IAOe?IIAEUeIA TH?EAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

?iai? ss?INEAAA IOAe?IAI

Ieaoioithe Iaoae?y A?eai??aia.

OAeE 351:34

?INOEOOO I?ACEAeAIONOAA A OE?A?I?: EIINOEOOOe?EII-I?AAIAEE ANIAEO.

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.02. — eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? iaiaaeaeiaioo
Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe i?ioani? Ieaeiee I?ia
?iiai?aia, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? iaiaaeaeiaioo
Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia?
Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: *eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie,
aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iiai??eei A?eoi? Oaaei?iae/,
Caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy
?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie;
eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio*aeee Iao?i Oaaei?iae/, Caa?aeoaa/
A?aeae?eo Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Ee?anueeee ?inoeooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa i?e
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo aeenoeeie?i.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “11”aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 10.00 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.086.03 a
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e th?eaee/i?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai
(310024, i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea, 77).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai (310024,
i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea, 77).

Aooi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “8” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.?.AEeaaee?i

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaeiei c aieiaieo iai?yi?a noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie ye aeaiie?aoe/ii?, nioe?aeueii?, i?aaiai? aea?aeaae ? aecia/aiiy
?ie? ? i?noey o iaoai?ci? cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee aeaae aea?aeaae
— I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie. ?inoeooo i?aceaeaioa a Oe?a?i? ia? aooe ia eeoa
aa?aioii eiinoeoooe?eieo iniia oa aea?aeaaiiai eaaeo, a ? noaoe
?ioaa?aoe?eiei ?inoeoooii o nenoai? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa
caaacia/eoe ?o aca?iiae?th c i?aaiaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

Oaiaeaioe?y noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaa — eieeoi?o ?anioae?e N?N?, ca?oa?aeiee
aeina?ae na?ae/aoue i?i caaaeueia c?inoaiiy eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo
?inoeooo?a, noai?aiiy ??cieo ?o aa??aio?a, ui ii?iaeaeo?oueny
?noi?e/ieie oa iaoe?iiaeueieie oiiaaie ?icaeoeo eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio, a
oaeiae i?aeoeeith aeeth/aoe o iaoai?ci cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
aeaao aea?aeaae (i?aceaeaioa), yeee ae ?ai?acaiooaaa aea?aeaao.
Aiaeii/an aeey Oe?a?ie ? oa?aeoa?ieie ?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe??
?anioae?eainueei? oi?ie i?aae?iiy, iayai?noue ?aeae ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi?eei-iie?oe/iee aeoioe? na?aaeeie O?O
— ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy oa ?nioaaiiy ?noi?e/ii? i?aeoeee
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiai cae??ieaiiy oeueiai ?inoeoooo.

?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa, noi?iiaaiee a?aeiia?aeii aei Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie oa /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa noaa a?aeia?aaeaiiyi noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei, ui neeaeeny a Oe?a?i? o 1992 — 1996 ?ieao oa a?aooaaa
i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiae?aieo ?inoeooo?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee. ??ci? oi/ee ci?o, ui ?niothoue o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? oa
iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? iaaeiei ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i?,
cana?ae/othoue i?i iaaio aeeneon?ei?noue ii?i ?inoeoooo. Na?aae
oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a iii?oi? ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei oa?aeoa?enoeee
oeueiai ?inoeoooo ? ianaiia?aae eiai i?noey o eiinoeoooe?eii aecia/aiiio
iaoai?ci? cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa
ooieoe?iiaeueii-eiiiaoaioe?ei?e iai?aaeaiino?. O ca’yceo ?c oeei
iie?oeeaie ia a?aeeeaea?oueny iiaeeea?noue neanoaaiiy ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeai iaiao?aeiino? e aeioe?eueiino?
?nioaaiiy ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? Oe?a?ie,
yeee ? i?aaiaith iniiaith ooieoe?iioaaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, coiiaeee
iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaeniiai oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai
?inoeoooo oa ii??aiyiiy eiai ii?i c i?aeoeeith ?o ?aae?caoe??,
a?aoiaoth/e aeina?ae ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, oa ae?iaeaiiy i?iiiceoe?e c
oaeineiiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo i?aaiaeo ii?i o oiae? ?aoi?i ia no/aniiio
aoai?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeae? i?aai?caoe?? ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i?
ye iai?ai?aceaeaionueei? ?anioae?ee cae?enithaaeiny oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy
eiiieaeniiai aiae?co. C iaeiiai aieo, /a?ac ?icaeyae iaoa??aeueieo ?
i?ioeanoaeueieo ii?i ?inoeoooo oa aieeao ia oeae ?inoeooo iie?oe/ii?,
aeiiii?/ii? ? nioe?aeueii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae iniaeno?niiai
oaeoi?a. C ?ioiai aieo — “aienaiino?” oeueiai ?inoeoooo o
eiinoeoooe?eii aecia/aiee aea?aeaaiee eaae a Oe?a?i? oa ii??aiyiiy ii?i
?inoeoooo c ?o i?aeoe/iith ?aae?caoe??th. Oea aeicaieeei aaoi?o
iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeeea?noue aaaaeaiiy aei eiinoeoooe?eieo ii?i aeayeeo
iieiaeaiue, caeaoieo, ia eiai aeoieo, aieeiooe ia ?icaeoie ?
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aceaeaionueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?i?. O ca’yceo ?c oeei noa?
i/aaeaeiei ?ieue ? cia/aiiy oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiai ?inoeoooo aeey Oe?a?ie ye i?aaiai?,
nioe?aeueii? ? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? eaoaae?e
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? iaiaaeaeiaioo Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie oa i.2 eiiieaeniiai
iaoeiaiai i?iaeoo OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie “Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy
oa i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy”.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iinoaiiaoe? oa ae??oaii?
iniiaieo oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo i?iaeai ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a
Oe?a?i? oa aecia/aii? iniiaieo iai?yie?a ? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue ? ae?thoue o ca’yceo c
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye i?aaio aea?aeaae o iaoai?ci?
cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee a Oe?a?i?.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai aaoi? noaaeoue ianooii? caaaeaiiy.

· Aecia/eoe iiiyooy ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i? ye ?inoeoooo
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, a?aeiaaeoaaaoe eiai a?ae iiiyooy ?inoeoooo
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye ?inoeoooo (?inoeoooe??) aea?aeaae. ?iciaaeoaaoe
iiiyooy “?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa”, “?inoeooo I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie” oa
“i?aaiaee noaoon I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie”; aeyaeoe iniiai? ?ene ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa.

· Aea/eoe ?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe??, ?aea? ? i?aeoeeo ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa (o ?aeo?n? aeaae aea?aeaae) a Oe?a?i? (Ee?anueea ?onue,
aeiaa Aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae, ia??iae 1917-1920 ?ie?a, ia?aaoaaiiy
Oe?a?inueei? ?N? o neeaae? N?N?). I?iaiae?coaaoe iieiaeaiiy iniiaieo
caeii?a oa ?ioeo aeo?a oeeo ia??iae?a ? oaeoe/iiai cae?eniaiiy
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ye? ae?iaeee iniiai? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae
i?aceaeaioo?e a Oe?a?i?. Aeine?aeeoe oiiae ? i?aenoaae cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iinoa I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?inueei? ?N? oa ia?aiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o 1991
?ioe?.

· ?icaeyiooe iai?yie ? aecia/eoe aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue oeyo?a ?icaeoeo
?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i? o 1992 — 1996 ?ieao.

· Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aeaiaioe (a?oie ii?i) ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a
Oe?a?i?, ye? ?ice?eaathoue ci?no ?inoeoooo. Iaa?oiooaaoe iieiaeaiiy i?i
oa, ui iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ye? ? aecia/aeueiei aeaiaioii
eiai i?aaiaiai noaoono, ? a?aeiia?aeii, ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa,
aecia/athoue i?noea aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae o eiinoeoooe?eii
aecia/aiiio iaoai?ci? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee a Oe?a?i?.

· Cae?enieoe aiae?c /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui ?aaoeth? iiaiiaaaeaiiy
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o noa?? aioo??oiueiai aeeooy ? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
aea?aeaae.

· Aianoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ci?ie /eiieo ? i?eeiyooy iecee iiaeo
eiinoeoooe?eieo ii?i. Cai?iiiioaaoe caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, ye? iathoue
i?noeoe ii?ie, ui oii?yaeeiaoaaoeiooue noni?euei? a?aeiineie, o/anieeii
yeeo aenooia? I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie.

· Iaa?oiooaaoe aeioe?euei?noue iaae?eaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ooieoe??th
ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ica?aeiinoae o ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
oiaoi ooieoe??th a?a?o?aaeo.

Nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie. Ioae?eaoe??, ye? ?niothoue c aeaii?
i?iaeaie iiaeia ?iciiae?eeoe ia aea? iniiai? a?oie. Ia?oa ?icaeyaea?
?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa ye ?inoeooo aea?aeaae, ?inoeooo aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee, oiaoi /a?ac eiai oaeoe/ia i?noea o iaoai?ci? cae?eniaiiy
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Oeae i?aeo?ae caeaa?eueoiai aeei?enoiao?oueny
iie?oieiaaie. ?io? ioae?eaoe??, oi/a ? i?enay/ai? ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa naia ye ?inoeoooo aaeoc? i?aaa, aea ia ioiieththoue on???
noeoiiino? eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo ii?i ?inoeoooo.

