Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

IAO?THE ??EIA IEAEN??AIA

OAeE: 37.02 (477)

?iiiaaoe?ei? iiaeae? iaa/aeueiiai

i?ioeano a no/ani?e oeie?

(ia iaoa??aeao ??cieo oei?a

iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 13.00.01 –

caaaeueia iaaeaaia?ea oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy

iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A – 2000

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aieeinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IEAOIOI?E IEUeAA AANEE?AIA,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?

Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe oa iaaeaaia?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EAA*AIEI OAOssIA ?AAI?AIA,

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee

oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

AAUAIEI ETHAeIEEA IEEIEA?AIA,

aee?aeoi? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai oeaio?o

Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy ina?oe i. Ee?aa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – I?eea?iaonueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea, eaoaae?a oai??? oa ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 2 ethoiai 2000 ?ieo i 16 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.16 a Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio

oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

ca aae?anith: 01033, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, e?iiaoa 314.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea /01033, i. Ee?a,

aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58, e?iiaoa 10/.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 24 a?oaeiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii?

?aaee I.I.Ei?i?a

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oa nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie. Ca oiia ??ceeo
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ci?i iaoa iaaeaaia?ea c?oeioeany c iaieeaii
?iiiaaoe?eieo yaeu o aaeoc? ina?oe. Iaaeaaiae, ye? i?aoeththoue o noa??
aaciai? oa aeiaeaoeiai? ina?oe, aeeeaaea/? iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ??cieo
??ai?a a?ae/oaathoue iio?aao a iiiaeaii? naiai i?ioan?eiiai
?ino?oiaioa??th, iiooeo iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei iaeiiai c aecia/aeueieo
?ino?oiaio?a iaaeaaia?ee — iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. ?icoe?aiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioaeo?a noeioeth? i?eieea ca?oa?aeieo iiaaoe?e, eio??
neooaoeaii ”aiiioiaothoueny” o a?o/eciyio ina?oith i?aeoeeo; ?ioi?iaoe?y
i?i ieo ia? ia?aaaaeii ia?ae?/oaaeueii-iaceaiee aai ?aeeaiiee oa?aeoa?.
A?aeiinii ca?oa?aeieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo ?ic?iaie a?o/eciyia iaaeaaia?ea
ia? ni?aao ?c o?aaiaioa?iith ea?oeiith, yea a?aeia?aaea? oaeaeoa ie?ai?
ca?oa?aei? iiaiaaaaeaiiy, ai?ae i?ioeane ? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
aeeaeaeoeee. Neeaaea?oueny ia?aaeienaeueia neooaoe?y, ca yei? oai??y ?
i?aeoeea iaa/aiiy a?ae/oaathoue aino?o iio?aao a iaaeoiaeaeaii? na?aeeo
?aeae, iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei iaa/aiiy, ? aiaeii/an aeeaeaeoe/i? iiooee oa
ciao?aeee ca?oa?aeii? iaaeaaia?ee ua ia iaaoee oe?e?niiai inieneaiiy, —
ye ca i?aaeiaoii, oae ? ca niiniaii oa?aeoa?enoeee. Ooo a?ae/ooiee aieea
iaei??? c iaaeoa a?o/eciyii? iaaeaaia?ee — a?ae?eao a?ae ca?oa?aeiiai
aeina?aeo ye a iaoeia?e, oae ? a i?eeeaaei?e noa??. Ca aeaieo ianoaaei
ia aeiiiiiaea aaaaeaiiy aeno?aieo caiice/aiue. Aei iaaeaaia?/ieo
?ic?iaie iaiiaeeeai noaaeoeny c iiceoe?e “ei?enooaa/a”, iaieio/ei ?
iaiiaiaiiy ?o aeaniei ci?noii. Aeani? i???ioe?e a ?nioth/iio
i?aeia?iaeiiio oiiae? iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo iio??ai? cian?i ia aeey
caiice/aiiy aaea aioiaeo ?ic?iaie, a aeey aeanii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
oai?/ino?.

Ca nai?i ci?noii iiiyooy “?iiiaaoe?y” a?aeiineoueny ia eeoa aei
noai?aiiy ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iiaaoe?e, aea e aei oaeeo ci?i, ye?
iinyoue nooo?aee oa?aeoa?, noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ci?iaie a niinia?
ae?yeueiino?, noee? ieneaiiy. A. ?. I?eaiaeei ?icaeyaea? eaoaai??th
iiaecie ye ia no?eueee /aniao, ne?eueee ye?nio. A?aeiia?aeii a ?iaio? a
yeino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?icaeyaeathoueny iiaeae?, ye? ia?aoai?ththoue
oa?aeoa? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a?aeiinii oaeeo ?? nooi?nii ?
?ino?oiaioaeueii cia/oueo aeanoeainoae, ye oe?eueiaa i???ioaoe?y,
oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?? iaaeaaiaa ? o/i?a, ?o iiceoe?? a oiae? iaa/aiiy.

Aeine?aeieee cacia/athoue, ui ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane, ?icoe?aiiy i?aeoeee
?o ?aae?caoe?? ? caeiiii??i?noth a ?icaeoeo no/anii? ina?oe. I?ioa,
ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui ae ? oi/eith a?aee?eo a no/anieo ?iiiaaoe?eieo
aeeaeaeoe/ieo iiooeao. Aiae?c aeaieo, ui i?noyoueny a
ii??aiyeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?aeoeee iaa/aiiy iieaco?,
ui, iacaaaeath/e ia a?aei?iiino? oe?eueieo nenoai, ci?noo iaa/aeueieo
i?ia?ai, caaaeuei? oyaeaiiy i?i o?aaeeoe?eiee iaa/aeueiee i?ioean a
??cieo e?a?iao na?oo iathoue iiae?ai? ?ene. O?aaeeoe?eia iaa/aiiy
iineoue ia?aaaaeii ?ai?iaeoeoeaiee oa?aeoa?. ?iaioa a/eoaey ci???ioiaaia
ia?aaeon?i ia iia?aeiieaiiy ciaiue ? niinia?a ae?e, ye? ia?aaeathoueny
o/iyi a aioiaiio aeaeyae?, i?ecia/ai? aeey a?aeoai?thth/iai canai?iiy,
a/eoaeue ? ?aeeiith ?i?oe?aoeaii ae?th/ith iniaith iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano. Ca oiia ianiaiai oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy ni?iae ci?ieoe
o?aaeeoe?eia iaa/aiiy iia’ycai? c aeeaeaeoe/ieie iiooeaie “iiaiai
aeoiaaiiy”, aieiaiei /eiii, a aenia?eiaioaeueieo “iiaeo oeieao” i?ioyaii
ia?oeo aeanyoe??/ XX noie?ooy. A iaoiio noie?oo? ci?ithaaany ? ??aaiue
ianiaiai iaa/aiiy: yeui a ia?oie iieiaeii noieiooy ianiaei aeey
iiaeono?ieii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i aoei ii/aoeiaa iaa/aiiy, oi iiney Ae?oai?
naioiai? aieie ianiaith noaea na?aaeiy oeiea. A inoaiii aeanyoe?i//y ca
oiia iinoiiaeono?ieiiai noniieuenoaa ianiaei noaei iaa/aiiy i o aeuie
oeiei. C na?aaeeie noieiooy aeeaeaeoe/ia aenia?eiaiooaaiiy iaaoaa?
ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o, ioiieth? oni ?iaii inaioe. Iniaeeai cia/ouei aeey
?icaeoeo iiaeoiaeia aei iaa/aiiy noaea ciiia nioeiaeueii? i aeeoo?ai?
?iei ciaiue i iiciaaaeueii-oai?/eo iiaeeeainoae ethaeeie. No/anii
ca?oaiaeii nioeiieiae cacia/athoue, ui a ia?iiae eeane/ii?
iiaeono?iaeicaoei? ?ieue oice/ii? i?aoei ciaioo?oueny, ciaiue – aeaui
caieueoo?oueny, eaiioaeo – cia/ii c?inoa?. A iinoiiaeono?ieiee ia?iiae,
yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye iioi?iaoeieii-iiiiaaoeieiee, niiaaiaeiioaiiy
o?ueio iacaaieo oaeoi?ia ciiith?oueny. Ciaiiy noathoue iaeaieueo
cia/ouei oaeoi?ii, a iaio cia/ouei – eaiioae; oice/ia ?iaioa – aeineoue
iaei cia/ouei oaeoi?ii. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui aei noa?e ciaiue ooo
aiaeiineoueny i caeaoiinoue aei oai?/inoi.

Oeiea – iaeei c iaeaieueo iia?oeieieo nioeiaeueieo iinoeoooia. Oey ?ena
noino?oueny i iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, yeee ca
oa?aeoa?enoeeith I. Oiooea?a, iana ia niai aiaeaeoee eiiaae??ii?
i?aaiicaoei? i?aoei ?aiiueiai noaio iiaeono?ieiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
[Toffler,1980]. I?e?iaeiuei, ui ia oiii o?aaeeoeieiiai iaa/aiiy, ui
neeaeiny, ?ene iao?aaeeoeieieo iiaeoiaeia oaae aeyaeythoueny noieeeie.
Aeienii, aiaeic naiae/eoue, ui i?ioyaii ?yaeo aeanyoe?i/ o ?icieo
e?a?iao naioo iao?aaeeoeieiith aeey iaaeaaiaia ? iiaoaeiaa iaa/aiiy a
eiioaenoi iaia?a?aii? inaioe, eo?no ia noai?aiiy aeey o/iy iiaeeeainoae
caeiaoe aeoeaio, oiaoi iiioeiaoeaio iiceoeith a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioeani,
ia i?inoi «canaithaaoe» i?iiiiiaaiee a/eoaeai (i?ia?aiith, iiae?o/ieeii)
iaoa?iae, aea iiciaaaoe naio, anooiath/e c iei a aeoeaiee aeiaeia,
naiiio ooeaoe aiaeiiaiaei i ia coieiyoeny ia ciaeaeaiiio ye ia eiioeaaie
inoeii. A oeueiio ?onei cae?eniththoueny iiooee, ni?yiiaaii ia
ia?aoai?aiiy o?aaeeoeieiiai iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a aeaaaa, caoeieaaeaia
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai. Inio? e iioa ?icoiiiiy iao?aaeeoeieiiai iaa/aiiy, –
ye iaa/aiiy c aa?aioiaaiei aeinyaiaiiyi caieaiiaaiiai ?acoeueoaoo
aeaiiai o?aaiaioo iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

