, Cui?eaeaa? nieaae[Cu(SCN)2](EO)9,81000-10000:In, Pb, Zn, Cd, Al, Cr, Ni, Co, Mn; 200-Bi;100-Ag, Hg;3-Aunoae?, i?eaeaa? nieaae, i?e?iaei? aiaee, e?ia[ClO4](AA*)9,1Caaaaeathoue eeoa IO4-, ReO4-iiaeaeuei? ?ic/eie, nie?[FeCl4](EO)12,0Caaaaeathoue eeoa Ga, In, Aui?aei? nieaae,i?e?iaei? aiaee[GaCl4](AeOAO?)8,91000:Mn,Co,500:Cr,Cd;300: Zn,Al;50:Sb;10:Sn, In;5:Cu,Tliai?ai?ia?aeieeia? ie?aee Cd-Ga-S(Se)[InBr4](E*O)4,61000:Al, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, Tl; 200:Ag, Zn,Pb, Zr, U;5-Gaiai?ai?ia?aeieeia? ie?aee In-Cu-S(Se)[PbBr3](EO)7,5500-1000:Zn, Mn, Al, Ni, Co, Fe, Sb, Cu, Ge, Th;10-50:Sn, Ga, Tl;1-5:Ag, Cd, Sb, Aui?aeii-i?eaeaa? nieaae, iai?ai?ia?aeieeia? ie?aee Tl-Pb-Cl(Br, I), Sn-Pb-P-S, i?e?iaei? aiaee, e?ia[Pd(SCN)3](Ae?E)14,21000-10000:Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr;800:In;500:Bi, Pb;10:Agiiaeaeuei? ?ic/eie[Pd(SCN)3](4O?E)8,3300:Ru;200:Rh;100:Ir;5:Pta?aei?aoeueiaai? ?ic/eie ae?iaieoeoaa [Pt(SCN)3](Ae?E)12,710:Pdiiaeaeuei? noi?o?[ReO4](AO)10,550:W;20:Moiiaeaeuei? noi?o?, nieaae4[TlCl4](E?)8,51000-10000:Al, Mn, Ni, Co, Pb, Sn; 500:Cr, Cu, Fe, In;200:Cd, Ge;40:Ag, Bi, Sb;3:Hgi?e?iia'?eoe iiiie?enoae?a Tl-Cd(Pb)-Cl(Br,I),Tl-Ga(Ge, Sn,Zn)-S(Se), iia?o?y ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue [Zn(NSC)4](NA*)218,210000-50000: Cd, Ni, Al, Cr, Mn,100-500:Cu,Ag,Hg,Fe,Tl, Sn, 50: Pb,In, 10:Au, Bi,1:Coi?eaeaa? nieaae*aacaeno?aeoe?ei? iaoiaeeee Oaaeeoey 10 ?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy ai?noo iaoae?a o noaiaea?oieo c?aceao nieaa?a Iiiaieeaoo?iee iiia? ? ia?ea c?aceoAoanoiaaiee ai?no iaoaeo, %Ciaeaeaii iaoaeo, %SrI 445o0,119 Cu; 0,02 Zn0,121 Cu; 0,021 Zn0,025; 0,031I 446o0,158 Cu; 0,051 Zn0.156 Cu; 0,050 Zn0,035; 0,031N 10,016 Cu0,0160.028N 29a0,066 Cu0.0660,031I 1498o0.006 Zn0,00650,042II0.023 Co0.0230.039EN 1610,56 Pb0.5470.030I 254o0.285 Fe0,2920,021I 8210,076 Fe0,0760,034I 8230,22 Fe0,2160,051I 8250.72 Fe0,7120,061 AENIIAEE 1. Iaa?oioiaaia ia?niaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy a aiae?oe/i?e o?i?? iiaeo i?aai?/ieo ?aaaaio?a - iniiaieo iie?iaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a (IA). Iaoiaee aiae?co aacothoueny ia ?o caeaoiino? ooai?thaaoe c ai?iiieie aoeeaeieiiieaenaie iaoae?a ?iii? anioe?aoe (?A). Aia?oa io?eiaii iiiaae 200 ?A ??cieo aeaiaio?a (Ag, Bi, Co, Cu, Cl, Ga, Hg, In, Mo, Pb, Pd, Pt, Re, Tl, W, Zn) c iie?iaoeiiaeie aa?aieeaie, ye? ? aoaeoeaieie aiae?oe/ieie oi?iaie aeey oioiiao?e/iiai aiae?co oa ?iiiiao???. 2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui IA iiaeooue ia?aaoaaoe a ?ic/ei?, caeaaeii a?ae ?I, o o?ueio oi?iao - ?iii?e (R+), i?ioiiiaai?e (RH2+) oa a?ae?ie?ciaai?e (oeio inaaaeiiniiae ROH). Ia iniia? aeaieo aeaeo?iiii? oa II?-niaeo?ineii?? i?iaiae?ciaaii iiaeeea? iaoai?cie i?ioie?oe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a iieaeoeao aa?aiee?a. Aeyaeaii ei?aeyoe?th i?ae eiinoaioaie i?ioie?co aa?aiee?a oa aeaeo?iiiaeiii?i?noth cai?niee?a o ?o iieaeoeao. Ca nai?ie niaeo?ioioiiao?e/ieie oa i?ioie?oe/ieie aeanoeainoyie IA ia?aaaaeathoue iaea?eueo iioe?ai? a aiae?