Uiaei ?noi?e/iiai aniaeoo ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa, a Oe?a?i? iaia?
oe?e?nii? ?iaioe c oeueiai ieoaiiy. Aiae?co ?noi?eei-i?aaiaiai aniaeoo
?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i? i?enay/ai? ioae?eaoe?? a?o/eciyieo
iaoeiaoe?a: A.?.Aieiaaoaiea, I.A.Oiiaiea, A.I. Oaiiaaea oa ca?oa?aeieo
iaoeiaoe?a A.?aaiena, Ethaiie?a I. Aeia?a, I.I. Iacoiye. Aeey aea/aiiy
?noi?e/ii? i?aeoeee oa o?aaeeoe?e oeueiai ?inoeoooo a Oe?a?i? aaeeea
cia/aiiy iathoue ?iaioe a?aeiieo oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a (?noi?ee?a,
th?eno?a, iie?oee?a) — Ae.A.Aioiiiae/a, A.E.Aeiie/aiea,
I.N.A?ooaanueeiai, N.N.Aei?no?yinueeiai, I.Ae.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei,
I.I.O?enothea, N.I.Oaeoo?ia, a oaeiae a/aieo-?noi?ee?a oa th?eno?a
?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo — O.?.Eae?ie/aaa, I.E.Eiieeaiei, I.E.Eiieeaiei,
A.Ae.E?oiieoeueeiai, ?.I.Eociaoeiaa, A.I.?oi’yioeaaa, A.N.I?iinyia,
A.A.Oea?oeiaa oa ?i.

O 1990 ?ioe? o ca’yceo ?c cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi iinoa I?aceaeaioa N?N?
c’yaeythoueny ioae?eaoe?? ?.E. Eoci?oeiaaoa oa A.I.Eaca??aa, ui
i?enay/ai? aiae?co eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiai noaoono I?aceaeaioa N?N? oa
ia?aaeoiiaai cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oe??? iinaaee.

C na?aaeeie 1991 ?ieo c i?iaieioaiiyi Aeo?a iacaeaaeiino? o eieeoi?o
nithcieo ?anioae?eao N?N? ? aaaaeaiiyi iino?a i?aceaeaioa, ?o aiae?cii ?
aea/aiiyi o aea?aeaaao NIAe ii/eiathoue caeiaoeny a?o/eciyi? iaoeiaoe?.
Ui noino?oueny Oe?a?ie, oi ia?o? ioae?eaoe?? c oeueiai i?eaiaeo aoee
c?iaeai?, ii/eiath/e c 1994 ?ieo, oaeeie iaoeiaoeyie, ye O.A.Ao?/ae,
A.A.Eiiae/eeia, E.O.E?eaaiei, A.?.Iaoethe, A.?.Iaeueie/aiei,
I.?.Ieaeiee, I.?.I?c?o, A.O.Iiai??eei, A.ss.Oaoe?e, ?.A.Oei/aiei,
TH.I.Oiaeeea, A.I.Oaiiaae, E.I.THcueeia oa ?i. Ca ia??iae c 1991 ii 1993
??e ioae?eaoe??, ui i?enay/ai? ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i?,
iiaeai? aieiaiei /eiii ye oace aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo.

Aea/aiiy ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i? aoei a iaiiaiei aac aea/aiiy
aiaeia?/iiai ?inoeoooo o aea?aeaaao aeecueeiai ? aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey.
O oeueiio ieai? aeine?aeaeoaaeeny oai?aoe/i? iai?aoethaaiiy ca?oa?aeieo
iaoeiaoe?a: A.A.Aoaiai/oea, A.I.Aa?eia, ?.E.Aeooei, ?.O.?aaiiaa,
I.?.Eiaaeaiei, I.A.E?ooiaieiaa, A.A.I?oeia, E.I.Ieoiueeiaa,
A.E.?aoaoieeiaa, N.A.?yaiaa, I.A.Naoa?iaa, TH.?.Neo?aoiaa,
TH.A.Oeoiie?iaa, A.?.*e?e?ia.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ci?no, oa?aeoa?enoeea oa
ia?niaeoeae oaeineiiaeaiiy aeaiaio?a ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i?.
I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noeoii?noue noni?eueieo a?aeiinei,
o?aaoeueiaaieo ii?iaie ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa, o/anieeii yeeo aenooia?
I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? no/ani? iaoiaee i?ciaiiy ye
caaaeueiiiaoeia?, oae ? niaoe?aeuei?: ae?aeaeoeei-iaoa??ae?noe/iee,
nenoaiiee, nioe?ieia?/iee, ?noi?e/iee, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee,
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee, i?iaiicoaaiiy oa ?i. Ia i?aenoaa?
aeei?enoaiiy ?noi?e/iiai iaoiaeo aecia/aii iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo
?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa, iieacaii eiai ?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe?? ?
ia?aaeoiiae aaaaeaiiy o 1991 ?ioe?. Ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee iaoiae
aeicaieea cae?enieoe aiae?c eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ye?
?aaoeththoue a?aeiineie ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa ia eeoa Oe?a?ie, a ?
aea?aeaa — /eai?a NIAe oa ?ioeo ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaa, ye? iathoue iaai?
o?aaeeoe?? oeueiai ?inoeoooo.

Ii?iaoeaio oa oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue: 1) ii?ie
Eiinoeoooe?? oa caeii?a Oe?a?ie, iinoaiia Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie,
oeac?a ? ?icii?yaeaeaiue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, aeo?a Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie, ??oaiiy Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie, ye? ?aaoeththoue
a?aeiineie, ui iia’ycai? c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye
i?aaio aea?aeaaii? aeaaee; 2) ii?ie eiinoeoooe?eieo aeo?a (eiinoeoooe?e
? caeii?a) 1917 — 1920 ?ie?a ye o?, ui anooieee a ae?th, oae ? i?iaeo?a;
3) eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaia? ii?ie ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa aea?aeaa —
o/anieoeue NIAe oa aea?aeaa, o yeeo oeae ?inoeooo ia? o?eaaeo ?noi??th
(O?aioe?y, NOA, ?oae?y, I?ia//eia); 4) aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaeueii? oai???
oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, eiinoeoooe?eiiai ? aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
i?aaa oaeeo a/aieo ye A.?.Eiceia, A.A.Eiiae/eeia, A.I.Eiothe,
I.Ae.E?oi/ai, A.O.Iaeauaiei, A.A.I?oei, I.A.Iyeiaeoeueei?,
A.I.Ia/eoaeei, A.O.Iiai??eei, TH.I.Oiaeeea, I.O.*aeee, A.I.Oaiiaae oa
?i.; 5) aeine?aeaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa
o?aioeocueeeo iaoeiaoe?a O?e?iia A?aeaia, Ie?a’? Aethaiaey, Oa?ey
Aeaaao, O?ain? Oiaai oa ?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aia?oa eiiieaenii
aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa ye ?inoeooo eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa, ui yaey? niaith nenoaio, yea neeaaea?oueny ?c noeoiiino? ii?i, a
oaeiae ye ?inoeooo, ui ? neeaaeiaith iaoai?cio cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee; ye ?inoeooo eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, ui ia? iaai? ?noi?e/i?
o?aaeeoe?? a Oe?a?i? oa ? aeioe?eueiei na?aae ?ioeo ?inoeooo?a
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa; ye ?inoeooo, ui ? i?aaiaith iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy
? ooieoe?iioaaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye i?aaio aea?aeaae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

· oia?oa a th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? i?aaenoaaeai? o nenoaiaoeciaaiiio
aeaeyae? eiioeaioe?? ? iiaeyaee a?o/eciyieo a/aieo na?aaeeie O?O —
ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy ia ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa ? iiaeeeaino? eiai
anoaiiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?. Aiae?cothoueny i?aenoaae oa oiiae, ye? i?eaaee
aei iiyae oeueiai ?inoeoooo, a oaeiae i?iaiicothoueny oaiaeaioe??
?icaeoeo oeueiai ?inoeoooo;

· oia?oa ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa ?icaeyaea?oueny ye oe?e?nia nenoaia,
noeoii?noue aca?iicaeaaeieo ? aca?iiiaoiiaeaieo aeaiaio?a (a?oi ii?i),
ye? noaiiaeyoue ci?no ?inoeoooo;

· o aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue
anoaiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eieo ii?i, ye? a aecia/aee I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie
ye aea?aeaaiee i?aai, ui caaacia/o? ceaaiaeaeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, a oaeiae ?o aca?iiae?th c i?aaiaie i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy;

· aiinyoueny i?iiiceoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith aeaiaio?a ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i? — ii?yaeeo aeai??a, aa?aio?e i?aceaeaionueei?
ae?yeueiino?, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aeaae aea?aeaae, i?eieiaiith
iiaiiaaaeaiue;

· cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeaaeo?ieo ii?i
?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa uiaei iaaieo iiaiiaaaeaiue eiai
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiai noaoono oa th?eaee/ii aecia/aiiai iaoai?cio ?o
?aae?caoe??;

· oia?oa ?iciaaeiaaii iiiyooy “?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa ye ?inoeooo
aaeoc? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa”, “?inoeooo I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye
?inoeooo aea?aeaae”. Aeaii ?o aaoi?nueea oeoia/aiiy.

