IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IIE?OE*IEO ? AOIIIAOe?IIAEUeIEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe

IAI OE?A?IE

OAeE 32 001 (477)

EA?IAC?IA

Ia??y Noaiai?aia

?AeAss AeA?AEAAIINO? A OE?A?INUeE?E IIE?OE*I?E AeOIOe?

[E?IAOeUe O?O — II*AOIE OO NOIE?OOss]

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 23.00.01 — oai??y ? ?noi??y iie?oe/ii? iaoee

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

Oaiiaae TH??e ?aaiiae/, ?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo ?

aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie,

ea??aiee Oeaio?o ?noi?e/ii?
iie?oieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeaaeai?e AII, aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe,
i?ioani?

E?AIAIUe Aaneeue A?eai?iae/, ia?iaeiee aeaiooao

Oe?a?ie;

— aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, AA?NOTHE Aeaaeeneaa

Oaaei?iae/, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo

No?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie;

— aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe, OEEss? Eaii?ae

?aaeieeiiae/, caa?aeoth/ee
naeoi?ii Oi?aae?iiy

aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee
Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa

Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai

IAI Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «6» o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.181.01 a ?inoeooo? iie?oe/ieo ?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

252011, i.Ee?a, aoe.Eooociaa, 8, aoae.202.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo
? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «31» aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee __________________Eaaaiaoeue TH.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeo?ae oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? ia iiaee ??aaiue
naiii?aai?caoe?? iciaiaioaaany ooai?aiiyi a e?ioe? OO no. iacaeaaeii?
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. C iaeyaeo ia i?ioeane aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, ui
noaiiaeyoue iniiaiee ci?no no/aniiai ia??iaeo a Oe?a?i? eia?/iei ?
cina?aaeaeaiiy oaaae a?o/eciyieie iaoeiaoeyie ia aea?aeaaiciaa/?e
i?iaeaiaoeoe?.

I?eeiaoii, ui ?? inieneaiiy a iie?oe/i?e iaooe? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia aeaio
??aiyo: aeiaaeueiiio — c iiceoe?e eiaa?aioii? eia?ee, yea ?ioaa?o?
aaaaoiia?ooy eieaeueieo iiae?e, i?ioean?a, yaeu ? ni?ey? «aienaiith»
oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano a caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeee — oa
eieaeueiiio, ia yeiio i?aeaeathoueny aiae?co i?ioeane, ui i?io?eaee (?
i?io?eathoue) a i?aai?ci? aaciina?aaeiuei oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.
Aeiyoeiaee ?ioa?an a/aieo aei aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo oa aea?aeaaioai?/eo
i?ioean?a o ?o aca?iiae?? iaoiiaea aeieeiaiiy o a?o/eciyi?e iie?oieia??
iiaiai iai?yio — aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa, iaoiaeieia?/ii oa?oioiaaiiai ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeuee?e ia?aaeeai?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iiyao a aeaa’yiino? ?iee ia’?iieo ? a?oioiaieo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeeo aena?oeththoueny ?aeaeii-oai?aoe/i? iaaeaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe ceaio noie?oue ii i?iaeai?
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, ?yae aniaeo?a oaie aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei. Cie?aia,
no?oeoo?a, ci?no ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?
e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no., iniaeeaino? ?? ?icaeoeo caeeoathoueny
iaeiaeine?aeaeaieie. Iica iaoeiaei aea/aiiyi ana ua ia?aaoaa? cia/ia
/anoeia ?aeaeii-oai?aoe/ii? niaaeueie oe?eiai ?yaeo i?aaenoaaiee?a
oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee — iin??a ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?. A?aeoae,
iaei? c ieo caeeoathoueny aei e?ioey iai?ciaieie, a ?io? — iaeaea
iiai?noth caaooeie, ine?eueee a ?aaeyinueeee /an ?oi? ?iaia aoee
aee?aneai? c ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ?noi??? c iie?oe/ieo oa ?aeaieia?/ieo
i??eoaaiue, a ?ioaeaeooaeueia niaaeueia ye oaea, ui ia aeeaaeaeany a
?aiee iiii?aeaieia??, i?iaieiooaaeany iai?eeiyoiith ?, iio?aieaoe a
index librorum prohibitorum, i?aeeyaaea aeianaiith ca iaae? eoeueoo?ii?
iai’yo?.

C a?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui ?aeay oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ia a?aeiia?aeaea
eii’thieoo?iei iio?aaai ?aaeyinueei? iaoee ? ia aoea i?aaeiaoii
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae c iaeyaeo ia oa, ui a ca?oa?aeiiio
oe?a?iiciaanoa?, ye ? a no/ani?e a?o/eciyi?e iaooe?, ia nueiaiaei?
a?aenooi? ocaaaeueithth/? i?aoe? c i?iaeaie, oaia «?aeay aea?aeaaiino? a
oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? (e?iaoeue O?O — ii/aoie OO noie?ooy)»
ia?aia aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?ae oe?a?inueeith iie?oe/iith aeoieith ie ?icoi??ii ni?iae oe?a?inueei?
naiina?aeiiino? caaaiooe i?iaeaie naiai eieaeoeaiiai ?nioaaiiy e
i?aai?caoe??. Oe? ni?iae ae?eoee aei ian o iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo
aa?aaeueieo oi?iao, ii/eiath/e a?ae iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie, ioae?oeenoeee oa
ana?noeee, iie?oe/ieo i?ia?ai, eiinoeoooe?eieo aeo?a aei ai?noiey??th oa
ooaeiaei?o oaeno?a aeeth/ii. ?oi?ie aaoi?aie aoee ?noi?eee, e?oa?aoi?e,
aaia?aoe oiui. (Inoaii? iiynith?oueny oei, ui a oe?a?inuee?e ni?eueiio?,
ye ? a ?ioeo neia’yinueeeo, i?aoey, ni?yiiaaia ia aoiiaeeoa?aioe?aoe?th
ia?iaeo, ?icaeoie iaoe?? ye iie?oe/ii? ni?eueiioe, eyaea naia ia ?o
iea/?. Oae, iai?eeeaae, na?aae ae?y/?a /anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oaae aoee i?aaenoaaieee iaiie?oe/ieo noa? — ?noi?ee ?
o?eieia I.E.Oaoa?ee, iiao ? a/aiee ss.Eieea?, ?noi?ee O.Iaeaoeueeee oa
?i.).

A?aeo?ae a?ae onoi?a iii?noe/iiai na?oiaeyaeo, ui aoa nai???aeiei
i?ie?onoiaei eiaeai aeey iaoee a ?aaeyinueeee /an, aea? a iiaeo oiiaao —
ooaa?aeaeaiiy ieth?ae?cio iaoiaeieia?e, caaaeueiioeea?e?caoe?eiiai
ieneaiiy, ieneaiiy, aaciaaiiai ia i?eioeeiao neia?aaoe/iiai na?oiaa/aiiy
— oain e?eoe/iiai ? ia’?eoeaiiai iioe?ioaaiiy aeooiaii? niaaeueie
oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, aeie?aieaiiy a i?e oiai, ui noaiiaeoue aacia?a/io
oe?ii?noue, nai???aeia aeaea?aei aeeoo?aeo nee iaoe??, ui ? c oe???
niaaeueie, ye neeaaeiai? ?a?iiaenueei? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? o?aaeeoe??,
aianeii o caaaeueiiethaenueeo nea?aieoeth, a ui a i?e iaeiaa?o?nia, a oi
e iiieeeiaa.

Aea/aiiy ?aeaeiiai niaeo?o iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ?, cie?aia, ?aea?
aea?aeaaiino? ye eiai no?eaeiy, ye nooo?ai? neeaaeiai?
?aeaeii-oai?aoe/ii? eiiiiiaioe oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo a /an iaeaeui? eiai iie?oecaoe??, ia? ni?eyoe aeeaieiio inieneaiith
i?iaeaie iiaea?i?caoe?? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? a ia??iae O?O — ii/aoeo OO
no., iniaeeainoae ?? naiii?aai?caoe??, a e??i oiai — inyaiaiith
neeaaeieo i?ioean?a aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a,
niaoeeo?ee na?oia?ae/oooy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo aa?noa iaaea?aeaaii? iaoe??,
i??i?eoao?a ?oiueiai na?oiaeyaeo, nenoaie oe?iiinoae oa, c?aooith,
nooiino? ?oi?o iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a, i?aaiaiiy ?aae?caoe?? yeeo aeaaei
iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiio /anoeio ?ioae?aaioe?? ia ceai? noie?oue ia
??aaiue iie?oe/iiai i?ia?aeieea iaoe??.

I?ciaiiy iaei??? c eeth/iaeo ?aeae, aei?iaeoeoaaieo a oiae? ?icai?oaiiy
oe?a?inueei? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ?noi??? — aacia?a/ii, iaeoe?eaa?oi?
neeaaeiai? a?o/eciyii? ?noi??? — i?aeaaaea aei ?icoi?iiy iaa?no?aeueii?
ni?yiiaaiino?, iie?oe/iiai naino iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae
oe?a?ioe?a 1917-1920 ??., aeiiiiiaea ona?aeiieoe iniaeeaino? ?icnoaiiaee
nee, ?aeaei? aeoiee iieiaeaiue, ui aoee aaciaeie a i?ia?aiao
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, oai?aoe/ia i?aeeiaeaey eiioeaiooaeueieo
canaae iie?oeee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, c?aooith, aeiiiiiaea oieeiooe
ni?iuaiiy ? iaeiiaieino? o aena?oeaii? ieioeiai iaoe??.

Aeooaeuei?noue aea/aiiy oai?aoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo, iai?aoeueiaaiiai
aeiaeiea ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e ?ioaeaeooaeuei?e
niaaeuei? a e?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no., iaaiith i??ith iaoiiaeaia ?
oei, ui noai oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? ? aea?aeaae a e?ioe? OO no. ? cia/iith
i??ith eia?/iei iane?aeeii iainyaiaiiy, iaona?aeiieaiiy naiai ieioeiai,
oai??? ? i?aeoeee ?noi?eei-iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO
no. (ia iaeia ae ai ?c oaia??oi?o oe?a?inueeeo i?iaeai ia? cia/io
eai?a?i?noue). Oiae ? nueiaiaei? (ye ? ia ii/aoeo /e a na?aaeei?
noie?ooy, ui a?aecia/aeiny a ??ci? /ane oe?a?inueeeie ?ioaeaeooaeaie)
aeooaeueiith ? aeoiea i?i oa, ui ie ia cia?ii naaa. A?aeoae, iaeiei ?c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe ? nueiaiaei?
caeeoa?oueny caaaeaiiy i?ciaiiy naieo naaa, naiai ieioeiai. ? ia eeoa c
iaoith iiooeo a iueiio eeth/a aei ?icoi?iiy no/aniino?, aea e iiaioaaiiy
aeina?aeo ai?ioueae ca aea?aeaaia naiiaecia/aiiy iaoe?? iieie?iue
oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? ceaio O?O — OO no.

E??i oiai aeey iie?oeee iieiaei? iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae ia? noaiiaeoe
?ioa?an oe?eee ?yae ?aeae oa i?aeoiae?a, ae?iaeaieo ?a/ieeaie
oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee. Na?aae ieo oae?, ye:

— ?aeay ?ic?aooieo ia aeani? neee;

— nie?aea?ecio ?ioae?aaioe??, ?? iao??ioecio ? i?ioan?iiae?cio ye
ia?aaeoiiae ?icaoaeiae aea?aeaae;

— a?iiaaeyinueeiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ie?o;

— «anaoe?a?inueeino?» ye caniao iiaeieaiiy «?aa?iiae?cio» (aeey oiai
/ano — cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ? iaaeaei?i?yinueeiai);

— iaaeaoi?/iino? ia’?aeioth/i? ?aea?;

— aea?aeaae, yea oaacia/eoue ianaeaiiy ? oa?eoi??th, noai?eoue oiiae
aeey naiia?aeoai?aiiy ? naii?aae?caoe?? ia?iaeo;

— i?aaiai? aea?aeaae;

— nioe?aeueii ni?aaaaeeeaiai eaaeo;

— ?a?iia?cio (iie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe?? ia ?a?iio, ia cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee?
aeaiie?aoe/i? iie?oe/i? o?aaeeoe??, iinooiiai? ?ioaa?aoe?? a ?a?iio
/a?ac anoaiiaeaiiy oaaea?aoeaieo /eiioaaea?aoeaieo/ ca’yce?a ? o.ae.);

— a?aeooeaiiy «naiai» oeyoo iinooio ? o.ae.

Aeine?aeaeoaaia i?iaeaia, ?, cie?aia, ieoaiiy eaa?oeiiino? oa
?aaeueiino? aea?aeaaieoeueeeo ono?aie?iue oe?a?ioe?a aeeeeeaee ?ioa?an o
i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee ye aaciina?aaeiuei a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, oae ? i?ci?oa. ?, c?icoi?ei, ui oeae ?ioa?an
ia aoa nooi aeaaeai?/iei: c iiiaioo oi?ioethaaiiy naieo ieoaiue aiie
aie?oaeenue a eaiao ?aeaieia?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo noia?a/ie iaaeiei
i?iaeaie «iaaea?aeaaieo», «ia?noi?e/ieo» ia?iae?a, ieoaiiy ?oiuei?
?noi?e/ii? ia?niaeoeae (a iniiaiiio — ye ?? a?aenooiino?). ?aii?oaaiiy,
iaaaaeaiiy (/e iaai?iiy) aeieaoe i?iaeaie, ye? noaaeea i?aeoeea
iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano, aeo?aeooaaiiy ai?ioueae ca iacaeaaei?noue eeoa ye
aaci?aenoaaiiai i?aaiaiiy «c?aaeieoeueei? naiino?eiino? ?ii?iaeoeyie» —
c iaeiiai aieo, ? aeeao/?noue ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? a
aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iiio oiiae? ia?iae?a, oi?niaai?noue ?? ae?aaeaiiy a
aeooiai?e i?iaeoeoe?? ye i?iyao ?noi?e/ii? ia?ica’ycaiino? a aeieyo
ia?iae?a ?in?enueei? ?iia???, a iio?i ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco — c ae?oaiai,
i?ecaaee aei oiaiiaeeeaeaiiy ?nioaaiiy N?N? oa eiai ?icaaeo. Iaeiae
iaa?oue iiae?ai? ea?aeeiaeuei? c?ooaiiy a iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? ia?iae?a ia
oa?aiao eieeoiueiai N?N?, iane?aeeii yeeo noaee ci?ie ? o ieaiaoa?iiio
ianooaa?, ia ciaioeee i?eoyaaeueiino? aeacaieo ieoaiue aeey oeo, ooi
ieneeoue a nenoai? eii?aeeiao, oa?oioiaai?e ia canaaeao i?oieia?ciaaii?
?noi???, aeiiooth/e ?aea? ?a?ioaa?aoe?? iino?aaeyinueeiai i?inoi?o,
?icieaaiiy noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae (ye, iai?eeeaae,
iiaiyaeai? i?eoeeueieee eiioeaioe?? ?a?ac?enoaa, oaaeioianueei? «?aea?
Ee?aa»). C iaeyaeo ia aeuaneacaia, ? aino?a iaiao?aei?noue
ia?ainieneaiiy yaeu iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? oe?a?ioe?a, ?, cie?aia, oeyoo
aea?aeaaiiai naiiaecia/aiiy iaoe??.

I?ioean aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? ye iniaeeaiai
?ioaeaeooaeueii-iie?oe/iiai oaiiiaia ia? aeiiiiiaoe c?icoi?oe, ui noaaoe
ia oeyo ai?ioueae ca noai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaae, oe?a?ioe? i?oee
oeyoii, i?ioi?iaaiei iaaea?aeaaieie iaoe?yie ?a?iie, ieney/e oeie ae
eaoaai??yie oa i?ioiaey/e o nai?io aeooiaiiio, iie?oe/iiio ?icaeoeo o?
ae uaae?, ui e inoaii? (oi/a iio?aaa iiaioaaoe oeae oeyo ia aoea
iane?aeeii, oae ae iiaeoe, i?inoi? eiai ?aoeaioe?? ia ?aeaeiiio ??ai?,
aea aecenoaioe?eii a?ae/ooith ? ia?aaeeoith). Ioiae, oe?a?inueea
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? ia aeiaaeeiaei yaeuai, a caeiiii??iei i?ioeanii.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yi
aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaiee c ieaiaie oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee i?iaeai
iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a ?inoeooo? iie?oe/ieo ?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia oe? neeaaeieo ? noia?a/eeaeo
i?ioean?a noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? anaa?/ii inieneeoe ?aeath
aea?aeaaiino?, ae?iaeaio i?aaenoaaieeaie oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee
a e?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.

C iaeyaeo ia iaoo aeena?oaoe?? aecia/ai? oae? aeine?aeieoeuee?
caaaeaiiy:

— nenoaiaoecoaaoe iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei iie?oieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iaoiaee inieneaiiy nenoaie “?aeay
aea?aeaaiino?” ye nenoaie neia?aaoe/iiai ??aiy;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie;

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe noai aeaea?aeueii? aace;

— c’ynoaaoe oiiae, iniaeeaino? oa aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei?
?ioaeaeooaeueii-iie?oe/ii? ae?oe ye iin?y ? oai?oey ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?;

— aeaoe aenie?eaoe?th oa oa?aeoa?enoeeo iai?yi?a iie?oe/ii? aeoiee;

— ?ice?eoe no?oeoo?o ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?, aeine?aeeoe ?ieue oa ci?no
i?o?a, aeei?enoiaoaaieo a yeino? ?? eiiiiiaio?a;

— c’ynoaaoe nooi?noue iiyniaiue i?e/ei aacaea?aeaaiino? oa ci?no
i?iiiceoe?e uiaei ?o iiaeieaiiy;

— aeyaeoe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe nenoaio aeieac?a uiaei i?aenoaa ?
iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy aea?aeaae;

— aeine?aeeoe iiiyo?eiee aia?ao, i?inoaaeeoe aaiethoe?th iiaeyae?a ia
nooi?noue oaaea?ae?cio oa naiino?eieoeoaa;

— aeyaeoe oa?aeoa?i? ?ene ?icaeoeo aaoiiii?nonueei? oa
naiino?eieoeueei? ?aea?;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaiino?;

— aecia/eoe a?aei?iiino? ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? oe?a?ioe?a a?ae
?in?enueei? oa iieuenueei? aea?aeaaieoeueeeo ?aeae noiniaii iaae
aea?aeaae, oi?ie ?? ono?ith oa i?aae?iiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?eioeeie neia?aaoe/ii?
aecia/aiino? ?noi??? ethaenoaa, nenoaiiino?, i?eioeei ?noi?ecio. Oe?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaany aa?iaiaaoe/iee oa oeea?e?caoe?eiee i?aeoiaee, a oaeiae
oae? caaaeueiiiaoeia? oa niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaee, ye aiae?c oa neioac,
?iaeoeoe?y oa aeaaeoeoe?y, aa?eo?eaoe??, ii??aiyeueiee, oeiieia?/iee,
noa’?eoiee, eiioaio-aiae?co oa ?i.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniiai? oai???, eiioeaioe?? oa ?aea?, ui
i?noyoueny a niaaeuei? oe?a?inueei? ?ioaeaeooaeueii-iie?oe/ii? ae?oe.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?aeay aea?aeaaiino?, aei?iaeoeoaaia
oe?a?inueeith iie?oe/iith aeoieith, cie?aia — ?? ci?no, no?oeoo?a,
iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy — ii/aoie 1890-o ??. — ii/aoie
1918 ?., oiaoi /an ?nioaaiiy nenoaie “?aeay aea?aeaaiino?” o iaei?e ?c
oac naiai ?icaeoeo. O neia?aaoe/ieo oa?i?iao, oea /an ?nioaaiiy o
oaciaiio i?inoi?? no?eei? no?oeoo?e — aoo?aeoi?a “?aeay aea?aeaaiino?”
ye eieae?ciaaiiai a iaaieo ae?eyieao a?aee?eoiai, iae?i?eiiai,
ia??aiiaaaeiiai na?aaeiaeua i?ioeano.