Iiiiaaoeieiinoue a iaa/aiii ia? i nioeiaeueii-oieinionueeee aniaeo, yeee
ca inoaiii ?iee i?eaa?ioa iniaeeao oaaao nioeiieiaia oa nioeiaeueieo
oieinioia. Iai?eeiioei 70-o ?ieia aaoi?e caaaeueiiaiaeiii? aeiiiaiaei
?einueeiai eeoao “Iaia? iaae iaa/aiith” noi?ioethaaee oyaeaiiy i?i
iniiaii oeie iaa/aiiy, ?icoiith/e iaa/aiiy a oe?ieiio cia/aiii neiaa, –
ye i?ioean ia?iuoaaiiy aeinaiaeo: ye iiaeeaiaeoaeueiiai, oae i
nioeiieoeueoo?iiai [Botkin, 1979]. Aei oeeo oeiia iaa/aiiy aiaeiinyoueny
«iiaeo?eioth/a iaa/aiiy» oa «iiiiaaoeieia iaa/aiiy». «Iiaeo?eioth/a
iaa/aiiy» (maintainance learning), – i?ioean i ?acoeueoao oaei?
iaa/aeueii? (a a ?acoeueoaoi i inaioiuei?) aeiyeueiinoi, yea ni?yiiaaia
ia iiaeo?eiaiiy, aiaeoai?aiiy inioth/i? eoeueoo?e, nioeiaeueiiai
aeinaiaeo, nioeiaeueii? nenoaie. Oaeee oei iaa/aiiy (i inaioe)
caaacia/o? ianooiiinoue nioeiieoeueoo?iiai aeinaiaeo i naia aii
i?eoaiaiiee oeieueiiio i aocianueeiio iaa/aiith. “Iiiiaaoeieia iaa/aiiy”
(innovative learning) – i?ioean i ?acoeueoao oaei? iaa/aeueii? i
inaioiuei? aeiyeueiinoi, yea noeioeth? aiineoe iiiiaaoeieii ciiie a
inioth/o eoeueoo?o, nioeiaeueia na?aaeiaeua. Oaeee oei iaa/aiiy (i
inaioe) ie?ii iiaeo?eiaiiy inioth/eo o?aaeeoeie noeioeth? aeoeaiee
aiaeaoe ia i?iaeaiii neooaoei?, yei aeieeathoue ia?aae ie?aiith
ethaeeiith i ia?aae noniieuenoaii. Aaaeeeai caoaaaeeoe, ui ia?oee ic
cacia/aieo oeiia iaa/aiiy iia’ycaiee ic ?ao?aineyoei?th, aiaeoai?aiiyi
nioeiaeueiiai aeinaiaeo, ae?oaee – c oai?/ei iiooeii ia iniiai iayaiiai
aeinaiaeo i eiai caaaa/aiiyi. A no/aniie ca?oaiaeiie aeeaeaeoeoei
?iciianthaeaeaia i?i?ioaoeiy naia ia “?iiiaaoeieiee” oei iaa/aiiy;
aiaeii/an a i?aeoeoei iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia ia?aaaaea? “iiaeo?eioth/ee”
oei iaa/aiiy.

A inoaiii aeanyoe?i//y ciiie a oa?aeoa?i iaa/aiiy aiaeaoaathoueny a
eiioaenoi aeiaaeueieo inaioiio oaiaeaioeie. Aei ieo aiaeiinyoueny:
ianiaee oa?aeoa? inaioe oa eiai iaia?a?aiinoue ye iiaa yeinoue,
cia/ouinoue ye aeey iiaeeaiaea, oae i aeey noniieueieo i/ieoaaiue i
ii?i, i?i?ioaoeiy ia canai?iiy ethaeeiith niiniaia aeoeaii?
iiciaaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi, aaeaioaoeiy inaioiueiai i?ioeano aei caieoia
i iio?aa iniaenoinoi, i?i?ioaoeiy iaa/aiiy ia iniaenoinoue o/iy,
caaacia/aiiy iiaeeeainoae eiai naii?ice?eooy. Aei /enea iiaeiaieo
oaiaeaioeie aoiaeeoue oaeiae i?i?ioaoeiy iaa/aiiy ia iiaia canai?iiy.
Aaaeeeaith ?enith iaa/aiiy noa? eiai ni?yiiaaiinoue ia i?aeaioiaeo o/iia
ia eeoa i?enoiniaoaaoeny, aea e aeoeaii inaithaaoe neooaoei?
nioeiaeueieo ciii. Oei inaioii i?i?ioe?e ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ieia io?eiaee
iiaeia?iaeia aeciaiiy a yeinoi ?iai/eo i?i?ioe?ia a i?ia?aiao THIANEI
[309].

A no/aniie oe?a?inueeie iaaeaaiaioei i?iaeaia iiiiaaoeie caeaaieueoiai
ia?aaoaa? ia noaaei? ?ic?iaee. Iiaeeeai aeaeieeoe eieueea iai?yieia
aeineiaeaeaiue oe?a?inueeeo iaaeaaiaia o aaeoci iiiiaaoeie a inaioi.

Iaeiei ic iai?yieia ? aea/aiiy oieinionueeeo canaae iiiiaaoeieii?
aeiyeueiinoi a inaioi. A ?ic?ici aeaii? i?iaeaie i?aoeththoue
I.I.Ai?aoeueea i A.A.Eaeueyiia, yei aeineiaeaeothoue iiiiaaoeieii
aniaeoe inaioiueiai i?ioeano. I.A.Aocie aea/a? aeniieiai/ii iiaeoiaee
ye oeyo aei iiiiaaoeie a aaeoci ii/aoeiai? ioce/ii? inaioe.
A.O.AEeaiaeuei?, I.O.Eiceiaa, I.A.Nae?eaeaiei ?icaeyaeathoue
aeanoeainoi iiiiaaoeieieo i?ioeania. I.I.Eiceianueea caeia?oueny
i?iaeaiith iiiiaaoeieieo iiaeoiaeia aei iniiaieo i?eioeeiia aeeaeaeoeee
a eiioaenoi iioaa?aoeaiiai iaa/aiiy. Oaiaeaioei? iiiiaaoeieieo
i?ioeania a inaioi aeineiaeaeo? I.I.Iena. I?iaeaio iaaeaaiai/ii?
iiiiaaoeee a nenoaii iaia?a?aii? inaioe aea/a? A.I.*a?ieo. Iaaeaaiai/ii
iiiiaaoei? a caaaeueiiinaioiie oeiei ?icaeyaea? N.E.Noaoaithe.
Iiiiaaoeieii iai?yie o iiaeaioiaoei iaaeaaiai/ieo eaae?ia noaee ia’?eoii
oaaae A.A.Iaiciiai i N.A.Aaaeiai?. Iiiiaaoeieiee iioaioeiae aoiaiioa?ii?
inaioe a nenoaii ia?aiiaeaioiaee iaaeaaiai/ieo eaae?ia aea/a?
A.I.Oi?noaiei.

sse iai?yiie aeineiaeaeaiue aenooia? oi?aaeiiiy iiiiaaoeieieie inaioiiie
i?ioeanaie. Nenoaiiee iiaeoiae aei oi?aaeiiiy iiiiaaoeieiei inaioiii
i?ioeanii aeineiaeaeo? A.A.Aeiaaiiieee. Ia iiiiaaoei? a iiaeaioiaoei
iaaeaaiai/ieo eaae?ia caa?oa? oaaao A.A.Naaa?aea. Oiiae caaacia/aiiy
iiiiaaoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeao inaioe aea/a?
E.I.Aeaieeaiei.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa caa?oa?oueny ia aeineiaeaeaiiy iiiiaaoeieieo oaoiieiaie
iaa/aiiy. Oeueiio i?enay/aii iai?aoethaaiiy I.A.Eiceiai? (i?i
oaoiieiai/iee eiiiiiaio iiiiaaoeieii? aeiyeueiinoi a/eoaey);
I.A.Eethiiii? (iiiiaaoeieii aeaiaioe a no/anieo oaoiieiaiyo iaa/aiiy
iiicaiii? iiae); E.I.Eoaeiy? (ineoiei?aeoeieia ?iaioa ye iiiiaaoeieiee
iiaeoiae aei i?aaiicaoei? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano);
I.A.Oeieiaoeue, A.A.Oeieiaoeue (ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii iniiae
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiiiaaoeieieo oaoiieiaie o no/aniie oeiei);
TH.A.Aiiaea?/oe, A.N.THcaaoaaa, A.O.O?enoaiei, E.I.Aaeaaaiiaa
(iiiiaaoeieii oaoiieiai? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioeani); A.N.I?n?i/oea,
A.Ae.Aaceeaae/, I.I.Iiii/iaiiai (no/anii iiiiaaoeieii oaoiieiai? a
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioeani aoco ye eiioeaiooaeueia iniiaa iiaeaioiaee
niaoeiaeinoa); N.TH.Ia?eiue/ae (aiaeic aoaeoeaiinoi iiiiaaoeieieo
iiaeoiaeia o nenoaii aocianueeiai iaa/aiiy); Ae.O.E?theiai? (i?iaeaia
iiooeo i?eioeeiia iiaoaeiae iiiiaaoeieieo oaoiieiaie); A.E.Ia?eaiaeiaa,
A.A.Neiaiaeaithe (eiiieaen iiiiaaoeieieo oaoiieiaie o oi?ioaaiii
i?ioanieii-oai?/i? iniaenoinoi oaoiaoey); I.A.Eiia?aiei, E.A.Oaeaiiai?,
I.N.Oeieo? (iiiiaaoeieii oaoiieiai? oi?ioaaiiy i?ioaniiiaeicio
iaeaooiio a/eoaeia a oiiaao iaaeaaiai/iiai aoco); I.I.Aaae??ai?,
E.I.Ao?e, I.I.Eaiaiie (aeayei aniaeoe i?aaiicaoeieiiai oa iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy iaaeaaiai/ieo iiiiaaoeie).