O ?acoeueoao? ?iaioe iaae oaiith aaoi? c?iaea ?yae ocaaaeueiaiue,
aeniiae?a oa i?iiiceoe?e, ye? a?aecia/athoueny iaaiith iiaeciith ?
aeathoue i?aenoaae noi?ioethaaoe oa aeianoe ia caoeno oae? iieiaeaiiy:

1. ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa neeaaea?oueny ?c noeoiiino?
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo ii?i, ui ?aaoeththoue a?aeiineie i?aai?caoe??,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, aecia/athoue
eiai i?noea na?aae i?aai?a aea?aeaae oa o iaoai?ci? cae?eniaiiy
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeiiii?aei? i?aaie i?e aeaa?
aea?aeaae.

2. ?inoeooo I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie — oea “oaeoe/ii iiaoaeiaaia a?aeiinii
a?aeie?aieaia i?aai?caoe?eii-ooieoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a” (i?aai
aea?aeaae) a oe?e?ni?e nenoai? aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
ae?yeuei?noue yei? ?aaoeth?oueny nioe?aeueieie, ianaiia?aae, i?aaiaeie
ii?iaie.

3. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiiyoue “?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa” oa “?inoeooo
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie” oeyoii aeae?eaiiy ?o ni?eueieo ? a?aei?iieo ?en.

4. ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa, noi?iiaaiee o 1991 ?ioe?, ia? a
Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? ?noi?e/i? ?aea? ? i?aeoeeo naiai ?nioaaiiy oa
a?aooaaa i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaa ?anioae?eainueeeo
aea?aeaa. Ii?ie ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a?aeiia?aeii aei i?iaeo?a
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie 1993-1996 ?ie?a ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi aioo??oiuei?
neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?.

5. Ci?no ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i? ye ?inoeoooo
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa ?ice?eaa?oueny /a?ac oa?aeoa?enoeeo eiai
aeaiaio?a — ii?yaeeo aeai??a, anooio ia iinaaeo, i?eieiaiiy
iiaiiaaaeaiue, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, cae?eniaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue o
a?aeiia?aeieo noa?ao aeeooy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

6. Aeniiaie i?i oa, ui naia /a?ac i?aeoeeo ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?inoeoooo
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie noa? iiaeeeaei aeyaeaiiy oeo noi??i ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa, ye? ia iiai?noth ?aaoeththoue noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ui
iia’ycai? c ae?yeuei?noth aeaae aea?aeaae

7. Aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie oa
Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie, i?ae I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie oa aeueie,
oeaio?aeueieie ? i?noeaaeie i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, i?ae
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie oa i?aaiaie noaeiai? aeaaee, iathoue ?aaoethaaoeny
Eiinoeoooe??th ? caeiiaie Oe?a?ie. Aeaeaiiy I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie oeac?a
o oe?e noa?? ia? nie?aoeny ia Eiinoeoooe?th Oe?a?ie ? ia noia?a/eoe
ii?iai a?aeiia?aeieo caeii?a.

8. Aeniiaie i?i iineeaiiy ?ie? ?inoeoooo eiio?aneaioaaiiy oeyoii
iaaeaiiy iiaeeeaino? aieia? o?yaeo /a?ac oeae ?inoeooo aieeaaoe ia
iaa?aiiy /eiiino? aeoaie aeaae aea?aeaae o iaaeao iiaiiaaaeaiue, ia?ae?e
yeeo eiinoeoooe?eii aecia/aiee.

9. I?iiiceoe?y noiniaii iaiao?aeiino? eiinoeoooe?eiiai iaae?eaiiy
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ooieoe??th ii ocaiaeaeaiith ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, oiaoi ooieoe??th a?a?o?aaeo, ui aeanoue ?i
iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaii ?aae?coaaoe nai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy.

10. I?iiiceoe?y uiaei caeiiiaeaa/iai o?aaoethaaiiy ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo
c iaoa??aeueieie oa ii?aeueieie aa?aio?yie i?aceaeaionueei? ae?yeueiino?
(a?ioiaa oo?eiaiiy, caaacia/aiiy o?ainii?oieie caniaaie, caoeno /ano? e
a?aeiino? aeaae aea?aeaae oa ?i.).

11. Aeniiaie, ui ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa cacia? iino?eieo ci?i i?ae
aieeaii aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??, iie?oe/ieo nee o noni?euenoa? oa yeinoae
iniae, yea ia?eia? iino i?aceaeaioa. Oeae ?inoeooo oaeiae nai aeoeaii
aieeaa? ia cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ia aeiiii?/iee, iie?oe/iee ?
nioe?aeueiee naeoi?e aea?aeaae.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa?
a oiio, ui aiinyoueny i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eieo
ii?i oa ii?i /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ye? ?aaoeththoue noni?euei?
a?aeiineie, iia’ycai? c? noaiiaeaiiyi ? ae?yeuei?noth I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae noai?aiiyi i?aaiaiai iiey aeey anoaiiaeaiiy ?
caaacia/aiiy aa?aio?e i?aceaeaionueei? ae?yeueiino?. Aeena?oaoe?y iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey ?ic?iaee eaeoe?eiiai eo?no oa aeeeaaeaiiy oaeeo
aeenoeeie?i, ye “Eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai Oe?a?ie”, “Aea?aeaaia aeaaea oa
i?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe aea?aeaaieo onoaiia”, “Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie
?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i?”.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa. Noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? iieiaeaiiy ?
iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe iaa?oioiaai? ia aac? naiino?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
iathoue iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Aaoi?ii i?iiiiothoueny oai?aoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa oa oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie o iaooe? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa c
ieoaiiy ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa. O

Ai?iaaoe?y io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aoea cae?eniaia o aenooiao ia
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?
iaiaaeaeiaioo oa eaoaae?e i?aaa oa i?aaioai?/iai i?ioeano OAAeO i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie; i?e i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo ? i?aeoe/ieo
caiyoue c iiaeoey “Aea?aeaaia aeaaea ? i?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe aea?aeaaieo
onoaiia”. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aoei ii?eethaeiaii ia ui??/ieo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai ia?niiaeo,
neooa/?a, ani??aio?a oa aeieoi?aio?a Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie 29 o?aaiy 1997 ?ieo “Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy” oa 28 o?aaiy 1998
?ieo “?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a Oe?a?i?: noai, i?iaeaie oa
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo”; ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?aae?caoe?y
i?eioeei?a i?aaiai? aea?aeaae o Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie” (Oe?a?inueea
Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 29 aa?aniy 1998 ?ieo).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoei aeeeaaeaii o 3-o
iaoeiaeo noaooyo o i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo oa 3-o oacao aeiiia?aeae
? iaoa??aeao iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? a?aeiia?aea? ci?noo iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie ?
ni?yiiaaia ia aeinyaiaiiy iaoe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, ui aeeth/athoue a?n?i i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e — onueiai 202 aeaea?ae (c ieo 78
ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a), aeiaeaoe?a o aeaeyae? noai ? oaaeeoeue ia 25
noi??ieao. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 179 noi??iie.

Ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ie?aneththoueny eiai ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao, aecia/a?oueny iaoa,
iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia, iieiaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, i?aeoe/ia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i?: ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee
aiae?c” i?enay/aiee oai?aoe/iei i?aeoiaeai aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy
?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa oe?a?inueeeie oa ca?oa?aeieie iaoeiaoeyie.
Aaoi?ii ?icaeyaeathoueny oaeiae oiiae ? i?aenoaae cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
oeueiai ?inoeoooo a Oe?a?i? oeyoii aeae?eaiiy iniiaieo
?noi?eei-oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae ? i?aaiai? i?aeoeee eiai ?nioaaiiy,
aiae?co?oueny neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i? ia iiiaio aaaaeaiiy iinoa i?aceaeaioa
oa aeine?aeaeothoueny aoaie iiooe?a iiaeae? ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa o
1992 — 1996 ?ieao.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa ?icaeyaea?oueny a/aieie
th?enoaie ? iie?oieiaaie o o?ueio iniiaieo aniaeoao: 1) ye noeoii?noue
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo ii?i; 2) ye oi?ia ? nooue iie?oe/ii?
i?aai?caoe??; 3) ye i?aai?caoe?eii-ooieoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a. I?e
oeueiio o oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaeao cono??/a?oueny e oa?i?i “?inoeooo
i?aceaeaioa”, i?ae yeei ?icoi??oueny ii?aeiaiiy i?aaiaeo ii?i oa
oaeoe/ii? ?ie? i?aceaeaioa. Inoaii?i /anii o iaooe? eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa c’yaeeeny ?ic?iaee, ye? iiaeathoue ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa ye
neeaaeiao i?aaiaiai noaoono i?aceaeaioa, aa?o/e aei oaaae oe?ieo
o?aeoiaeo i?aaiaiai noaoono.

Oaea iaiaeiicia/i?noue i?aeoiae?a aei iiiyooy ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa,
i?aaiaiai noaoono i?aceaeaioa, i?eaiaeeoue a Oe?a?i? aei i?aei?ie oeeo
iiiyoue, oiane?aeie /iai nooue ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa ye ?inoeoooo
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa ao?a/a? nai? cia/aiiy. Oiio aaoi?ii, ia i?aenoaa?
aiae?co oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie c ieoaiiy ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa,
aea?oueny ianooiia ?iciaaeoaaiiy ? aecia/aiiy iiiyoue.