Oyaeyth/e ?aeath ye nenoaio, aeena?oaioea a?aeiiaeeanue a?ae ??
ni?eeiyooy ye aeaoa?i?i?noe/iiai ia’?eoa a aoaeue-yeee iiiaio eiai
?nioaaiiy ? oei naiei — a?ae aaoiiaoe/iiai i?ea’ycoaaiiy ii/aoeo ?
e?ioey oace ?icaeoeo aei eiie?aoii? iiae??, ui iaea i?noea a oiae?
iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo. Ca ?? ia?aeiiaiiyi,
iaiaaeoaaoe aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, iai?eeeaae, ii/aoeii na?oiai?
a?eie /e ii/aoeii iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue (iiae?e, aacoiiaii,
aiioaeueieo a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo) aoei a iaaei?a/iei, aaeaea
ieoo?aeo ci?i o nenoai? “?aeay aea?aeaaiino?” aiie ia ni?e/eieee. Ioiae,
aoei acyoi aei oaaae ?aaeueiee noai nenoaie, a a?i na?ae/eoue, ui eeoa c
1918 ?. ii/aee a?aeaoaaoenue ci?ie o na?aaeiaeu? — iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?
(oe?oa — noni?euenoa?), iia’ycai? ?c iineeaiiyi eiina?aaoecio ye
ie?aiiai ?aeaeiiai iai?yio, iiyaith iaoe?iiae-eiioi?cio ?, ia?aoo?,
?ioaa?aeueiiai iaoe?iiae?cio, ui e aeaaei nenoaio ia iiao oaco ?icaeoeo.

Aaia?ao?/i? iaae?, a yeeo ?icaeyaea?oueny ?icaeoie ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?,
ioiieththoue, ie??i oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii? oa?eoi???, e oie a?aae, aea
?nioaaee ina?aaeee oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee, i?aaenoaaieee yeeo
c?iaeee aaaiiee aianie o ?icaeoie ?aea?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/aia ye noeoii?noth
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue, oae ? caniaaie ?o ?ica’ycaiiy. C iiceoe?e
neia?aaoeee i?iaaaeaia aeaeiiiiceoe?y nenoaie “?aeay aea?aeaaiino?” oa
c?iaeaii oaeoe/ii ia?oa eiiieaenia ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaiee
i?aeo?ae ? ni?iaith iiai? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iaeiiai ?c iai?yi?a
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai i?ioeano, ui a?aeaoaaany a i?aai?ci? oe?a?inueei?
iaoe??.

Iia? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe iieyaathoue o ianooiiiio:

— aaeineiiaeaii nenoaiaoecaoe?th iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei aiae?co
iie?oe/ieo yaeu;

— cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue iioei?caoe?? aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e ?aea?
aea?aeaaiino? oa ?icoe?aii aiae?oe/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy;

— iiaeeaeaii nooi?noue oaeiai oaiiiaia, ye “oe?a?inueea
?ioaeaeooaeueii-iie?oe/ia ae?oa”, i?iaiae?ciaaii oiiae, iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy ?? iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy;

— cae?eniaii iiaeaeueoo aenie?eaoe?th oa/?e oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee oa ?oi?o ?aeaeieo a?eie; c’yniaaii noaaeaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
eiaeii? c ieo aei ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? oe?a?ioe?a;

— aia?oa cae?eniaii eiiieaenia aea/aiiy ci?noo oa no?oeoo?e ?aea?
aea?aeaaiino?; aeine?aeaeaii ?ieue oa ci?no i?o?a ye ?? eiiiiiaio?a;

— nenoaiaoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii nooi?noue i?e/ei aacaea?aeaaiino? oa ci?no
i?iiiceoe?e uiaei ?o iiaeieaiiy;

— aia?oa aeyaeaii oa i?iaiae?ciaaii nenoaio aeieac?a uiaei i?aenoaa ?
iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae;

— i?iaeiaaeaii aea/aiiy iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo, yeee aeei?enoiaoaaany aeey
iicia/aiiy oeo /e ?ioeo yaeu aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy i?aaenoaaieeaie
oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee;

— aia?oa cae?eniaii eiiieaeniee aiae?c oa?aeoa?ieo ?en ?icaeoeo
oaaea?ae?nonueei? oa naiino?eieoeueei? ?aea?;

— anaa?/ii aea/aii oa e?eoe/ii inieneaii nooi?noue eiioeaioe?e
aea?aeaaiino?, ?o “neeueieo” oa “neaaeeo” iieiaeaiue;

— ae?noaa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aea?aeaaieoeueeeo
?aeae oe?a?ioe?a, ?in?yi oa iieye?a;

— aaaaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a iiaee iaoa??ae c a?o?aieo oiiae?a.

Iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeaeoa a noeoiiino? iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Iie?oe/ia aeoiaiiy /anoeie ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue ai?iaeiaae O?O no. o nai?io ?icaeoeo i?ieoei o?e aoaie, iacaai?
aeena?oaioeith oe?a?iiciaa/ei, oe?a?iio?euenueeei, oe?a?inueeei.
E?ioeaaei — noeoiiei — iane?aeeii iie?oe/ieo ?aoeaen?e ?ioaeaeooaeueii?
ae?oe ia eiaeiiio ?c aoai?a iaae i?iaeaiaie aoooy oe?a?inoaa noaea,
c?aooith, iiyaa ia oai?aoe/iiio ??ai? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo (iaoe??).

?aeaeii-iie?oe/iee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??
noi?iaiaeaeoaaany ai?ioueaith ca naio iiaeeea?noue ?nioaaiiy ye
oe?a?inueei? ?ioaeaeooaeueii-iie?oe/ii? ae?oe.

2. Ia ceai? O?O — OO no. a oe?a?inueeiio ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?
oi?ioaaeenue ye oa/?? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee e?aa?ae?ci, nioe?ae?ci,
iaoe?iiae?ci, aeiaeai c yeeo ia yaeya niaith iacaeeoa?aioe?eiaaii?
oe?e?niino?. Oa?aeoa?iith aeey ieo aoea o?e?aoe?y ?aeae.

?aeay aea?aeaaiino? aoea ni?eueiei iaaeaaiiyi ? e?aa?ae?a, ?
iaoe?iiae?no?a, ? nioe?ae?no?a.

Aeeaae o oi?ioethaaiiy ?aea? aianee ia o?eueee iniaenoino?, ye?
?aeaioeo?eoaaee naaa ye oe?a?ioe?a, aea e ?ioaeaeooaee c iiaea?eiith
eiyeuei?noth.

3. Aecia/ia ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? ?aeaeiiai ?aia?ooa?o oe?a?inueei?
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ?, cie?aia, aea?aeaaieoeueei?, iaeaaeaea
I.Ae?aaiiaiiao. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue iin??a ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? aoea
eiai ?aeaeiei niaaeei?ioeai, ui aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i ?oith ?aoeaioe?th
«ae?aaiiai?cio».

4. I?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee iaa?oiooaaee iayai?noue
i?aenoaa aeey noai?aiiy aea?aeaae, aeiaaee iaiao?aei?noue aea?aeaaiiai
naiiaecia/aiiy iaoe??.

5. No?oeoo?i? eiiiiiaioe ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? neeaaeaeenue ye ?c
?aoe?iiaeueieo, oae e ???aoe?iiaeueieo ?aeae — i?o?a. ?o ii?aeiaiiy
aeiiiiaaaei «aii?yaeeoaaoe» ? aeooae?coaaoe ieioea, iia’ycaoe eiai ?c
no/aniei iiiaioii ?noi??? iaoe?? ?, c?aooith, a?aeiaeoe a?aeiia?ae? ia
nieneiaeeoo?a? aeey ia? ieoaiiy uiaei i?aa, iia’ycaieo ?c ooai?aiiyi
aea?aeaae. Iniaeeao oaaao ia iie?oe/i? i?oe ye can?a eiinie?aeaoe??
iaoe?? ia oeyoo ai?ioueae ca aea?aeaao caa?oaee ?aaeeeaeuei? aeaiaioe
oe?a?inueeiai ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai na?aaeiaeua.

6. Iniaeea?noth nenoaie aeieac?a ?ioaeaeooaeueii-iie?oe/ii? ae?oe uiaei
iiaeeeaino? oa iaiao?aeiino? oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy aoea oa, ui
aiia aeaoaeiaoaaeanue ca aeiiiiiaith a?aoiaio?a, ye? a?aeenue c
ieioeiai, ?c no/aniino? oa c oyaiiai iaeaooiueiai iaoe??.

7. Ia ceai? noie?oue eaoaai??aeueii-iie?oe/ia iniiaa aea?aeaaieoeueeiai
aeeneo?no ciaoiaeeeanue o noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy, /ei ? iiynith?oueny
ieth?ae?ci a ?? oeoia/aii?. A e?ioe? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo
iie?oe/ia aeoiea iia?oaaea iiiyooyie noiniaii iaoe, ooieoe?e, ao?eaoo?a
aea?aeaae; oi?i aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith; oi?i aea?aeaaiiai i?aae?iiy;
no?oeoo?e iie?oe/ii? nenoaie oa a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa; aeaea?ae
oa nooiino? ?iciiae?eo aeaaee; iniaenoino? ye noa’?eoa iie?oeee ?
iie?oe/ii? noa’?eoiino? iaoe??, ye? aeicaieeee ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?
no?oeoo?ii ? ci?noiaii i?ea?aoe naiiaeinoaoiueiai aeaeyaeo.

?icaeoie aea?aeaaieoeueei? aeoiee oe?a?ioe?a a?aeaoaaany i?eioeeiiai a
?ioiio ?one?, i?ae ?in?enueei? /e iieuenueei?.

8. Neaaeith noi?iiith iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy iin??a ?aea? aoei oa, ui,
i?aeiyaoenue aei aeoai?aiiy eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaiino?, aiie a oie aea
/an iaeiaioith i??ith aaeaeenue aei ?ic?iaee eiie?aoiiai «ieaio» ae?e ii
noai?aiith aea?aeaae (ye naiino?eii?, oae ? o oi?i? aaoiiii??) a
iie?oe/ieo ?aae?yo OO no.

9. Aeey oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaieoeueei? aeoiee aoee oa?aeoa?ieie oae?
?ene: i?aaaethaaiiy nioe?ae?noe/ieo ? iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo ianoaiia,
aeaiie?aoeci, einiiiie?oeci, eiinoeoooe?iiae?ci, «anaoe?a?inuee?noue» ?
?aa?iiae?ci, ian?ainoai, iaoe?iiae?noe/iee ?eai?eci, «i’yeee» ?aneci,
iie?oe/ii iaaei?aaaeaia -o?euenoai (aano?i-, aa?iaii-, iineai- oiui),
oia?y (iieiii-, thaei-, iineai-), i?ia?ioe?ae?ci. Iayai?noue iaaaoeaieo
iiiaio?a a oe?a?inueeiio iie?oe/iiio aeoiaii? (i?e aacoiiaiiio
i?aaaethaaii? iiceoeaieo) iiynithaaeinue, iaeia?oa, noaiii iaoe??, a
yeiio aiia ia?aaoaaea ai?iaeiaae a?e?a.

10. Oi?iiaaia a oiiaao ooene?a, ia?ane?aeoaaiue nai?o iin??a —
?ioae?aaioe??, e?euee?nii ia/eneaiii?, c a?aeii iie?oe/iiai aeina?aeo, c
ia?icaeiooith iie?oe/iith eoeueoo?ith, a oiiaao iecueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? i?iaoaeaeaieo ia?iaeieo ian, aaeaeoaeino? aei “ia?noi?e/ieo”
? “iaaea?aeaaieo” iaoe?e ?a?iie, aeinoaoiuei iaa?aeaeeoa?aioe?eiaaia
a?ae ?ioeo eoeueoo?ieo i?iya?a aeooo iie?oe/ia aeoiea ana ae aoea
i?iyaii iiaiioe?iieo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo i?ioean?a a i?aai?ci? iaoe??. Aiia
ni?iiiaeany i?aeiyoe “oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy” aei ??aiy i?iaeaie, no?eaeiai
yei? noaea ?aeay aeanii? aea?aeaaiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui ?? iieiaeaiiy ?
aeniiaee iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey a?eueo aeeaieiai iaoeiaiai
aea/aiiy aeaii? oa noi?aeii? i?iaeaiaoeee, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? caaaeueieo
oa niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a c iie?oieia?? oa ?noi???, iaienaii? i?ae?o/iee?a
? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a aeey aoc?a oa na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a,
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaiaai? aaoi?ii o iiiia?ao?? «?aeay
aea?aeaaiino? a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? (e?iaoeue O?O — ii/aoie
OO noie?ooy)» (E., 1998); o iecoe? iaoeiaeo noaoae oa ?ioeo
ioae?eaoe?yo; ia i?aeia?iaeieo oa ?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo: ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?eiie
? i?iaeaie aoiai?oa?ii? i?aeaioiaee aeiiii?/ieo eaae??a o aeu?e oeie?”
(Ee?a, 1992); ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie
i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ca iiaeo oiia ?iaioe a
Oe?a?i?” (Ee?a, 1994); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? oa aoiai?oa?ii? eoeueoo?e
no/aniiai niaoe?ae?noa” (Ee?a, 1994); ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? oi?aiaaeueieo ? eiia?oe?eieo aoc?a
“Iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a aeey iiaeo oiia ?iaioe aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie” (Ee?a, 1994), i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aoiai?oa?ecaoe?? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy aeooiaii?
eoeueoo?e nooaeaio?a o no/anieo oiiaao” (Ee?a, 22-24 aeiaoiy 1996);
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea oa oe?a?inueeee
aea?aeaaioai?/ee i?ioean” (Ee?a, 20 aa?aciy 1997), i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaieoeueea oeiea: ?noi??y,
iie?oieia?y, i?aai” (Ee?a, 11-13 a?oaeiy 1997); i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?iaeea?aeooi ? noni?euenoai o iia?e oa
iia?oi?e ?noi???. Aeeneon?ei? ieoaiiy oa ?o a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
i?ae?o/ieeao c ?noi??? oa noni?euenoaiciaanoaa” (Ee?a, 7-9 a?oaeiy
1998); ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
(1992-1997 ??.).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeei?enoai? a ?aae?iia?aaea/ao oeeeeo
«A?ae?iaeaeai? ?iaia» (o?aaaiue, aeiaoaiue 1998) oa a aaoi?nuee?e
i?ia?ai? «Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue: a?ey aeoie?a ?aea?» (eenoiiaae,
a?oaeaiue 1998 ?., n?/aiue 1999 ?.) ia oe?a?inueeiio ?aae?i; o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? a Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo aoiiiie?oieia?? a
?inoeooo? iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie,
iaea?aeaea iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei caoenoo ia
niaoe?ae?ciaai?e ?aae? c iaoeiai? niaoe?aeueiino? «Oai??y ? ?noi??y
iie?oe/ii? iaoee».

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Neeaaei?noue i?iaeai, ui i?aeeyaathoue
aeine?aeaeaiith, ?oiy ??ciiieaiia?noue iaoiiaeee caaaeueio eia?eo ?
no?oeoo?o ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y caaaeueiei ianyaii 459 noi??iie neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a (396 noi?.), nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
e?oa?aoo?e (741 iaeiaioaaiiy, 63 noi?.).

No?oeoo?a oa eia?ea ?icaeoeo ?aeae aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia nenoaiiei
i?aeoiaeii aei aea/aiiy «?aea? aea?aeaaiino?»: eiaeiee ?icae?e
i?enay/aiee aea/aiith eiiiiiaioa nenoaie. Aea/aiith ae nenoaie ia?aaeo?
— o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c iaoiaeieia?/iith ianoaiiaith cae?enithaaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeue-yeiai yaeua /e i?ioeano /a?ac «ieoey?»
iaioaeueiino? ethaeae ia??iaeo — aea/aiiy iin??a «?aea? aea?aeaaiino?».

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
ca’ycie c iai?yiaie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo ?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, aecia/aii ia’?eo ?
i?aaeiao, noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai o?iiieia?/i? oa aaia?ao?/i? iaae?, iaoeiaa iiaecia
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ?o i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue, iiaeaii a?aeiiino?
i?i ai?iaaoe?th.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? — «?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie oa
oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaea?ae. Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy» — ianaiia?aae
aena?oeth?oueny nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie. Ia iniia? aiae?co
e?oa?aoo?e c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui ?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie aa?a na?e
ii/aoie aaciina?aaeiuei o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae. Iaeia?oa aiia
i?aaenoaaeaia i?aoeyie naieo oe?a?ioe?a, ye aeineoue a?aeiieo
(N.?o?aiia, I.A?ooaanueeee, A.E?noye?anueeee, Ae.Aeiioeia, E.TH?eaae/,
?.O?aiei, Eany Oe?a?iea), oae ? iaio ciaieo (?.E?aaaoeueeee,
A.Noa?inieuenueeee, I.Iaca?oe, O.C?iuee?anueeee, E.Oeaaaeuenueeee,
A.Naaeianueeee), a oi e cian?i iaa?aeiieo (oae ae iiaeoe, ae?oaeo ?
o?ao?o in?a o i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy ?noi??ia?ao??). ?o i?aoe? ianooue
iiaea?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy: c iaeiiai aieo, aiie ? aeaea?aeii aei aea/aiiy
aaaaoianiaeoii? ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?, c ?ioiai — ia?oei e?ieii a
?noi??ia?ao?? aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie.

Nai???aeiei aianeii a ?noi??ia?ao?th a ia?oee ia??iae aoee e ioae?eaoe??
?.Aiaeoai aea Eo?oaia, I.A?aaeaneoea, A.AEaaioeinueeiai, O.Ei?oa,
A.Eai?ia, A.Eoia/a?nueeiai, I.Iao?iaa, A.Iei?ia, I.No?oaa, N.Uiaie?aa,
aeae?oeoaai? a ?in??, e??i oiai — ?iaioe A.Oaeueaeiaia,
E.Aan?eaanueeiai, ui c’yaeeenue ia oa?aiao Iieueu?, a oaeiae
aeine?aeaeaiiy I.Aaaa?a, E.Aoiieiae/a, E.Eaoonueeiai, A.Oieia?, ye? a
aeena?oaoe?? a?aeianaii aei ia/ae cao?aeii? ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie.

Na?oiaeyaeii-iie?oe/i? i??i?eoaoe naieo aaoi??a ei?eaoaaee eoo aa/aiiy
ieie oe?a?inueei? i?iaeaiaoeee, i?ecaiaeeee /anii aei iaia’?eoeaieo
aeniiae?a, noa’?eoeaiino? a iioe?ioaaii? aea?aeaaieoeueeeo ono?aie?iue
oe?a?ioe?a. Iaeiae, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioee, oe? ioe?iee — iaa?oue i?e
oiia? ?o iaiaoeiaino? /e aioeiaoeiaino? c iiceoe?e nueiaiaei?oiueiai
aeiy — aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe a ?aieao ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie ye aoaii?
a noaiiaeaii? inoaiiuei?.