Ie?aii ?icaeyaea?oueny oai?/a iaaeaaiai/ia aeiyeueiinoue a
iiiiaaoeieiiio i?ioeani. TH.I.Aaeaothe ?icaeyaea? ?aaeicaoeith oai?/i?
ooieoei? iaa/aiiy a iiiiaaoeieiiio inaioiueiio i?ioeani. E.I.Iaeneiaiei
aea/a? ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii oiiae caaacia/aiiy iaaeaaiai/ieo
iiiiaaoeie a no/aniie oeiei. O.A.Iaeiaii, I.I.Aaae??aa aeoeaioothoue
oaaao ia o/anoi iaaeaaiaa a iiiiaaoeieiie aeiyeueiinoi. I.O.Iena/ei
caeia?oueny i?iaeaiith ?aeiinoi o?aaeeoeieiiai oa iiiiaaoeieiiai o
noaiiaeaiii i?ioanieii? iiaeeaiaeoaeueiinoi a/eoaey. I.A.Oaoa?iia
?icaeyaea? noaaeaiiy aei iiiiaaoeie a inaioi ye iieaciee noi?iiaaiinoi
oai?/i? iniaenoinoi a/eoaey.

A oeieiio aiaeic iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? eioa?aoo?e aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe
aiaenooiinoue niaoeiaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo oeiieiaicaoei?
aeeaeaeoe/ieo iiooeia iiaoaeiae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, iiiiaaoeieieo
iiaeaeae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, ye? oa?aeoa?ecoaaee a ?ic?iaeo
aeeaeaeoe/iiai iino?oiaioa?ith a no/aniie oeiei. Iaiaoiaeii aiaecia/eoe,
ui aiaeic iaoeiai-iaaeaaiai/ii? eioa?aoo?e oa iaaeaaiai/iiai aeinaiaeo
canaiae/o? oa, ui iiiiaaoe?eii iiaeaei iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a na?aaeiie
oeiei ia noaee i?aaeiaoii iiaiioeiiiiai iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy. Cie?aia,
aiaenooiiie ? iai?aoethaaiiy a aaeoci iiiiaaoeieieo iiaeoiaeia aei
oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo caeiaiinoae o/iia na?aaeiueiai oeieueiiai aieo oa
iiaeaeae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano , yei a ni?eyee oeueiio.

Cacia/eii, ui i?e aiaeici oa aeeeaaei iaoa?iaeo a iaoiio aeineiaeaeaiii
ca iniiao iieeaaeaii ?icaeyae iiaeaei iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano (iiaeaei
iaa/aiiy). A ?iaioi iiiyooy «iiaeaeue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano»
i?iiiio?oueny a iino?oiaioaeueiiio cia/aiii, ye iicia/aiiy noaie aai
ieaio aeie iaaeaaiaa i?e caeieniaiii iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. ?? iniiao
neeaaea? ia?aaaaeath/a aeiyeueiinoue o/iia, yeo i?aaiiciao? i aeaoaeiao?
a/eoaeue. A ca?oaiaeiie eioa?aoo?i [Joyce, Weil, 1986] iiaeia ciaeoe
oaei oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeaei iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano: oa?aeoa? i
iineiaeiaiinoue aoaiia iaa/aiiy a /ani, oa?aeoa? aca?iiaei? a/eoaey i
o/iy (niiaaiaeiioaiiy i oa?aeoa? ?ieae a/eoaey i o/iy , oeiiai caniae
?aaaoaaiiy a/eoaey oa aei? o/iia), oa?aeoa?enoeea i/ieoaaieo
?acoeueoaoia iaa/aiiy (iaaeaaiai/ia ni?yiiaaiinoue iiaeaei). A iaoie
?iaioi i?iiiio?oueny oe?oiiaia ?icoiiiiy iiaeaei iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano,
iacaai? aeua oa?aeoa?enoeee canoiniaothoueny ye aeiaeaoeiai. Ca iniiao
?iciaaeoaaiiy iiaeaeae aaiaeeoueny oaeoe/ii caeeaaeaiee a yeinoi
ia?oi/a?aiaiai i?i?ioe?o oa?aeoa? iaa/aeueii? aeiyeueiinoi. A
aeineiaeaeaiii i?aaenoaaeaii aeaa oeie oaeeo i?i?ioe?ia:
a) aeio?eiaiiy caaeaieo aoaeiiia (oiaoi ?ai?iaeoeoeaia aeiyeueiinoue,
canai?iiy i aiaeoai?aiiy o/iyie oieniaaieo ciaiue i niiniaia
aeiyeueiinoi), ui aiaeiiaiaea? o?aaeeoeieiei aeeaeaeoe/iei oeieyi
iaa/aiiy ii canai?iith iiaeaieo c?aceia; a) i?iaeoeoeaia, iiooeiaa
aeiyeueiinoue ii noai?aiith o/iyie iiaiai i?iaeoeoo (ia?aaeonii
iioaeaeooaeueiiai, iiciaaaeueiiai). A iaaeao eiaeii? c iacaaieo aaciaeo
iiaeaeae caeieniththoueny aeeaeaeoe/ii iiooee iiiiaaoeieiiai
ni?yioaaiiy, ui ciiiththoue oa?aeoa? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

O ca’yceo c oeei, nooo?ai c?inoa? aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, iia’ycaii? c
aeuaie?aneaiei eieii ieoaiue.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? /anoeiith eiiieaenii? oaie «??cii??aiaaa iaaeaaia?/ia
i?aeaioiaea a oi?aa?neoaoao», yea aeine?aeaeo?oueny eaoaae?ith
iaaeaaia?ee Aieeinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy: ?iiiaaoe?ei? iiaeae? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a
??cieo oeiao iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: caaacia/eoe i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae oeiey??a ca oiiae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? ?iiiaaoe?eii?
iiaeae? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

?aae?caoe?y aecia/aii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a? ae??oaiiy ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe oa ocaaaeueieoe oai?aoe/i? iai?aoethaaiiy o aaeoc?
?iiiaaoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a aei iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, cie?aia
oaoiieia?/iiai oa aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaiai;

— aea/eoe iaaeaaia?/i? canaaee iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano
a oiiaao ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a;

— aeine?aeeoe aieea ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo ia oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo a iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o
caeeaaeao;

— aeyaeoe ??ai? noi?iiaaiino? oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a ca oiiae
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo iiaeaeae o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ina?oo», Aea?aeaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie «Ina?oa
(Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy)», Eiioeaioe?? aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oa aoiai?caoe??
ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei oe?e?nieo iaaeaaia?/ieo
i?ioean?a ? yaeu, iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy i?i ae?aeaeoe/iee aca?iica’ycie oa
aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue yaeu oa iaiao?aei?noue ?o aea/aiiy a
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oiiaao, oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee
iniaeno?nii-i???ioiaaii? iaaeaaia?ee, aeciaiiy aecia/ii? ?ie? aeoeaiino?
naii? iniaenoino? o aeaniiio ?icaeoeo ? oi?ioaaii?.

Iniiaieie i???ioe?aie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee ?iaioe ?c
caaaeueiiaeeaeaeoe/ieo ieoaiue ci?noo ina?oe ? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy
(A.A.E?a?anueeee, ?.ss.Ea?ia?, I.?.Iaoiooia, I.I.Neaoe?i,
I.Ae.ss?ia/aiei, A.A.Oo?iai oa ?i.). Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy
neeaaea? oe?e?nia oai??y ci?noo ina?oe ? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy, ?ic?iaeaia o
a?o/eciyi?e aeeaeaeoeoe?.

Aeey ?iai/iai ?ino?oiaioa??th aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iaee
?iaioe c iaoiaeieia?? iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeaethaaiiy a
iaaeaaia?oe? (N.?.A?oaiaaeuenueeee, A.?.I?o??a, A.A.E?a?anueeee,
A.I.Ii-eiinueeee, TH.E.Aaaainueeee, A.?.Caaayceinueeee, A.N.?eue?i,
I.?.Iiiaoia oa ?i.), ineoieiai-aeeaeeeoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaa/aiiy (I.ss.Aaeueia??i, A.A.Aeaaeaeia, I.O.Oaeec?ia, E.I.O??aeiai,
Ae.A.Aeueeii?i oa ?i.).

Inai?iiy ?iiiaaoe?e a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? iia’ycaia c i?iaeaiith ?o
oai?/iai inieneaiiy ? ii?aoethaaiiy a/eoaeai. A oeueiio eiioaeno?
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue ?iaioe, i?enay/ai? i?iaeaiaoeoe? oai?/i? oa
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaia?a (TH.I.Eoethoe?i, I.Ae.Ieeaiae?ia,
A.A.Neanoueii?i, A.?.Neiaiae/eeia, A.N.Nooianueea oa ?i.). Aaaeeeaeie
aeey aeine?aeieoeueei? iiceoe?? noaee ?iaioe a?o/eciyieo ineoieia?a oa
iaaeaaia?a, ui i?aoeththoue o ?one? iniaeno?nii? i???ioaoe?? a ina?o?
(I.N.Aaciai, E.?.Iiaeeiaa, A.A.Iao?ianueeee, ?.N.sseeiainueea oa
?i.).

Aeaea?aea aeine?aeaeaiiy: i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo iaaeaaia?a
oa ineoieia?a, no/ania oe?a?inueea ia??iaee/ia i?ana,
aeia?aeeiai-a?ae?ia?ao?/ia e?oa?aoo?a, ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe
I?i?noa?noaa Ina?oe Oe?a?ie, aaoi?aoa?aoe aeena?oaoe?e ? aeena?oaoe?ei?
?iaioe a aaeoc? oai??? iaaeaaia?ee, ineoieia??.