I?ae ?inoeoooii i?aceaeaionoaa ye ?inoeoooii eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa,
iaiao?aeii ?icoi?oe noeoii?noue eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo ii?i, ui
?aaoeththoue iaeii??aei?, a?aeiinii a?aeie?aieai? noni?euei? a?aeiineie,
ci?noii yeeo ? ae?yeuei?noue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie. Oe? noni?euei?
a?aeiineie iathoue iie?oeei-i?aaiaee oa?aeoa?, iiaeooue iineoe ye
ia?eoaoiee oae ? noai?aeeiaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?, aiie a?aaoeueiaai?
eiinoeoooe?eiei, aaei?i?no?aoeaiei, e?ei?iaeueiei ? oeea?eueiei
i?aaii. Iaeiae naia eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai ia? aeii?ioth/ee aieea ia oe?
i?aaia?aeiineie, ui ? iio?aeiei a?ae ?o noa’?eoa (I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye
aeuiai i?aaio aea?aeaae) oa ?o ci?noo (aeaaei? a?aeiineie, ui iia’ycai?
c ae?yeuei?noth aeaae aea?aeaae o iaoai?ci? cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee).

I?ae ?inoeoooii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ?icoi??oueny i?aai aea?aeaae a
oe?e?ni?e nenoai? aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ae?yeuei?noue yeiai
?aaoeth?oueny ianaiia?aae ii?iaie ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa.

?noi?e/iee aiae?c ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i? iieaco?, ui oeae
?inoeooo ia caaaeaee aenooiaa naia o noeoiiino? th?eaee/ieo ii?i.
?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa i?iyaeyany ? a ?aeayo eiai noai?aiiy, iaa iaaio
?noi?e/io i?aeoeeo ?nioaaiiy ? i?aaiaiai cae??ieaiiy. Eiai iniiaith aoa
?inoeooo aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae (eiycy, aaoueiaia, i?aceaeaioa).
?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa, cai?iaaaeaeaiee a Oe?a?i? o 1991 ?ioe?, iaa ?
iaai? ?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe??, eiai aeieeiaiiy aoei ?acoeueoaoii,
ianaiia?aae, iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? o e?ioe? 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o
?ie?a OO noie?ooy oa ?aae?caoe??th i?eioeeio ?iciiae?eo aeaaee. Ii?ie
?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa 1992 — 1996 ?ie?a noaee a?aeia?aaeaiiyi ia eeoa
?noi?e/ieo o?aaeeoe?e, a e oaeoe/ieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, iia’ycaieo c
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi ?inoeoooo I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a aea?aeaa?.

Aei i?aenoaa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaeaaeaoue: 1) iayai?noue a Oe?a?i?
?noi?e/ieo o?aaeeoe?e ?anioae?eainueei? oi?ie i?aae?iiy (ia i?eeeaaeao
Eiyaei? aeiae, Aaoueiainueei? (Eicaoeueei?) aea?aeaae oa ia??iaeo
1917-1920 ?ie?a); 2) iayai?noue ?noi?e/ieo o?aaeeoe?e i?eioeeio iiae?eo
aeaaee (??ciiiai?oi?noue ?inoeooo?a aeaaee, ye? ia aeicaieyee
eiioeaio?oaaoe ?? a ?oeao iaei??? iniae, ?inoeoothaaiiy i?eioeeio
iiae?eo aeaaee o Eiinoeoooe?? Ieeeia I?eeea o 1710 ?ioe?); 3) ?nioaaiiy
a Oe?a?i? ?noi?e/ieo ?aeae uiaei ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa, ye? ciaeoee
nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?aoeyo A.Aiae?ocueeiai, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa oa
I.Einoiia?iaa; 4) a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ia?o?eieo aeieoiaioao ii/aoeo OO
noie?ooy noni?eueieo iano?i?a uiaei i?aai?caoe?? aeaaee a Oe?a?inuee?e
aea?aeaa? c iiaeeea?noth aeeth/aiiy aei ?? i?aai?a iinoa i?aceaeaioa; 5)
iaaeioe?euei?noue aeeiiaiiy i?aceaeaionueeeo ooieoe?e “eieaa?aeueiei”
aeaaith aea?aeaae — ca /an?a ia?aaoaaiiy Oe?a?inueei? ?N? o neeaae?
N?N?; 6) ?inoeoothaaiiy iinoa i?aceaeaioa N?N? o 1990 ?ioe?,
iani?iiiaei?noue ea??aieoeoaa N?N? coieieoe ?iciaae Nithco oa noai?aiiy
a ?anioae?eao ?inoeooo?a aeaaee ia na?e ?icnoae; 7) i?iaieioaiiy a
Oe?a?inuee?e ?N? o eeii? 1990 ?ieo i?eioeeio ?iciiae?eo aeaaee, yeee
ciaeoia nai? i?aeoe/ia ao?eaiiy a ooieoe?iiaeueiiio ?o ?iciaaeoaaii?
oeyoii noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo i?aai?a aeey ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?e eiaeii?
c a?eie aeaaee. Aeeiiaa/a aeaaea aeey aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? ?? ooieoe?e
? aoea i?aeneeaia anaia?iaeii ia?aiei I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie; 8)
noa’?eoeai? i?aenoaae cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa ? ia?aiiy
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie aoee iia’ycai? ?c c?oeiaiiyi ?ioa?an?a ie?aieo
iie?oe/ieo nee, ye? aoee iani?iiiaei? ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a io?eiaoe
a?eueo?noue o ia?eaiaio?, aea iaee ?aaeueio iiaeeea?noue aieeaaoe ia
eiie?aoio ethaeeio — i?aceaeaioa oa i/?eoaaiiyie ia?aoai?aiue o
aea?aeaa? ia?iaeii a?ae iiai? iinaaee o i?e.

Oiiae, ca yeeo oeae ?inoeooo aoei cai?iaaaeaeaii aaoi? caiaeeoue aei: a)
?iciaae N?N?, ui iinoaaea ia?aae oi?aae?inueeith ae?oith Oe?a?ie
i?iaeaio iiooeo iiaeo oeyo?a ? iaoiae?a ea??aieoeoaa aea?aeaaith — ia?
oea aooe eiio?ieue c aieo anaia?iaeii ia?aiiai i?aceaeaioa /e
eieaa?aeueiiai i?aaio (ia?eaiaioo) ye ? ?ai?oa; a) oi?aae?inueea ae?oa
aoea caoe?eaaeaia a ethaeei?, yea cae?enith? ?? i?ecia/aiiy ?
ca?eueiaiiy; a) nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa iie?oe/i? ia?aoai?aiiy, yeeo
Oe?a?ia caciaaaea i?ney aeoiaeo c N?N?, aoee iaiaeiicia/ii ni?eeiyo? a
noni?euenoa?, oiio ?nioaaea iaiao?aei?noue o oae?e iinaae? a aea?aeaa?,
yea a ianea ca ieo a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue.

Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a ia?o? ?iee (1992 —
1996) iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaiia iniiaieie
aniaeoaie: 1) ae??th ii?i ?inoeoooo a?aeiia?aeii aei Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie 1978 ?ieo ?c ci?iaie ? aeiiiaiaiiyie oa Eiinoeoooe?eiiai
Aeiaiai?o a?ae 8 /a?aiy 1995 ?ieo; 2) ?ic?iaeith iiai? iiaeae? ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa o i?iaeoao Eiinoeoooe?? ca ia??iae 1992-1996 ?ie?a.
Aiae?coth/e ii?ie ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa, a?aeiia?aeii aei ae?th/eo
aeo?a, aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui ?nioaaa aeineoue nooo?aee i?yiee aieea
ia ci?no o?aaoeueiaaieo ieie i?aaia?aeiinei iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a
aea?aeaa?. Naia iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y noaea iniiaith ci?ie i?aaiaiai
noaoono I?aceaeaioa oa eiai eiie?aoecaoe?? o ii?iao, ye? aecia/athoue
eiiiaoaioe?th aeaae aea?aeaae. Aiaeii/an caaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y ?icaeoeo
?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa iieyaaea o iineeaii? eiai ?ie? o iaoai?ci?
cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ui ? ciaeoei nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie 1996 ?ieo. I?e ?icaeyae? ia??iaeo 1992 — 1996 ?ie?a
aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? oaeiae oi?ioaaiiy ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a
Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei o 1992-1994 ?ieao.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaee ci?no ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa” aaoi?ii aeae?eythoueny iniiai? eiai aeaiaioe, aeoiaey/e
c iaiao?aeiino? e aeioe?eueiino? a?oioaaiiy ii?i o iaaeao ?inoeoooo.
Aei aeaiaio?a ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa iaeaaeaoue ii?yaeie aeai??a,
anooio ia iinaaeo, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, i?eieiaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue,
eiiiaoaioe?y oa iiaiiaaaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio i?ae aeaiaioii ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa ?icoi??oueny a?oia ii?i, ye? ?aaoeththoue iaea?eueo
iaeii??aei? noni?euei? a?aeiineie uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ? ae?yeueiino?
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye i?aaio aea?aeaae. Aeaiaioe ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa neeaaeathoueny c ii?i /eiii? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie oa
?ioeo i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ye? aoee i?eeiyo? o ?icaeoie Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie
oa anoaiiaeai? aei i?eeiyooy Iniiaiiai Caeiio Oe?a?ie.

Aeae? aaoi?, oa?aeoa?ecoth/e aeae?eai? iei aeaiaioe ?inoeoooo,
ianaiia?aae caa?oa?oueny aei ii?yaeeo aeai??a aeaae Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae. Ii?yaeie aeai??a I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ui anoaiiaeaiee
caeiiii, i?eeiyoei o ?icaeoie iieiaeaiue Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, nooo?ai
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ii?i caeiio, ye? ?ai?oa ?aaoethaaee oeth a?oio
a?aeiinei: oea noino?oueny ii?yaeeo i?aai?caoe?? aeai??a ? aenoaaiiy
i?aoaiaeaio?a o eaiaeeaeaoe ia iino I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ?a?no?aoe??
eaiaeeaeao?a, a oaeiae naii? i?ioeaaeo?e i?iaaaeaiiy aeai??a.