Ae?oaee ia??iae o aea/aii? i?iaeaie aoa oi/ ? ei?ioeee a /aniaiio
a?aeiioaii? (ii/aoie 1918 ?. — ii/aoie 20-o ?ie?a), iaeiae ie?aeiee, c
iaeyaeo ia iiyao aeine?aeaeaiue I.Aaneeaiea, E.Aiaeiai, A.Aei?ioaiea,
Ae.Aei?ioaiea, I.?oeiaiei, TH.Io?eiiae/a, A.Noaiaithea oa ?i. Oe? ?iaioe
i?eaa?oathoue oaaao oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aea?aeaaieoeueeeo iiaeyae?a ?yaeo
i?ia?aeiee?a oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, aiae?cothoue
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia aa/aiiy ??cieo aniaeo?a noaiiaeua oe?a?ioe?a oa ?o
aeiiaaaiue oiui.

O?ao?e ia??iae (ii/aoie 20-o — 1991 ?.) i?aaenoaaeaiee i?aoeyie
?aaeyinueeeo iaoeiaoe?a, ai?a?aio?a, ca?oa?aeiith oe?a?i?eith.

Aiae?c ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? i?aea?a aei aeniiaeo, ui ia inoaiith
cia/iith i??ith aieeaaea ia eeoa ?aeeii iiaeeeaa a oeo oiiaao
ia?enenonueei-eai?inueea iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiue, aea e ?aaeyinueea
ae?eni?noue — i?ioeane oe?a?i?caoe??, ui ?icai?ioeenue o 20-o? ?iee,
?aae?? noae?inueeeo /an?a, o?ouianueei? «a?aeeeae»,
a?aaei?anueei-noneianueei? aeiae, ianaie?iaoeue — /an?a «ia?aaoaeiae».
Eiaeai c icia/aieo aoai?a ?icaeyaea?oueny a aeena?oaoe?? ye nai???aeiee
i?aeia??iae o ?aieao ia??iaeo.

C a?aooaaiiyi oeueiai oaeoo aiae?cothoueny iniaeeaino?, i?iaeaiaoeea,
ia?aaaae /e iaaeie?ee aeine?aeaeaiue Ae.Aaaae?y, I.Aa?iaeca,
I.A?ooaanueeiai, Ae.Caneaanueeiai, A.?eoa, I.Neaa/aiea, I.ssai?nueeiai,
a oaeiae I.Anniiiai?, I.A?eaoeueeiai, A.A?aa?ioey, ?.Aieiaaoe,
Ae.Caneaanueeiai, A.?aaeieeiaiea, ?.?aaiiai?, ?.Ee?eethea, I.E?aaoey,
?.Eo?ana, I.Eenaiea, I.Iaicaiea, I.Ia?oie?ia, I.Iie?uoea, TH.?eia?aiea,
?.?iiai/aiea, I.Neaeoi, A.Oeiea?oea, I.Oei oa ?i.

Cia/ia oaaaa a ?icae?e? i?eae?eaia oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeii?iaioieo
iai?yie?a, aeaea?aeuei?e aac? aeine?aeaeaiue, ui iiaa/eee na?o ca
iaaeaie N?N?, cie?aia ?iaioai I.Aiae?onyea, I.Aioiiiae/a, E.A?eana,
A.Aoaeceiianueeiai, E.Aeia?a, I.Aaoueiaia, O.Aoi/aea, Ae.Aeiioeiaa,
A.Aei?ioaiea, Ae.Aei?ioaiea, A.AEoea, TH.Eeie, A.Eai?inueeiai,
A.Eaiiaea?a, A.E?aaoe?aa, I.Eo/a?a, A.Eeieinueeiai,
?.Ethaea?eianueeiai, I.I??/oea, A.Iiio?aci?a, I.Iaea?/aiea, ss.I?oaia,
ss.Iaeainueeiai, ?.Iecth?a, I.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei, I.I??oeaea,
N.??iaoeueeiai, I.Noaoaeueiiai, ?.Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai,
N.Oiiao?anueeiai, I.Oaaeaiea, ?.I.O?iee, Ae.*eaeaanueeiai, ?.Oii?ethea,
N.Oaeoo?ia oa ?i.

90-o? ?iee ?icaeyaeathoueny ye iiaee ia??iae o ?icaeoeo ?noi??ia?ao??
i?iaeaie. Ia oii? oa?aeoa?enoeee niaoeeo?ee oa iniaeeainoae i?aoe?
iaoeiaoe?a a iiaeo oiiaao aiae?co?oueny oaiaoeea aeine?aeaeaiue
A.Aa?nothea, Ae.Aeae??ia, A.Ai?iieiai?, O.Aa?auaiei, ?.Ae?e/a,
A.Aieia/aiea, A.Ai?aaoaiea, A.Aioianueei?, N.A?aaianueeiai,
ss.A?eoeaea, A.Aeaieeaiea, ss.Aeaoeaae/a, A.?aiaoiaa, N.?eaeue/eea,
I.AEa?iiee??aa, I.AEoeeinueeiai, I.Caaoaeei, A.Cae?ciyea, ss.?na?ae/a,
I.Ea?ooiiaa, A.Eanueyiiaa, O.Ee?eethea, A.Eiaaeue/oea, I.Eiieeaiea,
A.E?aiaiy, ?.Eo?ana, I.Eooa?/oea, A.Eoooe, TH.Eaaaioey, I.Iie/aiiaa,
E.Iaai?ii?, I.Iaeueae, ?.Iieuaiei, I.Iiiiae/a, A.Iiooeueieoeueeiai,
I.?aoaeuenueeiai, TH.?eia?aiea, A.Na?aay, I.Naie?aa, I.Neaeoi,
A.Nieaeaoaiea, I.Nooiai, N.Oaeaooia, I.Oiiaiea, I.Oaae?y, TH.Oaiiaaea,
E.Oeey?a, I.Oe?aa’thea oa ?i.

Aiae?c nooiaiy iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie i?aea?a aeena?oaioeo aei aeniiaeo,
ui iii?e ?nioaaiiy aeineoue cia/iiai ianeao e?oa?aoo?e, a ye?e a?eueoith
/e iaioith i??ith aena?oeththoueny ??ci? aniaeoe ia?aii? aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie, ana ae noai ?? iaoeiaiai inieneaiiy ia iiaeia
aeciaoe aeinoaoi?i. ? ia eeoa oiio, ui ie?aiei, oe?e?niei i?aaeiaoii
aea/aiiy ?aeay aea?aeaaiino? a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? e?ioey
O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy ia aoea, a e /a?ac oa, ui ?yae ?? aoceiaeo
iiiaio?a caeeoa?oueny iiee ui iica oaaaith aeine?aeiee?a. Ia iiaeieaiiy
oeeo aaae ? ni?yiiaaia, iaaiith i??ith, ?aoa?iaaia aeena?oaoe?y.

?noioia /anoeia ?icae?eo i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith aeaea?aeueii? aace.
A oiae? inoaiiueiai aoei aecia/aii eiei in?a, yeeo iiaeia aaaaeaoe ca
iin??a ? oai?oe?a «?aea? aea?aeaaiino?», oa i?eaeeci? ianyae ?oiuei?
?ioaeaeooaeueii-iie?oe/ii? niaaeueie, cae?eniaii eeaneo?eaoe?th
aeaea?ae.

O a?aeiia?aei?noth c inoaiiueith aeae?eaii /ioe?e ?o a?oie. Ia?oa —
iaoeia? i?aoe?, ioae?oeenoeea. Ae?oaa — ai?noiey??e. O?aoy — niiieie,
aaoia?ia?ao??, uiaeaiieee. *aoaa?oa — i?ia?aie iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e,
i?aai?caoe?e, ?o caa?iaiiy, ??ciiiai?oi? aeaeaiiy; eiinoeoooe?ei?
i?iaeoe.

I?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeaea?ae aaoi? ea?o?oueny oaeeie eia?/ieie
i?eioeeiaie. Eiaeia a?oia aeaea?ae aiae?co?oueny ie?aii;
iaa?oioiaothoueny ?? oe?ii?noue oa iaaeie?ee; oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oi?ie
oa iniaeeaino? ?nioaaiiy a ?aae?yo nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy; aeacothoueny
(i?e iayaiino?) o?oaeiiu?, iia’ycai? ?c anoaiiaeaiiyi aaoi?noaa
aeaea?aea /e aeaoe eiai iaienaiiy, iiaiioith ? oi/i?noth iayaieo
niene?a, ao?o/aiiyi a oaeno oii?yaeieea (/e ia?aaeaeaaoey),
aeinooii?noth aeaea?aea.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae iaoiiaea iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a, aeaeaieo ia
eeoa a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, a e ?o ia?aaeaeaiue, cae?eniaieo a N?N?
oa ca ei?aeiiii, a oaeiae a Oe?a?i?, a 90-? ?iee.

C iaeyaeo ia oa, ui ie?aiith, ii-nai?io oi?eaeueiith, oi?iith ?nioaaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueii? niaaeueie ? aacaoi? oa aeo?iaeuei? noaoo?, a ia?aa?ao?
aeaoaeueii aiae?cothoueny ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy iaae? a?e?a, ye?
aeoiaeeee ye a i?ae?in?enuee?e, oae ? i?aeaano??enuee?e Oe?a?i?, a
oaeiae a Iinea?. Ie??i oiai, oaaao i?eae?eaii oa?aeoa?enoeoe? oiiae?a
?yaeo a?o?a?a, aaeaea aaeeea e?euee?noue aeieoiaio?a oe?a?inueei?
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ia??iaeo, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, a?aeeeaeanue naia oai
— a a?o?aao, a oaeiae o a?aeae?eao ?oeiien?a a?ae?ioae.

A aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ie??i a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a iniaeeai
oe?iieie ? e i?eaeeoo?a? aeaeaiiy, eio?? i?noyoue aaoi?nuee? i?ei?oee,
eiiaioa?? ? o.i. Naia oe? aacoe?ii? aeaeaiiy i?aoeue /e cae?eniai? c?aco
ii nia?o? aaoi??a — o e?ioe? ieioeiai — ia ii/aoeo iioi/iiai noie?ooy ?o
ia?aaeaeaiiy, ui /anoi eeoa a iaeeie/ieo i?ei??ieeao caa??aathoueny
nueiaiaei? o a?aeae?eao ??aee?nii? eieae oeaio?aeueieo a?ae?ioae
?anioae?ee, ? ?aeeiith oi?iith ?nioaaiiy a?eueoi? /anoeie
?ioaeaeooaeueii? niaaeueie oe?a?ioe?a. Oea noino?oueny i?aoeue
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Ae.Aeiioeiaa, O.C?iuee?anueeiai, I.Ii?oa, N.?o?aiiaa,
E.TH?eaae/a ? aaaaoueio-aaaaoueio ?ioeo, iaio a?aeiieo ?ioaeaeooae?a,
?iaioe yeeo aai acaaae? ia ia?aaeaeaaaeenue ia aaouee?auei?, aai oi/ ?
aoee ia?aaeaeai? a ?aaeyinueeee /an, oa iio?aieyee aei /eoa/?a o aeaui
ci?iaiiio aeaeyae? /a?ac eoith?e, ?aaeaeoi?nuee? eiiaioa??, ooi/iaiiy,
oaiaeaioe?ei? aeoeoia/aiiy oeo /e ?ioeo aaoi?nueeeo iieiaeaiue.

Oaeei /eiii, aeaea?aeueia aaca ? aeineoue ia’?iiith. Noeoiia
aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo a?oi aeaea?ae aea? ciiao aeyaeoe o? i?ia?aei? ?aea?
a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? noiniaii aea?aeaae oa
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy — iaaca?i ia?aieaoai?, aea /anii ? oae?, ui
aeeeth/athoue iaeia iaeio, — ye? iiaoooaaee a iie?oe/i?e na?aeiiino?
oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. Ae/eaiaiiy ?o ?c
??cii??aeiiai eiiieaeno oaeno?a, a?aoo?-?aoo, caaacia/eei aeine?aeaeaiiy
?aea? aea?aeaaiino? a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? iaae? a?e?a.

Aiae?c no/aniiai noaio iaoiaeieia?? aeine?aeaeaiue a noni?eueieo iaoeao,
?icia?ooy canoiniaoaaieo iaoiaeieia?e i?aea?a aei aeniiaeo, ui aeey
aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioeiaeueiith iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith noaiooue
i?eioeeie neia?aaoe/ii? aecia/aiino? ?noi??? ethaenoaa, nenoaiiino?,
?ic?iaethaai? a i?aoeyo ?.I?eaiaeeia, ?.Noaiaa?n, Aeae.I?eiena,
E.Iaeioea?a, ?.Eiyc?ai?, N.Eo?aethiiaa, A.Oaeaia, I.Ii?na?aa,
A.Iaca?aoyia, E.Ae?eiea?iaa oa ?i., a oaeiae i?eioeei ?noi?ecio.

Ia?aaoe i?ia?aeiei nenoaiiee iaoiae, aeena?oaioea cae?enith?
aeaeiiiiceoe?th nenoaie. A ?ioaeaeooaeuei?e nenoai?, icia/ai?e «?aeay
aea?aeaaiino?», aeae?ey? oae? eiiiiiaioe: ia?oee — ?aea? i?i i?e/eie
aacaea?aeaaiino? oe?a?ioe?a, ae?oaee — ?aea? i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?
i?aenoaae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, o?ao?e — ?aea? uiaei nooiino?
iaeaooiuei? aea?aeaae. A naith /a?ao eiaeai c eiiiiiaio?a neeaaea?oueny
c aeaiaio?a, i?ae yeeie ?icoi?thoueny ?aoe?iiaeuei? oa ???aoe?iiaeuei?
?aea?. Aei inoaii?o a?aeianaii iie?oe/i? i?oe. A ?icae?e? aeiaiaeeoueny,
ui noi?ni?noue eiiiiiaio?a cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie iaoiiaethaaeanue oei,
ui aiie, ni?aiaaeath/e neio?iiii ? ae?ao?iiii, ni?eyee aeinyaiaiith iaoe
nenoaie — aeiaaaeaiith iaiao?aeiino?, aeioe?eueiino?, iiaeeeaino?, i?aaa
oe?a?ioe?a ia noai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaaiino?.

Noia?a/eea?noue aea i?ae ieie iieyaaea a oiio, ui i?aenoaae aea?aeaae,
canaaee ?? ae?yeueiino?, iaoa, iiaeeeaa ?? oi?ia, oeyoe ooai?aiiy
aa/eeenue iin?yi ?aea? iae??ciiiai?oi?oei /eiii, a caeaaeiino? a?ae
na?oiaeyaeieo i???ioe??a — e?aa?aeueieo, nioe?ae?noe/ieo /e
iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo. Noia?a/eea?noue aaa/a?oueny ? o ii?aeiaii? a nenoai?
?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aeae oa i?o?a, o ii?aeiaii? ?aeae-aeaiaio?a nenoaie
“??ciiai a?eo”. Iaeiae, aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui ?c neia?aaoe/iiai iiaeyaeo
oae? iciaee nenoaie ? iiceoeaieie, ine?eueee ?iaeyoue ?? no?eeith aei
aaaaoiaa??aioiiai iaeaooiueiai.

Acyaoe aei oaaae oa, ui a nenoai? e??i aieiaieo ? ? caeaaei? /anoeie,
iaeei ?c ?icae?e?a i?enay/aiee aiae?co iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo
aaoiiii?nonueei-oaaea?ae?noe/ii? oa naiino?eieoeueei? ?aeae, ?ioee —
iniaeeainoyi ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo e?e oa ?o
iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy.

Aiae?c i?ciaaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae iaoiae?a, canoiniaoaaieo a iie?oe/i?e
iaooe?, ?o iaaeinoaoiinoae oa oaeoi??a iaiaaeaiiy i?aea?a aaoi?a aei
aeniiaeo, ui eeoa ?o ii?aeiaiiy caaacia/eoue iioeiaeueiee ??aaiue
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, a aeaiiio ?icae?e? c’yniaaii eiei ieoaiue, ye? a iaaeao
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie aaea noi?ioeueiaai? ? aea/ai? iaoeiaoeyie;
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii nooi?iue ? ye?noue aeieoiaioaeueiiai caaacia/aiiy oaie;
aecia/aii iioiaeieia?th oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «Oiiae oa iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy» — aeine?aeaeoaaeenue /eiieee, ye? aieeaaee ia
oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo e?e oa iaoiiaethaaee ?aeaeiee
niaeo? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee inoaii?o.

Ia oii? aiae?co iane?aee?a aaiiie?oe/ieo ci?i e?ioey OV??? no. ia Noiae?
?a?iie, i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe?? Iiai?a?iiaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??, ?,
cie?aia, noai?aiiy nenoaie i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiai iiae?eo i?aoe? a ?icae?e?
aeine?aeaeothoueny iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane, ui iaee
i?noea ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo ai?iaeiaae O?O no. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui
nai???aei?noue aaiiie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aae?e ni?eyea
i?e?aeiaiith oe?a?ioe?a, ye e ?ioeo ia?iae?a No?aeii? ?a?iie, aei
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai iaoe?ioai?/iai i?ioeano. I?ia?aeiith ?aea?th
inoaiiueiai c ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. noaea ?aeay noai?aiiy aeanieo
aea?aeaa, ine?eueee naia c ?o ooai?aiiyi iia’ycoaaeenue iaae?? ia
iiaeieaiiy ye nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai, oae ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aiiaeaiiy.
Noiniaii oe?a?ioe?a a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ?oi? i?aaiaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
naiiaecia/aiiy iaeyne?aa?oa aeyaeeenue ia ceai? O?O — OO no. ?c
i?aeiyooyi oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia aeuee, o
ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaei?i /anii, uaaaeue ?icaeoeo.

C o?aooaaiiyi aeuacacia/aiiai, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noaaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo
iaoe?e ?a?iie, i?aeia?iaeieo nee, ye? ianoithaaee nioe?ae?noe/i?
i?eioeeie aeaoooaaiiy ni?aaeeooy ia?iae?a, aei aeiia iaaea?aeaaieo
iaoe?e ? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeniiaie i?i iaeaea oioaeueia iani?eeiyooy
ia?oeie aea?aeaaieoeueeeo ono?aie?iue ae?oaeo, na?aae yeeo aoee e
oe?a?ioe?.

Cia/io oaaao a oaeno? ?icae?eo i?eae?eaii aeine?aeaeaiith iano?i?a a
na?aaeiaeu? iieye?a ? ?in?yi uiaei iiaeeeaino? noai?aiiy aea?aeaae
oe?a?inueeith iaoe??th. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a aeaeaa?eno?a,
neia’yiio?e?a, ?ioaeaeooaeueii? niaaeueie ie?aieo i?aaenoaaiee?a
?in?enueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee O?O no., cie?aia oaeeo, ye
I.*a?ieoaanueeee, I.Aeia?iethaia, A.A?e?inueeee, I.Aa?oeai, I.Aaeoi?i,
ie??i oiai — aeieoiaio?a ?in?enueeiai ?aaiethoe?eiiai ia?iaeieoeoaa oa
iieuenueei? ?aaiethoe?eii? ioae?oeenoeee, niaaeueie i?ia?aeiee?a
iieuenueeeo ? ?in?enueeeo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo aa?noa e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo
OO no. aeiaiaeeoueny, ui ye ?in?yie, oae ? iieyee a?aeiiaeyee
oe?a?inueeiio ia?iaeia? o i?aa? ia naiino?eiee ?icaeoie, ui eeoa ie?ai?
?o i?aaenoaaieee aeciaaaee i?aaii??i?noue aea?aeaaieoeueeeo ono?aie?iue
oe?a?ioe?a.