I?iaeaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo iiaeaeae o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
aea/aeanue iaie ai?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai /ano. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie aoei
ioiieaii iiiaae 500 o/i?a na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo a ??cieo oeiao
na?aaei?o iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a oa aeecueei 200 a/eoae?a.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ?iaio? aeei?enoaii eiiieaen ??ciiiai?oieo
oai?aoe/ieo oa aii??e/ieo iaoiae?a iaaeaaia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue iao? oa caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy: aiae?c
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? oa ineoieia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, aeina?aeo
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaia?a-i?aeoee?a, iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a,
niinoa?aaeaiiy, aan?aea, aieaoia iieooaaiiy, noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea aeaieo,
i?iaeooaaiiy, iiaeaethaaiiy, eiinoaooth/ee oa oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeinue iiaoaiii c 1996 ii 1999 ??e. Ia ia?oiio
aoai? (1996-1997 ??e) aoei aecia/aii iai?yi aeine?aeaeaiiy, aea/aeanue
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia oa ineoieia?/ia e?oa?aoo?a, iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee oa
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iaaeaaia?a c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Ocaaaeueithaaeeny oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? iai?aoethaaiiy a aaeoc?
?iiiaaoe?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? oa ca ?? iaaeaie.
Aoei noai?aii i?ia?aie niaoe?ae?ciaaiiai eo?no ii oi?ioaaiith oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae «Oeiea oai?/iai o/iy» (aeey caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e) oa
«A/eiiny oai?/ino?» (aeey iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a ina?oe), ia iniia?
yeeo i?iaiaeeeany aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1997-1998 ??e) cae?enithaaeinue iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy
aeina?aeo canoinoaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e o ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaia?a-i?aeoee?a
Oe?a?ie oa ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo c aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee.
I?iaeiaaeoaaeiny ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo ?yaeo iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie niaoe?ae?ciaaieo eo?n?a ii oi?ioaaiith oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae, ui noaei aacith aeey aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1998-1999 ??e) ocaaaeueithaaeeny ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe; c iaeyaeo ia iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioo aeae?eyeeny niaoeeo?/i? ?ene a?aeiia?aeii i?aai?ciaaiiai
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, ui ni?eya oi?ioaaiith oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a
na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo. Noai?thaaeanue ?iiiaaoe?eia iiaeaeue
oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a. Ia aeaiiio aoai?
nenoaiaoecoaaeeny oa ioi?ieyeeny iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioaaeeny
aeniiaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa ?iiiaaoe?ei?
iiaeae? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano noaee i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy; aia?oa aei i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo canoiniaaii ?iiiaaoe?eiee
i?aeo?ae (yeee iieeaaeaiee a iniiao a?aeiia?aeii? ?iiiaaoe?eii? iiaeae?
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano), caniiaaiee ia niaoe?aeueiiio iaa/aii? o/i?a
iniiaai oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? (cie?aia, aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiai?) oa
caeo/aii? oeiey??a aei ?ica’ycaiiy i?aeoe/ieo oai?/eo caaaeaiue o aaeoc?
aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiai? ae?yeueiino? a na?aaei?o iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o
caeeaaeao ??cieo oei?a.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o cae?eniaii? ni?iae
ocaaaeueieoe iayaiee aeina?ae oai??? ? i?aeoeee c i?iaeaie canoinoaaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a o iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino?, noai?aii?
?iiiaaoe?eii? iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai
oe?eueiiai a?eo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue ?ic?iaea niaoeeo?n?a,
ni?yiiaaieo ia oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai
oe?eueiiai a?eo: «Oeiea oai?/iai o/iy» (aeey caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e oa
oe?e-a?iiac?e); «A/eiiny oai?/ino?» (aeey iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a
ina?oe); iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
?aeiiaiaeiaai? aeey i?aeoe/iiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a na?aaei?o
iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o caeeaaeao ??cieo oei?a.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny iii?ith ia
iaoeiao iaoiaeieia?th; canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo
iao? ? caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy; aeei?enoaiiyi oe?ieiai eiea
aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeaea?ae; e?eoe/iei aiae?cii
? a?aooaaiiyi noaio ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, ui aea/a?oueny; e?euee?nieie
aeaieie ? aiae?cii cia/iiai ianyao oai?aoe/iiai oa aii??e/iiai
iaoa??aeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia ??cieo
aoaiao o?ae oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia XLII
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ?
nooaeaio?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee
(Eooeuee, 1996), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Iaaeaaia?/ia oai??y oa iaaeaaia?/iee aeina?ae: ia?niaeoeae ? ?icaeoie»
(Eooeuee, 1998), ia ?? Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Iaaeaaia?/i? ?iiiaaoe??: ?aea?, ?aae??, ia?niaeoeae» (Noie, 1998).

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia iniia? nenoaiaoe/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo aniaeo?a iaaeaaia?/ii?
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? cae?eniaii aiae?c oa iieacaii iniaeeaino? e
oaiaeaioe?? canoinoaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a (cie?aia,
oaoiieia?/iiai oa aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaiai), ye? ?aae?cothoueny a
eiie?aoieo ?iiiaaoe?eieo iiaeaeyo iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano; cai?iiiiiaaii
?iiiaaoe?eio iiaeaeue ii oi?ioaaiith oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a
na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo a i?ioean? aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiai?
ae?yeueiino?; ?ic?iaeaii niaoe?ae?ciaai? eo?ne c oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae «Oeiea oai?/iai o/iy» (aeey caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e oa
oe?e-a?iiac?e) oa «A/eiiny oai?/ino?» (aeey iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a
ina?oe). ?ica’ycaiith iai?/aieo o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?
caaaeaiue cia/iith i??ith ni?eya iniaenoee aeina?ae caeiaoaa/a ia
iinaae? ea??aieea iaoeiai-aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie «A/eiiny oai?/ino?»
Oeaio?o iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe Eooeueeiai i?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy ina?oe.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy e aeniiaee a?aeia?aaeaii o 12-oe
ioae?eaoe?yo: o 7-ie noaooyo o iaoeiaeo /aniienao oa ia??iaee/i?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e i?an?, 2-o oacao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e, 2-o i?ia?aiao
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo eo?n?a, 1-io iaoiaee/iiio iin?aieeo aeey o/i?a
na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui aeeth/a? 310
iaeiaioaaiue, 9 aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 177 noi??ieao, i?noeoue
29 oaaeeoeue, 17 ?enoie?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo, iaoo,
caaaeaiiy oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi eiai iaoeiao iiaecio,
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «I?iaeaia ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a o no/ani?e
i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe oe?e» aiae?cothoueny oaoiieia?/iee oa
aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaee i?aeoiaee ye ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?aeoiaee aei
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

Oaoiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei iiaoaeiae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ? ae?aaeaiiyi
nioe?aeueii-?iaeaia?iiai ieneaiiy a iaaeaaia?oe?, i?iaeoe??th
oaoiie?aoe/ii? iaoeiai? na?aeiiino? ia noa?o ina?oe. Iniiaia
ni?yii-aai?noue oeueiai aeeaeaeoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aecia/a?oueny oaeeie
oe?iiinoyie ?aoe?iiae?noe/ii?, oaoiie?aoe/ii? iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
na?aeiiino? ye caaacia/aiiy aa?aioiaaii? ?acoeueoaoeaiino?, aoaeoeaiino?
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, a?aeoai?thaaiino? eiai ?acoeueoao?a. Ca iniiao
iiaoaeiae oe?eae aa?ooueny caieaiiaai? ?acoeueoaoe, ae?aaeai? a
?aeaioeo?eiaoaaieo ae?yo o/i?a.

Oaoiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aecia/a? iiaoaeiao iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ye
i?aai?caoe?th aeinyaiaiiy o/iyie /?oei o?eniaaieo aoaeii?a canai?iiy,
iiaea?i?co? o?aaeeoe?eia iaa/aiiy ia iniia? ia?aaaaeath/i?
?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a.

I?ioyaii OO noie?ooy a na?oia?e iaaeaaia?oe? aoei c?iaeaii /eiaei ni?ia
«oaoiieia?coaaoe» iaa/aeueiee i?ioean. C /anii aaiethoe?iioaaee e
oyaeaiiy i?i ci?no oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano –
a?ae noai?aiiy oaoi?/iiai na?aaeiaeua aai ae canoinoaaiiy oaoiieia?e a
iaa/aii? – aei «oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy», oiaoi oaoiieia?e iiaoaeiae
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo ye
?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, ie nie?aeeny ia
iaoeia? i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeeaeaeo?a (A.I.Aaniaeueei,
A.?.Aiaiethaia, O.A.?eue?ia, I.A.Eea??i, I.A?iieoiae, ?.Iaeaeaea?,
N.I?ann?, O.Naeaiioi, ?.Oi?i, O.O?aii oa ?i.).

Aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaee i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aiiy i?iaeiaaeo? caeeaaeai?
a iaaeaaia?/ieo iiooeao ia?oi? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy ?aea? ca’yceo
iaa/aiiy c aeeooyi, aeina?aeii aeeoeie, ui aenooia? ye aeo?aeiee iiiaio,
iaeaaaeeea?oa aeaea?aei iaa/aeueiiai i?ciaiiy.

Aeaiee i?aeo?ae aecia/a? ?ic?iaeo iiaeaeae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ye
?i?oe?eiaaiiai o/iyie canai?iiy iiaiai aeina?aeo, ci?ith? o?aaeeoe?eia
iaa/aiiy ia iniia? i?iaeoeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a. A iaaeao oeueiai
i?aeoiaeo iaoith iaa/aiiy ? ?icaeoie a o/i?a iiaeeeainoae naiino?eii
inaithaaoe iiaee aeina?ae, i???ioe?ii ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa ? o/i?a ?
ii?iaeaeaiiy iiaeo ciaiue, niinia?a ae?e, iniaeno?nieo niene?a.

A/eoaeue aaa/a? aeeaeaeoe/io iaoo a i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, inai?ii? ae?oueie iiaiai aeina?aeo. Aeey o/i?a
iaa/aeueia caaaeaiiy aenooia? ye aeine?aeieoeueea a eiioaeno? cia/oui?
aeey ieo i?iaeaiii? neooaoe??.

Cia/ii? oaaae o nai?o ?iaioao aeine?aeieoeueeiio iaa/aiith oa
a?aeiia?aeiei eiio i?ioeaaeo?ai i?eae?eyee O.Oaaa, Aeae.A?oia?, A. aea
Aiii, ?.Aeaeca?, Ae.Eiea, N.Ia?in, ?.Iie, E.?aci?e. Iioe?aiei a no/ani?e
iaaeaaia?oe? ? ianooiia ?icoi?iiy aeine?aeieoeueeiai iaa/aiiy, eiee
o/aiue aeae?ey? ? noaaeoue i?iaeaio, i?iiiio? iiaeeea? ?ica’ycee,
ia?aa??y? ?o, aeoiaey/e ?c aeaieo, ?iaeoue aeniiaee o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
?acoeueoaoaie ia?aa??ee, canoiniao? aeniiaee aei iiaeo aeaieo, ?iaeoue
ocaaaeueiaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Iiaoaeiaa iiaeaeae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a oiiaao
?iiiaaoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a» aeine?aeaeo?oueny iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaee oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo iiaeaeae a?aeiia?aeii aei oai?aoe/ii? aace
oaoiieia?/iiai oa aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaiai i?aeoiae?a aei
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee ?iiiaaoe?eieo iiaeaeae iiaoaeiae iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe iniiai? ?ene aaciaeo iiaeaeae, a iniia?
yeeo i?noyoueny oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai oa
aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaiai i?aeoiae?a aei i?ioeano iaa/aiiy.