Aeaoaeueii ?icaeyaeathoueny aaoi?ii eiinoeoooe?ei? i?aenoaae i?eieiaiiy
iiaiiaaaeaiue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ye? iiaeooue aooe aeeeeeai? ye
iiae?yie, ui ia caeaaeaoue a?ae aie? aeaae aea?aeaae (nia?oue, oai?iaa),
oae ? ae?yie naiiai I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie (a?aenoaaea, i?ioeaaeo?a
?ii?/iaioo). Ianoaiiy oeeo i?aenoaa, a?aeiia?aeii aei caeiiiaeaanoaa
Oe?a?ie, ? iniiaith aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeino?ieiaeo i?aceaeaionueeeo
aeai??a. A Oe?a?i? ia ia?aaeaa/ai? i?aenoaae, i?e ianoaii? yeeo
aeino?ieia? aeai?e ia i?iaiaeyoueny. Oi/a, ? i?i oea na?ae/eoue aeina?ae
?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??, ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy aeeiiaiiy i?aceaeaionueeeo
iiaiiaaaeaiue o aeiaaeeo eiai oai?iae, a?aeionoee oiui iiaeiii aooe
a?aaoeueiaaii. Caa?oath/enue aei ?icaeyaeo i?ioeaaeo?e ?ii?/iaioo, yea
iiaea aooe ioa?aeoa?eciaaia a Oe?a?i? ? ye i?aenoaaa aeino?ieiaiai
i?eieiaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue, ? ye aeae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aeaae aea?aeaae
(eiinoeoooe?eii?), aaoi? caoaaaeo?, ui a Oe?a?i? aiia ? aeineoue
neeaaeiith. E??i oiai, a?aenooi?noue /?oei ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoai?cio ??
canoinoaaiiy i?eaiaeyoue aei iaiiaeeeaino? ?? i?aeoe/iiai cae?eniaiiy.

Aeoe I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie (oeace ? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy), ?icaeyaeathoueny
aaoi?ii ye ie?aiee aeaiaio ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa, ine?eueee aiie
iathoue ieceo oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae. Aeoe aeaae aea?aeaae iiaeooue
aooe ye ii?iaoeaiiai, oae e ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, aeaeaaaoeny
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie iaeiiiniaiai /e i?aeeyaathoue ne??ieaiith
I?ai’??-i?i?no?ii ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiei i?i?no?ii (eiio?aneaioaaoeny). A
Oe?a?i? i?ioeaaeo?a eiio?aneaioaaiiy ia a?aeiia?aea? eeane/iiio
oyaeaiith oai??? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa i?i ia?, ine?eueee ia
ia?aaeaa/aia iiaeaeueoa aeiey aeoa o aeiaaeeo a?aeiiae a?ae eiai
i?aeienaiiy aieiaith o?yaeo /e i?i?no?ii. Oiio oey i?ioeaaeo?a iineoue
nei??oa oa?aeoa? a?coaaiiy aeo?a aeaae aea?aeaae, a ia ?o
eiio?aneaioaaiiy.

E??i cacia/aieo aeaiaio?a ?inoeoooo, aei ieo iaeaaeaoue oaeiae ii?ie i?i
ii?yaeie anooio aeaae aea?aeaae ia iino, aeaee ? i?ioeaaeo?e
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, no?ie i?aceaeaionueeeo iiaiiaaaeaiue, aa?aio?? oa
iaiaaeaiiy i?aceaeaionueei? ae?yeueiino?, oa?aeoa?enoeea yeeo aea?oueny
aaoi?ii.

Ianooiiei aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa ? iiaiiaaaeaiiy
I?aceaeaioa, ye? aeae?eythoueny aaoi?ii o ie?aiee i?ae?icae?e,
a?aoiaoth/e oa, ui naia oeae cae??ieaiee ii?iaoeaii aeaiaio, aecia/a?
i?aaiaee noaoon I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, i?noea aeaae aea?aeaae o nenoai?
iiae?eo aeaaee oa iaoai?ci? ?? cae?eniaiiy.A?aeiia?aeii aei /eiii?
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie eiiiaoaioe?y I?aceaeaioa aoea caoaeaia, iaeiae nai?
iiaiiaaaeaiiy cia/ii ?icoe?eeeny, ui aeaeyaea? iaaiei ia?aaeienii.
Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny a?aeiinei I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie c oaeeie
i?aaiaie aea?aeaae, ye aeu? oa i?noeaa? i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee.

Iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ioiieththoue: 1) aca?iia?aeiineie
I?aceaeaioa c ia?eaiaioii; 2) aca?iia?aeiineie I?aceaeaioa c i?aaiaie
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee; 3) aca?iia?aeiineie I?aceaeaioa c i?aaiaie noaeiai?
aeaaee.

O aca?iia?aeiineiao I?aceaeaioa c ia?eaiaioii aaoi?ii
?icaeyaeathoueny ii?ie, ye? aecia/athoue o/anoue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o
caeiiiaeaa/iio i?ioean? (i?aai caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae, i?iioeueaaoe?y
caeii?a, i?aai aaoi) oa i?ioeaaeo?e aca?iica’yceo i?ae aeaaith aea?aeaae
oa ia?eaiaioii (iineaiiy aei ia?eaiaioo, iiaeaiiy i?aceaeaioii
eaiaeeaeaoo?e aieiae o?yaeo /e ni?eueia i?ecia/aiiy iaaii? eaoaai???
aeueo /eiiaiee?a, ?icione ia?eaiaioo). I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie i?eeia?
o/anoue o aeaio iniiaieo aoaiao i?eeiyooy caeiio, oeyoii caeiiiaeaa/i?
?i?oe?aoeae oa i?iioeueaaoe?? caeii?a. I?aceaeaio ia? i?aai ye cae/aeii?
caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae, oae ? i?aai ?i?oe?thaaoe aianaiiy ci?i ?
aeiiiaiaiue aei Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie. A?i iiaea, aeoiaey/e c
iaiao?aeiino? nei??oiai a?aaoethaaiiy iaaieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei,
aecia/aoe i?iaeoe ye iaa?aeeeaaei?. Aeineoue aeeneooiaaiei o oai???
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa ? i?aai aaoi I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ui ? iio?aeiei
a?ae i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? eiai aeaaith aea?aeaae. Ia caia?a/oth/e oiai
oaeoo, ui I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie aeineoue /anoi canoiniao? oea i?aai, aaoi?
i?aee?aneth?, ui canoinoaaiiy aaoi aeineoue /anoi caeaaeeoue a?ae yeino?
caeii?a, ui i?eeiathoueny, a oaeiae a?aoiao? iiaeeeaino? ?o
?aae?caoe??. O oie aea /an iiaeieaiiy i?aceaeaionueeiai aaoi
eaae?o?eiaaiith a?eueo?noth a?ae neeaaeo ia?eaiaioo, yea ? oa?aeoa?iei
aeey NOA oa aea?aeaa NIAe, ia? ? nai? iiceoeai? noi?iie, ine?eueee
ia’?aeio? ia?eaiaio aeey i?eeiyooy caeii?a.

I?aai I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ?icioneaoe Aa?oiaio ?aaeo ? aeaui iaiaaeaiei,
ine?eueee o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo aeaaa aea?aeaae ?icionea? i?aai, yeee
oaeoe/ii ia i?aoeth?, oiio eiai ia iiaeia iacaaoe oaeei, ui nooo?ai
aieeaa? ia i?aai?caoe?th ae?yeueiino? ia?eaiaioo. Iineaiiy aeaae
aea?aeaae aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, aoaeo/e eiai iaia’yceii, o oie
aea /an ca/?iathoue ? noa?o i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee.

?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei i?ae I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie ? i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee, cae?enith?oueny caeaa?eueoiai aeoaie naiiai I?aceaeaioa. Naia o
oe?e noa?? I?aceaeaio iiaea aeoiaeeoe ca iaae? nai?o iiaiiaaaeaiue. Ii
a?aeiioaiith aei i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e ??ai?
aieeao aeaae aea?aeaae: ia aeu? oeaio?aeuei? oa i?noeaa? i?aaie
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee. I?aceaeaionueeee aieea ia ieo iieyaa? o i?aaiaiio
?aaoethaaii? ?o ae?yeueiino?, eaae?iaeo iiaiiaaaeaiiyo oa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee oa ?o iinaaeiaeo in?a
ia?aae I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie.

Uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy noae?a I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie
iaae?ey?oueny iiaiiaaaeaiiyie: ii oi?ioaaiith ia?aae? noae?a caaaeueii?
oa niaoe?aeueii? (a?enueeiaeo) th?enaeeeoe??, i?ecia/aiith noaeae?a ia
iinaaeo noaeae? aia?oa, i?ecia/aiiy o?aoeie neeaaeo Eiinoeoooe?eiiai
noaeo Oe?a?ie oa o?ueio /eai?a Aeui? ?aaee thnoeoe??. Ca i?aeienii
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie aeaeathoueny iina?ae/aiiy Aieiaai oa canooiieeai
aie?a aeueo noaeiaeo i?aai?a. I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie ia? i?aai caa?oaoeny
aei Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo c i?eaiaeo oeoia/aiiy ii?i caeii?a (ye
/eiieo, oae ? oeo, ui iaae?eoee ia i?aeien aeaa? aea?aeaae) oa c
iiaeaiiyi i?i ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiino? aeo?a i?aai?a
aea?aeaae, ia?ae?e yeeo ia?aaeaa/aiee o Eiinoeoooe??. Oi/a ca ianyaii
oe? iiaiiaaaeaiiy ? cia/ii iaioeie, i?ae iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa ii
oi?ioaaiith ? aieeao ia ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee oa
o/ano? o caeiiioai?aii?, iaeiae I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ia iiaeia
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye ianeaiiai noa’?eoa eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei
noa?e i?aainoaeaey.