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe? o?eoai?eiaoaiia? oa ?iaeai?iia? aa?aieee. 3. Aea/aii aieea ??cieo oaeoi??a ia ooai?aiiy oa inaaeaeaiiy ?A. Ioe?iaii ?o a?ae?ioiai?noue. Anoaiiaeaii, ui cia/aiiy aeiaooeo ?ic/eiiino? ?A aecia/athoueny ia?aiao?ii a?ae?aoaoe?? ai?ii?a, ui aoiaeyoue aei ?o neeaaeo. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue ?aaoethaaiiy ?ic/eiiino? ?A aaaaeaiiyi aeniethaa/?a, a oaeiae aiaei?ic/eiieo i?aai?/ieo ?ic/eiiee?a. I?aeoe/ii ?aae?ciaaii aeaa aa??aioe aacaeno?aeoe?eiiai oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy i?e?ie?eueeinoae Ag, Bi, Hg, Mo, Pb, Pt, W oa Zn, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue aaaaeaiiy ia?iiiaaiieo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei aeey noaa?e?caoe?? ?A c ianooiiei ?o oioiiao?oaaiiyi aai a?aeae?eaiiy inaaeo ?A oeaio?eooaoaaiiyi c ianooiiei ?ic/eiaiiyi o iiey?iiio ?ic/eiieeo ? oioiiao?oaaiiyi. 4. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a eiiieaeniooai?aiiy oa aeno?aeoe?? ?A anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? oiiae ? aecia/ai? e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeano aeno?aeoe??, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe aeno?aeoe?eio caeaoi?noue ??cieo ?A. Aeno?aeoe?y ?A iiaea a?aeaoaaoenue ca aeaiia iaoai?ciaie: -a?ae?aoii-nieueaaoiei (iaoaee, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo ?A o aeaeyae? eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iaiane/aieo aoeeaeieiiieaen?a) -nieueaaoiei (ia?aaaaeii iaoaee, caeaoi? ooai?thaaoe eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iane/ai? iaeiica?yaei? ai?iii? aoeeaeieiiieaene) 5. Aeno?aeoe?y ?A c aiaeii-i?aai?/iiai na?aaeiaeua aeicaieeea nooo?ai ?icoe?eoe iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo aa?aiee?a o aiae?oe/i?e o?i??. Iiia?aaei? aaaaeaiiy aei neeaaeo aiaeii? oace aeiii?ii-aeoeaieo ?ic/eiiee?a, ui ci?oothoueny c aiaeith, i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ?inoo aeno?aeoe?? ?A (neia?aaoe/iee aoaeo) ? iaeii/aniiai ciaioaiiy aeeo/aiiy i?inoi? nie? aa?aieea (aioaaii?noe/iee aoaeo). Anoaiiaeaii, ui a iniia? aeyaeaieo aoaeo?a eaaeeoue niaoeeo?/ia nieueaaoaoe?y aeiii?ii-aeoeaieie ?ic/eiieeaie neeaaeiaeo ?A. 6. Anoaiiaeaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaei?ic/eiieo ?A ye aeaeo?iaeiaeoeaieo ?a/iaei ieanoeo?eiaaieo ?iiinaeaeoeaieo aeaeo?iae?a. Iioaioe?aeaecia/oaaieie ?iiaie oaeeo aeaeo?iae?a caeaoi? aenooiaoe ye i?ino? (ClO4-, IO4-, ReO4-, SCN-), oae ? eiiieaeni? (Zn(NCS)42-, Pd(SCN)42-, Hg(SCN)42-) ai?iie. A?aeaoe iaia?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae i?e?iaee oa eiioeaio?aoe?? ?A, ?ic/eiieea, ieanoeo?eaoi?a. 7. Ia?aaaaith aeei?enoaiiy iie?iaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a a aiae?c? ? aeniea /ooeea?noue aecia/aiiy aaaaoueio iaoae?a (cia/aiiy aeey ??cieo nenoai noaiiaeoue (0,4-2,4)105). E??i oiai, IA ? ?aaaaioaie iaio caaaeueii? ae??, i?ae a?aeii? iniiai? aa?aieee, aiane?aeie /iai caaacia/o?oueny aeniea naeaeoeai?noue aecia/aiiy. Aea?? ?A ye iioeiaeueii? aiae?oe/ii? oi?ie aeey oioiiao??? oa ?iiiiao??? cae?eniaii ca aeiiiiiaith aeai?eoi?a, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue iinooiiao ioe?ieo aaaeeea?oeo o?i?ei-aiae?oe/ieo ia?aiao??a nenoaie. 