1

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa.

OEOEI Ieaenaiae? A?eai?iae/

OAeE 947.7 (043)
“1900/1917”: 37

?AeAss AeA?AEAAIINO? A I?IA?AIIEO OA OAI?AOE*IEO AeIEOIAIOAO
OE?AOINUeEEOC IIE?OE*IEO IA?O?E OA I?AAI?CAOe?E :1900 ?. — aa?acaiue
1917 ?ieo

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ne?eiiee Ieeiea
Iieneiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Na?aae A?oae?e A?eai?iae/

Caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie XIX -ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy?inoeoooo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

— eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Eaeiaeai ?aai Ee?eeiae/

eaoaae?a iaiai? oa iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoao?o ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 18 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo i 14-00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aae E 05.01.13 i?e Iaeanueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith 270057, i.
Iaeana, aoe.Uaie?ia, 12, aoae 9.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith 270057, i.
Iaeana, aoe.I?aia?aaeainueea, 24

AAoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 17 aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

E.?.i., aeioeaio
Eicianueeee A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. OO noi?i//y Oe?a?ia caaa?oo? ye noaa?aiia i
iacaeaaeia aea?aeaaa. Ooai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae a 1991 ?. —
iaeaaaeeeaioa iiaeiy a inoi?i? Oe?a?ie OO no., yea noaea eiai/iei
caaa?oaiiyi aaaaoiaieiaeo ciaaaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ca naith
aea?aeaaiinoue.

Iaaiae’?iiith neeaaeiaith aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?ii noaa i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy aa-aaoiia?oieii? nenoaie, ooai?aiiy iieioe/ieo ia?oie
?icii? iaeaieiai/ii? ni?yiiaaiinoi, yei i?iiiioaaee nai? oeyoe ae?ioaiiy
ia?niaeoea noniieueii? i?aeoeee. A inoi?i? Oe?a?ie aaea aoee
ia?iiaee ooieoeiiioaaiiy aeanii? ia?oieii? nenoaie, oiio
aeineiaeaeaiiy inoi?e/ii? o?aaeeoei? ia? oai?aoe/ia i i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

I?ioeane, yei aiaeaoaathoueny o anio noa?ao noniieueiiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie
iio?aaothoue aeeaieiai aiaeico: aea/aiiy ye aio/eciyiiai, oae i
ca?oaiaeiiai aeinaiaeo aeey ae?iaeaiiy iaeaieueo iioeiaeueiiai
iaoaiicio ae?ioaiiy noniieueieo i?iaeai. Iaeiei ic aaaeeeaeo
aeaiaioia oaeiai aeinaiaeo ? ia?iiae o aio/eciyiie inoi?i? ii/aoeo
OO no., eiee ia?aae oe?a?inueeei ia?iaeii noiyee iiaeiaii caaaeaiiy.
Iaeaieueo aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi oiai /ano aoee ieoaiiy
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai i iaoeiiiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy. Iaoeiiiaeueia
aecaieaiiy ia?aaeaa/aei ooai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaae, oi/a a o
oi?ii aaoiiiii?, aeey caaacia/aiiy iiaeeeainoi ?icaeaaoeny ia aeaniiio
eoeueoo?iiio, aeiiiii/iiio i iieioe/iiio a?oioi. I?e/iio, i?iaeaia
iaoeiiiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy aa/eeanue iaeaieueo neeaaeiith, oiio ui
ia?aaaaeia /anoeia oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia?aaoaaea o neeaaei
?inienueei? aea?aeaae, aea iaaioue iaeiaioee i?iya eoeueoo?ii?
naiiaooiinoi ?icaeyaeaany ye iinyaaiiy ia iniiae «?aeeii?» i
«iaiiaeieueii?» ?inienueei? iiia?i?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeineiaeaeaiiy iia’ycaiee c oaiith aeineiaeaeaiue eaoaae?e inoi?i?
Oe?a?ie Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aeiiiii/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo:»I?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiinoi: inoi?iy oa no/aniinoue»,
aeinaiae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaii i?e ?ic?iaoei oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue
aaeiiiino?aoeaii? oa aea?aeaaii-i?aaiai? ?aoi?ie, yea i?iaiaeeoueny a
no/aniie Oe?a?ii.

Iaoa i caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiiy. A?aoiaoth/e aeooaeueiinoue aeaii?
i?iaeaie, iaoeiaa i i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, nie?ath/enue ia aeinyaiaiiy
iiia?aaeiio aeineiaeieeia oa caaaeath/e ia iaaeinoaoiie ?iaaiue ??
?ic?iaeaiinoi c iiceoeie iiaeo aeiia i caaaeaiue, aeena?oaio
iinoaaea ia?aae niaith iaoo: aecia/eoe nooue iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi
Oe?a?ie, i?iaiaeicoaaoe iniiaii neeaaeiai oei?? iaea?, c’ynoaaoe oa
aenaioeeoe iniiaii oaiaeaioei? oa iaeoa?aeoa?iioi iniaeeainoi i?e
?? ?ic?iaoei o i?ia?aiieo oa oai?aoe/ieo aeieoiaioao oe?a?inueeeo
iieioe/ieo ia?oie a ia?iiae c 1900 ?. aei aa?aciy 1917 ?ieo.

O aiaeiiaiaeiinoi aei iaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aeena?oaio i?aaioa
?ica’ycaoe oaei caaea/i: ?icaeyiooe iniaeeainoi ooai?aiiy oa
aeiyeueiinoi oe?a?inueeeo iieioe/ieo ia?oie, ye iniiaieo iini?a iaea?
aea?aeaaiinoi; aecia/eoe ?o iieioe/io iai?aaeaiinoue, nioeiaeueio
aaco oa ?iaaiue iaeaeiiai aieeao ia oe?iei aa?noae ianaeaiiy;
i?iaiaeicoaaoe i?ia?aiii oa iniiaii oai?aoe/ii aeieoiaioe anio
oe?a?inueeeo iieioe/ieo ia?oie, a oie ?o /anoeii, ui noinoaaeany
ieoaiiy iieioe/iiai ia?aono?ith Oe?a?ie, c iaoith ooai?aiiy
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae; aecia/eoe nooiiiue ?ic?iaee eiaeiith
ia?oi?th ieoaiiy uiaei i?aaiii?iinoi i iaiaoiaeiinoi caeiaoooy
Oe?a?iith nai?? aea?aeaaiinoi, uiaei oeyoia i iaoiaeia ?aaeicaoei?
oei?? iaoe, uiaei iiaiiaaaeaiue i ooieoeie i?aaiia aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee a Oe?a?ii; anoaiiaeoe ?iaaiue niiai?aoei ?icieo ia?oie i?e
ae?ioaiii caaaeueiiiaoeiiiaeueii? iaoe — ooai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaae;
i?iaiaeicoaaoe iniiaii i?aoei aecia/ieo iieioe/ieo aeiy/ia Oe?a?ie
oiai /ano, a yeeo ii?oooaaeeny ieoaiiy aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie;
aeineiaeeoe eiinoeoooeieii i?iaeoe ye eiioeaio?iaaia ae?aaeaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai i noniieueiiai eaaeo, yeee iaa aooe caniiaaiei o
aiaeiiaiaeiinoi aei ieo; ocaaaeueieoe aeinaiae oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee
i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie ii/aoeo OO no. i c?iaeoe i?aeoe/ii
aeniiaee.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy noaee oaei oe?a?inueei
iieioe/ii ia?oi? oa i?aaiicaoei?: ?aaiethoeieia oe?a?inueea ia?oiy
(?OI), Ia?iaeia oe?a?inueea ia?oiy (IOI), Oe?a?inueea nioeiaeinoe/ia
ia?oiy (ONI), Oe?a?inueea nioeiae-aeaiie?aoe/ia niieea («Niieea»),
Oe?a?inueea nioeiae-aeaiie?aoe/ia ?iaioie/a ia?oiy (ONAe?I), a?oie
oe?a?inueeeo ana?ia, Oe?a?inueea aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?oiy (OAeI),
Oe?a?inueea ?aaeeeaeueia ia?oiy (O?I), Oe?a?inueea
aeaiie?aoe/ii-?aaeeeaeueia ia?oiy (OAe?I), Oiaa?enoai oe?a?inueeeo
iinooiiaoeia (OOI), Nithc aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie (NAO).

Aaoi?, aieiaiei /eiii, aiaeico? i?ia?aiii oa oai?aoe/ii aeieoiaioe
oeeo ia?oie, a oie /anoeii, aea ?icaeyaeaeeny ieoaiiy iieioe/iiai
ia?aono?ith Oe?a?ie. Oaeiae aeineiaeaeothoueny oai?aoe/ii ?iaioe c
aeaii? i?iaeaie aiaeiieo oe?a?inueeeo iieioe/ieo oa a?iiaaenueeeo
aeiy/ia ii/aoeo OO no., cie?aia, I.A?ooaanueeiai, Ae.Aeiioeiaa,
E.TH?eaae/a /?eaaeee/ oa ii.

I?aaeiaoii aeineiaeaeaiiy noaa i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
aea?aeaaieoeueei? iaeaieiai? oe?a?inueeeo iieioe/ieo ia?oie
Iaaeaeiii?yinueei? Oe?a?ie ii/aoeo OO no.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aia?oa
aeineiaeaeo?oueny ?ic?iaea iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie a i?ia?aiieo ?
oai?aoe/ieo aeieoiaioao iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ii/aoeo OO no. a onio ??
aaaaoia?aiieo i?iyaao. Iiaee i?aeo?ae caeeth/a?oueny a oiio, ui ia
o?eueee iaaiaeyoueny iieiaeaiiy ia?o?eieo aeieoiaio?a, a yeeo
cao?eniaaii oie /e ?ioee aniaeo ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?, aena?oeththoueny
iiaeyaee i?ia?aeiee?a ia?o?e uiaei cacia/aii? ?aea?, a e c’yniaothoueny
ia?aaeoiiae ?? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia ii/aoeo OO no.; i?e/eie oiai, /iio aiia
?nioaaea o aeaio aa??aioao (naiino?ei?noue ? aaoiiii?y); /iio, i?ae
aieeaii yeeo ianoaaei eiaeia c ia?o?e ooaa?aeeeany ia iaeiiio c
aa??aio?a; c’yniaothoueny, ca oiiae iayaiino?, i?e/eie aaiethoe??
aeine?aeaeoaaii? ?aea? ye a i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaioao ia?o?e, oae ? a
iiaeyaeao ?o i?ia?aeiee?a. Caaeey oeueiai c?iaeaii ni?iao aeineiaeeoe
a eiiieaeni iaoa?iae: i?ia?aiii i oai?aoe/ii aeieoiaioe iieioe/ieo
ia?oie i i?aaiicaoeie, ?aciethoei? c’?caeia oeeo ia?oie, a oie ?o
/anoeii, aea ?ic?iaeyeany iaeay aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie; i?iaeoe oeeo
aeieoiaioia; noaooi a ia?iiaeeoei, a yeeo iaaiai?thaaeeny oei
aeieoiaioe; noaooi i eieae i?iaiaeieo iieioe/ieo aeiy/ia Oe?a?ie,
i?enay/aii aeineiaeaeoaaiie i?iaeaii, /e a yeeo aiie oi?eaeeny oeueiai
ieoaiiy; eiinoeoooeieii i?iaeoe. O aeena?oaoei? iieacaii, ui aei
ae?iaeaiiy aea?aeaaieoeueei? i?ia?aie caa?oaeeny ani iieioe/ii oa/i?
Oe?a?ie, aea nooiiiue ?ic?iaee ieie oei?? i?ia?aie cia/ii ?icieany, ye
i aa/aiiy ?? ?aaeicaoei?. Aeiaiaeeoueny oaca, ui iaeay aea?aeaaiinoi
Oe?a?ie ia noaea ia’?aeiaa/ei /eiieeii iaoeiiiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo, iieioe/ii ia?oi? i?aoaiaeoaaee ia iaeiiiniaia eiaea?noai a oeueiio
ieoaiii.

Aieiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei?, yei aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— ooai?aiiy oe?a?inueeeo iieioe/ieo ia?oie iciaiaioaaei ia?aoiae aei
iaeaeui? (iie?oe/ii?) noaaei? iaoeiiiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?ii;

— iieioe/iee ?oo a Oe?a?ii ii/aoeo OO noieiooy neeaaeaany c o?ueio
iieioe/ieo oa/?e: iaoeiiiaeueii-?aaeeeaeueii? aai naiinoieieoeueei?,
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii?, eiaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? aai iinooiiai?;

— niaoeeoi/iith ?enith oe?a?inueeeo iieioe/ieo ia?oie aoei
aeiiaaaiiy ae?ioaiiy iaoeiiiaeueiiai ieoaiiy a Oe?a?ii, caeiaoooy iath
aeanii? aea?aeaaiinoi;

— iaeay aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie aoea i?aaenoaaeaia aeaiia oi?iaie
aea?aeaae: naiinoieia oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa, aaoiiiiiy Oe?a?ie o
neeaaei oaaea?aoeaii? ?ini?;

— i?aai Oe?a?ie ia naiinoieio aea?aeaao aiaenoithaaea
iaoeiiiaeueii-?aaeeeaeueia oa/iy iieioe/iiai ?ooo;

— noaoono aaoiiiiii? aea?aeaae o neeaaei oaaea?aoeaii? ?inienueei?
?anioaeiee aeiiaaaeeny nioeiae-aeaiie?aoe/ia i
eiaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia oa/iy iaoeiiiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo;

— iaeay aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie a aoaeue-yeeo aa?iaioao aiaeeeaeaeany
aniia ?inienueeeie iieioe/ieie oa/iyie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii i?e iiaeaeueoiio iaoeiaiio
aeineiaeaeaiii i?iaeaie, i?e iiaeaioiaoei iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo
iiniaieeia, i?e ?ic?iaoei i /eoaiii eaeoeie c inoi?i? Oe?a?ie i
iieioieiai?, niaoeeo?nia c ieoaiue aea?aeaaiiai aoaeiaieoeoaa.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa. Aeena?oaioii aecia/aii nooi?iue ?ic?iaee
eiaeiith ia?o??th ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?, c?iaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
iieiaeaiue i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaio?a ia?o?e nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy. uiaei aaoiiiiiiai noaoono
Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoei?. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy
ciaeoee aiaeia?aaeaiiy a aeiiiaiaeyo ia Iiaeia?iaeiie
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iie eiioa?aioei?, i?enay/aiie 200-?i//th iinoa Iaeane
/Iaeana, 1994/; ia Iiaeia?iaeiie iaoeiaie eiioa?aioei? «Aiae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiinoi: i?iaeaie inoi?i? oa eoeueoo?e» /Iaeana,
1996/; ia Iiaeia?iaeiie iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iie eiioa?aioei? «Canaeaiiy
Iiaaeiy Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie iaoeiiiaeueiiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo»
/Oa?nii, 1997/; ia Anaoe?a?inueeie iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei?
«I?iaeaie no/anii? iieioeee oa oeyoe ?? caeieniaiiy» /Iaeana,
1993/; ia Anaoe?a?inueeie iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iie eiioa?aioei? «I?iaeaie
iioe?aiiy aeinaiaeo aeeeaaeaiiy oa aea/aiiy inoi?i? Oe?a?ie a oaoii/ieo
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao» /Ee?a, 1993/; ia Anaoe?a?inueeie
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei? «Iiaaeaiue Oe?a?ie i neeaaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiinoi: inoi?iy i no/aniinoue» /Iaeana, 1994/, a
oaeiae o ioaeieaoeiyo aeena?oaioa: «Aaiethoeiy iiaeyaeia oe?a?inueeeo
nioeiae-aeaiie?aoia ia i?iaeaio aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie ia ii/. OO no.» //
Caienee inoi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. — Aei.5. — Iaeana, 1997. — 0,3
ae?.a?e.; «?ic?iaea iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie ia?oiyie
eiaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy (1903-1905 ??.)»// Ainiee
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue. — Aei.1. — Iaeana: AOCO I?AIOO,
1997. — 0,5 ae?.a?e.; «Aei ieoaiiy i?i ?ic?iaeo iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi
Oe?a?ie naiinoieieeaie. 1900-1905 ??.» // Ainiee Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo
aioo?ioiio ni?aa. — 1998. — ? 2. — 0,3 ae?.a?e.

Iaoiaeieiai/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoei? noaee no/anii iaoiaee i
iiaeoiaee a inoi?e/ieo aeineiaeaeaiiyo: iaineaioeoeeci (iaoiae
e?eoe/iiai aiaeico, «aeaiioieiaicaoei?» inoi?e/ieo i?ioeania i yaeu;
inoi?eei-ineoieiai/iee iaoiae («ethaeeia no/ania aea/a? ethaeeio
ieioeiai»); iaoiae aeineiaeaeaiiy iaeae, naiaeiiinoae,
iaioaeueiinoae; oeeaieicaoeieiee nenoaiiee iaoiae (oeieiniee iiaeyae ia
ia’?eo aeineiaeaeaiiy); iaoiae inoi?e/ieo niianoaaeaiue oa aiaeiaie.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoeiy
neeaaea?oueny ci anooio, i’yoe ?icaeieia, aeniiaeia, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa eioa?aoo?e i aeiaeaoeia. Ianya aeena?oaoei?
noaiiaeoue 174 noi?iiee, e??i oeueiai nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (213
iaeiaioaaiue) ia?aoiao? 15 noi?iiie, 6 aeiaeaoe?a — 18 noi??iie. Caaaeii
— 207 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CIINO AeENA?OAOeI?

O anooii iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeueiinoue oaie, aecia/a?oueny iaoa i
caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia, aecia/aii o?iiieiai/ii oa
aaia?aoi/ii ?aiee ?iaioe, iieacaii ?? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
aeaco?oueny ia iaoiaeieiaith aeineiaeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny ai?iaaoeiy
aeena?oaoei?.

Ia?oee ?icaeie «Inoi?iia?aoi/iee oa aeaea?aeiciaa/ee iaeyae i?iaeaie»
i?enay/aii aiaeico aeaea?ae oa eioa?aoo?e c oaie aeena?oaoeieiiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy. A iueiio ?ice?eaa?oueny ?iaaiue inoi?iia?aoi/ii?
?ic?iaee oaie, ie?aneaii ?? aeaea?aeueio aaco.

Inoi?iy oe?a?inueeeo iieioe/ieo ia?oie ii/aoeo OO no., iniiaii
iai?yie ?o aeiyeueiinoi ciaeoee nai? aiaeia?aaeaiiy a inoi?e/iie
eioa?aoo?i /e ia c naiiai ii/aoeo ?o inioaaiiy. Iniaeeaa iinoea a
oeeo aeineiaeaeaiiyo caeiaea i?iaeaia ?ic?iaee oeeie ia?oiyie
iaoeiiiaeueiiai ieoaiiy i oaei? aaaeeeai? eiai neeaaeiai? ye
iaeay aea?aeaaiinoi. Aeacaiie i?iaeaiaoeoei i?enayoeee nai?
i?aoei iaiaei aeineiaeieeia, aea a oie aea /an ocaaaeueithth/i?
?iaioe, a yeie ae ooiaeaiaioaeueii iiaeaaaeanue inoi?iy anio
iieioe/ieo ia?oie aeacaiiai ia?iiaeo, a oiio /ene? i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy
oa ?icaeoeo iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi a i?ia?aiieo oa oai?aoe/ieo aeieoiaioao
oeeo ia?oie oae i ia c’yaeeinue.

Iaoeiao eioa?aoo?o ic aeacaii? i?iaeaie, oiiaii, iiaeia iiaeieeoe ia
aeai iniiaii a?oie. Ia?oa — oea i?aoei caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, a
yeeo aenaioeaii inoi?ith iaeii?? /e aeaeieueeio iieioe/ieo ia?oie i,
yei iinoyoue iaoa?iae, yeee aea? ciiao c’ynoaaoe nooiiiue
?ic?iaee oi?th /e iioith ia?oi?th iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie.
Ae?oaa — iaoeiai ioaeieaoei?, yei ?ice?eaathoue oie /e iioee
ia?iiae a inoi?i? ia?oie aai iinyoue i?iaeaiiee oa?aeoa?, iia’ycaiee c
ia?oieiei aeeooyi i, i?e oeueiio, a caaaeueiiio eiioaenoi
?icaeyaea?oueny aea?aeaaieoeueea iaeaieiaiy oi?? /e iioi? ia?oi?.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie iaeaaeaoue iaoeiai i?aoei ?icieo ia?iiaeia oaeeo
a/aieo ye I.A?ooaanueeee, A.Aei?ioaiei, Ae.Aei?ioaiei, E.Aa?iaeca,
I.Iiiia, I.Aieii, I.Nin-iianueeee, I.Eo?an, I.Eiieeaiei,
A.Eanueyiia, A.Na?aae, O.Aoi/ae, I.Eaeiaeai i I.A?eiaeae oa ?io?.

I?aoe? I.A?ooaanueeiai1 iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ? ye aeaea?aeueio aaco, ? ye
?noi??ia?ao?/i? ?iaioe. Aiie aeathoue ciiao aeine?aeeoe ye iiaeyaee
naiiai a/aiiai ? iie?oeea ia i?iaeaio aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie, oae ?
?ice?eaathoue iiceoe?th ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee a Oe?a?i? oa ?in?? uiaei
oe??? i?iaeaie.

1921 ?ieo aeeoea c ae?oeo i?aoey Aieiaeeie?a Aei?ioaiea
«?aaiethoeieia Oe?a?inueea ia?oiy»2, o yeie iiaea?oueny ?? ?noi??y aei
II-ai c’?caeo, aaaaoi oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny ?ic?iaoe? ia?o??th
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy, aeyniythoueny i?e/eie ia?aoiaeo ia iiceoe??
aaoiiii?cio.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiei aeineiaeaeaiiyi inoi?i? ?OI-ONAe?I noaea
iiiia?aoiy Eineia Aa?iaeca3, a yeie aii aeaoaeueii ?icaeyaea? i?ioean
ca?iaeaeaiiy ia?oi?, iniiaii aoaie ?? noaiiaeaiiy, iaeaeio aaiethoeith,
i?aaiicaoeieio no?oeoo?o, i?e/eie ?icaiaeiinoae a ia?oi?, na?aae
yeeo iniaeeao oaaao caa?oa? ia ?icii iiaeoiaee o ae?ioaiii
iaoeiiiaeueiiai ieoaiiy.