Ci?no ii?i, ye? aecia/athoue iiaiiaaaeaiiy aeaae aea?aeaae, aea? ciiao
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie ? noa’?eoii i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei ?
ca o/anoth Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, ? ca o/anoth i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee on?o ??ai?a, ? ca o/anoth i?aai?a nenoaie i?aainoaeaey. Ia
aoaeo/e eiinoeoooe?eii aeeth/aiee aei nenoaie i?aai?a iaaii? a?eee
aeaaee, I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie aiaeii/an ia ciaoiaeeoueny iaae ieie. Eiai
aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi ia? noaoe iaeaaiaeaeaiiy cae?eniaiiy naiiai
iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oeyoii ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a
i?aai?a oeueiai iaoai?cio.

Ui noino?oueny ?ioeo iiaiiaaaeaiue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o aioo??oi?o
a?aeiineiao, oi aei ieo a?aeiinyoue iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ii
caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie aea?aeaae, o noa?? noaoono
iniae a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae ii?ie, ui ?aaoeththoue a?aeiineie aeaae
aea?aeaae ? noni?euenoaa.

Iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ii caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ?
iai?iie Oe?a?ie iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aeaiyei: 1) caoeno
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iia Oe?a?ie ? aaciina?aaeiueith ooieoe??th
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee o aea?aeaa?; 2) a?aoiaoth/e aaaeeea?noue oe???
ooieoe?? aiia iieeaaea?oueny ia I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ui iaaiei /eiii
aeaiaeeoue ?? ca iaae? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee.

Aei oeeo iiaiiaaaeaiue iaeaaeaoue: ea??aieoeoai o noa?ao iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee ? iai?iie; aianaiiy aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie iiaeaiiy i?i
iaieioaiiy noaio a?eie; i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy i?i aaaaeaiiy iaaecae/aeiiai
noaio oa ?i. A?eueoo /anoeio ??oaiue, i?eeiyoeo o oe?e noa??, I?aceaeaio
Oe?a?ie ia? iiaiaeaeoaaoe c I?ai’??-i?i?no?ii ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiei
i?i?no?ii. A?aoiaoth/e aaaeeea?noue oeeo iiaiiaaaeaiue, I?aceaeaio
Oe?a?ie iiaea ?o ?aae?coaaoe eeoa i?ney io?eiaiiy caiaee Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie.

O noa?? iniaenoiai noaoono I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie iaae?ey?oueny i?aaii
iiieeoaaiiy, ae??oaiiy ieoaiue a?iiaaeyinoaa oa iaai?iaeaeaiiy
aea?aeaaieie iaai?iaeaie. Ii?ie, ye? ?aaoeththoue a?aeiineie o oe?e
noa?? iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey aeaae aea?aeaae i?e
aoaeue-ye?e oi?i? i?aae?iiy. Iaeiae a Oe?a?i? ?o ?aae?caoe?y ia? iaaio
niaoeeo?eo. Ianaiia?aae, oea noino?oueny iiaeeeaino? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie
anoaiiaethaaoe aea?aeaai? iaai?iaee ia i?aenoaa? nai?o oeac?a, a oaeiae
iaai?iaeaeoaaoe a?ae naiai ?iai? aea?aeaaieie iaai?iaeaie. Ii-ae?oaa,
i?aai iiieeoaaiiy I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie aeei?enoiao? ia /anoi, iniaeeai ii
a?aeiioaiith aei canoaeaeaieo aei nia?oii? ea?e (i?i ui na?ae/eoue
aiae?c ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeianaieie ae?ieaie oa ?o aeeiiaiiyi).

I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie ia? oaeiae aaaeeeaa iiaiiaaaeaiiy caa?oaoeny c
iineaiiyie aei ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie oa i?iaieiooaaoe anaoe?a?inueeee
?aoa?aiaeoi ca ia?iaeiith ?i?oe?aoeaith. I?aeoe/ia cae?eniaiiy oeeo
iiaiiaaaeaiue i?aei?ia? ?ieue aeaae aea?aeaae o noni?euenoa?, aeicaiey?
eiio o aeiaaeeo i?aeo?eiee eiai c aieo ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie cae?enithaaoe
iiaiiaaaeaiiy, ui ia ia?aaeaa/ai? caeiiiaeaa/a.

Iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao
ioiieththoue aeaee ? ci?no i?aa ? iaia’yce?a I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o
a?aeiineiao c ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie oa ?o i?aaenoaaieeaie. Iiaiiaaaeaiiy
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao ? aaaeeeaeie, i?i ui
na?ae/eoue ?ici?uaiiy oeeo ii?i o eiinoeoooe?yo ia ii/aoeo ia?ae?eo
ii?i, ye? aecia/athoue iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa. Iiaiiaaaeaiiy ii
i?aaenoaaieoeoao aea?aeaae ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai? ? o?aaeeoe?eieie
iiaiiaaaeaiiyie aeaae aea?aeaae ca aoaeue-yei? oi?ie i?aae?iiy. Aiie
eiie?aoecothoueny o aaaeaii? ia?aaiai??a, i?ecia/aii? ? ca?eueiaii?
iineaiiee?a, ae?aaeeoaoe?? i?e aeaa? aea?aeaae iine?a oa ?ioeo
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?iicaiieo aea?aeaa, i?aeienaii? i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae oa ?o
?aoeo?eaoe??, iai?i? ?aoeo?eaoe?eieie a?aiioaie.

Caaacia/othoue ?aae?caoe?th iieeaaeaieo ia I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie
iiaiiaaaeaiue i?aaie, ye? noai?ai? i?e aeaa? aea?aeaae. Oe? i?aaie
iathoue a Oe?a?i? ??ciee noaoon. Aeaye? c ieo ooai?ththoueny iniaenoi
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie (iai?eeeaae, Aaei?i?no?aoe?y I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie),
?io? — noai?ththoueny ia i?aenoaa? iieiaeaiue Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie
(?aaea Iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie Oe?a?ie, eiinoeueoaoeai? oa
aei?aae/? i?aaie). I?aaie i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie noai?ththoueny ia
ia??iae iiaiiaaaeaiue aeaae aea?aeaae, o ?ac? eiai ia?aia?aiiy
iiaiia?aiee I?aceaeaio noai?th? aeiiii?aei? i?aaie ia aeaniee ?icnoae. O
ca’yceo c oeei aeiaaa? ae??oaiiy ia caeiiiaeaa/iio ??ai? i?iaeaia
noaoono Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie oa ?? ni?a?ia?oiee?a.

Aiae?c nenoaie i?aai?a i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie aeicaiey? c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i ?o cia/io e?euee?noue, a oaeiae, a?aoiaoth/e neeaae oeeo
i?aai?a — i?i cia/i? iiaeeeaino? I?aceaeaioa aeey aeeiiaiiy iei
iiaiiaaaeaiue. Aiaeii/an oie oaeo, ui I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie iniaenoi
i/ieth? iaai? eiinoeueoaoeaii-aei?aae/? i?aaie (iai?eeeaae,
Eii?aeeiaoe?eio ?aaeo c ieoaiue i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy), ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, ia?aiaoyaeo? aeaao aea?aeaae, aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? eiai noaoono.
Ii??aiyiiy aeae?a ? neeaaeo aiaeia?/ieo i?aai?a i?e i?aceaeaioao
?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? ? O?aioeocueei? ?anioae?ee ye
iai?ai?aceaeaionueeeo ?anioae?eao, i?eaiaeeoue aaoi?a aei aeniiaeo i?i
aeioe?euei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa
aeey aoaeoeaiiai caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? aeaae aea?aeaae.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? iai?yie ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ?inoeoooo
i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i?“, aeoiaey/e c oa?aeoa?enoeee iciae i?aaiai?
nioe?aeueii? ? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae, aaoi? aaaaea?, ui ?inoeooo
i?aceaeaionoaa ia? noaoe i?aaiaith iniiaith aeey ooieoe?iioaaiiy o
aea?aeaa? i?aaio (I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie), iiaoaeiaaiiai ia i?eioeeiao
aeaiie?aoecio oa i??i?eoaoiino? i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie ? a?iiaaeyieia.
C ?ioiai aieo, ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa, yeee nueiaiaei? anoaiiaeaiee a
Oe?a?i? (ui ia? ci?oaio oi?io i?aae?iiy), ia iiaeia iaeiicia/ii
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye iaci?iiee aeey iaeaooiueiai Oe?a?ie. Ia?eaiaioa?ia
oi?ia i?aae?iiy c ?inoeoooii i?aceaeaionoaa ? aacia?a/ii a?eueo
aeaiie?aoe/iith oi?iith ii??aiyii c iai?ai?aceaeaionueeith, aea oea a
aea?aeaa? ?c noaa?eueiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith ? iie?oe/iith
neooaoe?th.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaiaiai noaoono I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie aeicaiey? aaoi?o
c?iaeoe i?eiouaiiy, ui aeey aoaeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee a Oe?a?i? I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie ye i?aai aea?aeaae ia? aooe
eiinoeoooe?eii iaae?eaiee ooieoe??th ocaiaeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? oeeo
i?aai?a. Aa?o/e aei oaaae oie oaeo, ui o eiinoeoooe?yo ca?oa?aeieo
aea?aeaa ooieoe?y a?a?o?aaeo, cae??ieth?oueny aeaiyei: 1) i?aceaeaio
aenooia? a?a?o?ii i?ae a?eeaie aeaaee (O?aioe?y, A??iai?y); 2) aeaaa
aea?aeaae ? a?a?o?ii i?ae i?aaiaie aeaaee (?in?enueea Oaaea?aoe?y,
?anioae?ea A?ei?onnue), ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aeey Oe?a?ie ? a?eueo
i?eeiyoiei ae?oaee aa??aio ooieoe?? a?a?o?aaeo. O aeaiiio aeiaaeeo
I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie ia aoaea ?inoeoooe?eii noiyoe iaae ?ioeie i?aaiaie
aeaaee o aea?aeaa? oa ciaoiaeeoeny iica ieie. I?e oeueiio ca
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie aoaeooue caa?aaeai? eiai iiaiiaaaeaiiy ii
a?aeiioaiith aei i?aai?a caeiiiaeaa/i? ? noaeiai? aeaaee (ca aeiyoeii
ni?iuaiiy iaaieo i?ioeaaeo?), o noa?? caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ?
iai?iie, iniaenoiai noaoono oa o i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao.
Iiaiiaaaeaiiy aeaae aea?aeaae ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee iathoue aooe caoaeai? oeyoii ia?aaea/? iaaii? ?o /anoeie
ia?eaiaioo ? o?yaeo Oe?a?ie.