8. ?ic?iaeaii iia? oioiiao?e/i?, aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/i? oa ?iiiiao?e/i? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy Ag, Bi, Co, Cu, Cl, Fe, Ga, Hg, In, Mo, Pb, Pd, Pt, Re, Tl, W, Zn o aeniei/enoeo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??aeao, nieaaao, iiaeaeueieo noi?oao, a?ieia?/ieo ia’?eoao oa ia’?eoao iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Iaoiaeeee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieith /ooeea?noth, naeaeoeai?noth, i?inoioith oa aeni?ani?noth aecia/aiiy. ?o iiaecia, i?ea?iaeuei?noue oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue i?aeoaa?aeaeai? 6 aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie, 5 iaoaioaie ia aeiaoiaee, a oaeiae aeoaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ?iaioo o?i?ei-aiae?oe/ieo eaai?aoi??e oa iaa/aeueiee i?ioean. Iioae?eiaai? i?aoe?, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??: 1. Eeo I.I., Aacaeue ss.?., Ceeaiue E.E. Oioiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea naeioea o?iiie?acieii I // AEo?i. aiaeeo. oeiee. - 1986. - O.41, N6. -N.1061-1066. 2. Eeo I.I., Aacaeue ss.?., Oa?oeee A.TH., O?iyiia E.A., Aethiaa?a I.TH. Eiiieaeniia?aciaaiea e yeno?aeoeey Tl(III) n aaeiaaieae-eiiaie e oeeaieiiauie e?aneoaeyie // AEo?i. aiaeeo. oeiee. - 1988. - O.43, N9. -N.1636-1642. 3. Eeo I.I., Aacaeue ss.?. Eiiieaeniia?aciaaiea e yeno?aeoeey iaeeaaeey n aaeiaaieae (?iaeaieae)eiiaie e eaoeiiiui ?iciaui 2N // Oe?. oei. aeo?i. -1989. -O.55, N6. -N.629-632. 4. Eeo I.I., Aacaeue ss.?. Oneiaey inaaeaeaiey e oioiiao?e/aneiai ii?aaeaeaiey naeioea n eiaeeae-eiiaie e oeeaieiiauie e?aneoaeyie // AEo?i. aiaeeo. oeiee. -1989. -O.44, N2. -N.313-319. 5. Eeo I.I., Aacaeue ss.?. Aeeyiea i?e?iaeu e eiioeaio?aoeee iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiuo aauanoa ia eiiieaeniia?aciaaiea a nenoaia naeiaoe-eiaeeae-iniiaiue e?aneoaeue // AEo?i. aiaeeo. oeiee.-1989. -O.43, N3. -N.413-421. 6. Aacaeue ss.?., Eeo I.I., Oaa/oe E.E. Yeno?aeoeey e oioiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea aaeeey a aeaea oei?eaeiuo eiiieaenia noe?eeiaui e?aneoaeai // AEo?i.aiaeeo.oeiee. -1991. -O.46, N8. -N.1520-1524. 7. Eeo I.I., Aacaeue ss.?. Ninoiyiea oeeaieiiauo e?aneoaeae a ?anoai?ao // Ecaanoey aocia. Oeiey e oei.oaoi. -1992. -O.35, N1. -N.80-84. 8. Eeo I.I., Aacaeue ss.?., Nooaeaiye ss.E. Yeno?aeoeey ?iaeaieaeiuo eiiieaenia yeaiaioia iniiaiuie e?aneoaeyie ec aiaeii-i?aaie/aneeo n?aae. Yeno?aeoeeiiii-oioiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea oeeiea // AEo?i.aiaeeo.oeiee. -1992. -O.47, N7. -N.1233-1240. 9. Aacaeue ss.?., Eeo I.I. Eiiieaeniia?aciaaiea aeniooa n eiaeeae-eiiaie e iniiaiuie e?aneoaeyie a i?enoonoaee IAA // Oe?.oei.aeo?i. -1992. -O.58, N9. -N.754-757. 