Aeieo?i Aei?ioaiei4 iaeio ic nai?o i?aoeue i?enayoea aea/aiith aeeooy i
a?iiaaenueei? aeiyeueiinoi ?aaaia *eeaeaiea. Iaeii/anii a ?iaio?
aena?oeth?oueny ?noi??y iinooiiaeo ia?o?e, cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
?ic?iaoe? oeeie ia?o?yie ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie o oae?e ?? oi?i? ye
aaoiiii?y.

Aeine?aeaeoaaia i?iaeaia ciaeoea nai? aiaeia?aaeaiiy ua a iaeiie
?iaioi Ae.Aei?ioaiea «Inoi?iy Oe?a?ie. 1917-1923″5, aea a ia?oiio
?icaeiei eieaeee «Oe?a?inoai a /ani naioiai? aieie» na?aae iioeo
ieoaiue ?icaeyaea?oueny e iaoeiiiaeueia, iniaeeai a aeiyeueiinoi
OOIo i NAO.

———————

1 A?ooaanueeee I. Eiinoeoooe?eia ieoaiiy ? oe?a?inoai a ?in?? // E-IA. —
O.OOO. — Euea?a,1905. — N.245-258; eiai ae. C a?aeo/i? oaee?. Noaoo? e
cai?oee ia oaie aeiy. 1905-1906 ??. — Ee?a,1907. — 126 n.; eiai ae.
Inaiaiaeaeaiea ?innee e oe?aeineee aii?in. Noaouee e caiaoee.-
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a: “Iauanoaaiiay iieueca”, 1907. — 292 n.; eiai ae.
Iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in e aaoiiiiey. — Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1907. — 15 n.

2 Aei?ioaiei Aieiaeeie?. ?aaiethoeieia Oe?a?inueea Ia?oiy (?OI).
1900-1905 ??. Ia?en c inoi?i? oe?a?inueei? nioeiae-aeaiie?aoe/ii?
ia?oi?. Aeaeaiiy OeE ONAe?I. Eueaia-Ee?a, 1921. — 40 n.

3 Aa?iaeca E. Ia?ene c inoi?i? ?aaiethoeieiiai ?ooo ia Oe?a?ii. — O.1.:
?aaiethoe?eia Oe?a?inueea Ia?o?y (?OI). — A.i.: Eieaini?eea, a.?. — 388
n.

4 Aei?ioaiei Ae. ?aaai *eeaeaiei: eiai aeeooy i a?iiaaenueea
aeiyeueiinoue. I?aaa: Aeaeaiiy Oiiaeo iiaii ?.*eeaeaiea i?e
Oe?a?inueeiio Aeaaeaii/iiio Eiiioaoi, 1934. — 99 n.

5 Aei?ioaiei Aeieo?i. Inoi?iy Oe?a?ie. 1917-1923. — O.1. — Aeiaa
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. — Iueth-Ei?e: Aeaeaaie/a Ei?ii?aoeiy «Aoeaaa»,
1954. — 437 n.

Na?aae ?aaeyinueeeo aeineiaeieeia ia?oeie ooi caa?ioany aei i?iaeaie
inoi?i? oe?a?inueeeo ia?oie aoee I.I.Iiiia ? I.N.Aie?i1. Aea a ?o
?iaioao oaaaa ia aeoeaioo?oueny ia i?iaeai? aea?aeaaiino?, oi/ iiceoe?y
oeeo ia?o?e uiaei ia? aena?oeth?oueny.

A ia?oie iieiaeii 70-o ?ieia aeeoea i?aoey aeineiaeieea c aeianii?e
I.Niniianueeiai2, i?enay/aia aeeooth oa aeiyeueiinoi Aeieo?a Aeiioeiaa.
A iie, ia iniiai ?iciiieaiiaiai iaoa?iaeo i, a cia/iie ii?i, ia ?iaioao
naiiai Ae.Aeiioeiaa, aeaoaeueii aiaeicothoueny eiai iiaeyaee, iniaeeai
c iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy, ?o aaiethoeiy, aenaioeth?oueny iieaiiea, yeo
aii aia ye c iaeiiia?oieoeyie, oae i c i?aaenoaaieeaie iioeo
iieioe/ieo oa/ie.

A ?aaeyinueeie Oe?a?ii a 70-o — 80-o ?ieao oaae c’yaeeeny
i?aoei c aeineiaeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Ieie noaee iiiia?aoi? aiaeiiiai
oe?a?inueeiai inoi?eea I.O.Eo?ana3, a yeeo a iniiaiiio ?icaeyaeaeany
inoi?iy oe?a?inueei? nioeiae-aeaiie?aoi?. A oeeo ?iaioao aea?oueny
ioeiiea oe?a?inueeei ia?oiyi, i a oiio /enei ?o noaaeaiith aei
ieoaiiy aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie, aiaeiiaiaeii aei iaeaieiai/ieo aeiia
oiai /ano, aea e nueiaiaeii aiie iathoue iaaio cia/eiinoue /a?ac
aeeeaaeaiee a ieo aeineoue aaaaoee oaeoe/iee iaoa?iae.

A ?yaei iiiia?aoie, yei aeeoee inoaiiii /anii, ciaeoee nai?
aiaeia?aaeaiiy aeayei aniaeoe aeaii? oaie. Oae, o ?iaioi I.E.Eiieeaiea4
na?aae iioiai aiaeicothoueny iiaeyaee I.A?ooaanueeiai ia oe?a?inueea
oiaoi iaoeiiiaeueia ieoaiiy. Aai?aie Eanueyiia5 ?icaeyaea? ?ieue
oe?a?inueei? iioaeiaaioei? o iieioe/ieo i?ioeanao ia ?oaaaei noieioue,
a oiio /enei ?? aianie o oai?aoe/ii ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie. O iiiia?aoi? Oa?ana Aoi/aea6,
i?enay/aiie iieioe/iie inoi?i? Oe?a?ie ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no., a
caaaeueieo ?enao ?ice?eaa?oueny iiceoeiy oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e uiaei
aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie. Oe?a?inueea iaeay a aeineiaeaeaii?
I.N.Caaoaeei7 ?icaeyaea?oueny /a?ac oieinionueeee aniaeo.
Aeineiaeaeoth/e inoi?ith oe?a?inueei? nioeiae-aeaiie?aoi? ii/aoeo OO
no., Aieiaeeie? Aieia/aiei8 cia/io oaaao i?eaeiey? ?ic?iaoei a ??
na?aaeiaeui iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie. A eieaeoeai?e iiiia?aoi?
«Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaiinoue a OO noieiooi»9 i?iaiaeiciaaii iniiaii
aea?aeaaieoeuee? eiioeaioei? oa iaea?, a oiio /ene? e

———————

1 Iiiia I.I. Ia?en ?noi??? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? (a?eueoiaee?a) Oe?a?ie.
O?ao? aei?aaeaia ? aeiiiaiaia aeaeaiiy. — Oa?e?a: “I?ieaoa?ee”, 1929. —
309 n.; Aie?i I. ?noi??y EI(a)O a noeneiio ia?en?. — Oa?e?a: I?ieaoa?ee,
1930. — 188 n.

2 Niniianueeee Ieoaeei. Aeieo?i Aeiioeia: iie?oe/iee ii?o?ao. C ?noi???
?icaeoeo ?aeaieia?? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio. — Iueth-Ei?e — Oi?iioi,
1974. — 418 n.

3 Eo?an E.O. Oi?aeanoai i?ieaoa?neiai eioa?iaoeeiiaeecia e e?ao
iaeeiao?aeoacieo ia?oee ia Oe?aeia. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1978. — 314
n.; eiai ae. Iia/aeueiee o?ie inoi?i? (iaeaeii-iieioe/ia aaie?oonoai
Oe?a?inueei? nioeiae-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?iaioie/i? ia?oi?). — E.:
Iieioaeaeaa Oe?a?ie, 1986. — 184 n.

4 Eiieeaiei I.E. “Oe?a?inueea ?aeay” I.A?ooaanueeiai: ?noi??y ?
no/ani?noue. — E.:Eea?aeue,1991. — 184 n.

5 Eanueyiia Aai?a?e. Oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y ia ?oaaae? O?O-OO
noie?oue. Nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iee ii?o?ao. — E.: Eea?aeue, 1993. — 172 n.

6 Aoi/ae Oa?an. Oe?a?ia. Ia?oa iieiaeia OO noieiooy. Ia?ene iieioe/ii?
inoi?i?. — E.: Eeaiaeue, 1993. — 286 n.

7 Caaoaeei I.N. O?einio?y oe?a?inueei? ?aea? oa ?a?iiaenueeee eiioaeno:
o?aie?anueeee ia??iae. — E.: Eea?aeue, 1993. — 124 n.

8 Aieia/aiei Aieiaeeie? A?ae “Naiino?eii? Oe?a?ie” aei Nithco aecaieaiiy
Oe?a?ie: ia?ene c ?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?? ii/aoeo OO
no. — Oa?e?a: Iaeaeai, 1996. — 190 n.

9 Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue a OO no. ?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/iee aiae?c. —
E.:Iie?oe/ia aeoiea, 1996. — 434 n.

ca?oa?aei?, aea ii/aoie noie?ooy ooo iiaeaii noaiaoe/ii.

A iiiia?aoi? I.Eaeiaeaia oa I.A?eiaeaea1 i?ineiaeeiao?oueny inoi?iy
oe?a?inueeeo iieioe/ieo ia?oie oa aiaeico?oueny ?o aeiyeueiinoue
aiae naiiai ii/aoeo ?o ooai?aiiy (eiiaoeue OIO no.) aei nueiaiaeaiiy.
Cia/ia iinoea a ?iaioi caeia? e ia?iiae ii/aoeo OO no., aea
c’yniao?oueny iiceoeiy ia?oie noiniaii ieoaiiy aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie.

Ae?oao a?oio aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e neeaaeathoue ?iaioe, a
yeeo aeineiaeaeo?oueny oie /e iioee aniaeo aeiyeueiinoi oe?a?inueeeo
iieioe/ieo ia?oie, aea c iaia’yceiaei iaaieinii ia ieoaiiy
aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie. C oaeei iiaeoiaeii inoi?iia?aoiy i?iaeaie aa?a
naie ii/aoie ua a aei?aaiethoeieiee ia?iiae.

Oaea a 1905 a “Eioa?aoo?ii-Iaoeiaiio Ainoieeo” c’yaeeany noaooy
I.Eiceinueeiai “Oe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia Ia?oiy”2, a yeie aaoi? aenaioeth?
i?ioean ooai?aiiy ia?oi?, aeaoaeueii aiaeico? oai?aoe/ii aeieoiaioe
oei?? ia?oi?, yei a iniiaiiio noinoaaeeny i?iaeaie naiinoieiinoi
Oe?a?ie. A i?aoeyo ?.Noaoaiea, I.Eoeaoaae/a, A.Aei?ioaiea3 iia?aeii
?icaeyaeaeiny ieoaiiy aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie a ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo
ia?o?e.