Aiaeii/an o ?icae?e? eaeaoueny ? i?i oa, ui ?yae ?aeae (a?aei?iiino?
oe?a?ioe?a-?on?a a?ae aaeeei?in?a, ?noi?e/ieo ii/aoe?a oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, na?aaeiueia?/ii? ?on? ye oai??iiy ? niaaeueie aeeeth/ii
oe?a?ioe?a, oaaea?ae?cio oiui), aei?iaeoeoaaieo iieyeaie, aoee aeoeaii
ni?eeiyo? oe?a?inueeith iie?oe/iith aeoieith. Iane?aeeii ?aoeaioe??
oe?a?inueeeie ?ioaeaeooaeaie ?aeae, eoeueoeaiaaieo iieyeaie, ia ceai?
noie?oue noaia iineeaiiy aioe?in?enueeeo oaiaeaioe?e o ?icaeoeo ?oiueiai
iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy. Aeoeaia ae aeniain?y ?aeae caaaeueii?in?enueeiai
?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo ?, o naith /a?ao, ni?eeiyooy ?o oe?a?ioeyie
ni?eyoeia a?aeoieo inoaii?o o ?iia?nuee? iie?oe/i? oa/??.

Ia oe?ie?e aeieoiaioaeuei?e iniia? aeine?aeaeo?oueny ? ianoith?oueny
?aeay, ui ai?iaeiaae O?O no. ?ioaeaeooaeuei? aa?noae oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue o nai?io ?icaeoeo i?ieoee o?e aoaie — oe?a?iiciaa/ee,
oe?a?iio?euenueeee oa aeania oe?a?inueeee, ye? aoee o?nii
aca?iiiia’ycaieie oa aca?iiia?aieaoaieie.

Iane?aeeii i?aoe? ?ioaeaeooae?a ia oe?a?iiciaa/iio oa
oe?a?iio?euenueeiio aoaiao noaei — o O?aieiaeo aeneiaao — oai?aoe/ii
aea?aoiaioiaaia oe?a?inoai. Iaoeia? ?aoeaen?? oe?a?iiciaaoe?a, c-iii?ae
yeeo aoee oae? aeaeaoi? ethaee /ano, ye ?.N?aciaanueeee, I.Aiaeyinueeee,
O.Ei?o, I.Eaa??anueeee ? — ie?aiei ?yaeeii — I.Iaeneiiae/ oa I.Iioaaiy,
caaacia/eee, iaeia?oa, iiaio aiaineiaoe?th oe?a?ioe?a a?ae iieye?a ?
?in?yi. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae a aaeoc? ?noi???, aoiia?ao??, aoiieia??,
aoiiineoieia?? ni?eyee ?noi?e/i?e, aoi?/i?e aiaineiaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a,
i?aeaaee aei ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?aea? eoeueoo?ii? ?aeiino?, aoi?/ii?
aiiiaaiiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ?icae?eaiiai ?iia?nueeeie
ei?aeiiaie; ni?eyee /?oeiio ie?aneaiith iaae? oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii?
oa?eoi???, ye ? oa?eoi??? non?ae?a — ?in?yi ? iieye?a.

Iaeiei ?c iaeaaaii?oeo aeinyaiaiue oe?a?iiciaa/iai aoaio aoei (ye a
Aaee/ei?, oae ? ia Iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e Oe?a?i?) oi?ioethaaiiy ieoaiiy
iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, ? ia eeoa a ?aieao
neia’yinueei? oaaea?aoe??, aea e o oi?i? naiino?eii? aea?aeaae.

Ianooiiee — oe?a?iio?euenueeee — aoai aoa ia eeoa /anii iiaeaeueoiai
iiaeeaeaiiy ?aoeaen?e iaae aoooyi ia?iaeo, aea e ia??iaeii «i?aeoe/iiai
oe?a?iio?euenoaa», ui aeyaeyeinue ? a ae?yeueiino? «a?iiaae», cainueeiio
?on?, o ni?iaao ia’?aeiaiiy an?o iiiceoe?eieo oa ?aaiethoe?eieo
aeaiaio?a o ai?iouea? ca eiinoeoooe?th, o i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?aaiaii? i?ane, i?ina?oieoeoa? ian, iiaeaeueoiio
?icaeoeo eiioaeo?a aaeeoeueeeo ? iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo oe?a?ioe?a, o
aeyaeaii? i?eoeeueiino? aei i?aaiaeo ? iie?oe/ieo ?aeaae?a ?a?iie ? o.i.

Aea/ai? aeieoiaioe i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui i?ieoiaoe oaco
oe?a?iio?euenoaoaaiiy c ?? i?aeeiiaie 70-o ? niaaeaie o 80-o ?ieao,
?ioaeaeooaeueia ae?oa a e?ioe? noie?ooy ae?eoea a?aoo?-?aoo aei
aeaeea?oaaiiy nai?? oe?a?inueeino?, noaea aeania oe?a?inueeith. A?aeoae
aiia aenooieea ?ai?acaioaioii oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee, iin??i
«?aea? aea?aeaaiino?».

Iaaieiooth/e, ui ae?oa oi?ioaaeanue ?c aeo?aeoe?a ?c ??cieo ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie ? ca ?aooiie i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo nioe?aeueieo aa?noa,
aeena?oaioea, iineeath/enue ia /eneaii? aeaea?aea, aeiaiaeeoue, ui
ona?aeiieaiiy ? aeaeea?oaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?aeaioe/iino? (ia i?ioeaaao
iaei?in?enuee?e, aaeeei?in?enuee?e /e iieuenuee?e) a oiiaao
?in?enueei-iieuenueeeo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo ? iie?oe/ieo aieea?a aoei
iane?aeeii aea?eueiaiiy a?ae ioo na?aeii?niiai aeoae?cio, iiaeieaiiy
neeaaeieo aeooiaieo eie?c?e, c?aooith, ?acoeueoaoii iai?inoi?
aioo??oiuei? ?iaioe eiaeii? iniaenoino?. I?eeiaoiei aoei ? oa, ui ae?oa
oi?ioaaeanue ?c ethaeae «iaiie?oe/ieo» noa? — e?oa?aoi??a, ?noi?ee?a,
nooaeaio?a oiui.

Oaaaa a ?icae?e? i?eae?ey?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeoe? oaeiai oaiiiaia, ye
«a?inoaiiy» iieye?a (iieye?a oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e) a oe?a?inueeo
ni?eueiioo oa ?o i?aoe? ia ceai? noie?oue ye i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei?
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee. Oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iniaeeaino? aoai?a oeueiai
i?ioeano.

Aeiaiaey/e, ui «oe?a?inuee?noue» ae?oe ?icaeaaeanue ia ieth?ae?noe/iiio
?aeaieia?/iiio a?oio?, aaoi?, nie?ath/enue ia eiie?aoi? aeieoiaioaeuei?
oaeoe, iaa?oioiao? aeoieo, ui niaeo? iie?oe/iiai na?oiaeyaeo
?ioaeaeooae?a neeaaeaany c aeaiaio?a ??cieo aeieo?ei, a ?oiueith
oa?aeoa?iith ?enith aoea i?ieea?noue iiaeyae?a, ooeaiiy «nai?o» ?aeaeieo
eoie??a, iaaecia/ai?noue ?aeaieia?/iiai iaee//y. Iacaaaeath/e ia oea ia
iaae? noie?oue a oe?a?inueeiio ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?
oi?ioaaeenue oae? oa/?? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee, ye e?aa?ae?ci, nioe?ae?ci,
iaoe?iiae?ci. Oa?aeoa?iith ?o ?enith aoea o?e?aoe?y ?aeae.

Aeio?eioth/enue oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui e?aa?ae?ci ia? iiiaeeii?noue ?iinoanae
ye a ?noi?e/iiio, oae ? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiio oa
?aeaeii-iie?oe/iiio aei??ao, aeena?oaioea aeiaiaeeoue, ui oe?a?inueeee
e?aa?ae?ci aoa iaiaeii??aeiei yaeuai. Na?aae e?aa?ae?a aoee ethaee, ye?
oiniaethaaee eeane/iee e?aa?ae?ci (I.Eiaaeaanueeee). Aoee e ?io? —
e?aa?aee-«iaua?ine», ye? ieneeee eaoaai??yie caaaeueii?in?enueeeie
(A.Aa?iaaenueeee, I.Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeee, ?.Iao?oieaae/). Aeae?eaii ?
iaoe?iiaeueio a?aiue oe?a?inueeiai e?aa?ae?cio, i?aaenoaaieeii yei? aoa,
iai?eeeaae, I.Ae?aaiiaiia.

Iaaieiooth/e oaeo oi?eaeueii? ?aoeaioe?? ae?aaiiaiianueeeo ?aeae
oe?a?inueeith ?ioae?aaioe??th, aaoi? c iii?ith ia eiie?aoi? aeai?
iieaco?, ui I.Ae?aaiiaiia aoa ye aeey aaeeoeueeeo, oae ?
iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo oe?a?ioe?a nai???aeiei aeaea?aeii ia eeoa
e?aa?aeueieo, aea e nioe?ae?noe/ieo oa iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo ?aeae.

Noiniaii iioe?aiiy nioe?ae?noe/ieo ?aeae cacia/a?oueny, ui nioe?ae?ci
aoa iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaiith ?aeaieia??th ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo.
Iaeiae ?aeaaee oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ae?no?a ??cieeenue: aaee/aie aeyaeyee
i?eoeeuei?noue aei nioe?ae?cio a eiai cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiio
(?aoi?iaoi?nueeiio) aa??aio?, iaaeaei?i?yioe? — ?in?enueeiio. Ia aoa
/eiinue iaeiicia/ii iaiiae?eueiei ? oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiae?ci e?ioey O?O
— ii/aoeo OO no. A iueiio ae??ciyeenue ? aeaiie?aoe/i?, ? eiina?aaoeai?,
? ?aaeeeaeuei? aeaiaioe.

?aea?th, yeo ia iieioee oaaaith i? e?aa?aee, i? nioe?ae?noe, ia
iaoe?iiae?noe, aoea ?aeay noai?aiiy (iaiao?aeiino? /e, iaaiaee,
iaaeioe?eueiino?) oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Aeaiie?aoe-iaoe?iiae?noe
aaaaeaee i?e?iaeiei i?aaii iaoe?? iaoe aeey ?icaeoeo oae? nai? oiiae,
ye? iaee an? ?io? — aea?aeaai? — iaoe??. Na?o ?i aa/eany na?oii
??aiii?aaieo aea?aeaaieo iaoe?e. Eiina?aaoeaii iano?i?i?
iaoe?iiae?noe/i? ae?y/?, a?aenoithth/e ?aeath aea?aeaaiino?, aeiaaaee
iiaa?iaiiy oeo i?aa, ye? oe?a?inueea iaoe?y «aaea iaea» a ieioeiio ? ye?
a ia? aoee a?ae?a?ai?. Iiaa?iaiiy i?aa, oiaoi aeo?ae ?c noaio
«iaoe??-?aaa», ia ?oith aeoieo, caaacia/ea ae oe?a?ioeyi oiiae aeey
?icaeoeo naiai «y». ?aaeeeaee noiyee ia iiceoe?? aeuino? oe?a?ioe?a
noi?ioe, ia?o ca ana, ?in?yi. A?aenoithth/e ?aeath oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiyoeiaino?, oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue aiie ?icaeyaeaee
ye oaeo oi?io ?nioaaiiy iaoe??, ui caaacia/eoue ?? iaioaaiiy o No?aei?e
?a?ii?.

Oe?a?inueeee e?aa?ae?ci ia aoa iaeiinoaeiei o nai?io aa/aii? ieoaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a. A e?ioe? noie?ooy ie?aneeany ye
e?aa?aeueii-naiino?eieoeueeee iai?yi, oae ?
e?aa?aeueii-oaaea?ae?nonueeee. I?aaenoaaieee inoaiiueiai aenooiaee ca
ia?aiaeaoooaaiiy ?in?? ia canaaeao oaaea?ae?cio. Oaaea?ae?nonuee?
iano?i? iaaoee iioe?aiiy na?aae oe?a?ioe?a-i?ia?aneno?a oa eaaeao?a.
Iaeiae, inoaii?, niia?aeoth/e ?aeath ia?aaoaeoaaiiy ?in?? ia
oaaea?ae?nonueeeo ia/aeao, iaee ia oaac? ?aaeoa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o aeeooy
i?eioeei?a oaaea?ae?cio, a ia iiaoaeiao oaaea?aoe??. ?oi?e oaaea?ae?ci
ia?aaeaa/aa aeaiie?aoecaoe?th noni?euenoaa oeyoii ia?aaoaeiae
oeaio?aeueii? aeaaee, a ia cieuaiiy oeaio?o. Ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo iioe?thaaeenue ye ?aea? eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueii? aaoiiii??, oae
? iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueii?.

O nioe?ae?noe/iiio na?aaeiaeu? oaeiae icia/eeenue ye i?eoeeueieee ?aea?
oaaea?ae?cio, oae ? naiino?eieoeoaa. Ia oaaea?ae?nonueeeo iiceoe?yo
noiyee, iai?eeeaae, ONAe?I, OIAeI, OINO. Naiino?eiee?a i?aaenoaaeyea,
iai?eeeaae, OINN.

I?iaiae?ciaai? a aeaiiio ?icae?e? ieoaiiy aeicaieeee aeena?oaiooe?
i?inoaaeeoe ia iie?oe/iiio, aeiiii?/iiio, ?aeaeii-oai?aoe/iiio ??aiyo
i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy iin??a ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?, iniaeeaino? ?oiueiai
iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy, no?eaeiai yeiai noaea ?aeay aea?aeaaiiai
naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — «?aoeaen?? c i?eaiaeo i?e/ei aacaea?aeaaiino?
oe?a?ioe?a oa iaa?oiooaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo iiaeaeae» — iinoaaeaii
caaaeaiiy c’ynoaaoe nooi?noue iiyniaiue i?e/ei aacaea?aeaaiino? oa
no?oeoo?o aeieac?a i?i i?aenoaae oa iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy aea?aeaae.

Aiae?c ?aoeaen?e iaae i?e/eiaie aacaea?aeaaiino? iieacaa, ui
?ioaeaeooaee iaeia?oa iaiaaaeenue a?aeooeaoe oe? i?e/eie, nooae?thth/e
oe?a?inueeo ?noi??th. A?aeoae c’yniaaii, ui a iaa?oiooaaii? i?e/ei
aacaea?aeaaiino? cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaee ?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. C
iii?ith ia ieo iaei??th c iniiaieo i?e/ei iaceaaeanue aaaaoia?eiaa
?iaeeoa?aioi?noue ?ioae?aaioe?? aei ni?aa «naiai» ia?iaeo. Aiia aoea, ia
aeoieo iaeieo, iane?aeeii «a?aeeo/aiiy» ?ioae?aaioe?? a?ae ia?iaeieo
ian, ia aeoieo ?ioeo — ?? «c?aaeieoeoaa», ?aiaaaonoaa. I?aenoaaith
inoaiiueiai iaceaaeenue: «iioea ei?eno?», «iioea no?aoo», «iioea
iacaaeiaieaieo caieo?a» (ia?oi/a?aiai eoeueoo?ieo), ia?ic?iaeai?noue
oe?a?inueei? ?aea?.

Oaia a?aenooiieoeoaa (c?aaeieoeoaa) ?ioae?aaioe?? i?ieoea /a?ac
iie?oe/io oai?/?noue I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, ?.O?aiea, O.C?iuee?anueeiai,
I.I?oiianueeiai, E.Oeaaaeuenueeiai, N.?oaeieoeueeiai oa ?i. Iaei?, ye
I.Oaiiaae, i?aei?iaee ?aiaaaonoai aei ??aiy iniiaiiai ia?ea?a iaoe??,
aaa/aee o iueiio aecia/aeueio oaiaeaioe?th ?? ?icaeoeo. ?io? ae,
iacaaaeath/e ia iayai?noue iaaieo ?icoiaeaeaiue o aeoeoia/aii? yaeua, ia
aoee noeeueieie aaa/aoe a iueiio nooi?nii? ?ene iaoe??, aea noiaeeeenue
o oiio, ui ?aiaaaonoai — aeoa?? aeeoo?aeo ianoaaei.

I?ioeaaaith a?aenooiieoeoao aenoaaeanue aeiiaa «aooe oe?a?ioeai» ?
«neoaeeoe Oe?a?i?», nooi?noue yeeo oi/ ? ?icoi?eanue ii-??ciiio, aea
e?ioeaaa iaoa aeoeoia/oaaeanue iaeiicia/ii: ca?aaee oiai, uia c?iaeoe
Oe?a?io «iie?oe/iith neeith» (?.O?aiei, E.Oe?a?iea, I.I?oiianueeee,
I.Ae?aaiiaiia).

?ioith i?e/eiith aacaea?aeaaiino? iaceaaeanue ianie?aea?i?noue — i?ae
«iaiia Oe?a?iaie», i?ae ?aa?iiaie, noa?oei iieie?iiyi ? «iieiaeith
Oe?a?iith», oe?a?inoaii ? oe?a?iio?euenoaii, oe?a?inoaii ?
iaei?in?enoaii, oe?a?inoaii ? iineaio?euenoaii, i?ae nioe?ae?noaie,
iaoe?iiae?noaie ? e?aa?aeaie, i?ae ia?o?yie, i?ae I.Ae?aaiiaiiaei ? eiai
i?ea?/ieeaie oa ?aeaeiith iiiceoe??th, i?ae ?ioae?aaioe??th oa ia?iaeii
(I.A?ooaanueeee, I.I?oiianueeee, I.Iaaeee, E.Eiaoo).

I?ioeaaaith ?aea? ianie?aea?iino? aenoaaeanue aeiiaa ?aeiino?
?ioae?aaioe??, ?aeiino? ?aa?ii?a («anaoe?a?inueeino?»), niai?iino?,
c?aooith ?aeay ?ioaa?aoe?? ni?eueiioe oeyoii noaiiaeaiiy iiaiai iiaeyaeo
ia oe?a?inueeee ia?iae ye nioe?aeueii eiiieaeoiee i?aai?ci.

Oe?a?inueea aacaea?aeaai?noue iiynithaaeanue ? aaiiie?oe/ieie /eiieeaie,
cie?aia i?noeai Oe?a?ie i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii (I.Ae?aaiiaiia,
O.C?iuee?anueeee, Ae.Aeiioeia, N.?oaeieoeueeee, A.Eeieinueeee).
Aeacoth/e ia aeoiee ?aea? ye ?aea? «Oe?a?ia i?ae…» oa aeine?aeaeoth/e
?? iinooiiao o?ainoi?iaoe?th ia ceai? noie?oue a ?aeath «i?ae Noiaeii ?
Caoiaeii», aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui /anoeia ?ioaeaeooae?a ca ?? aeiiiiiaith
iaiaaaeanue ia eeoa iiynieoe oe?a?inueeo aacaea?aeaai?noue, aea e,
«ino?aeieaoe» Iineao, i?ioenoaaeoe oe?a?ioe?a ye ia?iae a iniiaiiio
cao?aeii? o?aaeeoe??, ?in?yiai ye «aeaniioe/iiio Noiaeo». Aieea oeueiai
«Noiaeo» i?ecaiaeea, ye oaa?aeeeinue, aei iiyae oaeiai iaaaoeaiiai
yaeua, ye «oe?a?inueeee aa?iao?iaeeoeci». Inoaii?e, o naith /a?ao,
ni?e/eiya ia?a?iae?caoe?th aoiino, ia?ai???ioaoe?th ?ioae?aaioe??, ??
aaeaeoae?noue aei «oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy». I?ioeaaaith «no?aeiei»
aieeaai iaceaaeinue aea?eueiaiiy a?ae ieo /a?ac noai?aiiy aeanii?
aea?aeaae.