10. Aacaeue ss.?., Nooaeaiye ss.E., Eeo I.I. Yeno?aeoeey e oioiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea iaeeaaeey a i?enoonoaee ?iaeaieae-eiiia e noe?eeiaiai e?aneoaey // Ecaanoey aocia. Oeiey e oei.oaoi. -1992. -O.35, N7. -N.25-30. 11. Eeo I.I., Nooaeaiye ss.E., Aacaeue ss.?. Yeno?aeoeeiiii-oioiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea iaaee a aiaeao // Oeiey e oaoiieiaey aiaeu. -1992. -O.14, N8. -N.579-582. 12. Eeo I.I., Nooaeaiye ss.E., Aacaeue ss.?. Yeno?aeoeeiiii-oioiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea iaaee a noaeyo e ieeaeaauo nieaaao // Caaiaene.eaai?. -1992. -O.58, N12. -N.9-11. 13. Aacaeue ss.?., Nooaeaiye ss.E., Eeo I.I. Ninoiyiea oeeaieiiauo e?aneoaeae ia iniiaa 1,3,3-o?eiaoee-3I-eiaeieey a aiaeiuo e aiaeii-i?aaie/aneeo n?aaeao // AEo?i. aiaeeo. oeiee.-1993. -O.48, N4. -N.631-643. 14. Eeo I.I., Nooaeaiye ss.E., Aacaeue ss.?. Yeno?aeoeeiiii-oioiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea oeeiea a nieaaao ia ieeaeaaie iniiaa // Caaiaene. eaai?. -1993. -O.59, N9. -N.12-14. 15. Aacaeue ss.?., Eooie? E.I., Ei?aeiaa A.I., Nooaeaiye ss.E., Oieia/aa A.A. Yeno?aeoeey ?iaeaieaeiuo eiiieaenia yeaiaioia iniiaiuie e?aneoaeyie ec aiaeii-i?aaie/aneeo n?aae. Yeno?aeoeeiiii-oioiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea eiaaeueoa // AEo?i. aiaeeo. oeiee. -1994. -O.49, N7. -N.686-690. 16. Aacaeue ss.?., Nooaeaiye ss.E., Eooie? E.I., Ai?iie/ I.A. Yeno?aeoeeiiii-oioiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea eiaaeueoa a ieeaeaauo nieaaao // Caaiaene. eaai?. -1994. -O.60, N10. -N.12-14. 17. Aacaeue ss.?., Nooaeaiye ss.E., Eeo I.I. Yeno?aeoeey ?iaeaieaeiuo eiiieaenia oeeiea oeeaieiiauie e?aneoaeyie ec aiaeii-i?aaie/aneeo n?aae // Iaoe. a?niee Oaeai?iae. oi-oo. Na??y o?i?y. -1996. -N1.- N.21-29. 18. Aacaeue ss.?., Ei?iio AE.I., Nooaeaiye ss.?. Iniaeeaino? aeno?aeoe?? ?iiieo anioe?ao?a ?ai?th c iniiaieie oe?ai?iiaeie aa?aieeaie noi?oaie i?aai?/ieo ?ic/eiiee?a // Oe?. o?i. aeo?i. -1996.- O.62, N1. -N.50-55. 19. I?eyi I.I., Ei?iio AE.I., Nai?aae I.I., Aacaeue ss.?., Nooaeaiye ss.?., Eoi N.A., Nieiiii A.I. Neioac oa aeanoeaino? niieoe a nenoai? Pb-Sb-O, eaaiaaieo aieueo?aiii // Iaoe.a?niee Oaeai?iae.oi-oo. Na??y o?i?y. -1997. -N2. -N.32-33 20. Iaeeaaeei ?.I., Aacaeue ss.?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ieanoeo?eiaaieo iaia?aiieo aeaeo?iae?a aeey aecia/aiiy ia?oei?ao-?ii?a // Iaoe. a?niee Oaeai?iae. oi-oo. Na??y o?i?y. -1997. -N2. -N.21-23. 21. Aacaeue ss.?., Nooaeaiye ss.E., Oieia/aa A.A. Yeno?aeoeey ?iaeaieaeiuo eiiieaenia yea-iaioia iniiaiuie e?aneoaeyie ec aiaeii-i?aaie/aneeo n?aae. Yeno?aeoeeiiii-oioiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea iaeeaaeey // AEo?i. aiaeeo. oeiee. -1997. -O.52, N6. -N.603-608. 22. Ai?iie/ I.A., Aacaeue ss.?., Aaeia E.N., Nooaeaiye ss.?. Aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/ia aecia/aiiy a?niooo c a?ii?ae-?iiaie ? oe?ai?iiaei aa?aieeii // Oe?. o?i. aeo?i. -1997. -O.63, N4. -N.33-36. 