Aaciina?aaeii o/anieee iiaeie, iia’ycaieo c aeiyeueiinoth
ia?oeo oe?a?inueeeo iieioe/ieo ia?oie, i?iaeiaaeoaaee aenaioethaaoe
?o inoi?ith i a 20-30-o ?ieao. Noaooy A?iieueaea ?ioa a aeo?iaei
«Eaoiienue ?aaiethoeee» aoea i?enay/aia inoi?i? «Niieee»4. Aaoi? na?aae
?ioiai coieiy?oueny ia iioeaao ia?aaaaeaiiy nioeiaeueieo aniaeoia a ??
aeiyeueiinoi iaae iaoeiiiaeueieie. Ie?aii ?icaeiee eiai i?aoei
i?enay/aii neeaaeo, /enaeueiinoi, iaeaeiie ni?yiiaaiinoi «Niieee».
I?e/eie ia?aaaaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo aniaeo?a a ae?yeueiino? “Ni?eee” iaae
iaoe?iiaeueieie c’yniao? e I.Iaeaiaanueeee5.

C ii/aoeo 30-o ?ieia i aei e?ioey 80-o inoi?iy oe?a?inueeeo ia?oie ii
nooi ia?aaoaa? iica aeineiaeieoeueeei i?ioeanii, yeui aiie e
caaaeoaaeeny oi eeoa ye ia’?eo e?eoeee. Iiaee aoai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie
ii/aany ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ieia. Caii/aoeoaaee oei ciiie aenooie
o/anieeia «e?oaeiai noieo» ia caniaeaiii A/aii? ?aaee Iinoeoooo
iieioe/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue, yea aiaeaoeany 18 /a?aiy 1990 ?.
?acoeueoaoii i?iaaaeaiiai «e?oaeiai noieo» noaea iiyaa iecee noaoae o
cai?ieeo «Iaoeiai i?aoei c ieoaiue iieioe/ii? inoi?i?». Ia?oeie
c’yaeeeny ?iaioe I.I.Oii?aoia6, A.A.Ai?enaiea7. A ieo, cae/aeii, a?eueoa

———————

1 Eaeiaeai ?.E., A?eiaeae I.A. Aeieeiaiiy oa aaiethoe?y iaoe?iiaeueii?
ia?o?eii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i? a OO noie?oo?: Aeine?aeaeaiiy. — Iaeana:
Ano?ii?eio, 1997. — 192 n.

2 Eiceinueeee I. Oe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia Ia?o?y // EI-A. — O.OOO. — Ei.V. —
1905. — N.145-159.

3 Noaoaiei I. Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiiiaeueii-a?iiaaenueeee ?oo i 1905 ?ie
// Aieueia Oe?a?ia. — 1906. — *.1-2; Eoeaoaae/ (Oo/aineee) I.
Oe?aeineea iaoeeiiaeueiua ia?oee // Aanoiee aeecie. — 1906. — *.1-2. —
N.76-87; Aei?ioaiei A. Iiaoi?anoa eio oe?a?inueei? iieioe/ii? aeoiee
(Aiae neanoaaiiy Aaoueiaiueie aei iaoiai /ano). Iaeeaaeii
«Nithca Aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie». — Aiaeaiue, 1914. — 12 n.

4 ?eo A. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee “Nieeee” // Eaoiienue ?aaiethoeee. — 1925. —
?2. — N.125-173; ?3. — N.77-107.

5 Iaeaiaanueeee I. Aei ?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii?
“Ni?eee” // Iiaa a?iiaaea. — 1923. — ?3-4. — N.130-134.

6 Oii?aoi I.I. C ?noi??? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie
iaia?aaeiaei? ? a ia??iae ia?oi? ?in?enueei? ?aaiethoe?? (1903-1907
??.): iiaee i?aeo?ae // O?AE. — 1990. — ? 2. — N.3-14; eiai ae.
Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? Oe?a?ie ia ii/aoeo OO no.: nioe?aeueiee neeaae,
/enaeuei?noue, oeiieia?y // Iaoeia? i?aoe? c ieoaiue iie?oe/ii? ?noi???.
— Aei.172. — E.: “Eea?aeue”, 1992. — N.14-25; eiai ae.
Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo ia Oe?a?i? ia ii/aoeo

oaaae i?eae?eyeiny ?noi??? ia?o?e ? eeoa a caaaeueieo ?enao
aena?oethaaeanue iiceoe?y uiaei aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie.

A oeueiio ieai? aeae?eyeanue ?iaioa I.TH.Eiceoeueeiai ?
I.A.Iie?uoea1, a ye?e aiae?ciaaii noaaeaiiy aei i?iaeaie oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee a?ae ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe?a ? aei
/eai?a OOIo, a oiio /ene? ? c cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie. ?noi?iy
caoenoo iaoeiiiaeueieo iioa?ania Oe?a?ie a I-e i II-e Aea?aeaai?e
Aeoii aeaiooaoaie c Oe?a?ie ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?aoe?
I.TH.Eiceoeueeiai i A.I.Aeiii?ineiai2. Iniaeeaa iinoea iiniaea? ?iaioa
I.A.Eiaaeue/oea3, i?enay/aia inoi?iia?aoi? i?iaeaie.

?iaioe A.A.Na?aay4 iinyoue caaaeueiioai?aoe/iee oa?aeoa? uiaei
?icoi?iiy iniaeeainoae iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?
ia ii/aoeo OO no., c’ynoaaiiy oiia, a yeeo ca?iaeaeoaaeany e
oi?ioaaeany ?aeay oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, yeee aieea i?ioeane
oeueiai ia??iaeo iaee ia iiaeaeueoo ?noi??th Oe?a?ie.

?ieue iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa ?noi?e/ia aeiey aea?aeaaiino? ?
i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiue I.I.Ne?eiieea5.

A oeae ia??iae aoei iioae?eiaaii ?yae ?ia?o6 i?enay/aieo
iie?oe/iei ia?niiaeiyi oiai /ano, aea aaoi?e cia/io oaaao
cina?aaeaeoaaee ia noaaeaii nai?o aa?i?a aei ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?, a
oaeiae aecia/aee ?o ?ieue o oai?aoe/iie ?? ?ic?iaoei. Aeey i?iieeiaiiy
aiioith oiai /ano, ianoaiiaeith a ia?o?eiiio na?aaeiaeu?, aea
aeeneoooaaeany ?aeay aea?aeaaiino? iaaaeyea cia/aiiy ia? iaioa?ia
e?oa?aoo?a7.

Na?aae aeena?oaoeie8, ui aoee caoeuaii inoaiiii /anii,
ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?a-

———————

OO no. // IIII?. — Aei.173. — N.3-12.

7 Ai?enaiei A.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i ?aaiethoe?eio oe?a?inueeo ia?o?th //
IIII?. — Aei.169. — E.: “Eea?aeue”, 1991. — N.129-138.

1 Eiceoeueeee I.TH., Iieiuoe I.A. Iaoeiiiaeueii-iieioe/ia aeoiea ia
Oe?a?ii (eiiaoeue OIO — ii/aoie OO no.) // IIII?. — Aei.172. —
E.:»Eeaiaeue», 1992. — N.3-14.

2 Eiceoeueeee I.TH., Aeiii?ineee A.?. Oe?a?inueea ia?eaiaionueea
a?iiaaea a ? ? ?? Aea?aeaaieo Aeoiao // IIII?. — Aei,173. — E.:
“Eea?aeue”, 1992. — N.12-22.

3 Eiaaeue/oe I.A.Inoi?iia?aoiy noaiiaeaiiy oa aeiyeueiinoi oe?a?inueeeo
iieioe/ieo ia?oie ii/aoeo noieiooy // IIII?. — Aei.172. — E.:
“Eea?aeue”, 1992. — N.105-114.

4 Na?aae A.A. Noaiiaeaiiy ? eiinie?aeaoe?y iaoe?? oa i?aeianaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia Oe?a?i? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. // O?AE. —
1991. — ? 5. — N.3-16; eiai ae. Aei iiaeyae?a I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa ia
iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy // O?AE. — 1991. — ? 9. — N.60-70; eiai ae. Aoaie
oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? (e?iaoeue XVIII —
ii/aoie XX no.) // O?AE. — 1993. — ? 7-8. — N.3-16; eiai ae.
“Oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy” a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? i/eia aeine?aeiee?a ii/aoeo
? e?ioey OO noie?ooy // O?AE. — 1996. — ? 2. — N.35-46.

5 Ne?eiiee I.I. Iiiceoe?y // Iie?oieia?/i? /eoaiiy:
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeee uieaa?oaeueiee. — Aei.2. — E.,1992. —
N.306-308; eiai ae. Aea?aeaaioai?/? o?aaeeoe?? ia i?aaeaiii-oe?a?inueeeo
caieyo // I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie ? neeaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?:
?noi??y ? no/ani?noue. — *.1. — Iaeana,1994. — N.13-19; eiai ae. ?aeay
aea?aeaaiino? a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??. — Iaeana,1997. — N.18-23.

6 Ai??eia I.?. Aeieo?i Aeiioeia: oo?eoe aei iie?oe/iiai ii?o?aoa //
O?AE. — 1994. — ? 5. — N.78-86; ? 6. — N.89-97; Aeai/aiei O.I., Eo?an
A.I. ?.E.O?aa — “neaaiee oe?a?inueeee ae?y/” // O?AE. — 1993. — ? 10. —
N.95-103; Eo?an ?.O., Oo?/aiei O.A., Aa?auaiei O.N. I.?.I?oiianueeee:
iinoaoue ia oe? aiioe // O?AE. — 1992. — ? 9. — N.76-91; Ion??ei A.,
Aaac O. I.N.A?ooaanueeee: aoaie oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii?
?aea? // ?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae. — 1994. — ? 3. — N.60-64; Iaeainueeee ss.
A’y/aneaa Eeieinueeee — caniiaiee aea?aeaaieoeueei? oeiee a oe?a?inuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?? // O?AE. — 1992. — ? 2. — N.139-141; I?eeiae O.
Eiinoeoooe?eiee i?iaeo I.A?ooaanueeiai c 1905 ?. // O?AE. — 1991. — ?
1. — N.127-137; Ionoia?o O., Ei?ioaiei A. Ae?y/ ?OIo Ieeiea Aie?y //
Ee?anueea noa?iaeia. — 1995. — ? 3. — N.100-106 oa ?i.

7 A?ooaanueeee I. Niiieie // Ee?a. — 1989. — ? 9. — N.108-145;
Aei?ioaiei Ae. Ii? niiieie i?i iaaeaai? ieioea (1914-1918). — *.?. —
Euea?a: “*a?aiia eaeeia”, 1923. — 131 n.; *eeaeaiei ?. Niiaaaee:
(1861-1907). — Euea?a: Ae?ei, 1925. — 126 n.; eiai ae. Uiaeaiiee
(1907-1917). — Euea?a: *a?aiia eaeeia, 1931. — 496 n.