I?eeiaoii, ui i?noea «i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii» aeo?aeoiaoaaeinue ia eeoa
ye i?e/eia aacaea?aeaaiino?. Aeaooi aaa/aa o aeaiiio oaiiiai? /eiiee,
yeee iaoiiaeth? «iaiao?aei?noue» Oe?a?ie a iaeaooiueiio ?a?iiaenueeiio
na?oiono?i? (ui aeaco?, cie?aia, ia nii??aeiai?noue oe?a?inueei?
«iiaeae?» iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy c, i?ei??ii, /anueeith /e oai?nueeith).

Ni?iaa aeine?aeeoe aieea aai/eiieea ia aoiinioe?aeuei? i?ioeane ?,
cie?aia, ia aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aoea naiai ?iaeo
aoaiiith o ?icaeoeo iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy oe?a?ioe?a. sse naiai /ano
?ioaeaeooaee-oe?a?iiciaaoe? caa?oaeenue aei niaoe?aeueieo ciaiue —
e?iaa?noe/ieo, aoiia?ao?/ieo, ?noi?e/ieo — uia aeiaanoe iiaio, aoi?/io ?
o.i. ie?ai?oi?noue oe?a?ioe?a, oae ? ia iaae? noie?oue i?aaenoaaieee
oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee i?aaiooue caeo/aiiy iiaiai ciaiiy —
aaia?ao?/iiai, uia aeae? aaea c eiai aeiiiiiaith inieneeoe, iiynieoe
?noi?e/i?, iie?oe/i? i?ioeane ia oe?a?inuee?e oa?eoi???.

A ?icae?e? iaaieioo?oueny, ui aeanyo? ?iee OO no. noaee iiaei aoaiii a
inieneaii? i?e/ei aacaea?aeaaiino?: i?inooae?thaaaoe oe?a?inueeo
?noi??th, ?ioaeaeooaeuei? e?aea?e iaoe?? ia?aeoee aei aiae?co iioi/ieo
i?ioean?a. A?aeoae na?aae nooo?aeo ia?aoeiae aea?aeaaiiio
naiiaecia/aiith iaceaathoueny aaea ae?yiiy ?in?enueeeo iaoe?iiae?no?a,
ath?ie?ao?a, «aoaoiieye?a», iie?oeea o?yae?a ?, c?aooith, i?ioenoiyiiy
«naieo ia?iae?a» — oe?a?inueeiai ? ?in?enueeiai, oe?a?inueeiai ?
iieuenueeiai (E.Eiaoo, I.Iaca?oe, N.Oaeoo?i, I.A?ooaanueeee,
A.E?noye?anueeee). Iaeiae i?e anueiio iaaaoeaiiio ni?eeiyoo? ?in?yi ?
iieye?a, oe?a?ioe? ana ae ciaoiaeeee a inoaii?o iiceoea, oa, ui
?iiiioaaei, /iio aa?oi aoei a a/eoenue, a?aoe ca c?acie: iieuenueeee
iao??ioeci, iieuenueea aiey aei aea?aeaae.

A oiae? iaa?oiooaaiiy oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, ui oe?a?ioe? ye iaoe?y
iathoue ana iaiao?aeia aeey noai?aiiy aea?aeaae a aeiiii?/iiio,
iie?oe/iiio, eoeueoo?iiio ieai? oe?a?inuee? ?ioaeaeooaee aeei?enoiaoaaee
a?aoiaioe, ye? a?aeenue ia eeoa c ieioeiai /e no/aniino?, aea e oyaiiai
iaeaooiueiai iaoe??. Iineeaiiy eoei ia ?aaeuei? ?noi?e/i? oaeoe oa i?oe.
?aoe?iiaeuei? iiyniaiiy o ii?aeiaii? c o?iae?ciii i?o?a ye?ac ?
aeiiiiaaaee a iaa?oiooaaii? cacia/aiiai oaa?aeaeaiiy.

I?oe aoee, c iaeiiai aieo, caniaii a?aeiaaeoaaiiy «ian» a?ae «ieo»,
oiaoi aeeiioaaee aoiiaeeoa?aioe?thth/o ooieoe?th. C ?ioiai —
aoii?ioaa?oth/o, ni?eyee nie?aea?ecaoe?? /eai?a ni?eueiino?.
Eiinoeoothth/e ni?eueiioo, aiie, iaaiith i??ith, caaacia/oaaee ??
aeeoo?caeaoi?noue o iaeaooiueiio.

Ni?eyth/e ona?aeiieaiith i?o?a, ?noi??? oa iiaieo o?aaeeoe?e,
?ioaeaeooaeueia ae?oa iaiaaaeanue ie??i oiai «aeaia?eoaaoe» oa?eoi??th
oe?a?ioe?a oa aeiaanoe iaeia?oa ?? naiiaeinoaoi?noue. Oe?eee ?yae
i?aaenoaaiee?a iie?oe/ii? aeoiee — a?ae I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa aei
N.?oaeieoeueeiai — aeieeaee aei oeueiai coneeue. Iaeiae, yeui o
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I.A?ooaanueeiai, I.Aa?a?inueeiai oey «aeaia?eaoe?y» iaea
noenei — neiaanio oi?io, oi o N.?oaeieoeueeiai — ooiaeaoi?a aaia?ao??
Oe?a?ie — i?iaeai? i?enay/aii ?yae i?aoeue, aeaeaiiy yeeo oeiiieaeoiaai?
ea?oith Oe?a?ie.

Cia/io oaaao ?ioaeaeooaee aeyaeyee aei ?ic?iaee ieoaiue, iiaycaieo ?c
ooaa?aeaeaiiyi a na?aeiiino? /oooy i?aaiai? oa iie?oe/ii? ni?eueiino?
oe?a?ioe?a. C iaeyaeo ia oea, aeine?aeaeoth/e oe?a?inueeo ?noi??th, aiie
iae?aoaeuei?oa aea/aee o? ia??iaee, a ye? ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo
?nioaaea aea?aeaai?noue. Oea aeicaieyei aiae?coaaoe iie?oeei-th?eaee/iee
noai oe?a?ioe?a a ?noi?e/i?e ?ao?iniaeoea?.

Iaa?oiooaaaoe ?nioaaiiy iiaiioe?iiiai, ie?aiiai ia?iaeo (iaoe??), ae?oa
a?aeoae eiinoaooaaea, ui ?e iio??aii ana oa, /ei ei?enoothoueny «an?
?io?» iaoe?? ? iaeia?oa — aea?aeaaa.

I?aaii??i?noue aeiiae aea?aeaaiiai naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a /anoeia
?ioaeaeooae?a (I.Oaiiaae) iaa?oioiaoaaea e a ?ioee niin?a, aeaiaey/e ??
?c «?aaeueiiai» noaiiaeua iaoe?? (a ia, i?ei??ii, «aea?aeaaii-?noi?e/ii?
ieioaueie»), ?c iio?aa «nueiaiaei? aeoaei?», «aaaeuei?i?» iaoe??, yea
a?ae/oea «iioya», «caeaoi?noue aei aeeooy» ? yea, a?aeoae, «ia? i?aai»
aooe.

sse na?ae/aoue aeine?aeaeoaai? iaoa??aee, aea?aeaaa ni?eeiaeanue,
ii-ia?oa, ye i?iya ??aiii?aaiino?; ii-ae?oaa, — ye iaeaeua oi?ia
i?ioenoaaeaiiy «naaa» — «/oaeei»; ii-o?ao?, — ye can?a caoenoo «naaa»
a?ae oeeo «/oaeeo» c ?o «oe?eeii i?ioeeaaeieie» ?ioa?anaie,
i?ioeeaaeieie «iaoei» ye iaoe??.

I?i aea?aeaao ye can?a oaacia/aiiy oaei? eieaeoeaii? ni?eueiioe, yeith ?
iaoe?y, ia?oei a ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio na?aaeiaeu? iaae? noie?oue caaiai?ea
I.Ae?aaiiaiia, naia c eiai aono i?icao/aei oea aa?enoe/ia aeey
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa aecia/aiiy iaoe (oa e i?e/eie) noai?aiiy
aea?aeaae. Ne?aeii ca I.Ae?aaiiaiiaei e ?io? i?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueei?
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee — a o./. I.Eiaaeaanueeee, E.Eiaoo, ?.O?aiei — i?oee o
?one? ?aeae O.Aiaana, iiaa/eaoe, ye ? a?i, a aea?aeaa? nai???aeiee
ea?ean aaciaee — nenoaio ?inoeooo?a, o? i?oe, aeiaie, ?aeaaee, aa?oino?,
ye? ia?aoeiaeaeathoue oainia? ? caoeuathoue oeo, ye? ?o noai?ththoue.

Aeacoth/e ia ?nioaaiiy «ie?aiiai» ia?iaeo ? «ie?aii?» oa?eoi???,
i?aaenoaaieee ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe caa?oaee oaaao ia iaiao?aei?noue
anoaiiaeaiiy noaa?aiii? aeaaee, ye iaia’yceiaiai aeaiaioa noaa?aiii?
aea?aeaaiino?. Ao?i, ye na?ae/aoue aeieoiaioe, aeey a?eueoino? c ieo
nooi?noue «noaa?aiiino?» eiioeaio?oaaeanue o neiaao «naiy aiey ia nai?e
caie?» ? eeoa iaeeieoe? (N.Oaeoo?i, I.Eiaaeaanueeee) i?aaioee inyaiooe
ci?no aeaiiai iiiyooy c iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo iiceoe?e.

Aiae?c ?ioaeaeooaeueii? niaaeueie iieacaa, ui cia/ii? aaae a
oe?a?inueeiio ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio na?aaeiaeu? iaaoei ieoaiiy noa?e aieeao
aea?aeaae. Aaniethoia a?eueo?noue eiai i?aaenoaaiee?a (O.C?iuee?anueeee,
?.O?aiei, I.Eiaaeaanueeee) iaaieiooaaea ia iaiao?aeiino? iaiaaeaiiy
«aeaniio?? aea?aeaae», ?? aaceiio?ieueiiai ao?o/aiiy a aeeooy
noni?euenoaa, ei?eaoaaiiy «aie? ?iaeea?aea», «i?aaa ethaenueeiai» o
a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c nai?ie ?ioa?anaie. C iaeyaeo ia oea, noa?a aieeao
aea?aeaae iaea a iaiaaeoaaoenue noa?ith «aaoiiii??» ethaenueei?
iniaenoino?.

Iae?aoaeuei?oei /eiii ?ioaeaeooaeueiith ae?oith aoea i?iaiae?ciaaia ?
i?aeaeaia aino??e e?eoeoe? nooi?noue nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii? «ia?iaeii?
aea?aeaae» (?.O?aiei) oa «iie?oeaenueei? aea?aeaae» (I.Eiaaeaanueeee),
ae?yeuei?noue yeeo i?io?eaea a i?ae aaneaie ae?yeueiino? «aeey
ia?iaeo», a iani?aaae? — «aac o/ano? ia?iaeo». I.Eiaaeaanueeee
i?ioenoaaeya «iie?oeaenuee?e aea?aeaa?» aea?aeaao, yea ? «naia aeey
naaa», ? yea, ca ia?aeiiaiiyi a/aiiai, aenooia? caoenieeii i?aa ? aie?
iniaenoino?. C ?icoe?aiiyi ooieoe?e oe??? aea?aeaae a/aiee iia’ycoaaa
?icoe?aiiy noa?e ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? naiaiaee, i?aeoi «caoaeaii?»
ao?o/aiiyi a aeeooy iniaenoino? n?i’?, oea?eae oa ?ioeo «nithc?a».

*a?ac i?ecio caaacia/aiiy i?aa ?iaeea?aea-/eaia iiiaaieaii? iaoe??
i?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee aiae?coaaee oae? oeie
aea?aeaae, ye «iaoe?iiaeueia aea?aeaaa» ? «iaoe?iiaeueii-i?oaia». I?e
oeueiio aeaye? c ieo noeeyeenue aei aeniiaeo, ui eeoa aea?aeaaa ia?oiai
oeio caeaoia caaacia/eoe ?ioa?ane iaoe??.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — «Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo
aaoiiii?nonueei-oaaea?ae?noe/ii? oa naiino?eieoeueei? aeoiee» — oaaaa
cina?aaeaeaia, ii-ia?oa, ia aeyaeaii? i?e/ei aeii?ioaaiiy a oe?a?inueeeo
?ioaeaeooaeueieo aa?noaao ?aea? oaaea?ae?cio oa aiae?c? ?aoeaen?e iin??a
?aea? c i?eaiaeo ia?aoeiae ia oeyoo aei oe?a?inueei? aaoiiii??,
ii-ae?oaa, ia aeine?aeaeaii? o?aeooaaiiy nooiino?
aaoiiiiii-oaaea?ae?nonueei? oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith ?, ii-o?ao?, — ia
c’ynoaaii? oa?aeoa?ieo ?en ?icaeoeo naiino?eieoeueeiai ?aeaaeo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaioaaiiy ?aea? oaaea?ae?cio iiynithaaeinue oei, ui
iaei? a oe?a?inueeiio na?aaeiaeu?, ye I.Einoiia?ia, i?eiee ia a??eee o
iiaeeea?noue iie?oe/ii? naiino?eiino? oe?a?ioe?a — «c naii? aaia?ao??»,
aea a??eee o «aaeeea iieeeeaiiy ?in??» o neia’yinueeiio na?o?, o
ananeia’yinueeo oaaea?aoe?th. Ae?oa?, ye A.A??i/aiei, aaaaeaee, ui aeey
noai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaae iaia? iaiao?aeieo oiia, aei oiai ae
niiae?aaeenue, ui c /anii ?in?y caaacia/eoue oe?a?ioeyi i?aaa «ye
Aano??y». C iaeyaeo ia oea, oe?a?ioeyi ia aoaea i?yei? ?aoe??
a?ae?eaaoeny a?ae ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae. Aeey o?ao?o, ye aeey
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, oaaea?ae?nonueea ?aeay aoea i?eaaaeeaith oiio, ui,
ii-ia?oa, caeaaaeanue iiaeeeaith aei ao?eaiiy aac aeiiiiiae cao?aeieo
non?ae?a; ii-ae?oaa, a ?? aeinyaiaii? iiaeia aoei ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia
aeiiiiiao oeo ia?iae?a Aano?i-Oai?nueei? oa ?in?enueei? ?iia??e, ye?
iioa?iaee oae naii, ye e oe?a?ioe?; ii-o?ao?, I.Ae?aaiiaiia a??ea o
iiaeeea?noue iie?oe/ii? ? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaoiiii?? aac «aea?aeaaii?
a?ae?oaiino?»; ?, ii-/aoaa?oa, aoa ia?aeiiaiee a ?nioaaii? «ni?eueieo
?ioa?an?a» i?ae oe?a?ioeyie ? ?in??th. Aeacai? a?aoiaioe
aeiiiaithaaeenue oei, ui iiaeeeaino? oaaea?aoe?? ye oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai
ono?ith aoee ia?aa??ai? ? i?aeoaa?aeaeai? i?aeia?iaeiith iie?oe/iith
i?aeoeeith, aei yei? I.Ae?aaiiaiia caaaeaee aoa noeeueiee caa?oaoenue,
i?inoaaeoth/e caeiiii??iino? iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ??cieo ia?iae?a ?
aea?aeaa. I?eoeeuei?noue aei ?aea? aaoiiii?? ? oaaea?aoe??
iiynithaaeanue ? oei, ui aeaye? c ?ioaeaeooae?a (O.C?iuee?anueeee)
aaa/aee naia a oe?e oi?i? aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith can?a caoenoo «ae??aieo»
ia?iae?a a?ae «iiooaeieo».

Aiae?c aeieoiaio?a cana?ae/o?, ui ?aeeiiai iiaeyaeo ia iiaeeeao
no?oeoo?o oaaea?aoe??, a ye? e ae Oe?a?ia iiaea aooe aaoiiii??th, a
oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? iaae? a?e?a ia aoei. Iaoii?noue — aace?/
aa??aio?a iiaeeeaeo oaaea?aoeaieo ca’yce?a. Iiyao eiaeii? c oeeo aa?n?e
iaoiiaethaaee iie?oe/i? iiae?? iaae? O?O — OO no., ?aeaieia?/i?
aiiaeiaaiiy iin??a «?aea? aea?aeaaiino?».

O ?icae?e? aeiaaaeaii, ui ??cieie aoee e iaae??, ye? iieeaaeaee
oe?a?ioe? ia aaoiiii?th oa oaaea?aoe?th. *anoeia naiino?eieoeueee
iano?i?ieo aeaiaio?a noeeueia aoea ?icaeyaeaoe aaoiiii?th ye «ieae/ee»
nooi?iue naiino?eiino?, ye «aoai» o ?? caeiaooo?. O?, ooi i??ya i?i
«?a?iiaenueeo oaaea?aoe?th», ?icaeyaeaa aaoiiii?th o neeaae? ?in?? ye
aoai ia oeyoo naia aei ia?. Nioe?ae?noe-oaaea?ae?noe aaa/aee o
oaaea?aoe?? can?a «i?eie?aiiy» ethaenoaa, /eiiee, yeee oiiaeeeaeoue
ia?aiiao nioe?ae?cio, «oi?aeanoai ?iai/iai ethaeo». Aoee e oae? c-iii?ae
oe?a?inueeeo ?ioaeaeooae?a, ye? iia’ycoaaee c oaaea?oaaiiyi ?in?? iaae??
ia caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyinueei? naiaiaee ? aa?aio?e oe??? naiaiaee aeey
an?o «?ii?iaeoe?a» ii?o/ aaeeei?in?a. Oiaoi aoee ia?aeiiai?, ui
oaaea?oaaiiy ?in?? aoei a a ?ioa?anao an?o iaoe?iiaeueiinoae. A ?iee
?in?enueei? ?aaiethoe?? ? oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue oe?a?ioe? iiaa/eee o oaaea?aoe?? «inoaii?e ii?yooiie» aeey
?in??, inoaiith iiaeeea?noue caa?aaeaiiy oe?eino? ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae.

Oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui ?ioaeaeooaeueia ae?oa i?i?iaeea cia/io oai?aoe/io
?iaioo iaaeiei i?iaeaie «nooi?noue aaoiiiiii-oaaea?ae?nonueei? oi?ie
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith». Cie?aia, oaaaa eiioeaio?oaaeanue ia iniaeeainoyo
ca?iaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a oaaea?ae?cio oa ?o i?iyaao o ??ci? /ania?
ia??iaee ethaenueei? oeea?e?caoe?? a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao, iaoai?ci?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue, iiaeeeainoyo
iinooiiaiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a oaaea?ae?cio a ?in?enuee?e ?iia???.