23. Aacaeue ss.?. Aeei?enoaiiy ?aaeoe?? inaaeaeaiiy oa aeno?aeoe?? ?iiiiai anioe?aoo oei?aoo c iniiaieie iie?iaoeiiaeie aa?aieeaie a aiae?c? // Iaoe. a?niee Oaeai?iae. oi-oo. Na??y o?i?y. -1997. -N2. -N.12-16. 24. Aacaeue ss.?. I?i aeno?aeoe?eio caeaoi?noue iie?iaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a // Iaoe. a?niee Oaeai?iae. oi-oo. Na??y o?i?y. -1997. -N2. -N.3-5. 25. Aacaeue ss.?. Aiae?oe/ia canoinoaaiiy ?aaeoe?e oei?aoo (VII) c iniiaieie iie?iaoeiiaeie aa?aieeaie // Oe?. o?i. aeo?i. -1998. -O.64, N1. -N.62-66. 26. Aacaeue ss.?. Eiiieaeniooai?aiiy iie?aaeaio c o?ioe?aiao-?iiaie oa iniiaieie iie?iaoeiiaeie aa?aieeaie o i?enooiino? iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei // Oe?. o?i. aeo?i. -1998. -O.64, N2. -N.122-126. 27. Aacaeue ss.?. Aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/ia aecia/aiiy n??aea c o?ioe?aiaoii ? ano?aoeieneiii FF // Oe?. o?i. aeo?i. -1998. -O.64, N9. -N.58-61. 28. Aacaeue ss.?. I?i aioaaii?noe/iee aoaeo i?e aeno?aeoe?? ?iaeai?aeieo nieae iie?iaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a c aiaeii-i?aai?/iiai na?aaeiaeua // Iaoe. a?niee Oaeai?iae. oi-oo. Na??y o?i?y. -1998. -N3. -N.126-128. 29. Aacaeue ss.?. Oiiae inaaeaeaiiy oa oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy a?aaiooio iie?iaoeiiaei aa?aieeii // Iaoe. a?niee Oaeai?iae. oi-oo. Na??y o?i?y. -1998. -N3. -N.129-131. 30. Bazel Ya.R. Extraction of thiocyanate complexes of silver with polymethyne dyes from water-organic media // Chimia. -1998. -V.52, N7-8. -P.341. 31. Kish P.P., Studenyak Ya.I., Bazel Ya.R., Voronich O.G., Kushnir L.N. Extraction of ion-associates of basic dyes from water-organic mediums // Proc. International conference ISECOS'92. -Voronezh. -1992. -V.1. -P.226-228. 32. Balog J.S., Bazel Ya.R., Kormosh Z.A., Maga I.M., Studenyak Ya.I., Voronich O.G. Determination of the heavy metal conten in the environmental objects using the basic dyes // Proc. International ecological congres. -Voronezh. -1996. -P.30-31. 33. A.n. 1401372 NNN?, IEE G01 N31/22, 21/27. Niinia ii?aaeaeaiey oaeeey / I.I.Eeo, ss.?.Aacaeue, A.TH.Oa?oeee, I.E.Oaooea, E.A.O?iyiia (NNN?). -?4120000/31-26; Cayaeaii 10.06.86; Iioae.07.06.88; Athe. ?21. -2n. 34. A.n.1498211 NNN?. Ninoaa iaia?aiu eiiinaeaeoeaiiai yeaeo?iaea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oinoi?a(V) / I.I.Eeo, E.N.Aaeia, ss.?.Aacaeue, TH.C.Iaii, A.A.Aiae?oo, E.A.Iu?ii (NNN?). -N4164213; Cayaeaii 18.12.86. 35. A.n.1629842 NNN?, IEE G 01 N 31/22. Niinia yeno?aeoeeiiii-oioiiao?e/aneiai ii?aaeaeaiey ?aiey / I.I.Eeo, ss.?.Aacaeue, TH.C.Iaii(NNN?).-N4625441/26; Cayaeaii 26.12.88; Iioae.23.02.91, Athe.N7.-8n. 36. A.n.1668940 NNN?, IEE G01 N31/22. Niinia ii?aaeaeaiey iaeeaaeey / ss.?.Aacaeue, I.I.Eeo, ss.E.Nooaeaiye, E.E.Ceiii?y (NNN?). -N4497698/26; Cayaeaii 25.10.88; Iioae.07.08.91, Athe.N29. -4 n. 37. A.n. 1686930 NNN?, IEE G 01 N 31/22. Niinia ii?aaeaeaiey oeeiea / I.I.Eeo, ss.?.Aacaeue, ss.E.Nooaeaiye, E.E.Ceiii?y (NNN?). -N4736930/26; Cayaeaii 08.09.89. 