8 Aa?aa I.A. Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee e ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea a Oe?aeia a
ia?eiae Ia?aie ?inneeneie ?aaiethoeee: Aeen. eaiae. eno. iaoe. —
E.,1994. — 193 n.; Aa?auaiei O.N. I?noea ? ?ieue naiino?eiee?a a
oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on? (e?iaoeue O?O no. ii/aoie 1918 ?.):
Aeen. eaiae. ?no. iaoe. — Caii??aeaey, 1993. — 252 n.;

aeaiiy ??ci? aniaeoe ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, a oiio
/ene? e noaaeaiiy /e nooi?iue ?ic?iaee ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? o??th /e
?ioith ia?o??th a iaaiee ia??iae ?? ?nioaaiiy. Iniaeeai a oeueiio ieai?
ae??ciythoueny ?iaioe O.N.Aa?auaiei oa A.?.Aieia/aiea. Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe
e aeena?oaoe?th A.A.Eiaaeue/oea1, yeee aeine?aeea nooi?iue ?ic?iaee
?aea? aea?aeaaiino? oa i?aeoe/io ?iaioo ii ao?eaiith ?? a aeeooy ia
ii/aoeo OO no. oe?a?inueeeie ia?o?yie No?aeii? Aaee/eie.

Aeey iaienaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe aoee aeei?enoaii iioaeieiaaii i
iaiioaeieiaaii aeaea?aea. Iaeaieueo iiaii aeieoiaioe c aeaii? oaiaoeee
aoee iioaeieiaaii a cai?ieeo ca ?aaeaeoei?th O.Aoi/aea i ?.Nieue/aieea2.
A ia?oiio oiii oeueiai cai?ieea aiiuaii i?ia?aie iaeaea anio (e??i
OII) iieioe/ieo ia?oie i i?aaiicaoeie.

A cai?ieeo «Aeaiae i?aa Oe?a?ie»3, aiiuaii eeoa iaiioano
I.Iioiianueeiai «Naiinoieia Oe?a?ie», ia?oee eiai ?icaeie i aeai
i?aoei I.A?ooaanueeiai, i?enay/aii oe?a?inueei-?inienueeei aca?ieiai. O
cai?ieeo aeieoiaioia «Aaaaoiia?oieia oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa»4
aeineiaeaeoaaiee ia?iiae i?aaenoaaeaii eeoa i?ia?aiith, noaoooii i
?aciethoeiyie c’?caeia ONAe?I.

Iniiao aeena?oaoei? neeaee a?oiaii aeieoiaioe. A
Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio inoi?e/iiio a?oiai Oe?a?ie (OeAeIA
Oe?a?ie) aeei?enoaii oiiaee 274, 275, 304, 320, 336, 1335, 1439. A
iniiiiiio oei oiiaee iinoyoue iaoa?iaee aoaa?inueeeo aeaiaea?inueeeo
oi?aaeiiue, yei aiaeia?aaeaee aeiyeueiinoue iieioe/ieo ia?oie ?ini?, a
oiio /enei e oe?a?inueeeo. Iaeaieueoa aeieoiaioia c aeaii? oaie
cina?aaeaeaii o 274 (Ee?anueea aoaa?inueea aeaiaea?inueea
oi?aaeiiiy) i 275 (Ee?anueea ioi?iiia aiaeaeieaiiy) oiiaei. A ieo,
cie?aia, ciaoiaeyoueny i?ia?aie ONAe?I, OAeI, ieaooi?ia O?I,
?aciethoei? II-ai c’?caeo ?OI, aeieeaae ONAe?I iiaeia?iaeiiio
eiia?ano a Ooooaa?oi, /eneaiii a?ioo?e O?I, Cayaa OAeI c’?caeo
cainueeeo i iinueeeo aeiy/ia o Iineai. Oiiae 304 iinoeoue iaoa?iaee c
inoi?i? IOI, cie?aia «Aeanyoue caiiaiaeae» oei?? ia?oi?. O oiiaei 320
caa?iaathoueny aeieoiaioe, yei naiae/aoue i?i ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
iaoeiiiaeueii-aecaieueieo iaeae na?aae ?icieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, a o
oiiaei 336 i?i aeiyeueiinoue «A?aonoaa oa?aniaoeia». Iaoa?iaee oiiaeo
1335 aiaeia?aaeathoue aeiyeueiinoue «Niieee», a o oiiae? 1439
caa??aa?oueny i?ia?aia OAe?I, i?ia?aia OOI ia aeai?e aei IV-?
Aea?aeaaii? Aeoie. O oiiaeao oeueiai a?o?ao caa??aathoueny eenoiaee,

———————

Aieia/aiei A.?. Aeoiee ? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??
(1896-1907 ??.): Aeen. eaiae. ?no. iaoe. — O.,1993. — 248 n.;
Aeiii?ineee A.?. Ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueei? ia?eaiaionueei? a?iiaaee a ?
oa ?? Aea?aeaaieo Aeoiao (1906-1907): Aeen. eaiae. ?no. iaoe. — E.,1994.
— 215 n.; Oaaeueeia I.I. Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? oa naeyinuee? a?iiaaenuee?
i?aai?caoe?? ia I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? a 1905-1907 ?iee: Aeen. eaiae.
?no. iaoe. — E.,1993. — 362 n.

1 Eiaaeue/oe A.A. ?aeay aea?aeaaiino? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? iacaeaaeiino? o
ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e No?aeii? Aaee/eie e.O?O — i.OO no.
(?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/aee aniaeo): Aaoi?ao. aeen. eaiae. ?no.
iaoe.-Euea?a, 1996. -21 n.

2 Oe?a?inueea noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeoiea a 20 noie?oo?. Aeieoiaioe ?
iaoa??aee. — Oii?yaeeoaaee Oa?an Aoi/ae ? ?iiai Nieue/aiee. —
No/ani?noue, 1983. — O.1. — 510 n.

3 Aea?ae i?aa Oe?a?ie. — Euea?a: II “Neiai”, 1991. — 128 n.

4 Aaaaoiia?o?eia oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa ia ii/aoeo OO no. I?ia?aii?
aeieoiaioe ia?oeo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e. — E.: “Iiooe”, 1992. —
93 n.

cayae, aiaeicae, aacaoe, /aniiene, iaoa?iaee neiae/eo ni?aa, a yeeo
i?yii /e iiina?aae-eiaaii ?icaeyaea?oueny i?iaeaia aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie
o??th /e ?ioith ia?o??th.

O Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?oiai aeueo i?aaiia aeaaee
oa oi?aaeiiiy Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAIA Oe?a?ie) aeei?enoaii oiiaee 3805 i
?-4405. Oiiae 3805 iinoeoue iaoa?iaee OeE ?OI-ONAe?I (aei 1917
?ieo), a iniiaiiio oea iaoa?iaee ?aaeaeoeie /aniienia «I?aoey» i
«Naeyiei», ui neeaaeathoueny c ia?aienee oeeo ?aaeaeoeie c iioeie
?aaeaeoeiyie oa eenooaaiiy c aeiienoaa/aie. Oiiae ?-4405 ia? iacao
«Nithc aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie», aeieoiaioe yeiai aiaeia?aaeathoue
oai?aoe/ii e i?aeoe/ii canaaee oei?? i?aaiicaoei?. Oea, cie?aia,
aiaeicae NAO, caioe i?aaiia NAO i?i naith aeiyeueiinoue acaaaei i
i?i ?iaioo na?aae oe?a?inueeeo iieiiaieo, ?iciiiaiioii iino?oeoei?,
eenooaaiiy ?aaeaeoei? «Ainoieea NAO», ie?aii iiia?e «Ainoieea»,
i?iiiae, noaooi /eaiia NAO, a yeeo iayaia iioi?iaoeiy i?i
aeiyeueiinoue oa caaaeaiiy Nithco.

Aaaaoi oeiiiiai iaoa?iaeo ii/a?iiooi ic ia?iiaee/ieo aeaeaiue
oiai /ano. Na?aae ieo: «Aanei», «I?aoey», «Eioa?aoo?ii-iaoeiaee
ainoiee», «Oe?a?ia», «Iao aiein», «Aecaii». Iaoa?iaee iioaeieiaaii
ia ?o noi?iieao aeathoue iiaeeeainoue i?ineiaeeoaaoe aaiethoeith oi??
/e iioi? iaea?, aeyaeoe ?icii iiaeoiaee aei ?? oi?io aaiiy,
c?icoiioe nooue ?icaiaeiinoae c oeo /e iioeo ieoaiue ye ana?aaeeii
ia?oi?, oae i a iiaeia?oieieo noinoieao.

O ae?oaiio ?icaeiei «I?aaiicaoeieii oa iaeaieiai/ii canaaee
oe?a?inueeeo iieioe/ieo ia?oie ii/aoeo OO no.» ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy aeanii? iieioe/ii? nenoaie a Oe?a?ii, iniiao yei? neeaee
iiainoai?aii ia?oi?, ia’?eoeaii oa noa’?eoeaii ia?aaeoiiae oeueiai
i?ioeano, iiaea?oueny aiaeic ?o iaeaeieo canaae.

Iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane Oe?a?ie ia ii/aoeo OO no. aeiaaaee
aeaaaeaiiy aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia ye?nii iiaee iie?oe/iee ??aaiue.
?aae?caoe?y oeeo ?ioa?an?a a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeaea a?ae oiai, /e
Oe?a?ia iaaoaea aea?aeaaiiai noaoono ? yeui iaaoaea, oi a ye?e oi?i? —
iacaeaaeii? /e aaoiiiiii? aea?aeaae. Iie?oe/iee aoai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo icia/aa noai?aiiy iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ye?
e iieeeeai? aoee aeaoe a?aeiia?aeue ia aeua iinoaaeaia ieoaiiy.
Cae/aeii, e nai? ia?o?? iiaeii? aoee i?ieoe aoai i?aai?caoe?eiiai e
?aeaieia?/iiai ioi?ieaiiy.

Ia?oith a Iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e Oe?a?i? caniiaaii ?OI, yea ia
ia?oeo ii?ao iineea aii?oiee oa?aeoa?, ai aei ia? aaieoee
i?aaenoaaieee ?aaeeeaeueii?, nioeiae-aeaiie?aoe/ii?,
nioeiae-?aaiethoeieii? oa/i? iieioe/iiai ?ooo. Aea aaea i?eaeecii c 1902
?. a iie ii/eiathoue aeiiiioaaoe nioeiae-aeaiie?aoe/ii iaea? i oiio ??
?yaee caeeoathoue ?aaeeeaeueii e nioeiae-?aaiethoeieii aeaiaioe.
?ioaiiy I c’?caeo ?OI, ianooiii cayae OeE ia?oi? canaiae/eee i?i iiaiee
ia?aoiae ?? ia nioeiae-aeaiie?aoe/ii iiceoei?. Oa a 1904 ?.
caaino?eeeny i?ioe?i//y oaea a na?aaeiaeui oe?a?inueeeo
nioeiae-aeaiie?aoia, yei i?ecaaee aei iiyae o ni/ii 1905 ?. iiai?
ia?oi? — «Niieee». I?e/eiith ?iceieo noaei iaoeiiiaeueia ieoaiiy e,
cie?aia, ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? naiinoieiino? ia?o??. ?OI caeeoeeanue
ia iiceoeiyo ia?oieii? iacaeaaeiinoi, a «Niieea» noaea aaoiiiiiith
/anoeiith iaioiaeoeueei? o?aeoei? ?NAe?I. Nioeiaeueiith aacith oa
ia’?eoii ?iaioe ?OI noa? ?aiinie/ee, oaa?e/iee oa nieuenueeee
i?ieaoa?iao, i?e/iio a iniiaiiio oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

I?eoeeueieee iaoeiiiaeueii-?aaeeeaeueieo iaeae (ye? iieyaaee
a aeiiaaaiiyo caeiaooe iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie aoaeue-yeeie caniaaie) a
1902 ?. canioaaee OII, yea i?ioa ia iaea /ioei? i?aaiicaoei? e ia
caeiaoea cia/iiai aieeao ia a?iiaaenueeinoue Oe?a?ie.
Nioeiaeinoe-?aaiethoeiiia?e a oeae ia?iiae ni?iiiaeeny ia noai?aiiy
ie?aieo ao?oeia, yei aeiyee ie?aii i ia iaee i?aaiicaoeieiiai ca’yceo.