Iaaieiooth/e aacoiiaio ia?o?noue ? aaaii?noue aeine?aeaeaiue,
?icai?iooeo o oeueiio iai?yieo I.Ae?aaiiaiiaei, aaoi? aiae?co? oe?eee
?yae ae?aaiiaiianueeeo i?aoeue — ye aaea aeia?a a?aeiieo, oae ? iaio
ciaieo. ?o ii?aoethaaiiy iieacaei, ui a/aiee iaeia?oo oaaao i?eae?eya
ieoaiith aaiace oaaea?ae?cio oa aaiace ?aea? aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??.
Cie?aia — ?icaeoeo «a?eueieo ii?yaee?a», a?aeiinei naiioi?aae?iiy ye
oa?aeoa?ieo aeaiaio?a oaaea?ae?cio o noa?iaeaai?o aa?iaioe?a, i?aaeaiieo
neia’yi, a?ae?a, ?oae?eoe?a, ?iae?eoe?a, ?eieyi; a aeae? — a
na?aaeiueia?/i?e ?a?ii?.

Aiioa Na?aaeiueia?//y aoea i?eaaaeeaith ? aeey ?.O?aiea ye «cieioee /an»
aaoiiii??, aea ? ye /an «aaoiiii?/ii-oaaea?ae?noe/iiai oaino», c yeiai
iinoaee iiai/ani? oeaio?ae?ciaai? aea?aeaae.

Caneoaith I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa e ?.O?aiea aoei oa, ui aiie «?anoaa?oaaee», a
ca oei aeine?aeeee i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo aaoiiii?noe/ieo
iioya?a. I.Ae?aaiiaiia, cie?aia, aeia?a, ui aeeaeeueiei a?oioii aeey ieo
neoaeea «iaoe?iiaeueiee oeaio?ae?ci».

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeoie?a ?a?iiaenueeeo oeaio?ae?ci?a oa aaoiiii?noe/ieo
i?aaiaiue iiiaaieaieo ia?iae?a, inyaiaiiy iaeiie/aiiai a aeai?e aaeoc?
aeina?aeo aeicaieeei I.Ae?aaiiaiiao cae?enieoe aiae?c aoai?a oa
iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo «aea?aeaaii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai oeaio?ae?cio» a
Aano?i-Oai?uei? oa ?in??. I?eeiaoii, ui i?e oeueiio a/aiee, ia a?aei?io
a?ae ?ioeo i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? ae?oe, aoa noeeueiei ?icaeyaeaoe
i?ioeane a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? ia in?aii, ia ye uinue i?ea?iaeueia ca
nai?ie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeey ?a?iie, a, iaaiaee, — o
caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeiio eiioaeno?, ii??aithth/e, i?iaiaey/e aiaeia??,
ae??ciyth/e ni?eueia ? iniaeeaa o ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaieo oeaio?ae?ci?a
?a?iie. Iaaooa ciaiiy aeicaieeei I.Ae?aaiiaiiao, a caiaeii e ?ioei
oe?a?inueeei ?ioaeaeooaeai, ia?aeoe aei iiooeo oeyo?a aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??
?in??, iaiaaeaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa.

Iiaeaeueoee aiae?c oi?i aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith e?a?i na?oo i?aea?a ae?oo
aei ona?aeiieaiiy oiai, ui eiaeia aea?aeaaia ooai?aiiy, yea ooieoe?iio?
ia canaaeao oaaea?ae?cio, caaacia/o? eeoa iaaiee ??aaiue
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??, iaaiee ??aaiue naiino?eiino? noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe??,
aea? na?e c?acie a?aeiinei ii e?i?? «ie?a?ie-oeaio?».

Cia/io oaaao a oaeno? ?icae?eo i?eae?eaii aeine?aeaeaiith iiiyo?eiiai
aia?aoo, yeei ei?enooaaeenue i?eoeeueieee aea?aeaaiiai naiiaecia/aiiy
oe?a?ioe?a. C’yniaaii, ui inoaii?e ciaoiaeeany o noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy.
Aeieoiaioe iie?oe/ii? aeoiee na?ae/aoue, ui iaei? ? o? ae oa?i?ie ??
i?aaenoaaieee aeoeoia/oaaee iaiaeiicia/ii. Oae, oaaea?aoe?y a oaenoao
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa iaea ?yae neiii?i?a ? aoea oioiaeia oaeei eaoaai??yi, ye
«ni?eea aea?aeaa», «a?eueia ni?eea», «a?eueia oiaa?enoai». A ?ioeo
aaoi??a «ni?eea aea?aeaa» iiaea icia/aoe ye aeania oaaea?aoeai?, oae ?
eiioaaea?aoeai? /e e ?iia?nuee? ca’ycee. Ia aoei /?oeiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy e
oaeeo eaoaai??e, ye «oi?ia aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith» oa «oi?ia aea?aeaaiiai
i?aae?iiy», a oiio /anii a?aeaoaaeanue i?aei?ia iaeiiai iiiyooy ?ioei.
I?ioa, ia ii/aoie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue, ye aeaeii ?c
i?aoeue I.A?ooaanueeiai, i?ia?aiieo oa ?ioeo oai?aoe/ieo aeieoiaio?a ?
iaoa??ae?a iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, i?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee a iniiaiiio aaeaeaaoii aeo?aeoiaoaaee nooi?noue cacia/aieo
oa?i?i?a. Ie??i oiai, a cacia/aiee /an ?oiy oai?aoe/ia ?iaioa
cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia c’ynoaaii? nooiino? oaeeo yaeu iie?oe/iiai aeeooy,
ye «e?a?aa aaoiiii?y», «iaoe?iiaeueia aaoiiii?y»,
«iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueia aaoiiii?y». Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eyeany e
aeine?aeaeaiith ieoaiiy «aa?oiaiiai noaa?aia» o oaaea?aoe??, ?iciiae?eo
aeaaee, i?aa ? iaia’yce?a noa’?eo?a oiui.

Oai?aoe/i? ia?iaee ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe noaee ?aeaeii-oai?aoe/iei
ooiaeaiaioii aeey noai?aiiy aaoiiii?nonueei? eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaiino?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iaioaaiiy na?aae oe?a?inueei? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe
?aeae aaoiiii?? e oaaea?aoe??, ia iaae? noie?oue na?aae i?aaenoaaiee?a
oe?a?inueei? ae?oe aoee ethaee, yeeo ia caeeoaa aaeaeoaeei
naiino?eieoeueeee ?aeaae.

Oaeoe, iaaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, i?aeaaee aei aeniiaeo, ui
naiino?eieoeueea na?aaeiaeua oiiaii neeaaeaeinue ?c i?aaenoaaiee?a
o?ueio a?oi: aoee «naiino?eieee a ieioeiio» oae?, ye I.Eoe?o ?
A.Aioiiiae/; naiino?eieee «i?ae oeneii ianoaaei», ye I.A?ooaanueeee, ?
naiino?eieee, ye? aaaaeaee iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie aacaeueoa?iaoeaiith
iaoith — A.Eeieinueeee, Ae.Aeiioeia oa ?i. Inoaii?, ie?aneeaoe na?e
?aeaae — iacaeaaeia, niai?ia Oe?a?ia — a?aeaaaeeeenue i?ioenoaaeoe naaa
ia eeoa io?oe?ei?e aea?aeaa? ? aeaae?, ?in?enueeiio noni?euenoao, aea e
oe?a?ioeyi — i?eoeeueieeai ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?nonueeeo /e oaaea?ae?nonueeeo
?aeae, a oaeiae oei, ye? aaaaeaee naiino?eieoeoai oe?aeeeaith
«aeaaaeeith» ai?ia?a oe?a?ioe?a (ye N.Oaeoo?i).

O ?icae?e? ianoith?oueny aeoiea i?i oa, ui o eiioaeno? naiino?eieoeoaa
iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe ? iinoaoue oa ?aea? I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Aiae?coth/e ?aeaeio aaco naiino?eieoeoaa, aeena?oaioea caa?oa? oaaao ia
iaiaeiicia/i?noue o?aeooaaiiy eiai i?eoeeueieeaie oa?i?i?a «iie?oe/ia
naiino?ei?noue», «aecaieaiiy», «naia?aoeci».

?icae?e i?noeoue iaoa??aee, ye? na?ae/aoue ia ei?enoue oiai, ui
naiino?eieoeueeee ?aeaae aoa i?eaaaeeaei ia o?eueee aeey oeo, ye?
aeio?eioaaeeny ae?acii iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo iiceoe?e. Iineoaiaoth/enue
??ciiiai?oieie a?aoiaioaie, eiai ianoithaaee ? ia?enenoe, ye,
iai?eeeaae, TH.Aa/einueeee, ? nioe?ae?noe-?aaiethoe?iia?e, ye, i?ei??ii,
I.Cae?ciye ? o.ae. A caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aeaieia?/ieo i???ioe??a,
i??i?eoaoiino? iaoe?iiaeueiiai /e nioe?aeueiiai, iaei? ?c naiino?eiee?a
oaa?aeeee, ui «naiino?eia Oe?a?ia» aanei a ia?oo /a?ao oe?a?inueei?
ao?aeoac??. Ae?oa? ae, iineeath/enue ia i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae,
ia?aeiioaaee, ui aea?aeaaia naiino?ei?noue — nioe?ae?noe/ia aanei,
aaeaea iinooeao onaiino?eiaiiy oe?eeiaeoi ocaiaeaeo?oueny ?c
nioe?ae?noe/iei na?oiaeyaeii, ine?eueee eeoa o «aeani?e» aea?aeaa? noaia
aeinyaeiei ?aeaae — noni?euenoai aac aeceneo, aac ia??aiino?. Ia aoei
?aeeii? oi/ee ci?e ? ia no?oeoo?o ni?eueiioe: eeaniai c?aaeoeiaaia
iaoe?y /»oe?a?ioe?a-?ia?oiee?a» ? «oe?a?ioe?a-oe?ai?ia?a»/ /e
ieth?ae?noe/ia noni?euenoai, yea neeaaeaeiny a ?c i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo
aa?noa — a?ae ?ia?oiee?a ? naeyi aei ao?aeoac??. Inoaii? caaacia/eei a,
ye caeaaaeinue, ?? caeaoi?noue aei aeaoooaaiiy naiai naiino?eiiai
aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy (?.O?aiei, I.I?oiianueeee, I.Aa?a?inueeee).
Iaocaiaeaeai?noue a oai??? i?ecaiaeeea ia i?aeoeoe? aei
iac?ioaa?iaaiino? naiino?eieoeueeiai na?aaeiaeua, aei a?aee?eoiai
i?ioenoiyiiy eiai i?aaenoaaiee?a. Eeoa iaeeieoe?, ye, iai?eeeaae,
Ae.Aeiioeia, a caiaeii ? I.A?ooaanueeee, aeeacoaaee ?icoi?iiy oiai, ui
noai?aiiy aea?aeaae aeiaaa? eiii?ii?n?a, ?aeiino?, ?aeaeii?
iinooieeaino?.

sse na?ae/aoue ii?aoeueiaai? aeieoiaioe, ia aoei na?aae naiino?eiee?a ?
?aeeiiai iiaeyaeo ia oeyoe aeinyaiaiiy iaoe (ca aeiiiiiaith i?aeo?eiee
cciai? //eaie NAO/ /e ca ?aooiie «aeanieo nee» /A.Eeieinueeee,
A.Aeiie/aiei/). A?aeoae, iaei? iieeaaeaee iaae??, ui naiino?eia Oe?a?ia
iinoaia a iane?aeie ?ica?iio o a?ei? ?in?? ? i?e iaeaeoeai?o?e aeiiiiic?
Aano??? oa I?ia//eie (I.Ieoaeeaiei, Ae.Aeiioeia). Ae?oa? niiae?aaeenue
ia iaoe?iiaeueio ?aaiethoe?th, yea noaia nai???aeiei iiaoi?aiiyi aeey
oe?a?ioe?a iaoe?iiaeueieo ?aaiethoe?e 1848 ?., iiae?e «aanie ia?iae?a».
Iaeiae, aoee e oae? a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, ye? a?aeiiaeyeenue
ni?eeiaoe a?eio ? ?aaiethoe?th ye iioeiaeuei? oi?ie ai?ioueae ca
iacaeaaei?noue, aeneiaethaaeenue ca iiooe ?ioeo, «iinooiiaeo», oeyo?a
aeinyaiaiiy aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino? (A.Oaiieoeueeee). Iane?aeeii
aeio?eiaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo oeyo?a i?inoaaiiy aei naiino?eii? Oe?a?ie
aoea iaaioiai?noue iin??a ?aea? aei aeoeaieo ni?eueieo ae?e, i?i ui
cana?ae/ea ia?aa?a iiae?e a ?iee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue.

Aaoi? aiae?co? a?aoiaioe, iineeath/enue ia ye?, ae?oa iaiaaaeanue
i?eaa?iooe oaaao ?a?iie aei i?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? (Oe?a?ia
— /eiiee ?a?iiaenueei? ??aiiaaae, «caai?iei» ?a?iie i?ioe ?in??,
oea?nueei? aeniain??, aieea?a «iaiiineia?oecio» oiui). I?e oeueiio
caa?oa? oaaao ia iineeaiiy aioe?in?enueei? ni?yiiaaiino? oe?a?inueei?
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee a ?iee na?oiai? a?eie.

I’yoee ?icae?e — «Eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaae» — i?enay/aiee aiae?co ?aeae
oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee noiniaii canaae (iie?oe/ieo,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo oiui) iaeaooiuei? aea?aeaae.
Aeena?oaioea aeiaiaeeoue, ui i?eoeeueieee aaoiiii?? Oe?a?ie ieneeee ??
ye iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueio aaoiiii?th a aoiia?ao?/ieo iaaeao.
A?aeoae — iaaieiooaaee iaiao?aei?noue ia?aoai?aiiy ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae
c oi?oa?ii? o oaaea?aoe?th ca ?aooiie iaaeaiiy iaoe?yi (/e «caieyi»)
aaoiiiiieo i?aa.

A ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny i?iiiiiaai? oi?ie ono?ith oe?a?inueei?
aaoiiii?? (oi?oa?ia /e aaoiiii?y caiaeue); nooi?noue iiaeyae?a ia ci?no
a?aeiinei o oaaea?aoe?? (iicaaaeaiiy aaoiiii?? i?aaa aeoiaeo ?c «nithco»
/e caaacia/aiiy i?aaiaei /eiii iiaeeeaino? ?ic??aaiiy ca’yce?a c
oaaea?aoe??th); i?iaeaia noaa?aiiino? (oe?eiai /e /anoei, iaoe?? /e
«caie?»); oi?ie i?aae?iiy (iiia?o?y /e ?anioae?ea).

Iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii aeine?aeaeaiith iniia ?anioae?eainueei? oi?ie
i?aae?iiy o oiio aeaeyae?, a yeiio aiia iinoaea ia noi??ieao niaaeueie
oe?a?ioe?a-aaoiiii?no?a. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?ioaeaeooaeueia ae?oa aeyaeyea
i?eoeeuei?noue aei ?anioae?ee ia?eaiaionueeiai oeio, a ye?e ae ae?ya
i?eioeei ?iciiae?eo aeaaee, aoei a caaacia/aia caaaeueia, ??aia,
aacoeaiciaa, aaciina?aaei?, oa?iia ? o.ae. aeai?/a i?aai,
eoeueoeaoaaeenue iae??ciiiai?oi?o? aeaiie?aoe/i? i?ioeaaeo?e. Ana oea
i?aeaaei aei aeniiaeo, ui aaoiiii?noe aoee aeia?a ia?ciai? ?c nooi?noth,
iaoai?ciii ooieoe?iioaaiiy oiai/anieo aeaiie?ao?e na?oo, ui aeicaieeei
?i caeeanoe a nai? aea?aeaaieoeuee? eiioeaioe?? naia aeaiie?aoe/i?
i?eioeeie. Aeaia caoaaaeaiiy ? i?aaii??iei ? noiniaii iinoaiiaee ieoaiiy
i?aa oa iaia’yce?a iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, ye? i?iaeeaaee ia oe?a?inueeeo
caieyo.

sse ie?aiee aniaeo oaie a aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny aaoiiii?nonuee?
ono?aie?iiy i?aeaano??enueeeo oe?a?ioe?a, aiae?co?oueny nooi?noue ?oi?o
iie?oe/ieo aeiiaaaiue, caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia oa, ui yeui i?ae?in?enuee?
oe?a?ioe? aaaeaee aaoiiii?? a ?aieao aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?anioae?ee, oi
i?aeaano??enuee? a??eee o «i?aaaeeaee aaoiiii?ci» o ?aieao iiia?o??.

Ia oii? iiae?e n?iiaaeoeyoiai — ii/aoeo a?n?iiaaeoeyoiai ?ieo a
?in?enuee?e ?iia??? aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?aeaeia aaiethoe?y i?aaenoaaiee?a
oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee a?ae aaoiiii?nonueei-oaaea?ae?noe/ii?
?aea? aei naiino?eieoeoaa.

?ioaineaia i?aoey, i?i?iaeaia ?ioaeaeooaeueiith ae?oith a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, aeicaieeea ?e, c?aooith, iaa?oiooaaoe
i?eioeeie iaoe?iiaeueii? naiii?aai?caoe?? ? naiioi?aae?iiy. Aoei
c?iaeaii ua iaeei ??oo/ee e?ie ia oeyoo aei ni?inooaaiiy oace i?i
iacaeaoi?noue oe?a?ioe?a aei aeaniiai aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy.

?icae?e i?noeoue aiae?c naiino?eieoeueei? eiioeaioe??. Aeine?aeaeaiith
i?aeaeai? aeoai?ai? ?ioaeaeooaeueiith ae?oith, ye a??ia?aei?, oi?ie
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith, aea?aeaaiiai i?aae?iiy, iaoai?ci cae?eniaiiy
aeaaee, ?? aeaea?aea, ooieoe?? aea?aeaae, no?oeoo?a iie?oe/ii? nenoaie,
iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a iaeaooi?e
aea?aeaa?.

C’yniaaii, ui Oe?a?ia a?eueoino? naiino?eiee?a oyaeyeanue
aeaiie?aoe/iith ?anioae?eith (i?aceaeaionueeith /e ia?eaiaionueeith).
Iaeiae, /anoeia iin??a ?aea? ia?aaaao a?aeaeaaaea eiinoeoooe?ei?e
iiia?o??.

I?eoeeueieee ?anioae?eainueei? oi?ie i?aae?iiy ia?aaeaa/aee ?icaoaeiao
aea?aeaae ia i?eioeeiao aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? ? i?noeaaiai naiioi?aae?iiy.
Iaaieiooth/e ia iaiao?aeiino? caaacia/aiiy oiia aeey ?icaeoeo ia?o ca
ana oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, naiino?eieee ?acii c oei cia/io oaaao
i?eae?eeee ieoaiith noai?aiiy oiia aeey ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.
O i?ia?aiao oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e (OII, OAeOI, OINN, OIN?), a
oaeiae o i?iaeo? «Iniiaiiai Caeiio Naiino?eii? Oe?a?ie Ni?eee ia?iaeo
oe?a?inueeiai» aoee caeeaaeai? a oe?eiio aeaiie?aoe/i? i?eioeeie
i?aai?caoe?? aeeooy inoaii?o, ie?aneai? ?o i?aaa (a oiio /ene? ia ??aia
aeai?/a i?aai aeey an?o iaoe?e, i?aaenoaaieoeoai a ia?eaiaio?, i?aaiao
i?noeaaiai naiioi?aae?iiy, eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie, ae?th ?ae?a?eieo
onoaiia oiui), a oaeiae iaia’ycee. Nooi?noue inoaii?o caiaeeeanue aei
oi?ioee «aooe iao??ioii Oe?a?ie».

sse ie?aiee aniaeo i?iaeaie aca?iei oe?a?ioe?a c i?aaenoaaieeaie ?ioeo
iaoe?e ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ?ioaeaeooaeuei?e
niaaeuei? i?ia?aeiee?a iaoe?? noaaeaiiy aei oaeiai iaaaoeaiiai yaeua, ye
oia?y (?oni-, iieiii-, thaei-), aeo?aeooaaiiy aanea «Oe?a?ia aeey
oe?a?ioe?a», iiiyoue «oe?a?inueeee ia?iae», «Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa»
oiui. I?aaio/e ia’?eoeaiino? a ioe?ioe? noaeaeaiue ?ioaeaeooaeueii?
ae?oe, aeena?oaioea cae?enieea ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iiaeyae?a ia oo /e
?ioo i?iaeaio i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo ?aeaeieo iai?yi?a (iai?eeeaae,
I.A?ooaanueeiai, ?.O?aiea, N.?oaeieoeueeiai), a oaeiae i?aaenoaaiee?a
?ioeo iaoe?e (Aeaae?i??a AEaaioeinueeiai).