Aaciaa oaoiieia?/ia iiaeaeue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ianooiieie iniiaieie
?enaie. A/eoaeue aaa/a? aeeaeaeoe/io iaoo a i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, ni?yiiaaii? ia aeinyaiaiiy /?oei ie?aneaiiai,
cacaeaeaa?aeue iienaiiai aei??thaaiiai ?acoeueoaoo. Oaea i???ioaoe?y ia
aeeeth/a? iiaeeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? iiooeiai? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a, aea
oaeoe/ii aeo?niy? ?? ia ae?oaee ieai, ine?eueee /?oei o?eniaai?
?acoeueoaoe iia’ycai? ?c canai?iiyi aoaeiiieo c?ace?a.

Iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae i?aia?iaaiee o a?aeiia?aeiino? c /?oei o?eniaaieie
iaa/aeueieie oe?eyie, iiae?eaiee ia a?aeie?aieai? o?aaiaioe, ia?aaeaa/a?
aeueoa?iaoeai? niiniae iiaeaaaiiy. Eiaeiee o?aaiaio noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
oanoii ? ei?aeoe?eieie aeiaeaoeaie. Iaa/aeueia ae?yeuei?noue
ci???ioiaaia ia aeinyaiaiiy aoaeiiieo ?acoeueoao?a.

A/eoaeue aeeiio? ia?aaaaeii ooieoe?? eiinoeueoaioa-i?aai?caoi?a ?iaioe
o/i?a c i?aia?iaaieie, noaiaea?oeciaaieie iaa/aeueieie iaoa??aeaie.

Aaciaa oaoiieia?/ia iiaeaeue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ? ?? eiie?aoi?
ao?eaiiy iathoue ?iiiaaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?, o?ainoi?iothoue o?aaeeoe?eia
iaa/aiiy. Iai?yiie ia?aoai?aiue a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? – a?aeiiaa a?ae
?aeeiiai ona?aaeiaiiai oaiio iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe, aei?noea
oe?eaiieeaaeaiiy ia iniia? ae?aaiinoe/ii caaeaieo oe?eae, /?oeee
?iciiae?e iioi/ii? (oi?ioth/i?) ? i?aenoieiai? (noiaoeaii?) ooieoe??
ioe?ithaaiiy, i???ioaoe?y ia aa?aioiaaia aeinyaiaiiy i?i?iaeueii
caieaiiaaiiai iaa/aeueiiai ?acoeueoaoo, noeo?eii-aii??e/iee i?aea??
aeae?a iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? ? niinia?a aca?iiae?? o/i?a oa a/eoaey,
na?aae yeeo ia?aaaaea? ?iaeea?aeoaeueia a?aei?aoethaaiiy iaoa??aeo c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo caaaeaiue, ?iaioa a iaeeo iaa/aeueieo
i?aea?oiao ?c aca?iiia?aa??eith, ni?yiiaaiith ia canai?iiy aoaeiiieo
?acoeueoao?a-c?ace?a, a?aeiia?aei? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? eiinoeueoaoe??
a/eoaey.

A no/anieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo iiooeao ? ?ic?iaeao aaciaa oaoiieia?/ia
iiaeaeue ?aae?co?oueny ye iiaeaeue iiaiiai canai?iiy ? ?? aa??aioe.

I?ia?aeiith oaiaeaioe??th aeeaeaeoe/ieo iiooe?a, iia’ycaieo c
i?aai?caoe??th iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
? i???ioaoe?y ia niaoe?aeueia iaa/aiiy iiooeiaei i?ioeaaeo?ai,
oi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo?e ?aoeaeneaiiai ieneaiiy.

A aacia?e iiaeae? iaa/aiiy ye nenoaiaoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ia?aeiith
? ae?yeuei?noue o/i?a, ni?yiiaaia ia ?ica’ycoaaiiy iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie;
oey ae?yeuei?noue ia? oai?aoeei-i?ciaaaeueiee aeine?aeieoeueeee
oa?aeoa?, iaeiae aiia aeeth/aia a ?aaeueiee eiioaeno i?aai?ciaaiiai
a/eoaeai aaciina?aaeiueiai, eiie?aoiiai aeina?aeo o/i?a.

Iniiaieie aoaiaie a no?oeoo?? iiaeae? ? iinoaiiaea i?iaeaie, ca?? aeaieo
? aenoaaiiy aeo?aeieo i?eiouaiue, a?iioac, ?o iiaeaeueoa ia?aa??ea ?
iiaa?iaiiy aei i?iaeaie a ?? ii/aoeiaiio aeaeyae? aai ia?aoi?ioethaaiiy
i?iaeaie. Aa??aioe oe??? aaciai? iiaeae? ??ciyoueny, cie?aia, ia?oei
e?ieii, eiee i?iaeaia aaiaeeoueny a/eoaeai aai noaaeoueny naieie o/iyie,
oiaoi nooiaiai naiino?eiino? o/i?a o aenoiaii? i?iaeaie. Cia/iei
iiiaioii o a?aei?iiino? aa??aio?a iiaeae? iaa/aiiy ye nenoaiaoe/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nooi?iue naiino?eiino? o/i?a o ae?iaeai? niiniao
i?ciaaaeueiiai iiooeo. Oeae nooi?iue naiino?eiino? caeaaeeoue ia
no?eueee a?ae a?eo, ne?eueee a?ae i???ioaoe?? ia oi?ioaaiiy aeina?aeo
aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, canai?iiy o/iyie aeine?aeieoeueeeo
i?ioeaaeo?.

O?ao?e ?icae?e «I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ca oiia aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieo iiaeaeae o no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e oeie?» i?enay/aii
aea/aiith i?iaeaie noai?aiiy ?iiiaaoe?eii? iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo ?c canoinoaaiiyi ie?aieo
aeaiaio?a oaoiieia?/iiai oa aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. Cie?aia, aeine?aeaeaii ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/io
nenoaio oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai
a?eo a na?aaei?o iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o caeeaaeao, oaoiieia?th oi?ioaaiiy
oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a o i?ioean? aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiai?
ae?yeueiino? oa iiaoaeiao ?iiiaaoe?eii? iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.

Iniiaith aoaeue-yei? ae?yeueiino? oai?/iai oa?aeoa?o ? ?? eiai?oeaia
noa?a oa ?ioaeaeooaeueii-oai?/? cae?aiino?. Oai?/?noue ? /anoeiith
ethaenueeiai ?ioaeaeoo ?, naiai ?iaeo, ?aae?caoe??th caeaoiino? aa/eoe
iia? ca’ycee i?ae ia’?eoaie oa ?aeayie.

Ia?aiane/ai?noue ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiey a aoaeue-ye?e aaeoc? ethaenueei?
i?aeoeee, iino?eia aeiiaa noai?aiiy nai???aeieo ca i?ea?iaeuei?noth ?
iioeiaeuei?noth iaaeaaiue aeooiaii? oa iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e
coiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy a ethaeeie oai?/iai i?aeoiaeo
aei ae??oaiiy aeeoo?aeo oa i?ioan?eieo caaaeaiue. Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a
oi?ioaaiiy oaeiai oeio iniaenoino? ? ia?aaeon?i aeooae?caoe?y, ?icaeoie
? oi?ioaaiiy ?? oai?/eo cae?aiinoae. Aei oaeeo cae?aiinoae iiaeia
a?aeianoe o?, ye? caaacia/othoue oni?oia cae?eniaiiy ?icoiiai?
ae?yeueiino? oai?/iai ni?yioaaiiy.

I?ae oai?/ith cae?ai?noth ?icoi??ii ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-iniaeeaa ii?aeiaiiy
yeinoae ? aeanoeainoae iniaenoino?, ui ciaoiaeeoue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
oai?/iio noee? ae?yeueiino?, eio?ee ia?aaeaa/a? iayai?noue
i?ea?iaeueiino? ? iiaecie ye a i?ioean? ae?yeueiino?, oae ? a ??
?acoeueoao?.

Aeine?aeaeaiith oaiiiaio oai?/eo cae?aiinoae i?enay/aii ?iaioe
?.ss.Ea?ia?a, I.I.Eoea, A.I.Iieyei, A.?.Aiae???aa, I.E.sseiae?aa,
E.A.Oaeanoiai?, E.E.Iiiio oa ?i. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe aaaiiee aianie ?yaeo
ineoieia?a oa iaaeaaia?a o aaeocue noai?aiiy iaoiaeee aeey ioe?ithaaiiy
oai?/eo iiaeeeainoae ae?oae (Aeae.A?eoi?ae, A.Oi?ain, ?.I.Aieeia,
C.?.Eaeieeiaa, I.A.Aoaaiei oa ?i.). I?iaeai? o?ai?iao e?aaoeaii? noa?e
iniaenoino? i?eae?eaii oaaao a ?iaioao A.Oi?aina, A.N.Aeueoooeea?a,
?.I.Iiiiia?ueiaa, A.Ae.Oa?aoeiaa, A.I.Iieyei oa ?i.

I?ioa, iaiiaii aea/aiith caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e, aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeia?e oa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e ae?yeueiino? o/i?a. Oa?aiii aeey
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea oaea iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueia
ae?yeuei?noue, yea iineoue oai?/ee oa?aeoa? ? i?noeoue aeaiaioe
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? oa i?aai?ciaaia a?aeiia?aeii aei
oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. Aacith aeey i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe ii oi?ioaaiith
oai?/eo cae?aiinoae oeiey??a oa noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii? ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ina?oiuei? iiaeae? noaa ocaaaeueiaiee aeina?ae, ui neeaaea? nenoaio
?iaioe iaae aeyaeaiiyi, oi?ioaaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii cae?aiinoae , cie?aia
oai?/eo. Aeey oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o iaaeao
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee cai?iaaaeaeaii ?ic?iaeaiee iaie niaoeeo?n
«Oeiea oai?/iai o/iy» oa i?e iicaoe?eueiiio caeeaae? ina?oe – niaoeeo?n
«A/eiiny oai?/ino?».