C 1903 ?., eiee aoei ae?iaeaii ieaooi?io OCI, ii/eia?oueny
?noi??y ia?o?e iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy, ?aeaeiith
iniiaith yeeo noaee aeaiie?aoe/i? caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino?. Oai?eea
oe? ia?o?? na?aeiii iaeaooiaa oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y. A 1904 ?.
caniiaaii OAeI, yea noaea ia?oith ia?o??th, ui ae?iaeea naith i?ia?aio.
I?ioa e ooo noaany ?iceie, ? iai?ee?ioe? ?ieo ?aaeeeaeueii iano?i?i? ??
/eaie ooai?eee O?I.

I?ae /an ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e 1905-1907 ??. ae?yeuei?noue
ia?o?e cia/ii aeoea?coaaeany. Aiie aeeth/eeeny i iaiaaaeeny i/ieeoe
?aaiethoeieiee ?oo, i?eeiaee o/anoue o aeai?/eo eaiiaiiyo aei
Aea?aeaaieo Aeoi (nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe aeai?e aei ? Aeoie aieeiooaaee),
i?iaiaeeee nai? c’?caee, eiioa?aioei?, i?eeiaee ia ieo i?ia?aie,
?aciethoei? oiui. O a?oaeii 1905 ?. ?OI ia?aeiaiiaaii ia ONAe?I,
i?eeiyoi i?ia?aio ia?o?? a iniiao yei? aoei iieeaaeaii oai?aoe/io
/anoeio A?oo?onueei? i?ia?aie i?iaoeueei? nioeiae-aeaiie?aoi?, yea
ia?aaeaa/aea nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/io aaiethoeith noniieuenoaa. OAeI e
O?I ia’?aeiaeeny a OAe?I. «Niieea» nai?? i?ia?aie ia ae?iaeea, a iaea
oieueee Noaooo, yeee aecia/aa ?? noaoon o neeaaei ?NAe?I.

I?ney 1907 ?. ae?yeuei?noue ia?o?e ii noo? i?eieiy?oueny,
aeoeai?noue i?iyaeyee eeoa i?ia?aeieee, ?aeaieiae oeeo ia?o?e.
Oe?a?inuee? e?aa?aee noai?eee aacia?o?eio i?aai?caoe?th — OOI.
I?eoeeueieee ?aea? naiino?eiino? c ii/aoeii na?oiai? a?eie noai?eee NAO,
aeey i?iiaaaiaee oe??? ?aea? ye a nai?e Oe?a?i?, oae ? ca ?? iaaeaie.

*enaeuei?noue /eai?a oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e aoea iacia/iith (?OI —
300-400 /eai?a; ONAe?I iiiaae 3 oen. /ie.; “Ni?eea” — 6-7 oen.
/?.Eo?an/, 10 oen. /A.??o). Noa?e aieeao a iniiaiiio ioiiethaaee
oeaio?aeuei? aoaa?i?? Oe?a?ie, ia noiae? e i?aaei? ?o aieea aoa
iacia/iei.

O o?aoueiio ?icaeiei — «Noai ?ic?iaee iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi
Oe?a?ie a i?ia?aiieo i oai?aoe/ieo aeieoiaioao iieioe/ieo ia?oie.
1900-1907 ?iee» aeineiaeaeo?oueny iinoea iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi a
i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaioao iieioe/ieo ia?oie, nooiiiue ?? ?ic?iaee eiaeiith
ia?oi?th.

?ic?iaea ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? ia ii/aoeo OO no. a
Iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e Oe?a?i? a?oiooaaeanue ia ?icoi?ii? naiiaooiino?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, aoea eia?/iei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi ?aeae aaoiiii?cio
XVII-XVIII no., oaaea?ae?nonueeeo iiaeyae?a ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe?a,
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, iie?oe/ieo iieiaeaiue oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e Aaee/eie,
ao?oe?a ? i?aai?caoe?e i?ae?in?enueei? Oe?a?ie.

?OI aeanii? iie?oe/ii? i?ia?aie ia ae?iaeea, a ?? ?ieue
aeeiioaaea ia ia?oeo ii?ao a?ioo?a I.I?oiianueeiai “Naiino?eia Oe?a?ia”.
Naia iacaa yei? aiai?eoue i?i ?aae?caoe?th ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? o oi?i?
iacaeaaeii? naiino?eii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Aeey oeueiai,
ia?aeiieeai aeiaiaeea aaoi? a?ioo?e, Oe?a?ia ia? an? ?noi?e/i?,
th?eaee/i?, aeiiii?/i? ? eoeueoo?i? ia?aaeoiiae, a oiio iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoe an? iiaeeea? caniae aeey ?aae?caoe?? oe??? iaoe. Ia
c’yniaaiei eeoeeiny o?eueee ieoaiiy iie?oe/iiai ono?ith iaeaooiuei?
Oe?a?ie.

Iaeiae ?aeay naiino?eiino? Oe?a?ie ia ciaeoea oe?iei? i?aeo?eiee
i? a ia?o??, i? a Oe?a?i? caaaeii. Oiio ?? i?eoeeueieee canioaaee iiao
ia?o?th (OII) ? a?ae/aeaeooii i?iaeiaaeoaaee i?iiaaaiaeo nai?? ?aea?,
?iciianthaeaeoth/e a?aeicae ? i?ieeaiaoe??. Iiaeyaee naiino?eiee?a aoei
ocaaaeueiaii a i?ia?ai? OII, iiaaoe?yie yei? aoei aecia/aiiy a
caaaeueieo ?enao iie?oe/iiai ono?ith Oe?a?ie ye i?aceaeaionueei?
?anioae?ee ia oaaea?aoeaieo canaaeao. Aeiioneaeanue ? aaoiiii?y ye
aoaiiee ia??iae ia oeyoo aei naiino?eiino?.

Ii/eiath/e c 1902 ?. ?OI ii/aea iinooiiai a?aeiaaeiaoaaoenue ye
a?ae a?ioo?e, oae ? a?ae ?aea? naiino?eiino?. C inoaoi/iei ia?aoiaeii ia
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/i? iiceoe?? ? cian?i a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae oe???
?aea?, i?i ui cana?ae/ea ? “Ia?en i?ia?aie ?OI”. “Ia?en” caeeeeaa aei
ia?aoai?aiiy ?in?? ia oaaea?aoeaio ?anioae?eo ? anoaiiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?
aaoiiii??, ?ice?eaath/e nooue inoaiiuei?. Iane?eueee ieoaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai eaaeo aeyaeeinue iai?inoei aeey ia?o?? cana?ae/eea
aeeneon?y ia oiaeueoao “I?aoe?” a 1905 ?. Oae, aeey Ae.Aioiiiae/a
iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy acaaae? aoei “ia?nioth/ei”, a I.Ii?o, iaaiaee,
aeiaiaeea iaiao?aei?noue eiai ?ic?iaee ? aeeth/aiiy a ia?o?eio i?ia?aio.

Ianooiiei aoaiii ?icaeoeo ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? a na?aaeiaeu? ?OI
noaa “I?iaeo i?ia?aio ?OI”, yeee a a?oaei? 1905 ?. ia c’?cae? ia?o??
caoaa?aeaeaii ye i?ia?aio. A oe?e i?ia?ai? a caaaeueieo ?enao aecia/aii
iiaiiaaaeaiiy caaaeueiioaaea?aeueieo i?aai?a aeaaee ? iaaaaaoi
aeaoaeuei?oa a?aeoai?aii ooieoe?? i?aai?a aeaaee aaoiiiiii? Oe?a?ie.
Aeaye? iieiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie aeaoae?ciaaii a ?aciethoe?yo
c’?cae?a ? eiioa?aioe?e ia?o??.

“Ni?eea” nai?? i?ia?aie ia ae?iaeea, a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
i??i?eoao iaaeaaaea ae??oaiith nioe?aeueieo ieoaiue, ye ia?aaeoiiae
ae??oaiiy an?o ?ioeo, a o./. e iaoe?iiaeueieo.

Ia?o?? iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy c naiiai
ii/aoeo caeiyee iiceoe?th aaoiiii?? Oe?a?ie o oaaea?aoeai?e ?in??. Oaea
a ieaooi?i? OCI (1903 ?.) c?iaeaii ni?iao aeienaoe iiaiiaaaeaiiy
oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aeaaee, cie?aia aeaiiaeaoiiai ia?eaiaioo, aea
iiaiiaaaeaiiy i?aai?a aeaaee a Oe?a?i? iiaeaii a?eueo noaiaoe/ii.
Iaeiae, a i?ia?ai? OAeI ? oaea aeaoae?caoe?y aoea iiouaia, ?? iieiaeaiiy
iineee caaaeueiee aeaeea?aoeaiee oa?aeoa?.

Iaea?eueo aeaoaeueii ieoaiiy aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie aoei
?ic?iaeaii a ieaooi?i? O?I. Iiaaoe?? iieyaaee a oiio, ui i?icao/aa
eicoia iiaii? iie?oe/ii? naiino?eiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, aea
?aaeueii ioe?ithth/e neooaoe?th ia?o?y caeeoeeany ia iiceoe?? aaoiiii??.
A aeieoiaio? aeaoaeueii aeienaii iiaiiaaaeaiiy oaaea?aeueiiai ia?eaiaioo
? i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaiiai ? noni?eueiiai eaaeo a Oe?a?i?.

I?ia?aia OAe?I a iniiaiiio i?noeea iieiaeaiiy i?ia?ai nai?o
iiia?aaeieoeue, iniaeeai O?I. Nooo?aei aeiiiaiaiiyi aoei iieiaeaiiy i?i
aeiiaaaiiy aaoiiiiiiai noaoono aeey an??? aoi?/ii? Oe?a?ie. Iieiaeaiiy
i?i iie?oe/io naiino?ei?noue aoei iiouaii.