A ?icae?e? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui a oe?eiio oiea?aioia noaaeaiiy
naiino?eiee?a aei iaoeiaioei, aeo?aeooaaiiy «oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo» ia
ye aeania aoi?/ii oe?a?inueeiai, aea ye an?o aeeoae?a Oe?a?ie,
oiiaeeeaeei iiyao eiioeaioe?? oa?eoi??ae?cio (A.Eeieinueeee).

I?eeiaoiith ?enith ?icaeoeo iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy naiino?eiee?a aoei oa,
ui /anoeia c ieo iaiaaaeanue aeaoaeiaoaaoe Oe?a?io oi/a ? c a?aooaaiiyi
?ioa?an?a an?o iaoe?e, ui i?iaeeaaee ia oa?eoi??? ?anioae?ee, iaeiae
aeoeaiooaaea oaaao ia caaacia/aii? iaeia?oa iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a iaaieo
eean?a (?ia?oiee?a, naeyi) ye a na?aaeiaeu? oe?a?ioe?a, oae ?
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei. ?ioa /anoeia (/eaie OAeOI) ea?oaaeanue o
aea?aeaaiiio aoae?aieoeoa? iie?oe/ieie ?ioa?anaie i?aaenoaaiee?a on?o
aa?noa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Aeoai?aiiy oe?a?inueeith ae?oith ?anioae?eainueei-naiino?eieoeueeeo
i?iaeo?a (ye ia?aae oei ? aaoiiii?nonueei-oaaea?ae?nonueeeo) ?
ii??aiyiiy a oe?eiio oaiaeaioe?e iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy oe?a?ioe?a iaae?
noie?oue c aiaeia?/ieie i?ioeanaie a ?in?enueeiio noni?euenoa? i?aeaaei
aei aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee eoia
i?eioeeiiai ?ioei ?oneii, i?ae ?in?enueei?. ?in?yie o nai?e ian? aoee
aeaeaeeie a?ae ?aeaae?a oaaea?aoe??, ?anioae?ee, aeciaiiy iaiao?aeiino?
naiiaecia/aiiy iaoe?e. Canaaeie/eie eaoaai??yie ?in?enueei? iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee aoee «iiia?o?y», «i?aaineaa’y», «oaie?ao?y», «aeeeoaoo?a».

Oaeee aeniiaie noaa iiaeeeaei a ?acoeueoao? aiae?co niaaeueie
?in?enueeeo eiina?aaoi??a ? iaieiina?aaoi??a (E.Eaiioue?aa,
I.Aeaieeaanueeiai, E.Oeoiie?iaa, A.Nieiaeiaa), e?aa?aeueieo ?aeaieia?a
(A.*e/a??ia, N.Io?iioeaaa, I.Ei?eoiiaa, E.Iao?aaeeoeueeiai),
e?aa?aeueieo ? ?aaiethoe?eieo ia?iaeiee?a (E.Eaaae?ia, I.Eaa?iaa,
I.Oea/iaa), iin??a aoioa?nueei-aia?o?nonueeeo ?aeaae?a (N.Ia/a?aa,
I.Aaeoi?ia), ?aeaieia?a «aeiiii?cio», ?aaeeeae?a (ia /ie? c A.Eai?iei),
eiina?aaoi??a ii/aoeo OO no. (N.Aoeaaeiaa, I.Aa?aey?aa, I.No?oaa,
N.O?aiea, I.Iiaai?iaeoeaaa).

C a?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui i?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee e??i
?ic?iaee ieoaiue nooi iie?oe/ieo oaaao ni?yiiaoaaee ia aeiiii?/i?,
eoeueoo?i? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo iaoe??, a aeena?oaoe?? i?aeaeaii aiae?co
nioe?aeuei?, aeiiii?/i?, eoeueoo?i? canaaee iaeaooiuei? Oe?a?ie.
C’yniaaii, ui iane?aeeii ?aoeaen?e ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe aoei iinoaiiy
ia oai?aoe/iiio ??ai? «Aaeeei? Oe?a?ie» (oa?i?i I.A?ooaanueeiai) ye
aeniei?icaeiooi? e?a?ie.

Aeiiii?/iith «i?aenoaaith» aea?aeaae aaaaeaeinue naeyinoai
(I.A?ooaanueeee, A.Eeieinueeee, N.?oaeieoeueeee). Oe?a?ia ieneeeanue, ye
aea?aeaaa aeniei ?icaeiooiai oa?ia?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.
?ioaeaeooaeuei?e ae?o? aaeaeiny, a?aoiaoth/e aaiiniaeeaino? oe?a?inueei?
oa?eoi???, ?? iaae?, a?oio?a ? o.ae. iae?aneeoe oeyoe iiaeaeueoi?
iiaea?i?caoe?? aa?a?ii? iaoe??, ?? ooaa?aeaeaiiy ye iaa?ae’?iii?
neeaaeiai? aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? ?a?iie. I?e oeueiio yne?aai ae?aaeaiith
?enith iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy a cacia/aiiio iai?yieo aoei i?aaiaiiy
«caeeoaoenue niaith» a «iiaeo» oi?iao aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy.

O ?icae?e? cae?eniaii e?eoe/iee aiae?c oai?aoe/ii? niaaeueie aecia/iiai
aeiiii?noa aeiae I.Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeiai — i?eoeeueieea nioe?ae?noe/iiai
oeyoo ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy. A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiethoe??
iiaeyae?a a/aiiai, aena?oeaiiy noia?a/iinoae eiai na?oiaeyaeo iieacaii,
c iaeiiai aieo, eiai i?aaiaiiy ?aeaaeo — caaacia/aiiy iaea?eueoi?
naiaiaee iniaenoino?, ?icaeoeo ?? aeooiaiino?, eoeueoo?e, c ?ioiai —
eiai a?aeaeai?noue ?aea? oi?oa?ii?, oeaio?ae?ciaaii? nioe?ae?noe/ii?
aea?aeaae, yea a aenooiaea na?eiciith ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo aeinyaiaiiy
?aeaaeo.

C’yniaaii nooi?noue e?eoeee A.Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeei nioe?ae?noe/ieo ?aeae
E.Ia?ena, nai-n?iii?no?a, ?iaeaa?oona, A.Eaaa; i?aenoaae iani?eeiyooy
a/aiei oaaea?ae?cio oa i?e/eie eiai ia?aoiaeo aei iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaiao?aeiino? eoeueoeaoaaiiy «oaaea?ae?noe/ieo nenoai», ?icaeoeo
i?noeaaiai naiioi?aae?iiy; nooi?noue «e?ioeaaiai» ?aeaaeo — «aia?o?/iiai
eiioi?cio» — oa oeyoe eiai aeinyaiaiiy.

I?eeiaoii, ui e??cue i?ecio ?ioa?an?a iniaenoino?, caaeiaieaiiy ?? i?aa
iaiaaaany ?icaeyaeaoe aea?aeaao ? A.E?noye?anueeee. Iaeiae aea?aeaao
iaeaooiueiai a?i ia iia’ycoaaa c eai?oae?ciii /e nioe?ae?ciii, a
iaiaaaany ?icaeyaeaoe ?? ye i?aaiao i?aai?caoe?th «a ii?iaeueiiio
nioe?aeueiiio eaae?». A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaai? iaa?oioiaai? a/aiei
?ene i?aaiai? aea?aeaae (iaiaaeai?noue, i?aecaeiii?noue, ?iciiae?e
aeaaee; iaaeioi?eai?noue iniae; naiaiaea nia?no?, neiaa, ciinei, ni?eie,
c?a?aiue; iaae?eaiiy a?iiaaeyi noa’?eoeaieie ioae?/ieie i?aaaie; ia?iae
/? iniaa/ — ia’?eo ? noa’?eo aeaaee, ?? ni?ao/aniee; caaaeueia, ??aia,
i?yia ? oa?iia aeai?/a i?aai oiui). ?yae iieiaeaiue eiioeaioe??
A.E?noye?anueeiai i?aeaeaii aiae?co oeyoii ?o ii??aiyiiy ?c aeaiaioaie
eiioeaioe?e A.Aannaia, A.Oa?oaiaae/a, N.Eioey?aanueeiai. Oea i?aeaaei
aei aeniiaeo i?i cia/ii a?eueoo iaoiaeieia?/io aeaaaeai?noue a?aoiaio?a
? oaa?aeaeaiue A.E?noye?anueeiai noiniaii nooiino? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae,
i?ae cacia/aieo aeine?aeiee?a.

O ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaeieeaie, ye? aaeaaaeeny aei iaa?oiooaaiiy iaeia?oa
nioe?aeueieo, aeiiii?/ieo canaae nioe?ae?noe/ii? aea?aeaae,
A.E?noye?anueeee aoa na?aae oeo iaaaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a (ii?o/,
i?ei??ii, A.Iaiaa?a /e E.Iie?ianueeiai), ye? caa?ioeenue aei i?aaiai? ??
i?e?iaee. Nioe?ae?noe/io aea?aeaao a/aiee ?icaeyaeaa eeoa ye iaeei ?c
iiaeeeaeo oei?a i?aaiai? aea?aeaae.

Oai?oe? eiioeaioe?e aea?aeaae — naiino?eii?, o aeaeyae? aaoiiii??,
nioe?ae?noe/ii?, i?aaiai? — a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? ia eeoa
aaeaeeny aei inieneaiiy i?iaeai, ui iinoaee ia iaae? noie?oue ia?aae
iaoe??th, aea e i?aeiyeenue aei inyaiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ieoaiue, yeeie
caaaethaaeenue oiai/ani? i?ia?aei? oie ?a?iie. Iane?aeeii i?aoe? noaei
aei?iaeoeoaaiiy ?aeae, ye?, aieeaath/e ia na?aeii?noue no/aniee?a,
ni?eyee, c?aooith, oai?aiith i?ia?ai iie?oe/ieo nee ni?eueiioe ? — oe?oa
— oai?aoe/ieo iniia iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue. Ie??i oiai,
oe?a?inueea ?ioaeaeooaeueia ae?oa nooo?ai ci?ieea ?aeaeiee niaeo?
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ?in?enueei? ? Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia??e, c?iaeea
aianie o ?icaeoie iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy ?a?iiaeoe?a a oe?eiio.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaeoi i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cie?aia, aeaco?oueny ia
oa, ui o e?ioe? O?O oa ai?iaeiaae OO no. c’yaeeenue /eneaii? i?aoe?
??cii? iaoeiai? aa?oino?, ??ciiai nooiaiy ia’?eoeaiino?, aeeaeie, a yeeo
aeine?aeieee — a?o/eciyi? ? ca?oa?aei? — a?eueoith /e iaioith i??ith
caa?oaeenue aei aiae?co e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aaaaoianiaeoii? i?iaeaie
oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. Iaeiae, ie?aiei i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aeay aea?aeaaiino?, neeaaeiaeie yei? aoee a i?e/eie
oe?a?inueei? aacaea?aeaaiino?, ieoaiiy iiaeeeaino?, iaiao?aeiino?,
i?aenoaa noai?aiiy aea?aeaae oa aeoai?ai? ?ioaeaeooaeueiith ae?oith
aea?aeaaieoeuee? eiioeaioe?? ia aoee.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie ? aeineoue ia’?iiith,
aeeth/a? ??ciiaeai?ia? oai?e. Aeioe?eueiei aeey aeei?enoaiiy ? ia?o?
aeaeaiiy oaeno?a i?aoeue, ui aoee cae?eniai? ca aeeooy aaoi??a, a oaeiae
?oeiien?a, ye? a?aeeeaeenue a a?o?aao. ?o aiae?c aeicaiey? oaa?aeeoe, ui
ai?iaeiaae O?O no. /anoeia ?ioae?aaioe?? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue i?ieoea o
nai?io ?icaeoeo e?eueea aoai?a — oe?a?iiciaa/ee, oe?a?iio?euenueeee,
i?aeiyaoenue, c?aooith aei aeaeea?oaaiiy nai?? oe?a?inueeino?.

Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? ae?oe a?aeaoaaeinue a oiiaao
?in?enueei-iieuenueeeo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo ? iie?oe/ieo aieea?a i?e a
oe?eiio ia ni?eyoeeaiio ye ?a?iiaenueeiio, oae ? aioo???iia?nueeiio
iie?oe/iiio ee?iao?. Aeaia ianoaaeia iaoiiaeea iaaaoeai? yaeua a ??
na?aaeiaeu?. Ia aeeaey/enue ia oea, a oe?a?inueeiio ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio
na?aaeiaeu? oi?ioaaeenue ye oa/?? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee e?aa?ae?ci,
nioe?ae?ci, iaoe?iiae?ci, ?aeaei? ii/aoee yeeo nyaaee eiia
oe?a?iio?euenoaa. Eiaeai c iai?yi?a iaa naith ?aeaeio niaoeeo?eo.
I?aaenoaaieee aeacaieo ?aeaeii-iie?oe/ieo oa/?e ciaoiaeeeenue i?ae
cia/iei ?aeaeiei aieeaii I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Ia ceai? O?O — OO no. iie?oe/ia aeoiaiiy i?aeiyeinue aei oiai ??aiy,
yeee aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe eiai ye i?iya iiaiioe?iieo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
i?ioean?a a i?aai?ci? iaoe??.

Caneoaith ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe noaei oa, ui aiia i?aeiyea «oe?a?inueea
ieoaiiy» aei ??aiy i?iaeaie, no?eaeiai yei? noaea ?aeay aeanii?
aea?aeaae. Aiae?c inoaii?o aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe, ye ?? no?oeoo?i?
neeaaeia?, ?aea? uiaei i?e/ei aacaea?aeaaiino? oe?a?ioe?a, ?aea? i?i
iaiao?aei?noue ? i?aenoaae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, ?aea? uiaei nooiino?
iaeaooiuei? aea?aeaae. A naith /a?ao eiaeai c eiiiiiaio?a neeaaeaany c
?aoe?iiaeueieo oa ???aoe?iiaeueieo ?aeae — i?o?a.

I?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ciiaee aeae?eeoe aioo??oi?
? ciai?oi? /eiieee, ye? i?ecaiaeeee aei aacaea?aeaaiino?. I?e oeueiio ?i
aaeaeinue aeiaanoe, ui oe?a?inueea iaoe?y ia? ana iaiao?aeia aeey
noai?aiiy aea?aeaae a aeiiii?/iiio, iie?oe/iiio, eoeueoo?iiio ieai?. A
oiae? iaa?oiooaaiiy aeacaieo oaa?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a?aoiaioe,
ye? aoee ii/a?iioo? ye ?c ieioeiai, oae ? c no/aniino? oa c oyaiiai
iaeaooiueiai iaoe??.

Eaoaai??aeueii — iie?oe/ia iniiaa aea?aeaaieoeueeiai aeeneo?no ia ceai?
noie?oue ciaoiaeeeanue o noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy, /ei ? iiynith?oueny
ieth?ae?ci a ?? oeoia/aii?. Iaeiae, ia e?iaoeue aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo iie?oe/ia aeoiea iia?oaaea iiiyooyie, ye? a oe?eiio aaeaeaaoii
a?aeaeaaee iie?oeei-aea?aeaaioai?/ee i?ioean oa aeicaieeee ?aea?
aea?aeaaiino? ci?noiaii ? no?oeoo?ii iaa?aoe naiiaeinoaoiueiai aeaeyaeo.

Eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? c’yaeeenue ia a?oio? inieneaiiy
i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy aea?aeaae, ?? nooiino?, iaoe, ooieoe?e, iaoai?cio
ae?yeueiino?. A oiae? ?o ?ic?iaee aoee c’yniaai? (eiie?aoeciaai?)
aea?aeaai? ei?aeiie ye ei?aeiie a aoi?/ieo iaaeao; ia?aaaae iaaoea
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueea ?aeay iaae iaoe?iiaeueii-aoi?/iith;
?anioae?eainueeee oaaea?ae?ci i?eeoia ia ci?io iaineia’yinueeiio; ?aea?
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? noni?euenoaa (ia?aaaaeii a noa?? iie?oeee oa
eoeueoo?e) aeo?nieee oeaio?ae?nonuee?, iaaeaiie?aoe/i?. Iaeiae a noa??
aeiiii?ee /anoeiith ?ioaeaeooae?a ia?aaaaa a?aeaeaaaeanue
oeaio?ae?nonueeei ia/aeai. Iioe?aiiy iaaoee e ?aea? aoi?/ii? ?aeiino?,
niai?iino?, aioei?e?oa?ecio, einiiiie?oecio. ?acoeueoaoii ?o ?aae?caoe??
iaea noaoe «Aaeeea Oe?a?ia» — iie?oe/ii, aeiiii?/ii, eoeueoo?ii iiaooiy
aea?aeaaa.

Oaaea?ae?nonueea oa naiino?eieoeueea ?aea? aoee nai???aeiith i?ioeaaaith
?aea? iani?iiiaeiino? oe?a?ioe?a aei aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy. ?o
eoeueoeaoaaiiy aoei ?aaeoe??th ia oeaio?ae?nonuee?, ath?ie?aoe/i?,
iaoe?iiae?noe/i?, oia?i?noe/i? i?iyae ?in??, ia aaeaeoae?noue
Aano?i-Oai?ueie aei i?iaeai iaaea?aeaaieo ia?iae?a. ?aeay oe?a?inueei?
aaoiiii?? aoea a?oioiai?oa ii?aoeueiaaiith, aeeaoa aei??iaiith a
na?aeii?noue, aoea aeii?ioth/ith a iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?. Naiino?eieoeueeee
aea ?aeaae a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae aia?oa io?eiaa iie?oe/ia,
aeiiii?/ia, eoeueoo?ieoeueea iaa?oiooaaiiy. ?ic?iaea iaio ?aeae, a
iniia? yeeo eaaeaei aeueoa?iaoeaia aa/aiiy oeyo?a aea?aeaaiiai ?icaeoeo,
oiiaeeeaeee oaeaeeee ia?ao?ae ia i?aeoeoe? a?ae oaaea?ae?nonueeeo aei
naiino?eieoeueeeo ono?aie?iue.

Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaieoeueea aeoiea iaea ?yae a?aei?oieo ?en, ye?
aea?aeii a?ae??ciyee ?? a?ae ?in?enueei? ? iieuenueei?. ?? i?aaenoaaieee
c?iaeee aaaiiee aianie ye o a?o/eciyio, oae ? ?a?iiaenueeo
?ioaeaeooaeueio nea?aieoeth, aaeaea aeoai?eee ?aea?, ye? ? nueiaiaei? ia
ao?aoeee i?aeoe/ii? oe?iiino?. ?acii c oei aeey iie?oe/ieo ?aoeaen?e
?yaeo ?? iin??a aoee oa?aeoa?ieie i?ia?ioe?iiae?ci,
aioeaeaiie?aoe/i?noue ? o.ae.