Aoaeoeai?noue i?iaaaeaii? ?iaioe iaoiiaeea aeioe?euei?noue aeae?eaiiy
niaoeeo?/ieo ?en i?ioeano iaa/aiiy i?aai?ciaaiiai ye i?ioeano
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae. A ?acoeueoao?
aeae?eaiiy ?en oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?ioeano iaa/aiiy a
i?aai?caoe?eiee aniaeo oe?eani?yiiaaii? ae?yeueiino? c oi?ioaaiiy
oai?/eo cae?aiinoae oeiey??a; ?en aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaiai i?aeoiaeo
– a ci?noiaee aniaeo; oa?aeoa?ieo ?en i?ioeano aeooae?caoe?? oai?/iai
iioaioe?aeo iniaenoino? – a oe?eueiaee aniaeo ? cacia/aiiy i?ioeano
oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae a yeino? ?acoeueoaoeaiiai aniaeoo,
aeyaeeinue ca iiaeeeaa caanoe ie?ai? neeaaeia? aeaiiai i?ioeano a ?aeeio
oe?e?nio ?iiiaaoe?eio iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a
na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo. Aeaia iiaeaeue, i?aeoe/ii ao?eaia o
a?aeiia?aeieo niaoeeo?nao, iiaea canoiniaoaaoeny aeey i?aai?caoe??
oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae oeiey??a o na?aaei?o iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o
caeeaaeao ??cieo oei?a.

O aeiaeaoeao i?aaenoaaeaii i?ia?aio niaoeeo?no c oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae oeiey??a na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo «Oeiea oai?/iai o/iy»
(aeey caaaeueiiina?oi?o caeeaae?a), «A/eiiny oai?/ino?» (aeey
iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a ina?oe), aieaoo aeey o/i?a ia anoaiiaeaiiy
iayaiiai ??aiy aeaiaioa?ieo ciaiue a aaeoc? oai?/i? oa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?; aieaoo aeey o/i?a ia i?aaeiao
aeyaeaiiy ?ioa?ano aei oai?/i? (cie?aia, iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei?)
ae?yeueiino?; aieaoo aeey a/eoae?a i?i aeioe?euei?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
niaoeeo?n?a c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a o i?ioean?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?; oeaeo ae?aaiinoeee ??aiy
noi?iiaaiino? oai?/eo cae?aiinoae; oanoia? caaaeaiiy aeey eiinoaooaaiiy
??aiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae ia?aae ii/aoeii niaoe?ae?ciaaieo caiyoue; aeie
caaaeaiue a?aei-oo?i???a aeey ae?aaiinoeee ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae i?ioyaii niaoe?ae?ciaaieo caiyoue; oanoia? caaaeaiiy aeey
aecia/aiiy ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? oai?/eo cae?aiinoae i?ney i?ioiaeaeaiiy
eo?no niaoe?ae?ciaaieo caiyoue.

Aeniiaee

1. Aeae?eai? a aeine?aeaeaii? ?iiiaaoe?ei? iiaeae? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano
iiae?eythoueny ia 2 iniiai? oeie, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ?ai?iaeoeoeai?e oa
i?iaeaii?e i???ioaoe??. ?iiiaaoe?ei? iiaeae? ia?oiai oeio
iiaea?i?cothoue iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ? ni?yiiaai? ia aeinyaiaiiy
aa?aioiaaieo ?acoeueoao?a o iaaeao eiai o?aaeeoe?eii? ?ai?iaeoeoeaii?
i???ioaoe?? (?iiiaaoe??-iiaea?i?caoe??). Iieeaaeaiee a ?o iniiao
oaoiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aiiy, ni?yiiaaiee ia?aaeon?i ia
iia?aeiieaiiy o/iyi ciaiue ? oi?ioaaiiy niinia?a ae?yeueiino? ca
c?aceii, ci???ioiaaiee ia aenieiaoaeoeaia ?ai?iaeoeoeaia iaa/aiiy.
Ae?oaee oei i?aaenoaaeaiee ?iiiaaoe?eieie iiaeaeyie, ui ci?iththoue
o?aaeeoe?eiee iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ? ni?yiiaai? ia caaacia/aiiy eiai
aeine?aeieoeueeiai oa?aeoa?o, i?aai?caoe?th iiooeiai?
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? (?iiiaaoe??-o?ainoi?iaoe??).
A?aeiia?aeiee aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaee i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aiiy
ni?yiiaaiee ia?aaeon?i ia oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a aeina?aeo naiino?eiiai
iiooeo iiaeo ciaiue, ?o canoinoaaiiy a iiaeo oiiaao, oi?ioaaiiy
aeina?aeo oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? a ii?aeiaii? c ae?iaeaiiyi oe?ii?nieo
i???ioaoe?e.

2. Aeeaeaeoe/i? iiooee o noa?? iiaoaeiae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a
no/ani?e oeie? ? i?inoi?ii aeey ?icai?oaiiy aeaio oei?a
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? na?aeiiino?. Ia?oee,
noe??ioenonueei-oaoiie?aoe/iee , – i?iaeoo? nioe?aeueii-?iaeaia?io
?aeaieia?th o noa?o aeeaeaeoeee ? ?icaeyaea? iaa/aiiy ye oioaeueii
eiino?oeiaaiee i?ioean c aei?noei nieaiiaaieie, o?eniaaieie
?acoeueoaoaie; i???ioo? o/i?a ia aeio?eiaiiy iiaeaieo aoaeii?a,
canai?iiy caaeaieo c?ace?a. Ae?oaee, aoiai?noe/iee, ?aae?co? o noa??
aeeaeaeoeee ?aeaaee ?icaeoeo oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo ethaeeie a oiae?
iaa/aiiy, i???ioo? o/i?a ia naiino?eia canai?iiy iiaiai aeina?aeo c
iai/aaeaeieie ?acoeueoaoaie, ?icaeoie nai?o i?ciaaaeueieo ? iniaeno?nieo
iiaeeeainoae.

3. Cae?eniaiee aiae?c aeicaieea aecia/eoe eiei iniiaieo eaoaai??e, yeeie
ei?enoo?oueny no/ania aeeaeaeoeea o noa?? eiino?othaaiiy, ?aae?caoe?? oa
aiae?co iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. Iiaeia aeae?eeoe aea? iiiaeeie eaoaai??e,
ui /anoeiai ia?aoeiathoueny ? a?aeiia?aeathoue aeaii aeyaeaiei ??ciei
i???ioaoe?yi iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? na?aeiiino? –
oaoiie?aoe/ii-i???ioiaai?e (oaoiieia?/i?e) ? aoiai?noe/ii-i???ioiaai?e
(iiooeia?e, oai?/?e). I?iaiaeieie eaoaai?iyie oaoiie?aoe/ii-i?i?ioiaaii?
iaoeiai-iaaeaaiai/ii? naiaeiiinoi ?: aoaeoeaiinoue
iaa/aiy,eiie?aoecaoeiy iaa/aeueieo oeieae, e?eoa?i? canai?iiy(aoaeiiii
?acoeueoaoe), ei?aeooth/ee cai?ioiee ca’ycie, oi?ioth/a i iiaenoieiaa
ioeiiea, iaa/aeueii i?ioeaaeo?e, i?aaenoaaeaiy iioi?iaoei? oa aoaeiiia
canai?iiy, oanooaaiiy, e?eoa?iaeueiee eiio?ieue, iiaia canai?iiy i o.ae.
Aecia/aeueieie aeey aoiaiinoe/ii-i?i?ioiaaii? iaoeiai-iaaeaaiai/ii?
naiaeiiinoi ? oaei aeeaeaeoe/ii eaoaai?i? ye iaa/aeueia aeineiaeaeaiiy,
i?ioeanoaeueia i?i?ioaoeiy, ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai, iinoaiiaea i ia?aai?ea
a?iioac, cai? aeaieo, aenia?eiaio, ia?aianaiiy ciaiue, iiaeaethaaiiy,
a?aoiaioaoeiy, i?eeiyooy ?ioaiue, niiaaiaeianaiiy iiaeaei i ?aaeueiinoi,
?aoeaeneaia, e?eoe/ia, oai?/a ieneaiiy.

4. Aeeaeaeoe/ii iiooee a ?onei oaoiieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeo iathoue ca
iniiao aoaeoeaio ?ai?iaeoeoeaio aeiyeueiinoue ye naiinoieio oeiiiinoue i
ia?aaaaeii ni?yiiaaii ia aeeaeaeoe/ii oeiei iaaenieiai iiciaaaeueiiai
?iaiy, ?iaeyoue aeoeaio ia noaiaea?oeciaaieo iaa/aeueieo i?ioeaaeo?ao i
ia?aaeaa/athoue iiceoeaiee aiioeieiee oii, aea aiaeii/an i
iniaenoinii-iaeo?aeueiee oa?aeoa? aeeth/aiiy o/iy i a/eoaey a
iaa/aeueiee i?ioean, ia?aaiaeyoue a/eoaey ia iiceoeith
aeeeaaea/a-iia?aoi?a noaiaea?oeciaaieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo iaoa?iaeia i
oaoii/ieo caniaia iaa/aiiy. Aeeaeaeoe/i? iiooee a ?one?
aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaiai i?aeoiaeo aeoeaioothoue ?icaeaath/ee
iioaioeiae iaa/aiiy, aeoiaeyoue ic naiinoieii? oeiiiinoi iiooeiai?
aeiyeueiinoi, noaaeyoue aeeaeaeoe/ii oeiei aenieiai iiciaaaeueiiai
?iaiy, eiee iaaeaaia ia?aaoaa? a iiceoei? ia?oia?a a iaa/aeueiiio
aeineiaeaeaiii, ia?aaeaa/athoue iniaenoinio aeeth/aiinoue anio o/anieeia
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, aeniei iniaenoinii-i?ioanieio aioiaiinoue
iaaeaaiaa aei aio/ei?, oaeoiaii? aca?iiaei? c o/iyie, i?e yeie
aiaeaoaa?oueny ?icoe?aiiy iaae ye aaciina?aaeiueiai aeinaiaeo, oae i
eiai inieneaiiy o/iyie.

5. Ocaaaeueiaiith aaciaith iiaeaeeth a iaaeao oaoiieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeo ?
iiaeaeue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ye aiaeoai?thaaiiai iaa/aeueiiai oeeeeo c
aiaeoai?thaaieie iaa/aeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie: aiae aei?noei? oienaoei?
iaa/aeueieo oeieae – aei i?aaenoaaeaiiy c?aceia canai?iiy,
aiaei?aoethaaiiy o/iyie iaa/aeueiiai iaoa?iaeo, – /a?ac aeiaaiinoe/iee
eiio?ieue i ei?aeoeieii i?ioeaaeo?e, – aei aeinyaiaiiy aoaeiiieo
oiiaeueieo ?acoeueoaoia. A aeineiaeaeaiii aeyaeaii i eiie?aoeciaaii
caaaeueii ?ene ?icieo aa?iaioia oei?? aaciai? oaoiieiai/ii? iiaeaei:
aeai? iiiiiaeueii iaia’yceiaeo aoaeiiia canai?iiy, ?o i?aaenoaaeaiiy
o/iyi, i?aaiicaoeiy iiia?aaeiuei?, iioi/ii? i caeeth/ii? ia?aai?ee
canai?iiy(ia iniiai noaiaea?oeciaaiiai oanooaaiiy), aeueoa?iaoeaii
niiniae ii?aoethaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai iaoa?iaeo, ?iaioa o aeaniiio oaiii i
o.ae.