Iaeiae iaa?oue cae??ieaiee eiinoeoooe?eii ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa ia
iiaiith i??ith ?aaoeth? i?aaia?aeiineie, iia’ycai? c ae?yeuei?noth
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie. O ca’yceo ?c oeei ?nio? iaiao?aei?noue ye aianaiiy
ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie (iaae?eaiiy ooieoe??th
a?a?o?aaeo, ?iciaaeoaaiiy o ??cieo noaooyo ii?yaeeo aeai??a I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie oa aeiia uiaei ianoi?niino? iinoa I?aceaeaioa c ?ioeie aeaeaie
ae?yeueiino?; o?aaoethaaiiy ieoaiue aeeiiaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie o aeiaaeeo eiai oei/aniai? a?aenooiino? (oai?iaa, a?aeionoea
oiui), oae ? i?eeiyooy a?aeiia?aeieo i?aaiaeo aeo?a. Oe? aeoe,
ianaiia?aae caeiie, iathoue aecia/aoe i?ioeaaeo?o cae?eniaiiy
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie ooieoe?th aa?aioa aeio?eiaiiy i?aa ? naiaiae
ethaeeie ? a?iiaaeyieia oa aeio?eiaiiy Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie ? ooieoe??
a?a?o?aaeo. E??i oiai, iathoue aooe i?eeiyo? caeiie, ye?
?aaoethaaoeiooue a?aeiineie o noa?? iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie oa /eai?a eiai n?i’?, caoenoo /ano? e a?aeiino?
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie; aeiiiaiai? caeiie uiaei e?ei?iaeueii? ? oeea?eueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? I?aceaeaioa.

I?eeiyooy iiaeo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a oa aianaiiy ci?i aei ?nioth/eo, a
oaeiae iniaeno?niee oaeoi? iniae, yea ia?eia? iino I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie,
ni?eyoeiooue, ii-ia?oa, iineeaiith iiaaae aei oeueiai i?aaio aea?aeaae c
aieo noni?euenoaa, a ii-ae?oaa — noaiiaeaiith Oe?a?ie ye nioe?aeueii?,
i?aaiai? ? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
noi?iiaaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai, ianaiia?aae
caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, iia’ycaieo c
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi o iaoai?ci? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?inoeoooo I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie. Na?aae aeniiae?a caneoaiaothoue ia oaaao ianooii?:

· aiae?c ?noi?e/iiai aniaeoo ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?inuee?e
aea?aeaa? aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i oa, ui aeey ia? ? oa?aeoa?iei ?inoeooo
iaeiiin?aiiai aeaae aea?aeaae (eiycy, aaoueiaia, i?aceaeaioa), yeee
io?eioaaa eaa?oeiia cae??ieaiiy;

· ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa noi?iiaaiee a?aeiia?aeii aei /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa aeey aeae?eaiiy eiai iniiaieo ?en ia? aea/aoeny
eiiieaenii (nenoaiii), ianaiia?aae oeyoii aiae?co eiai ci?noo. Ci?no
?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa neeaaeathoue ii?ie, ia’?aeiai? o iaai? a?oie,
ui ?aaoeththoue noni?euei? a?aeiineie, noa’?eoii yeeo aenooia?
I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie;

· aoaeo/e iniiaiei aeaiaioii ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa iiaiiaaaeaiiy
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie aecia/athoue eiai i?noea o iaoai?ci? cae?eniaiiy
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? iathoue cae?enithaaoeny eeoa o iaaeao eiiiaoaioe??
aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae;

· aecia/aiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie aa?aioii Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, i?aa ?
naiaiae ethaeeie ? a?iiaaeyieia, oa?eoi??aeueii? oe?e?niino? oa
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie ? aaaeeeaeie, iaeiae ia i?aee??ieai?
a?aeiia?aeieie i?ioeaaeo?aie, ii?iaie.

· ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa, aoaeo/e nenoaiith aca?iiiia’ycaieo ?
aca?iicaeaaeieo ii?i, iio?aao? oaea ia nueiaiaei? ci?ie aeayeeo c ieo oa
i?eeiyooy iiaeo c oei, uia iaeneiaeueii ioiieoe nai?i ?aaoethaaiiyi
noni?euei? a?aeiineie, iia’ycai? c ae?yeuei?noth I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie.
Iathoue aooe i?eeiyo? ye iia? eiinoeoooe?ei? ii?ie, oae ? iia? caeiie,
ia?ae?e yeeo i?iiiio?oueny aaoi?ii.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeeeaaeaii o
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Ieaoioithe I.A. ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i?: oa?aeoa?enoeea
aeayeeo neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a.- A?ni. Oe?. Aeaae. aea?ae. oi?. i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — ? 3-4. -N.28-34.

2. Ieaoioithe I.A. Iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye iniiaiee aeaiaio
?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i?. — A?ni. Oe?. Aeaae. aea?ae. oi?. i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ? 1. -N.138-146.

3. Ieaoioithe I.A. Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa a
Oe?a?i?. — A?ni. Oe?. Aeaae. aea?ae. oi?. i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. —
1998. — ? 4. -N.47-56.

4. Ieaoioithe I.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie //
Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy: Iaoa??aee
ui??/. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. iaoe.-iaae. ia?niiaeo, neooa/?a, ani??aio?a,
aeieoi?aio?a Aeaaeai??, 29 o?aa. 1997 ?. / Ca ?aae. A. Eiyc?aa. — E.:
Aeae-ai OAAeO, 1997. -N.66-68

5. Ieaoioithe I.A. O/anoue I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o oi?ioaaii? eaae?iaiai
aia?aoo // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie / Ca caa. ?aae. A.?.Eoaiaiai,
A.I.Eiyc?aa. — E.: Aeae-ai OAAeO, 1998. — Aei. 2. -N.20-23

6. Ieaoioithe I.A. ?aae?caoe?y iieiaeaiue Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie uiaei
?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa. // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ao?eaiiy a aeeooy
iieiaeaiue Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie / Ca caa.
?aae. A.?.Eoaiaiai, A.I.Eiyc?aa. — E.: Aeae-ai OAAeO. — 1999. — Aei.1. —
N. 223-229

AIIOAOe??

Ieaoioithe I.A. ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i?:
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaee aniaeo. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.02. — eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai. —
Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai,
Oa?e?a, 1999 ?.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i? ye
noeoii?noue eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo ii?i, aeine?aeaeo?oueny eiai ci?no,
th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo. Aiae?co?oueny ?noi?e/iee
aniaeo oa oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei iiiyooy ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa.
Aecia/aii eiai iniiai? ?ene oa i?noea o nenoai? ?inoeooo?a
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa. Aeae?eaii aeaiaioe ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa oa
cae?eniaii ?o aiae?c ia i?aenoaa? /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Aeaoaeueii
?icaeyiooi iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, ye iniiaiiai aeaiaioo
?inoeoooo o noa?? aioo??oiueiai aeeooy ? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee aea?aeaae.
Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue iaae?eaiiy aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae
ooieoe??th ocaiaeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
(ooieoe??th a?a?o?aaeo). ?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith ii?i
/eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa i?eeiyooth iiaeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ye? a o
noeoiiino? c /eiieie ii?iaie ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa, noaiiaeee
oe?e?nio nenoaio, ui iaea?eueo iiaii ioiieth? noa?o i?aaia?aeiinei ca
o/anoth I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ye i?aaio aea?aeaae

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa, ?inoeooo I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie
aeaiaioe ?inoeoooo i?aceaeaionoaa, I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie, i?aaiaee noaoon
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, eiiiaoaioe?y, iiaiiaaaeaiiy, a?a?o?aae.