38. A.n.1797024 NNN?, IEE G01 N 21/78. Niinia ii?aaeaeaiey iaaee / ss.?.Aacaeue, ss.E.Nooaeaiye, I.I.Aaie/, I.I.Eeo, E.E.Ceiii?y, N.I.Oo?yieoea (NNN?).- N 4936299/04; Cayaeaii 14.05.91; Iioae.23.02.93, Athe.N7. -8 n. 39. Iaoaio 20973A Oe?a?ia, IEE G 01 N31/20. Niin?a aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy eiaaeueoo / ss.?.Aacaeue, E.I.Eooi??, ss.?.Nooaeaiye, ?.?.Ceiii?y, A.I.Oieia/aa (Oe?a?ia); Cayae.09.11.93; Iioae.07.10.97. 40. Iaoaio 18922 A Oe?a?ia, IEE G 01 N 31/22. Niin?a aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy a?niooo / ss.?.Aacaeue, I.A.Ai?iie/, ?.?.Ceiii?y, ss.?.Nooaeaiye (Oe?a?ia); Cayae.09.11.93; Iioae.25.12.97, Athe.N6. -8 n. 41. Iaoaio 24774 A Oe?a?ia, IEE G 01 N 31/22. Niin?a aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aieueo?aio / ss.?.Aacaeue, AE.I.Ei?iio, ss.?.Nooaeaiye, ?.?.Ceiii?y (Oe?a?ia) ;Cayae. 21.07.97; Iioae.06.10.98 42. Iaoaio Oe?a?ia, IEE G 01 N 31/22. Niin?a aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy n??aea / ss.?.Aacaeue (Oe?a?ia); Cayae. 11.11.97; ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo IAeOeIA a?ae 12.10.98. 43. Iaoaio Oe?a?ia, IEE G 01 N 31/22. Niin?a oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy iie?aaeaio / ss.?.Aacaeue (Oe?a?ia); Cayae. 11.11.97; ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo IAeOeIA a?ae 21.10.98. Aacaeue ss.?. ?iii? anioe?aoe aoeeaeieiiieaen?a iaoae?a c iie?iaoeiiaeie aa?aieeaie o oioiiao?e/iiio aiae?c? oa ?iiiiao???. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?i?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 02.00.02 - aiae?oe/ia o?i?y. - Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii nenoaiaoe/iiio aea/aiith iioe/ieo oa aeaeo?io?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae iniiaieo iie?iaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a oa ?o ?iiieo anioe?ao?a c aoeeaeieiiieaenaie iaoae?a, aeei?enoaiith aea/aieo ?A ye aoaeoeaieo aiae?oe/ieo oi?i aeey oioiiao?e/iiai, aeno?aeoe?eii- oioiiao?e/iiai aiae?co oa ?iiiiao???. Aeine?aeaeaii iia? eieuei?ia? oaa?aeioaci? ?aaeoe?? ca o/anoth iie?iaoeiiaeo aa?aiee?a o aiaei?e oac?. C'yniaaii o?i?ci aeno?aeoe?? ?iiieo anioe?ao?a c aiaeii-i?aai?/iiai na?aaeiaeua ye aoaeoeaiee niin?a iie?auaiiy o?i?ei-aiae?oe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeno?aeoe?eii-oioiiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a aiae?co. Anoaiiaeaii iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?iiieo anioe?ao?a ye aeaeo?iaeiaeoeaieo ?a/iaei ieanoeo?eiaaieo ?iiinaeaeoeaieo aeaeo?iae?a. ?ic?iaeaii iia? aoaeoeai? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy i?e?ie?eueeinoae Ag, Bi, Co, Cu, Cl, Fe, Ga, Hg, In, Mo, Pb, Pd, Pt, Re, Tl, W, Zn a nieaaao, aeniei/enoeo, iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??aeao, a?ieia?/ieo ia'?eoao oa ia'?eoao iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Eeth/ia? neiaa: oioiiao?e/iee aiae?c, aeno?aeoe?y, ?iiiiao??y, ?iii? anioe?aoe, aoeeaeieiiieaene iaoae?a, iie?iaoeiia? aa?aieee. Aacaeue ss.?. Eiiiua annioeeaou aoeeaeieiiieaenia iaoaeeia n iieeiaoeiiauie e?aneoaeyie a oioiiao?e/aneii aiaeeca e eiiiiao?ee. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 02.00.02 - aiaeeoe/aneay oeiey. - Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia nenoaiaoe/aneiio eco/aieth iioe/aneeo e yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo naienoa iniiaiuo iieeiaoeiiauo e?aneoaeae e eo eiiiuo annioeeaoia n aoeeaeieiiieaenaie iaoaeeia, eniieueciaaieth EA a ea/anoaa yooaeoeaiuo aiaeeoe/aneeo oi?i aeey oioiiao?e/aneiai, yeno?aeoeeiiii-oioiiao?e/aneiai aiaeeca e eiiiiao?ee. Ii?aaeaeaiu aaaeiaeoea niaeo?ioioiiao?e/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iieeiaoeiiauo e?aneoaeae iauae oi?ioeu [R1-(CH)n=R2]+Cl-, aaea R1, R2 - i?iecaiaeiua eiaeieey, aaicoeacieey, oeiieeiey, a n=1-3 e iaia?oaeaii ei??aeyoeeth iaaeaeo yeaeo?iiiaeiii?iinoueth caianoeoaeae a eo iieaeoeao e i?ioieeoe/aneeie naienoaaie. Ia iniiaaiee eaaioiaioeie/aneeo ?an/aoia ?ani?aaeaeaiey ca?yaea a iieaeoeao e?aneoaeae, a oaeaea aeaiiuo yeaeo?iiiie e II?-niaeo?ineiiee i?aaeeaaaaony iaoaieci i?ioieeoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee a iieaeoeao e?aneoaeae. Aaaeiui aeey aiaeeoe/aneie i?aeoeee yaeyaony auyaeaiiue yooaeo iiaeaaeaiey yeno?aeoeee nieae e?aneoaeae i?e aaaaeaiee niaoeaathueony n aiaeie aeiii?ii-aeoeaiuo ?anoai?eoaeae. Enneaaeiaaii iiaua oeaaoiua oaa?aeioaciua ?aaeoeee i?e o/anoee iieeiaoeiiauo e?aneoaeae a aiaeiie oaca. Eco/aii aeeyiea ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia ia ia?aciaaiea e inaaeaeaiea EA, ioeaiaia eo aeae?ioiaiinoue. ?ann/eoaiu aaee/eiu i?iecaaaeaiey ?anoai?eiinoe EA, cia/aiey eioi?uo ei??aee?othony n ia?aiao?ii aeae?aoaoeee aieiiia, aoiaeyueo a eo ninoaa. ?aaoee?iaaoue ?anoai?eiinoue EA iiaeii aaaaeaieai aunaeeaaoaeae, a oaeaea aiaei?anoai?eiuo i?aaie/aneeo ?anoai?eoaeae. Oioiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea yeaiaioia, aace?othuaany ia eo inaaeaeaiee a aeaea EA e iineaaeothuai ?anoai?aiee a iiey?iii ?anoai?eoaea, yaeyaony auniei/oanoaeoaeueiui (cia/aiey iiey?iiai eiyooeoeeaioa iiaeiuaiey aeey ?acee/iuo nenoai aeinoeaatho (0,8-2,6)105). Noaaeeece?iaaoue ie?aneo EA a aiaeiie oaca iiaeii aaaaeaieai iaeiiiaaiiuo IAA n eiioeaio?aoeeae, aeeceie e eo e?eoe/aneie eiioeaio?aoeee ieoeaeeiia?aciaaiey. I?aaeeaaaaony iaoaieci aeaenoaey IAA ?acee/iie i?e?iaeu; eo/oeie noaaeeece?othueie naienoaaie iaeaaeatho II-10, II-7, ea?aieneiaoeeoeaeetheica. Auyniai oeieci yeno?aeoeee eiiiuo annioeeaoia ec aiaeiie e aiaeii-i?aaie/aneeo n?aae. EA iaoaeeia n iieeiaoeiiauie e?aneoaeyie iiaoo yeno?aae?iaaoueny ca nieueaaoiui e aeae?aoii-nieueaaoiui iaoaieciaie. Iniaaiii iuooeiue aiaeeoe/aneee yooaeo iaaethaeaaony i?e yeno?aeoeee ec aiaeii-i?aaie/aneeo n?aae a aeaea EA n iieeiaoeiiauie e?aneoaeyie oeioeeaiaoiuo eiiieaenia iaoaeeia, a oaeaea iaeioi?uo ieneaieiiia. Eiioeaio?aoeey aeiii?ii-aeoeaiiai ?anoai?eoaey, i?e eioi?ie aeinoeaaaony iaeneiaeueiay yeno?aeoeey, ei??aee?oaony ni cia/aieyie aeoeaiinoe aiaeu a ?anoai?eoaea aeey aeiioaoe/anee ?acaaaeaiiiai ?anoai?a, a oaeaea aeiii?iinoueth ?anoai?eoaey. Iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey eiiiuo annioeeaoia eae yeaeo?iaeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa ieanoeoeoee?iaaiiuo eiiinaeaeoeaiuo yeaeo?iaeia. Iioaioeeaeii?aaeaeythueie eiiaie oaeeo yeaeo?iaeia iiaoo aunooiaoue eae i?inoua (ClO4-, IO4-, ReO4-, SCN-), oae e eiiieaeniua (Zn(NCS)42-, Pd(SCN)42-, Hg(SCN)42-) aieiiu. Ii?aaeaeaiu aaaeiaeoea oeieei-aiaeeoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee nicaeaiiuo ENY. Ia i?eia?a oei?ao(VII)-naeaeoeaiiai yeaeo?iaea i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii ecaanoioth caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo eiiiui iaiaiii e yia?aeae aeae?aoaoeee eiiia. Iieacaii, /oi iieeiaoeiiaua e?aneoaee yaeythony ?aaaaioaie iaiaa iauaai aeaenoaey, /ai ecaanoiua a aiaeeoe/aneie i?aeoeea o?eoaieeiaoaiiaua e ?iaeaieiiaua e?aneoaee. Yoi iaania/eaaao aunieoth naeaeoeaiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey e iicaieyao i?iaiaeeoue yeno?aeoeeiiiia ?acaeaeaiea e ii?aaeaeaiea yeaiaioia n aeeceeie oeie/aneeie naienoaaie (Ni e Co; Pd e Pt; Cu, Ag, Bi, Pb; Ga, In, Tl). Iieo/aiu iiaua aiaeeoe/aneea oi?iu n iiauie aiaeeoe/aneeie aiciiaeiinoyie, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo ?ac?aaioaiu yooaeoeaiua iaoiaeeee ii?aaeaeaiey iee?ieiee/anoa Ag, Bi, Co, Cu, Cl, Fe, Ga, Hg, In, Mo, Pb, Pd, Pt, Re, Tl, W, Zn a nieaaao, auniei/enouo, iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo iaoa?eaeao, aeieiae/aneeo iauaeoao e iauaeoao ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Eeth/aaua neiaa: oioiiao?e/aneee aiaeec, yeno?aeoeey, eiiiiao?ey, eiiiua annioeeaou, aoeeaeieiiieaenu iaoaeeia, iieeiaoeiiaua e?aneoaee. Bazel Ya.R. Ion associates of acidocomplexes of metals with polymethyne dyes in the photometric analysis and ionometric. - Manuscript. Thesis for a doctors degree by speciality 02.00.02 - analytical chemistry.- Taras Shevchenko Kyiv State University, Kyiv, 1999. The present thesis is devoted the study of optical and electrochemical properties of the main polymethyne dyes and their ion associates as effective analytical form for the photometric, extraction-photometric analysis and ionometric. The new coloured solod phase reactions in the presence of the main dyes in the water phase have been investigated. The extraction chemism of ion associates from water- organic media is an effective way of improving the chemico-analytical characteristics of the extraction-photometric methods of analysis. The possibility of the use of ion associates as electrode-active substances of plastified ionoselective electrodes has been displayed. The new effective methods for determining Ag, Bi, Co, Cu, Cl, Fe, Ga, Hg, In, Mo, Pb, Pd, Pt, Re, Tl, W, Zn in alloys, highly pure, semiconductions materials, biological objects and objects in the environment have been worked out Key words: photometric analysis, extraction, ionometric, ion associates, acidocomplexes metals, polymethyne dyes.

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