Iiaeaeueoa aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aea? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioee, iiaei a aooe cina?aaeaeaiei ia oaeeo ieoaiiyo: 1) aieea
oaeoi?o iiaea?eii? eiyeueiino? ia i?ioeane oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy; 2) oe?a?inueeee einiiiie?oeci a eiioaeno?
aea?aeaaieoeueeeo ono?aie?iue iaoe??; 3) iniaeeaino? aca?iiaieeao
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a oa ?ioeo iaaea?aeaaieo iaoe?e; 4)
aianie ie?aieo i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe a
?ic?iaeo oai??? aea?aeaae; 5) i?noea oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee o
caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeiio ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio i?ioean? oa ?i. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
cacia/aii? i?iaeaiaoeee ni?eyoeia ye i?ciaiith nai?? niaaeueie
oe?a?ioeyie, a, ioaea, noai?aiith iniiae aeey ?icoi?iiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii?
? iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? iaoe??, oae ? iiaeaeueoiio «aienaiith» oe?a?inueei?
?noi??? a ?a?iiaenueeee eiioaeno.

Aeaia, ye e ?io? iiae?ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aeaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i
iaiao?aei?noue caa?aaeaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii? niaaeueie oeyoii a?aeooeaiiy
? ia?aaeaeaiiy oai??a i?aaenoaaiee?a iie?oe/ii? aeoiee, caaacia/aiiy
oiia aeey ?? iaeaaeiiai caa??aaiiy a a?o?aao, eieainoiaeuao, a oaeiae
nai?/aniiai iiiaeaiiy oe?eueieo oa aoc?anueeeo i?ae?o/iee?a c
a?aooaaiiyi iai?aoethaaiue aeine?aeiee?a, ui iaoeia ia eeoa
i?ciaaaeueia, aea e aeoiaia cia/aiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

a) iiiia?ao?y

1. ?aeay aea?aeaaiino? a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? (e?iaoeue O?O
— ii/aoie OO noie?ooy). — E., 1998. — 350 n. (19,5 ae?.a?e.).

?aoeaic??: Oaa/oe A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeai aea?aeaaiino? //
E?oa?aoo?ia Oe?a?ia. — 1998. — ? 21 (21 o?aaiy). — N.2; Oeey? E. Aei
?aeae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiinoe ia iaae? noie?oue // ?icaoaeiaa
aea?aeaae. — 1998. — ? 11 — 12. — N.126-128; sseooee A. Iniiaia —
aea?aeaaieoeueea naiiona?aeiieaiiy // A?/a. — 1998. — ? 7. — N.154-156.

a) a?ioo?e, ?icae?ee a eieaeoeaieo i?aoeyo

2. I?ia?aia eo?no «?noi??y oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e». — E.: EOA?, 1993. —
12 n. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.A.Ianeiaei. Iniaenoi I.N.Ea?iac?i?e
iaeaaeeoue 0,4 ae?.a?e.oaenoo).

3. Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei naiino?eiiai aea/aiiy oaie «?noi??y
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee» c eo?no «Iie?oieia?y». — E.: EOA?, 1994. — 15 n.

4. Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei naiino?eiiai aea/aiiy oaie «Oe?a?inueea
iie?oe/ia aeoiea O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.». — E.: EAeOAO, 1996. — 18 n.

5. Aaiaca iie?oe/ii? aeoiee a Oe?a?i? // Iii?iee eiiniaeo eaeoe?e aeey
nooaeaio?a on?o niaoe?aeueiinoae aeaiii? oa cai/ii? oi?i iaa/aiiy c
aaciai? ina?oe. — E.: EAeOAO, 1998. — N.16-18.

a) noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao

6. Iie?oe/ia aeoiea Oe?a?ie ia ceai? noie?oue: iaeiaea/ai? aniaeoe
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? // ?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae. — 1996. — ? 6. —
N.23-28.

7. ?noi?ee ?aeae THe?ai Io?eiiae/ // A?/a. — 1996. — N.131-140.

8. ?aeay oaaea?ae?cio a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? ia ceai? O?O —
OO noie?oue // ?noi??y a oeieao Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — ? 4. — N.2-6.

9. ?aeay naiino?eii? aea?aeaae oa ?? iin?? a oe?a?inueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on? // ?noi??y a oeieao Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ?
1. — N.2-6.

10. Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? ae?oe (e?iaoeue O?O — ii/aoie OO noi??//y)
[/anoeia ?] // ?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae. — 1998. — ? 3-4. — N.99-106.

11. Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? ae?oe (e?iaoeue O?O — ii/aoie OO noi??//y)
[/anoeia ??] //?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae. — 1998. — ? 5-6. — N.114-122.

12. Ieoaeei Ae?aaiiaiia ? iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy //
A?ae?iaeaeaiiy. — 1998. — ? 6. — N.16-19.

13. Oe?a?ia «i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii» /e «e?a?ia a?aieoeue»?
// A?/a. — 1998. —
? 12. — N.118-125.

14. Na?o ?aeae Ieeiee I?oiianueeiai // Iiaa iie?oeea. — 1998. — ? 6. —
N.39-44.

15. Oo?eoe aei iie?oe/iiai ii?o?aoa Noaiaia ?oaeieoeueeiai //A?niee
EAeOAO. — 1998. — ? 4. — N.129-145.

16. Naiino?eieoeueeee ?aeaae a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? e?ioey
O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.no. // Aecaieueiee oeyo (Eiiaeii). — 1998. — ? 9. —
N.1096-1100.

17. I?iaeaia aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?ioe?a o ?aoeaen?yo
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe e?ioey O?O — ia?oi? /aa?o? OO no. // Iiaa iie?oeea.
— 1998. — ? 4. — N.52-56. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?.A.Aa?aith. Iniaenoi
I.N.Ea?iac?i?e iaeaaeeoue 0,3 ae?.a?e. oaenoo).

18. Aei ieoaiiy i?i noai iaoiaeieia?? aeine?aeaeaiue a noni?eueieo
iaoeao // A?ae?iaeaeaiiy. — 1999. — ? 1. — N.12-15.

19. ?aeay oaaea?ae?cio: niiae?aaiiy ? ?aae?? e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.
// No/ani?noue. — 1999. — ? 1. — N.79-87.

20. Oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. // ?noi??y Oe?a?ie.
— 1999. — ? 3 (n?/aiue). — N.1-2.

21. Ieoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?
e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. // ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ? 11
(aa?acaiue). — N.1-2.

a) iaoa??aee, oace eiioa?aioe?e

22. ?ieue eaa?iaoo oe?a?iiciaanoaa o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a // Iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Oace ?anioae.eiioa?aioe??. — E.: EOA?, 1994.

23. Oe?a?inueea ?ioaeaeooaeueia niaaeueia ye oaeoi? aeoiaaiiy
aeooiaiino? o nooaeaionueei? iieiae? // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
aoiai?oa?ecaoe?? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e nooaeaio?a o
no/anieo oiiaao. Oace i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??. — E.: EAeOAO, 1996.

24. ?aeay oaaea?ae?cio oa ?? iin?? a oe?a?inueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on? // Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ? oe?a?inueeee
aea?aeaaioai?/ee i?ioean. Aei 80-??//y Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? (20 aa?aciy 1997 ?.). — E.: IAI Oe?a?ie, ?i-o
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, 1997. — N.153-163.

Ea?iac?ia Ia??y Noaiai?aia. ?aeay aea?aeaaiino? a oe?a?inuee?e
iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? (e?iaoeue O?O — ii/aoie OO noie?ooy). — ?oeiien (459
noi?.).

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iie?oe/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.01 — oai??y ? ?noi??y iie?oe/ii? iaoee. ?inoeooo
iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999
?.

Ia oe? aiae?co iane?aee?a aaiiie?oe/ieo ci?i e?ioey OV??? no. ia Noiae?
?a?iie, oiaeo naiii?aai?caoe?? Iiai?a?iiaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??
aeine?aeaeaii iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane, ui iaee i?noea
ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo ai?iaeiaae O?O no. ? ye? iaoiiaeee i?e?aeiaiiy
oe?a?ioe?a aei cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai iaoe?ioai?/iai i?ioeano. Ia iniia?
aea/aiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii? niaaeueie — i?ea?iaeueieo i?aoeue, niiiei?a,
uiaeaiiee?a, aaoia?ia?ao?e, ia?o?eieo i?ia?ai, eiinoeoooe?eieo i?iaeo?a,
ai?noiey??th — ye aeia?a a?aeiieo, oae ? iaio ciaieo, a oi e cian?i
iaa?aeiieo i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee — aeae?eaii
aoaie ?icaeoeo iie?oe/iiai aeoiaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo e?e oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue ye o neeaae? ?in?enueei?, oae ? Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia??e.
Iieacaii, ui ia ceai? O?O-OO no., a ia??iae iaeaeui? iie?oecaoe??
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, i?ia?aeiith ?aea?th
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee noaea ?aeay noai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii iniaeeaino? aca?iiaieeao iai?yi?a
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee (nioe?ae?cio, e?aa?ae?cio, iaoe?iiae?cio) ia
?aeaeii-oai?aoe/iiio ??ai?. Ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo
c’yniaaii no?oeoo?o oa ci?no ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?, aeoai?aii?
i?aaenoaaieeaie oeeo iai?yie?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iie?oe/ia aeoiea, nioe?ae?ci, e?aa?ae?ci, iaoe?iiae?ci,
?aeay aea?aeaaiino?.

Karmazina Maria Stepanivna. The idea of statehood in Ukrainian political
thought (late O?O — early OO century) — Manuscript (459 pages).

The thesis for the award of a scientific degree — Doctor of Science
(Politics), speciality 23.00.01 — «Theory and History of Political
Science». Institute of Political and Ethnonational Studies of National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

At the background of the effect of geo-political changes in the late
XVIII century in Eastern Europe, self-organization of the New-European
civilization have been investigated political and socio-ekonomic
processes that took place in Ukraine in the XIX century and which caused
the accession of Ukrainians towards Western European process of nation
formation. The stages of the development of political thinking of
intellectuals in the Ukrainian lands that were part of both Russian and
Austro-Hungarian empires have been defined on the basis of the
investigation of intellectual fortune: original works, memoirs, diaries,
autobiographies, party programs, constitutional projects, letters of
both well known and less-known and sometimes absolutely unknown
representatives of Ukrainian political thought. We have shown that at
the turn of the XIX-XX centuries during the period of the highest
politization of the Ukrainian national liberation movement, the leading
idea of political thought was the idea of the establishment of the
Ukrainian state.

The peculiarities of mutual influence of the political thought trends
(socialism, liberalism, nationalism) at the ideological theoretical
level was analyzed. The structure and contents of the idea of statehood
elaborated by the representatives of these trends has been studied by
means of a system approach.

Key words: political thought, socialism, liberalism, nationalism, the
idea of statehood.

Ea?iaceia Ia?ey Noaiaiiaia. Eaeay ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a oe?aeineie
iieeoe/aneie iunee (eiiaoe O?O — ia/aei OO noieaoey.) — ?oeiienue ( 459
no?.).

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iieeoe/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iieeoe/aneie iaoee. Einoeooo
iieeoe/aneeo e yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999
a.

Ia oiia aiaeeca neaaenoaee aaiiieeoe/aneeo eciaiaiee eiioea OV??? no. ia
Ainoiea Aa?iiu, oiaea naiii?aaiecaoeee Iiaiaa?iiaeneie oeeaeeecaoeee
enneaaeiaaiu iieeoe/aneea, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu, eiaaoea
ianoi ia oe?aeineeo caieyo a oa/aiea O?O no., eioi?ua iaoneiaeee
i?eniaaeeiaiea oe?aeioeaa e caiaaeii-aa?iiaeneiio iaoeeioai?/aneiio
i?ioeanno. Ia iniiaa eco/aiey eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ianeaaeey —
i?eaeiaeueiuo o?oaeia, ainiiieiaiee, aeiaaieeia, aaoiaeia?aoee,
ia?oeeiuo i?ia?aii, eiinoeoooeeiiiuo i?iaeoia, yienoiey?ey — eae oi?ioi
ecaanoiuo, oae e iaiaa ecaanoiuo, a oi e aiana iaecaanoiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae oe?aeineie iieeoe/aneie iunee (n?aaee eioi?uo:
A.Aioiiiae/, A.A?ei/aiei, Ae.Aeiioeia, I.Ae?aaiiaiia, N.Ao?aiia,
O.Ceiueeianeee, A.Eenoyeianeee, I.Eiaaeaaneee, A.Eeieineee, I.Iaca?oe,
N.?oaeieoeeee, I.Noaaieoeeee, I.Ooaai-Aa?aiianeee, I.Oaiiaae e ae?.),
auaeaeaiu yoaiu ?acaeoey iieeoe/aneiai iuoeaiey eioaeeaeooaeueiuo neiaa
oe?aeineeo caiaeue eae a ninoaaa ?inneeneie, oae e Aano?i-Aaiaa?neie
eiia?ee. Iieacaii, /oi iao/iua ?aoeaenee eioaeeaeooaeueiie yeeou ia
eaaeaeii ec yoaiia niinianoaiaaee iniciaieth e iainiiaaieth yoie/aneeo,
enoi?e/aneeo, ineoieiae/aneeo e o.i. ioee/ee oe?aeioeaa a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue io iieyeia e ?inneyi. Yoi iicaieeei a eiioea O?O — ia/aea OO
no., a ia?eiae iaeaunoae iieeoecaoeee oe?aeineiai
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey, noi?ioee?iaaoue aaaeouoth
eaeath oe?aeineie iieeoe/aneie iunee — eaeath iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey
Oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa.

A aeenna?oaoeee oa?aeoa?ecoaony ioiioaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaoeee
Aa?iiu, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo nee, eioi?ua ionoaeaaee nioeeaeenoe/aneea
i?eioeeiu ie?iono?ienoaa e acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie, e
o?aaiaaieyi iaainoaea?noaaiiuo iaoeee, enneaaeothony iano?iaiey a
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo neiyo iieyeia e ?inneyi ioiineoaeueii aiciiaeiinoe
nicaeaiey ainoaea?noaa oe?aeioeaie. Ionoaeaaaony auaiae i ii/oe
oioaeueiii iai?eiyoee eaeae ainoaea?noaaiiiai naiiii?aaeaeaiey
iineaaeieo.

I?e iiiiue nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea e?eoe/anee aiaeece?othony no?oeoo?a e
niaea?aeaiea eaeae ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, iniaaiiinoe aa aeaeaiey
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?acee/iuo oa/aiee oe?aeineie iieeoe/aneie iunee
(nioeeaeecia, eeaa?aeecia, iaoeeiiaeecia), aeoeaioe?othony
eiino?oeoeaiua e aeano?oeoeaiua /a?ou a iuoeaiee iineaaeieo. Auaiae
naiaeeony e oiio, /oi eaeay ainoaea?noaaiiinoe auea naiaia?aciui
i?ioeaiaanii eaeaa ianiiniaiinoe oe?aeioeaa e naiinoiyoaeueiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie.

A enneaaeiaaiee iieacaii, /oi eiioeaioeee oe?aeineie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe
aicieeee ia ii/aa iniuneaiey i?e/ei aicieeiiaaiey ainoaea?noaa, aai
nouiinoe, oeaee, ooieoeee, iaoaiecia aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eoeueoeae?iaaiea eaeae nianoaaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe auei ?aaeoeeae
oe?aeioeaa ia oeaio?aeenoe/aneea, ath?ie?aoe/aneea, iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneea,
oiaeienoe/aneea i?iyaeaiey ?innee, ia aac?acee/ea Aano?i-Aaia?ee e
i?iaeaiai iaainoaea?noaaiiie iaoeee. Eaeay oe?aeineie aaoiiiiee auea
aieaa aeoaiei ?ac?aaioaia, aeoaaea aioea a niciaiea eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
neiaa, auea aeiieie?othuae a oe?aeineie iieeoe/aneie iunee.
Naiinoeeieoeeee aea eaeaae a enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae aia?aua iieo/ee
iieeoe/aneia, yeiiiie/aneia, eoeueoo?ie/aneia iainiiaaiea. Iainiiaaiea
ia oai?aoe/aneii o?iaia aiciiaeiuo oi?i oe?aeineie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe (a
aeaea aaoiiiiee eee iieeoe/anee iacaaeneiie — naiinoeeiie — aea?aeaau)
naeaeaei aiciiaeiui auno?ue ia?aoiae io oaaea?aeenoneeo e
naiinoeeieoeeei ono?aieaieyi ia i?aeoeea.

Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii aiaeeco iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa,
eniieuecoaiiai oe?aeineeie eioaeeaeooaeaie a enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae. A
/anoiinoe ioneaaeeaaaony eciaiaiea nouiinoe oaeeo iiiyoee, eae
«naia?aoeci», «oaaea?aoeey», «aaoiiiiey», «iieeoe/aneay iacaaeneiinoue».
Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi a eiioea enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea oe?aeineay
iieeoe/aneay iuneue iia?e?iaaea iiiyoeyie, eioi?ua a oeaeii aaeaeaaoii
io?aaeaee i?ioeann nicaeaiey ainoaea?noaa, a eaeay ainoaea?noaaiiinoe
i?eia?aea — niaea?aeaoaeueii e no?oeoo?ii — naiiaeinoaoi/iinoue.

Aaniiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea eaeae oe?aeineie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe aianee ia
oieueei ee/iinoe, eioi?ua eaeaioeoeoee?iaaee naay eae oe?aeioeaa, ii e
oa, eoi i?iyaeye oe?aeinei-?inneeneoth eiyeueiinoue. Eaeay
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe auea ?acoeueoaoii eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oneeee e
oe?aeineeo nioeeaeenoia, e eeaa?aeia, e iaoeeiiaeenoia.

A enneaaeiaaiee i?aaei?eiyo n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec acaeyaeia ia ?ieue e
nouiinoue ainoaea?noaa i?aaenoaaeoaeae oe?aeineie e ?inneeneie
iieeoe/aneie iunee (a o./. E.Eaiioueaaa, I.Aeaieeaaneiai, A.Nieiaueaaa,
N.Io?iioeaaa, I.Ei?eoiiaa, E.Iao?aaeeoeeiai, E.Eaaaeeia, I.Aaeoieia,
I.Aa?aeyaaa e ae?.).

Iniaia aieiaiea a aeenna?oaoeee oaeaeaii oai eaeayi a ?aieao «eaeae
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe», eioi?ua, ii iiaieth aaoi?a, ia oo?aoeee naiae
aeooaeueiinoe e a iieeoe/aneeo ?aaeeyo eiioea OO aaea. N?aaee ieo —
eaeay a?aaeaeaineiai e nioeeaeueiiai ie?a, iaaeyoie/iinoe
iauaaeeieoaeueiie eaeae, i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa,
nioeeaeueii-ni?aaaaeeeaiai no?iy, iienea «naiaai» iooe ?acaeoey e ae?.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo e?eoe/aneee iaci? eeoa?aoo?u ii i?iaeaia, a
oaeaea aiaeec enoi/ieeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieeoe/aneay iuneue, eaeay ainoaea?noaaiiinoe,
nioeeaeeci, eeaa?aeeci, iaoeeiiaeeci.

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