6.Ocaaaeueiaiith aaciaith iiaeaeeth a ?aieao
aeineiaeieoeueei-iiooeiaiai iiaeoiaeo ? iiaeaeue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano
ye oai?/iai iiooeo: aiae aa/aiiy i iinoaiiaee i?iaeaie, – aei aenoiaiiy
i?eiouaiue, aiiioac, ?o ia?aai?ee, iiciaaaeueii? ?aoeaeni? iaae
?acoeueoaoaie i i?ioeanii iiciaiiy. Iaeiei ic aa?iaioia oei?? aaciai?
iiaeaei ? iiaeaeue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ye nenoaiaoe/iiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy (ca oeiii i?e?iaeie/i-iaoeiaiai). Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith
aaciai? iiooeiai? iiaeaei ? ciiia iiceoei? o/iy, ia?aaeeaaiiy iei
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a ?iei aeoeaiiai eiai o/anieea – o/anieea
aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Aeyaeaii aca?iiaeith iiaeaeae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ic ciinoii inaioe.
Oae, aeeiaiiea ?ic?iaee aaciai? oaoiieiai/ii? iiaeaei oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iineeaiith oaaaith aei oeieueiai? i?i?ioaoei? iaa/aiiy ia iniiai
aeiaaiinoe/ii caaeaieo oeieae. O aiaeiiaiaeiinoi c oeei o aeai?e iiaeaei
i?iyaey?oueny oaiaeaioeiy aei aeoiniaiiy ciinoo iaa/aiiy (i
aiaeiiaiaeii, ciinoo inaioe), ui iiaaii iiaeaea?oueny iaeiicia/iie i
/ioeie (aeiaaiinoe/ii-i?i?ioiaaiie) oienaoei?. Oeueiio aiaeiiaiaea?
cina?aaeaeaiiy /anoeiaeo oaoiieiai/ieo iiaeaeae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ia
iaeiicia/ii aiaeoai?thaaieo ?acoeueoaoao iaa/aiiy, ui /ioei
i?iyaey?oueny a iiaaaeiioei; i?e oeueiio aeinaiae oai?/i? aeiyeueiinoi i
aiioeieii-oeiiiinii aiaeiioaiiy oaeoe/ii aeoiniythoueny c oeaio?o oaaae
iaaeaaiaa. Aca?iiaeiy iiooeiaeo iiaeaeae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ic
ciinoii inaioe iia’ycaia c onoaiiaeith ia aeineiaeieoeueeo iiceoeith
iniaenoinoi, aeoeaiee, iiioeiaoeaiee oa?aeoa? ?? aca?iiaei? – c
?aaeueiinoth, ui iicia?oueny, i?e?iaeith, noniieuenoaii. Oey onoaiiaea c
iaeii?? noi?iie aecia/a? oa?aeoa? ciinoiai? i?i?ioaoei? iaa/aiiy, a c
iioi? – iineeaio oaaao aei i?ioeaaeo?, ui caaacia/othoue iiooeiao
aeiyeueiinoue o/iia. A naith /a?ao, oaaaa aei oai?/i? aeeth/aiinoi
iniaenoinoi a iaa/aeueia iiciaiiy aeyaey?oueny a oiio, ui niaoeiaeueiith
aeeaeaeoe/iith iaoith noa? oi?ioaaiiy niiniaia oa i?ioeaaeo? oai?/iai
iiciaaaeueiiai iiooeo.

7. Aea/aii iniaeeainoi aeaio iniiaieo oeiia iiiiaaoeieieo iiaeaeae
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano – oaoiieiai/iiai oa aeineiaeieoeueei iiooeiaiai
noaee iiaea?oioyi noai?aiiy iiiiaaoeieii? iiaeaei oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo
caeiaiinoae o/iia na?aaeiueiai oeieueiiai aieo. Oeieueiaee eiiiiiaio
aeiyeueiinoi o/iia oa iaaeaaiaia, ca aeaiith iiaeaeeth, a?oioo?oueny ia
aeooaeicaoei? oai?/iai iioaioeiaeo iniaenoinoi o/iy. Ciinoiaee aniaeo
aiaeia?aaea? aeineiaeieoeueei-iiooeiaee iiaeoiae aei i?ioeano iaa/aiiy.
?ene oaoiieiai/ai iiaeoiaeo iieeaaeaii ca iniiao i?aaiicaoeieiiai
aniaeoo aeiyeueiinoi. ?acoeueoaoeaiee aniaeo ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy
iaeiiai c iaeaaaeeeaioeo no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaioia oai?/i? iniaenoinoi –
oai?/eo caeiaiinoae. I?aeoe/ia ?aaeicaoeiy iiiiaaoeieii? iiaeaei
caeienith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaieo iaie niaoeeo?nia «Oeiea
oai?/iai o/iy»(aeey caaaeueiiinaioiio oeie oa oeie-aiiiacie) oa «A/eiiny
oai?/inoi» (aeey iicaoeieueieo caeeaaeia inaioe). Niaoeiaeiciaaii eo?ne
ni?yiiaaii ia oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo caeiaiinoae oeiey?ia o
aeineiaeieoeueei-iiooeiaie aeiyeueiinoi. ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iiaeaei oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo caeiaiinoae o/iia na?aaeiueiai oeieueiiai
aieo a i?aeoeeo no/anii? oeiee aeyaeeeny iiceoeaieie(a oiaei
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aiaecia/aii cia/iee i?e?ino o ?iaiyo
noi?iiaaiinoi oai?/eo caeiaiinoae o/iia na?aaeiueiai oeieueiiai aieo),
ui iiaeoaa?aeeei aoaeoeaiinoue aeaiiai iaaeaaiai/iiai caaeoio i
aiaeiiaiaeii? iiiiaaoeieii? iiaeaei iaa/aiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a ?yaei caaaeueiiinaioiio
oeie oa iicaoeieueieo caeeaaeia Oe?a?ie.Iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo
caeiaiinoae o/iia na?aaeiueiai oeieueiiai aieo ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ?icieo oeiao iaa/aeueii-inaioiio caeeaaeia.

8. A iiiiaaoeieieo iiaeaeyo iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano aeaea?aeii
iaa/aeueiiai iiciaiiy ? aaciina?aaeiie aeinaiae o/iia. Iaaeaaia(ye i
aanue eiiieaen aeei?enoiaoaaieo iei aeeaeaeoe/ieo caniaia) aeeiio? ia
?ieue “oieueo?o”, ui i?iionea? /a?ac naaa iaa/aeueio iioi?iaoeith, a ?
iiii/ieeii a ?iaioi o/iy, aenooiath/e ye iaeia c aeaea?ae iioi?iaoei?. A
iaeaaei iaaeaaia noa? i?aaiicaoi?ii naiinoieiiai iaa/aeueiiai iiciaiiy
o/iia, ia aieiaiith aeieiaith iniaith a eeani, a ?aaeena?ii ?o
aca?iiaei? c iaa/aeueiei iaoa?iaeii , iaeei c iaeiei i c o/eoaeai.
Niaoeiaeueia eiiiy iiiiaaoeieieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo iiooeia iia’ycaia c
?ic?iaeith nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii? noi?iie iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. A
yeinoi oa?aeoa?iiai i?i?ioe?o aenooia? aeia?ice/eeaa iiceoeiy a/eoaey,
i?eeiyooy oa iiaeo?eiea o/iy, iiceoeaia aacioeiii/ia ?aaeoeiy.
Aacioeiii/iinoue ye oeiiiiniee oa iino?oiaioaeueiee i?i?ioe? iaaeaaiaa
aoiaeeoue a noia?a/iinoue c oeieueiaith i?i?ioaoei?th iaa/aiiy, ui
aeaco? ia noia?a/iinoue naii? iaaeaaiai/ii? eoeueoo?e, iia’ycaii? c
noia?a/iinoth oeiiiinieo i?i?ioaoeie a aeeooi noniieuenoaa.

9. I?aaeiaoii iiaeaeueoeo aeineiaeaeaiue iiaeooue noaoe ianooiii
i?iaeaie:

a) ii?iaiyeueii-iaaeaaiai/ia aea/aiiy iiiiaaoeieieo iiaeaeae iaa/aiiy a
oe?a?inueeie oeiei;

a) ii?iaiyeueiee aiaeic o?aaeeoeieieo iiaeaeae iaa/aiiy a oe?a?inueeie
oeiei;

a) aea/aiiy iaaeaaiai/ieo oiia iiaea?iicaoei? o?aaeeoeieieo iiaeaeae
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a i?aeoeoei oe?a?inueei? oeiee;

a) aeineiaeaeaiiy oaeoi?ia aoaeoeaiiai niiainioaaiiy iiaea?iiciaaieo
o?aaeeoeieieo oa aeiei?iiii iiiiaaoeieieo iaaeaaiai/ieo no?oeoo?
iaa/aeueii-aeoia-iiai i?ioeano no/anii? oe?a?inueei? oeiee;

ae) aea/aiiy iaaeaaiai/ieo canaae iiaoaeiae aoaeoeaiiai
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a oe?a?inueeie oeiei ca oiia aeei?enoaiiy
i?iaiaeieo iaaeaaiai/ieo oaoiieiaie no/aniinoi.

Oaeei /eiii, ?aae?caoe?y ia i?aeoeoe? aena?oeaieo o aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? iieiaeaiue oa ?ica’ycaiiy ia?niaeoeaieo i?iaeai ?
caaaeaiue ni?eyoeia i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo
cai?iaaaeaeaiue o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? na?aaei?o iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a ??cieo oei?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaiee o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo
aeena?oaioa:

1. Iao?the ?.I. Iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeeeaino? oaoiieia?e ?icaeaath/iai
iaa/aiiy // Oace aeiiia?aeae. Eieaeoeaiee ca??iee. Iaoa??aee XLII
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ?
nooaeaio?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee,
/anoeia ??. — Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1996. — n. 96-97.