A oeueiio ?icae?e? ia iniia? ii??aiyiiy iieiaeaiue i?ia?ai ?OI-ONAe?I oa
iinooiiaeo ia?o?e, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue ia iiceoe?? aaoiiii?? Oe?a?ie,
aeiaaaeaii, ui inoaii?ie a?eueo aea-oaeueii aoei ?ic?iaeaii ye ooieoe??
caaaeueiioaaea?aeueieo i?aai?a aeaaee, oae ? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
a Oe?a?i?.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icaeiei — «?icaeoie iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi
oai?aoeeaie iaoeiiiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a ia?iiae c 1907 ?. aei
aa?aciy 1917 ?.» ?ice?eoi iiaeaeueoo aaiethoeith iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi a
cacia/aiee ia?iiae.

Iaeaeoeai?oa a ?ic?iaeo oai?aoe/ieo canaae iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ieoaiiy caaaeii e ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? cie?aia aeeth/eeeny i?ia?aeiee
oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??. Oaea a 1907 ?. I.Ii?o aeaea? i?aoeth
“I?i aaoiiii?th Oe?a?ie”, a ye?e c’yniao? i?e/eie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iiiaaieaiiy, na?aae yeeo aeae?ey? iiae?e noni?euenoaa ia eeane e eeania?
i?ioe??//y. Uia iaiaaeeoe aeaaeo ao?aeoac??, yea caoe?eaaeaia a
?nioaaii? oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae, aaoi? caeeeea? iiiaaieai? ia?iaee,
? iniaeeai oe?a?inueeee, onoaiiaeoe aaoiiiiiee eaae, aenooiath/e
i?eoeeueieeii iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii??.

Aacoiiaiei e?aea?ii a ?ic?iaoe? oeueiai ieoaiiy aoa E.TH?eaae/
(?eaaeea), yeee a oeae ia??iae noa? iaeiei c i?ia?aeieo ?aeaieia?a
oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a. Iei, ii noo?, aoea ?ic?iaeaia oe?ea
oai??y, a ye?e iaa?oioiaoaaeiny iieiaeaiiy i?i ii?aeiaiiy ?aea? eeaniai?
i?n?? oe?a?inueeiai i?ieaoa??aoo c ?aea?th eiai e?aea?noaa o
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on?. Aeey oeueiai nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe iiaeii?
caeiyoeny iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iith ae?yeuei?noth, ni?eyth/e
oi?ioaaiith o ?ia?oieoeoaa iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?. Oea aoei
iacae/iei ye aeey a?eueoino? oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a, a
na?aaeiaeu? yeeo ia?aaaaeaa eeaniaee, ?aaiethoe?eiee i?aeo?ae aei
ae??oaiiy noni?eueieo i?iaeai, oae ? anooiaei a i?ioe??//y c
iaoe?iiaeueiith i?ia?aiith oe?a?inueeeo iinooiiaoe?a, a ye?e noaaeeanue
iaoa ia’?aeiaoe an? aa?noae ianaeaiiy caaeey iaoe?iiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy.
Oeth i?ia?aio TH?eaae/ aaaaeaa iai?eeiyoiith ia o?eueee /a?ac ??
aiie?oe/i?noue, oaiaeieoeoai uiaei ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo, a e /a?ac oa, ui
aiia ia a?aoiaoaaea ?ioa?ane ?ia?oie/iai eeano. Iaaiaee, aeiaiaeea
TH?eaae/, oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? (ca
aeeeth/aiiyi n?euenueei?) naia ? iin??i /oaei? eoeueoo?e, ? ianeaiei
aeaiaioii iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, a oiio ia iiaea eiai i/ieeoe.

Iiaeyaee E.TH?eaae/a iaee ?aoe?iiaeueia ca?ii, aea ?o aaniethoecaoe?y
i?ecaiaeeea aei i?ioenoaaeaiiy ?ioei oa/?yi aecaieueiiai ?ooo,
?icaeaath/e oa iineaaethth/e eiai. Oaeee ?aeaieia?/iee aaioeaio?eci
caoeiaeaeaa, ia?aaeon?i, nai?e oe?a?inuee?e nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??.

E??i oe?a?inueeeo e?aa?ae?a, TH?eaae/ a?a aeeneon?th c iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ieoaiiy ? c a?eueoiaeeaie, ye? a inia? A.Eai?ia i?iaieineee eicoia i?aaa
iaoe?e ia naiiaecia/aiiy aae aei ooai?aiiy naiino?eieo aea?aeaa.
TH?eaae/ iieaco? anth iaeoaei?noue oeueiai eicoiao, oiio ui ia oie /an
i? iaeia c iiiaaieaieo iaoe?e ia noaaeea ieoaiiy i?i a?aeie?aieaiiy,
iaaiaee, aeooaeueiei aoa eicoia aaoiiii??, ui ia?aaeaa/aa naiiaecia/aiiy
ia?iae?a a iaaeao ?aeeii? aea?aeaae, ui aeeeeeaei iio?aao noai?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ia?oie/eo ia?o?e. A naia oeueiai e iaiaaaeenue ia
aeiionoeoe a?eueoiaeee, i?aei?iath/e “naiino?eieoeueeee i?aii?”.
Caoai?noue oeueiai eicoiao aeey TH?eaae/a iieyaaea ua e a oiio, ui a
Oe?a?i? i?ia?aio “iie?oe/iiai naia?aoecio” ?ic?iaeyee “oia?i?noe e
?aaeoe?iia?e”, a oiio a?eueoiaeee iiina?aaeeiaaii noaaaee ia noi?iio
oeeo nee.

Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie oeueiai ia??iaeo caeiathoue
iiaeyaee Ae.Aeiioeiaa, yeee nii/aoeo aoa aeoeaiii ae?y/ai oe?a?inueei?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??, a a 1913 ?. aeeoia c ?? eaa, ui noaei iane?aeeii
ci?ie eiai iiaeyae?a.

?o aaiethoe?y i?ieoea a?ae caoiieaiiy ?aaiethoe?eieie, nioe?ae?noe/ieie
?aeayie, a?ae e?eoeee iaoe?iiae?cio aei ae?iaeaiiy i?ia?aie “iie?oe/iiai
naia?aoecio”. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?ii-?in?enueeeo aca?iei, aea/aiiy
oai??a cao?aeieo eeanee?a nioe?ae?cio aaciina?aaeiuei, a ia c
?in?enueeeo ioae?eaoe?e, aiae?c iiaeyae?a ?in?enueeeo e?aa?ae?a
ia?aeiiaei Aeiioeiaa a oe?aeeeaino? aieea?a ?in?enueei? eoeueoo?e ia
Oe?a?io caaaeii, ? a iie?oe/i?e noa?? cie?aia, ia aacia?niaeoeaiino?
ni?a?nioaaiiy Oe?a?ie ? ?in?? a iaei?e aea?aeaa?. Ca?aene eiai aeniiaie
i?i i???ioaoe?th ia Cao?ae, ia cao?aeio eoeueoo?o, i?i ?ic?ea c ?in??th.
Aea ona?aeiiethth/e neeaaei?noue iaaoooy iacaeaaeiino?, Aeiioeia
i?iiiio? naith i?ia?aio a?ae??aaiiy a?ae ?in?? c iaeii/aniei
aoiaeaeaiiyi ia i?aaao oe?iei? aaoiiii?? aei Aano?i-Oai?ueie, a aaea
iio?i aeiiaaaoeny iie?oe/ii? iacaeaaeiino?. Iiaeyaee Aeiioeiaa aeeeeeaee
iaiaeiicia/io ?aaeoe?th, noaee ia’?eoii e?eoeee, ui, na?aae ?ioiai,
na?ae/eei i?i ?o ?aaeueiee a?oio.

I?ia?aeieee iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? oa/?? aecaieueiiai ?ooo
a cacia/aiee ia??iae, noai?eaoe aacia?o?eio i?aai?caoe?th OOI, ia?aeoee
ciiao a iniiaiiio aei eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?. Oe?a?inueea
i?ana, “I?ina?oe”, iaoeia? oiaa?enoaa, aeaeaaieoeoaa, oe?a?inuee?
/aniiene ca ei?aeiiii, ??ciiai ?iaeo c’?caee, eiiia?aoeaiee ?oo, ui
ae?yee i?ae aa?aeith OOIo, ni?eyee iioe?aiith iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino?, ia aeicaieyee caaniooe aecaieueiiio ?ooia?. Ae?y/? OOI,
ni?ai?aoethth/e c ?in?enueeeie eaaeaoaie, i?iaeiaaeoaaee ai?ioenue ca
oe?a?inueeo iiao, a oiio /ene? c aeoinueei? o?eaoie, a cia/eoue cayaeyee
i?i ?nioaaiiy Oe?a?ie c ?? iaoe?iiaeueieie ?ioa?anaie. Iaaeie?eii ?o
?iaioe caeeoaeanue neaaea nioe?aeueia i?ia?aia. Iie?oe/i? aeiiae OOI
ciiao /?oei cacao/aee iaia?aaeiaei? iiae?e 1917 ?.

A ?iee ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie ?aeay naiino?eiino? Oe?a?ie iaaoaa?
oe?ieiai iioe?aiiy a ca’yceo c ae?yeuei?noth NAO. Oey i?aai?caoe?y
i?iiaaoaaea oeth ?aeath ye a nai?e Oe?a?i?, oae ? a aaaaoueio
?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao, aea aiia ciaoiaeeea iaaio i?aeo?eieo. Iaeiae,
niiae?aaiiy ia i?aeoe/io aeiiiiiao a ?? ?aae?caoe?? c aieo I?ia//eie oa
Aano?i-Oai?ueie aeyaeeeny ia?ieie. Iaea?eueoiai oni?oo a i?iiaaaiae?
nai?o ?aeae NAO aeinyaea a oaai?ao aeey oe?a?inueeeo
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo.

A ?icae?e? aeiaiaeeoueny oaca, ui oai?aoe/iee ??aaiue ?ic?iaee ?aea?
aea?aeaaiino? i?ia?ae-ieeaie iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e a cacia/aiee ia??iae
cia/ii c??n, aoee cai?iiiiiaai? iia? i?aeoiaee e eiioeaioe?? uiaei ??
ao?eaiiy, aea ia’?aeiaa/ei /eiieeii aecaieueiiai ?ooo aiia ia noaea.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “Ieoaiiy aea?aeaaiiai eaaeo a Oe?a?i? a
eiinoeoooe?eieo i?iaeoao ii/aoeo OO no.” aiae?cothoueny aeieoiaioe, a
yeeo ?aeay aea?aeaaiino? iaaoea iaaiiai iie?oe/iiai, th?eaee/iiai
ioi?ieaiiy. Oae? aeieoiaioe ae?iaeee iinooiiaa ? naiino?eieoeueea oa/??
aecaieueiiai ?ooo.