Ieaoioithe I.A. Einoeooo i?aceaeaionaa a Oe?aeia:
eiinoeoooeeiiii-i?aaiaie aniaeo. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.02 — eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai. —
Iaoeeiiaeueiay th?eaee/aneay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu eiaie ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai,
Oa?ueeia, 1999 a.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony einoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?aeia eae
niaieoiiinoue eiinoeoooeeiiii-i?aaiauo ii?i, enneaaeoaony aai
niaea?aeaiea, th?eaee/aneay i?e?iaea e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey.
Aiaeece?oaony enoi?e/aneee aniaeo e oai?aoe/aneea iiaeoiaeu e iiiyoeth
einoeoooa i?aceaeaionoaa. Ii?aaeaeaiu aai iniiaiua /a?ou e inouanoaeai
eo aiaeec ia iniiaa aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Aeaoaeueii
?anniio?aiu iieiiii/ey I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu, eae iniiaiiai yeaiaioa
einoeoooa a noa?ao aioo?aiiae aeecie e aiaoiae iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa.
Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaaeaeaiey aeaau Oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa
ooieoeeae niaeaniaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe
(ooieoeeae a?aeo?aaea). ?ac?aaioaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth
ii?i aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e i?eiyoeth iiauo
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, eioi?ua au niaianoii n aeaenoaothueie ii?iaie
einoeoooa i?aceaeaionoaa, ninoaaeyee oeaeinoioth nenoaio, eioi?ay au
iaeaieaa iieii ioaaouaaea noa?o i?iaiioiioaiee n o/anoeai I?aceaeaioa
Oe?aeiu.

Oai?aoe/aneea iiaeoiaeu oai?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa, eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
i?aaa, iieeoieiaee iicaieeee aaoi?o ?aca?aie/eoue iiiyoey “einoeooo
i?aceaeaionoaa” e “einoeooo I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu”. I?e yoii iiae
einoeoooii i?aceaeaionoaa iaiaoiaeeii iiieiaoue niaieoiiinoue
eiinoeoooeeiiii-i?aaiauo ii?i, eioi?ua ?aaoee?otho iauanoaaiiua
ioiioaiey i?aaiecaoeee, ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, ioaaonoaaiiinoe I?aceaeaioa
Oe?aeiu, ii?aaeaeytho aai ianoi n?aaee i?aaiia ainoaea?noaa, a oaeaea a
iaoaiecia inouanoaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, oa?aeoa?ece?otho
aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?aaiu i?e aeaaa ainoaea?noaa.

Einoeooo I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie “oaeoe/anee
neiaeeaoothny ioiineoaeueii iainiaeaiioth
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-ooieoeeiiaeueioth no?oeoo?o” (i?aai ainoaea?noaa) a
oeaeinoiie nenoaia aunoeo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?iai ?aaoee?oaony nioeeaeueiuie, i?aaeaea anaai,
i?aaiauie ii?iaie.

Oaeei ia?acii, einoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa ii?aaeaeyao iieiaeaiea
I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu eae noauaeoa eiinoeoooeeiiii-i?aaiauo ioiioaiee
aea-th?a, a einoeooo I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu — iieiaeaiea aea-oaeoi.
I?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiey anoue eiaiii einoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa eae
oeaeinoiay nenoaia acaeiinaycaiiuo e acaeiicaaeneiuo
eiinoeoooeeiiii-i?aaiauo ii?i.

A enneaaeiaaiee aaoi? oaeaeyao aieiaiea enoi?e/aneiio aniaeoo einoeoooa
i?aceaeaionoaa a Oe?aeia. Caeanue, a /anoiinoe, ?anniao?eaathony i?e/eiu
e oneiaey aaaaeaiey einoeoooa i?aceaeaionoaa 5 ethey 1991 aiaea, a
oaeaea eca?aiey I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu 1 aeaeaa?y 1991 aiaea; iienee iiaiai
niaea?aeaiey einoeoooa a 1992 — 1996 aiaeao i?e ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoia
Eiinoeoooeee Oe?aeiu e niaea?aeaiea einoeoooa niaeanii aeaenoaothueo
ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia ia?eiaea 1991 — 1995 aiaeia.

?ane?uaay niaea?aeaiea einoeoooa i?aceaeaionoaa, aaoi? auaeaeyao aai
yeaiaiou (a?oiiu ii?i, eioi?ua ?aaoee?otho iaeaieaa aeeceea ii
niaea?aeaieth iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey). E iei ioiinyony: ii?iu,
?aaoee?othuea ii?yaeie auai?ia I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu, ii?yaeie anooieaiey
a aeieaeiinoue, i/a?/eaatho i?aaiaie noaoon (oi anoue ii?aaeaeytho
eiiiaoaioeeth aeaau Oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa), ii?yaeie e aeaeu
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, i?ae?auaiea iieiiii/ee (a n?ie e aein?i/iia). I?e yoii
iieiiii/eyi oaeaeyaony iniaia aieiaiea, iineieueeo eiaiii iie
ii?aaeaeytho ianoi e ?ieue I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu a eiinoeoooeeiiiii
iaoaiecia ?aaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

Aaoi? ?anniao?eaaao iieiiii/ey I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu eae noauaeoa
aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo ioiioaiee. I?e yoii a noa?a aioo?aiieo ioiioaiee
I?aceaeaio Oe?aeiu eiaao iieiiii/ey ii oi?ie?iaaieth e ii ioiioaieth e
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, iieiiii/ey a ioiioaieyo
n oe?aeineei ia?iaeii, a?aaeaeaiaie Oe?aeiu, eiino?aiiuie a?aaeaeaiaie e
eeoeaie aac a?aaeaeainoaa, ii caueoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai noaa?aieoaoa,
oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe, iacaaeneiinoe Oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa e
ae?. Ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia I?aceaeaio Oe?aeiu, eae i?aaenoaaeoaeue
ainoaea?noaa, anooiaao a ioiioaiey n aeaaaie e i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa, caeeth/aao iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u,
iaiaieaaaony ?aoeoeeaoeeiiiuie a?aiioaie e ae?. I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai
ainoaea?noaa ai aiaoieo ioiioaieyo e iieiiii/ey a noa?a ee/iinoiiai
noaoona iiaoo auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu eae o?aaeeoeeiiiua iieiiii/ey aeaau
ainoaea?noaa i?e ethaie oi?ia i?aaeaiey. A oi aea a?aiy iieiiii/ey
I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu, eioi?ua eanathony oi?ie?iaaiey e noa?u
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe caaenyo io onoaiiaeaiiie
a Oe?aeia iieoi?aceaeaioneie oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaeaiey n ia
“neeueiui” e ia “neaaui” aeaaie ainoaea?noaa, ea?athuei nouanoaaiioth
?ieue a ?aaeecaoeee ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa.

Aiaeec yeaiaioia einoeoooa i?aceaeaionoaa iicaieee aaoi?o naeaeaoue
auaiae i oii, /oi ii?iu aeaiiiai einoeoooa ioaaouaatho naiei
?aaoee?iaaieai ia ana iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n
aeayoaeueiinoueth aeaau ainoaea?noaa a Oe?aeia. A nayce n /ai nouanoaoao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aianaiey eciaiaiee a aeaenoaothuea caeiiu, a oaeaea
i?eiyoey iiauo caeiiia, ia?a/aiue eioi?uo i?aaeeaaaaony aaoi?ii. I?e
yoii ia eiinoeoooeeiiiii o?iaia iaiaoiaeeii iaaeaeaiea I?aceaeaioa
Oe?aeiu ooieoeeae a?aeo?aaea, oi anoue i?aaiii/eai ii iaania/aieth
niaeaniaaiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe iaaeaeo
niaie e n i?aaiaie ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Iaaeaeaiea yoie ooieoeeae
I?aceaeaioa, ia?yaeo n ooieoeeae i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa aeieaeiu noaoue
iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie aeayoaeueiinoe aeaau Oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: einoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa, einoeooo I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu,
yeaiaiou einoeoooa i?aceaeaionoaa, I?aceaeaio Oe?aeiu, i?aaiaie noaoon,
eiiiaoaioeey, iieiiii/ey, a?aeo?aae.

Plakhotnuk N.G. Institute of Presidency in Ukraine: constitutional-legal
Aspect. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a scientific degree of the Candidate of Law in speciality
12.00.02. — nonstitutional law. — The Yaroslav Mudryi National Academy
of Juridical Science of Ukraine, Kharkiv, 1999.

Institute of Presidency of Ukraine as a set of constitutional and law
standards is discussed in the dissertation. Its content, law nature and
development perspectives are investigated. Historical aspect and
theoretical approaches to the notion of “Institute of Presidency” is
analysed. Its main features and place in the system of institutes of
constitutional law is defined. Elements of institute of presidency are
described and its analysis is made on grounds of current legislation in
force. Authorities of President of Ukraine as the principle element of
the institute in the sphere of internal life and foreign policy of the
state is shown in details. Necessity of granting to the Head of
Ukrainian State the function of coordination of activity of state power
bodies (function of Arbitrage) is proved. Proposition on improvement
current legislation standards and adoption of new legislative acts which
together with current standards of the institute of presidency could
form integral system which being the state body can cover fully the
sphere of legal relations with participation of President of Ukraine, is
developed.

Key words: institute of presidency, institute of President of Ukraine,
elements of institute of presidency, President of Ukraine, legal status
of President of Ukraine, competence, authorities, arbitrage.

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