2. Iao?the ?.I. I???ioiaaia i?ia?aia niaoeeo?no «Oeiea oai?/iai o/iy»
aeey o/i?a na?aaeiueiai oa noa?oiai oe?eueiiai a?eo. — Eooeuee:
Aeaea?aei, 1997. — 6 n.

3. Iao?the ?.I.I?ia?aia ao?oea «A/eiiny oai?/ino?» aeey o/i?a
na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo — Eooeuee: Aeaea?aei, 1997. — 8n.

4. Iao?the ?.I Ia oeyoo oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? // Iaaeaaia?/iee
iiooe. — 1997. — ? 4(16). — n. 75-80.

5. Iao?the ?.I Oaoiieia?/i? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae
oeiey??a // Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. — 1998. — ?2. — n.68-70.

6. Ia aeiiiiiao thiiio aeine?aeieeo / Oii?yaeiee Iao?the ?.I — I?nueea
o/i?anueea iaoeiaa oiaa?enoai «A?oaeeo». — Eooeuee: Aeaea?aei, 1998. —
20 n.

7. Iao?the ?.I Ae?aaiinoe/i?noue oe?eae oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o // Iaaeaaia?/iee iiooe. — 1998. — ? 1(17). —
n. 72-74.

8. Eaoeia N.?., Iao?the ?.I Eeth/ aei i?ciaiiy oa aaeineiiaeaiiy //
?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/iee a?niee. — Eooeuee: Iaaenoe?’y, 1998. —
n.29-30.

9. Iao?the ?.I Aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e o oai?/?e ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa
// I?iaeaie iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e: Oai. ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. — Aei. 3.
— Eooeuee: Aeiey, 1998. — n. 58-61.

10. Iao?the ?.I Aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaa ae?yeuei?noue a eiioaeno?
noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino? o/iy // Iaaeaaia?/iee iiooe. — 1998. — ? 1(21).
— n. 73-74.

11. Iao?the ?.I ?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue a/eoaey // Iaaeaaia?/ia
oai??y oa iaaeaaia?/iee aeina?ae: ia?niaeoeae ? ?icaeoie. Iaoa??aee
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? 17-19 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. —
Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1999. — n. 110-111.

12. Iao?the ?.I Oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o // Aee?aeoi? oeiee. — 1999. — ? 29 (67). — n.7.

Aiioaoe?y

Iao?the ?.I ?iiiaaoe?ei? iiaeae? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a no/ani?e oeie?
(ia iaoa??aeao ??cieo oei?a iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie). –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01. – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. –
Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, Eooeuee, 2000.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith aeooaeueii? i?iaeaie noai?aiiy
oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo iiaeaeae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a ??cieo
oeiao iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a. O ?iaio? ocaaaeueiaii oai?aoe/i?
iai?aoethaaiiy o aaeoc? ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a aei iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano, cie?aia oaoiieia?/iiai ? aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaiai; aea/aii
iaaeaaia?/i? canaaee iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a oiiaao
?iiiaaoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a; aeine?aeaeaii aieea ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo
ia oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo a
iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o caeeaaeao. Ia iniia? cae?eniaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue noai?aii ?iiiaaoe?eio iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai oe?eueiiai a?eo o i?ioean?
aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiai? ae?yeueiino?, a ?acoeueoao? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
yei? aeyaeaii cia/iee i?e??no o anoaiiaeaieo ??aiyo noi?iiaaiino?
oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?iiiaaoe?ei? iiaeae? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano,
oaoiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano,
aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaee i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aiiy, oai?/? cae?aiino?,
?iiiaaoe?eia iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae,
aeine?aeieoeueei-iiooeiaa ae?yeuei?noue o/i?a.

Aiiioaoeey

Iaoethe E.A. Eiiiaaoeeiiiua iiaeaee o/aaiiai i?ioeanna a nia?aiaiiie
oeiea (ia iaoa?eaeao ?aciuo oeiia o/aaii-ia?aciaaoaeueiuo caaaaeaiee
Oe?aeiu). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01. – Oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. –
Aieuineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eane Oe?aeiee, Eooee, 2000.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aeooaeueiie i?iaeaiu nicaeaiey e
aiaae?aiey eiiiaaoeeiiiuo iiaeaeae o/aaiiai i?ioeanna a ?aciuo oeiao
o/aaii-ia?aciaaoaeueiuo caaaaeaiee. A ?aaioa i?iaiaeece?iaaiu e iaiauaiu
oai?aoe/aneea ia?aaioee ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo iaaeaaiaia a iaeanoe
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo iiaeoiaeia e o/aaiiio i?ioeanno, a /anoiinoe
oaoiieiae/aneiai e enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai-iieneiaiai; eco/aiu
iaaeaaiae/aneea iniiau iino?iaiey iiaeaeae o/aaiiai i?ioeanna a oneiaeyo
eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; i?eiaiai eiiiaaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e
i?ioeanno oi?ie?iaaiey oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae o/aueony n?aaeiaai
oeieueiiai aic?anoa. Auoaoiiiyiooue iiaeoiae ii?aaeaeyao
niioaaonoaothuoth eiiiaaoeeiiioth iiaeaeue iino?iaiey o/aaiiai
i?ioeanna. I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea i?aaeiieaaaaony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiia
iao/aiea oeieueieeia iniiaai oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a /anoiinoe –
enneaaeiaaoaeuenei-iieneiaie. I?eiauaiea o/aueony e ?aoaieth
i?aeoe/aneeo oai?/aneeo caaeaiee iaecaaaeii ieacuaaao iieiaeeoaeueiia
aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea eo oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae, o/eouaay eo iao/aiea
a ?aciuo oeiao n?aaeieo iauaia?aciaaoaeueiue caaaaeaiee nenoaiu
ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu.

A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea eiiiaaoeeiiiie iiaeaee iino?iaiey o/aaiiai
i?ioeanna ia oi?ie?iaaiea oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae o/aueony n?aaeiaai
oeieueiiai aic?anoa. Aeey oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai oi?ie?iaaiey oai?/aneeo
niiniaiinoae oeieueieeia ?ac?aaioai e aiaae?ai niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue eo?n,
i?eaioiaaiue ia iio?aaiinoe oeieu – «Oeiea oai?/aneiai o/aieea», a aeey
aiaoeieueiuo caaaaeaiee – niaoeeo?n «O/einy oai?/anoao». Oeacaiiua
niaoeeo?nu niinianoaiaaee oi?ie?iaaieth oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae o/aueony
a i?ioeanna oai?/aneie enneaaeiaaoaeuenei-iieneiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A i?ioeanna yenia?eiaioaeueiie ?aaiou nicaeaia niioaaonoaothuay oeaea
aeeaaiinoeee o?iaiy noi?ie?iaaiinoe oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae, onoaiiaeaiu
o?iaie noi?ie?iaaiinoe oeacaiuo oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae o/aieeia
n?aaeiaai oeieueiiai aic?anoa a oneiaeyo aiaae?aiey niioaaonoaothuae
eiiiaaoeeiiiie iiaeaee o/aaiiai i?ioeanna.

A ?acoeueoaoa yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee nicaeaia eiiiaaoeeiiiay
iiaeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae o/aueony n?aaeiaai
oeieueiiai aic?anoa a i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaoaeuenei-iieneiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe. I?aaeeaaaaiay eiiiaaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue neioace?oao
ioaeaeueiua niaoeeoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeanna iao/aiey,
iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai i?ienoiaeeo oi?ie?iaaiea oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae.
Eioa?anothuee i?ioeann ?anniao?eaaaony eae ni/aoaiea oeaeaaiai,
niaea?aeaoaeueiiai, i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai e ?acoeueoaoeaiiai aniaeoia
aeayoaeueiinoe iaaeaaiaia. Ia?aue – aace?oaony ia aeooaeecaoeee
oai?/aneiai iioaioeeaea ee/iinoe. Aoi?ie – iniiaai ia
enneaaeiaaoaeueneii iiaeoiaea e i?ioeanno iao/aiey. O?aoee – iino?iai ia
i?eioeeiao oaoiieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea e iao/aieth. *aoaa?oue –
i?aaeiieaaaao oi?ie?iaaiea iaeiiai ec no?oeoo?iuo eiiiiiaioia oai?/aneie
ee/iinoe – oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae. A ?acoeueoaoa aiaae?aiey
eiiiaaoeeiiiie iiaeaee ii?aaeaeai cia/eoaeueiue i?e?ino a onoaiiaeaiiuo
o?iaiyo noi?ie?iaaiiinoe oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae o/aueony.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiiaaoeeiiiua iiaeaee o/aaiiai i?ioeanna,
oaoiieiae/aneee iiaeoiae e o/aaiiio i?ioeanno,
enneaaeiaaoaeuenei-iieneiaue iiaeoiae e iao/aieth, oai?/aneea
niiniaiinoe, eiiiaaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey oai?/aneeo
niiniaiinoae, enneaaeiaaoaeuenei-iieneiaay aeayoaeueiinoue o/aueony.

Annotation

Matijuk I.O. Innovation models of educational process in modern school
(based on materials from different types of educational-establishments
in Ukrain). – Manuscript.

The thesis is submitted for a candidate degree in pedagogical sciences,
speciality 13.00.01. – theory and history of pedagogics. – Volyn state
university named after Lesia Ukrainka, Lutsk, 2000.

The paper is devoted to research of urgent problem of creation and
implementation of innovation models of educational process in different
types of educational establishments. In the paper the results of
theoretical analysis of innovation approaches, especially technological
and resaarch ones to the education process are summed up; the
pedagogical basis of creation of the models of educational process using
innovation approaches are studied; the influence of innovation approach
on forming of creational abilities of mid-level pupils in educational
establishments is investigated. Based on experimental investigations
the innovation model of forming of creative abilities of mid-level
pupils in reserch process is created. The result of implementation gives
sufficient addition to a level of forming of creational abilities of the
pupils.

Key words: innovation models of educational process, technological
approach to educational process, research method of education,
creational abilities, innovation model of formation of creational
abilities, pupils’ research activity.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 10.12.1999 ?.

Oi?iao 60o90/20 oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1.

Caiiaeaiiy 4653

Oe?aae 100 aec. Aieeinueea iaeania ae?oea?iy,

263010, i. Eooeuee, i?iniaeo Aie?, 27.

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