Eiinoeoooeieiee i?iaeo Ieoaeea A?ooaanueeiai iicoea caaaeueio
noaio iieioe/iiai ia?aono?ith ?ini?. Ca oei?th noaiith, iiney
anoaiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooeieiiai eaaeo a ?ini? e?a?ia iaea ia?aaoaeoaaoeny
ia oaaea?aoeaiie iniiai. Anii ia?iaeai iaaeaaaeiny i?aai anoaiiaeoe
iaoeiiiaeueii-oa?eoi?iaeueio aaoiiiiith. Oi?aaeyoe aaoiiiii?th iaa
naei, ia?aiee caaaeueiei, ?iaiei i oa?iiei aieinoaaiiyi. Ia iinoeyo
iae?aeeny aiaeiiaiaeii i?aaie naiioi?aaeiiiy. Naei i iinoeaai i?aaie
aeinoaaaee oe?iei iiaiiaaaeaiiy a iinoeaaiio caeiiiaeaanoai,
?icii?yaeaeaiii oiiainaie i iaeaniei caiaeueiei oiiaeii, a i?aaiicaoei?
inaioe, aeooiaieo ni?aaao oiui. Oeaio?aeueiei (oaaea?aoeaiei) i?aaiai
caeeoaeiny i?aai ii?ioaaiiy caaaeueieo canaae aea?aeaaiiai i
noniieueiiai eaaeo, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy eiooaie, iaiaoiaeieie aeey
oo?eiaiiy i?aaiia oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeiiiy. Ia?aaeaa/aeany
aeaoeaio?aeicaoeiy oea?eae i i?ioiaeaeaiiy aienueeiai? neoaeae ia
aeaniie aoii/iie oa?eoi?i?.

Eiinoeoooeieiee i?iaeo OII nooo?ai aiae?iciyany aiae ?ic?iaie
I.A?ooaanueeiai ia oieueee oei, ui ia?aaeaa/aa ooai?aiiy naiinoieii?
aea?aeaae c /ioeei iiaeieii aeaaee ia caeiiiaeaa/o, aeeiiaa/o,
noaeiao, a e oei, ui i?iiiioaaa onoaiiaeoe a Oe?a?ii i?aceaeaionueeo
?anioaeieo. A?ooaanueeee nai? i?iiiceoei? aeeeaaeaa o aeo?iaeueieo
noaooyo, OII ?ic?iaeea th?eaee/iee aeieoiaio ci nai?th no?oeoo?ith
oa eiaieith. Caaaeii iiyaa eiinoeoooeieieo i?iaeoia, oi/ i
?iciiieaiiaeo, iiceoeaii aieeaaea ia oi?ioaaiiy iieioe/ii? naiaeiiinoi
oe?a?inueeiai noniieuenoaa.

AENIIAEE

Oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? oe?a?inueeeie iie?oe/ieie
ia?o?yie ii/aoeo OO no. noaee oei i?aea?oioyi ia yeiio aacoaaeiny ??
ao?eaiiy a aeeooy a ia??iae Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??., ia
iniia? yeiai ?icaeaaany iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo 20-80-o ??., ?,
ia?aoo?, aoei i?iaieioaii Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao a 1991 ?.

Noai?aiiy oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e iciaiaioaaei ia?ao?ae aei aeui? iie?oe/ii?
noaae?? aecaieueiiai ?ooo, iaeiei ?c caaaeaiue yei? aoei ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie. I?ioean i?aai?caoe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy
ia?o?e a?aeaoaaany ia?aeaeueii c oi?ioaaiiyi ?o ?aeaieia?/ieo canaae,
i?e/iio inoaii? ia??aeei aoee i?e/eiith ia’?aeiaiiy /e iaaiaee
ae?iaeaiiy ia?o?e.

Oe?a?inuee? ia?o?? i?aaenoaaeyee o?e iniiai? iai?yie
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo: e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee,
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iee, naiino?eieoeueeee. Eiina?aaoeaiee iai?yiie
i?aaenoaaeaiee ia aoa. Aieea ia?o?e a iniiaiiio iioe?thaaany ia
oeaio?aeuei? e cao?aei? aoaa?i?? Oe?a?ie, ?iaioa i?iaiaeeeanue na?aae
naeyinoaa, oe?a?inueeiai ?ia?oieoeoaa e iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiii?
?ioae?aaioe??. *enaeuei?nue ?o aoea iaaaeeeith: a?ae e?eueeio nioaiue
/eai?a aei e?eueeio oeny/. Ae?yeuei?noue ia?o?e aoea iicia/aia ye
i?aeia?o?eieie i?ioe??//yie, oae ? aioo??oiueiia?o?eieie /aa?aie.

Neeaaei?noue caaaeueiiiie?oe/iiai aeeooy a ?in?enuee?e aea?aeaa?,
o?oaeiiu? ia?o?eiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia iiaee ia iicia/eoenue nooiai?
?ic?iaee ?aea? aea?aeaaiino? eiaeiith c ia?o?e. A aeine?aeaeoaaiee
ia??iae on? ia?o?? ?acii ?ic?iaeee aeineoue oe?iea eiei ieoaiue uiaei
?aea? aea?aeaaiino?. Aea i?ia?aeio ?ieue ooo a?ae?a?aaaee ia?o??
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy. ?ic?iaee i?aaenoaaiee?a oeeo
ia?o?e aacoaaeeny ia caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoyo, iaeaooi?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ?icaeyaeaeiny ieie a eiioaeno?
caaaeueiiethaenueeiai iinooio, aac caaino?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaeoi?o.
Aiie aoee i?ea?/ieeaie aaiethoe?eiiai oeyoo ?ica’ycaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ieoaiiy. Ca?aene eia?/ii aeieeaaea ?o iniiaia iie?oe/ia iaoa —
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? ?
ia?aoai?aiiy ?in?? o oaaea?aoeaio ?anioae?eo c eiinoeoooe?eiei eaaeii.
Ia oeueiio ?o iie?oe/ia i?ia?aia caaa?ooaaeanue, aea?aeaaia
naiino?ei?noue, iaa?oue ye ia?niaeoeaa, ieie ia ?icaeyaeaeanue. Neaaeei
i?noeai o i?ia?ai? e?aa?ae?a aoa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee aeie, ye
aeiiii?/ia i?aea?oioy iaoe?iiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy. A caaaeii,
ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo iinooiiaoe?a a oeae ia??iae noaea
nai???aeiith i?aeaioiaeith aei iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaiethoe??, ? an? ?o oeae
? aeinyaiaiiy, aaaaoi a /iio, ? aecia/eee aeieth oe??? ?aaiethoe??.

Cia/ia ?ieue a ?ic?iaoe? aea?aeaaieoeueei? ?aea? iaeaaeeoue oe?a?inueeei
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoai, yeo aiie ?ic?iaeyee c? nioe?aeueii-eeaniaeo
iiceoe?e, aeoiaey/e c ?ioa?an?a, a ia?oo /a?ao, ?ia?oieoeoaa. Aea
nioe?aeueii? i?ia?aie a ?? iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa??aio? aiie oae ? ia
ae?iaeee.

Iie?oe/ia i?ia?aia nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a oaae a?aecia/aeany
iacaaa?oai?noth. Ii/aoeiaee aoai ?o ae?yeueiino? caniiaoaaany ia
i?ia?aiiiio aeieoiaio?: “Naiino?eia Oe?a?ia”. Caiaeii a?aeaoaa?oueny
iiaia a?aeoiaeaeaiiy: aaoiiii?y Oe?a?ie o oaaea?aoeai?e ?in??. Oaca i?i
naiino?ei?noue Oe?a?ie ia?aoiaeeoue a ?ic?yae iie?oe/iiai ?aeaaeo, aac
aeaoae?caoe?? eiai aeinyaiaiiy. Aeey oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a
iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy, a naia — oi?ia iaeaooiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith
Oe?a?ie oa i?iaeaia naiino?eiino? ia?o?eii? i?aai?caoe?? (ye aa??aio
ceoea c ?NAe?I) noaea i?e/eiith ?iceieo, ui cia/ii ia?aoeiaeeei
iioe?aiith ?o ?aeae, aieeao, ?icaeoeo.

Oaeei /eiii, oe?a?inuee? e?aa?aee ? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe iaee ni?eueio
iaoo — e?ea?aeaoe?y naiiaea?aeaanoaa ? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino?
Oe?a?ie o oi?i? iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? o neeaae?
oaaea?aoeaii? ?in??. Caaeey aeinyaiaiiy ia?oiai aiie ua aeiioneaee
ni?euei?noue ae?e, uiaei ae?oaiai a?aeeeaeaee aoaeue-ye? oi?ie
ni?ai?aoe?. Oea oiaiiaeeeaethaaei noai?aiiy ?aeeiiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai o?iioo, caoaii aieeaaei ia aanue oe?a?inueeeo
?oo.

In?aia i?noea a oeueiio ?on? caeiaea e naiino?eieoeueea oa/?y, oi/ ??
i?aaenoaaieee, ii noo?, ia?oeie ia ?aeaeiiio ??ai? ii?ooeee ieoaiiy
aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie, i?e/iio o oi?i? naiino?eii?, iacaeaaeii?
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Oey ?aeay aoea aeey ieo aecia/aeueiith ia
i?ioyc? anueiai aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo. Aea aiie ia caeiaee
iiaaaeiiai i?noey o aecaieueiiio ?on?, ?o i?aai?caoe?? aoee
ia/enaeueieie ? iaaieeaiaeie, ye /a?ac iani?eeiyooy iniiaii? aeiiae
naiino?eiee?a, iaoiae?a ?? aeinyaiaiiy, oae ? /a?ac aeni?aneai?noue
iiaaae?iee e?aea??a oe??? oa/??.

Oa iii?e ana, caneoaith naiino?eieoeueeiai ?ooo aoea noaa?e?caoe?y ?aea?
naiino?eii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, ?aae?caoe?y yei? ? noaea aieiaiith
iaoith oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? a OO no.

Oaeei /eiii, caaaeyee oe?a?inueeei iie?oe/iei ia?o?yi ii/aoeo OO no.
i?iaeaia aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie aoea aeaaaeaia ia ?aeaieia?/iee ??aaiue,
ia ??aaiue i?aeoe/ii? iie?oeee, aiia noaea noa?aeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ieoaiiy a Oe?a?i?.

IA?AE?E IAOEIAEO Ae?OEIAAIEO I?AOeUe:

Oeoei I.A. Aaiethoeiy iiaeyaeia oe?a?inueeeo nioeiae-aeaiie?aoia ia
i?iaeaio aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie ia ii/. OO no. // Caienee inoi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo. — Aei.5. — Iaeana, 1997. — N.104-110.

Oeoei I.A. ?ic?iaea iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie ia?oiyie
eiaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/-iiai ni?yioaaiiy (1903-1905 ??.) // Ainiee
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue. — Aei.1. — Iaeana: AOCO I?AIOO,
1997. — N.284-292.

Oeoei I.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i ?ic?iaeo iaea? aea?aeaaiinoi Oe?a?ie
naiinoieieeaie. 1900-1905 ??. // Ainiee Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo
aioo?ioiio ni?aa. — 1998. — ? 2. — N.121-125.

Oeoei I.A. ?aeay aea?aeaaiino? a i?ia?aiieo oa oai?aoe/ieo aeieoiaioao
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa i?aai?caoe?e: 1900 ?. — aa?acaiue 1917
?ieo. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie — Iaeanueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Iaeana, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeai? noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
?aea? aea?aeaaiino? a i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaioao oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e ii/.OO no., ui ni?eyei ?aae?caoe?? aieiaii? iaoe iaoe?? —
noai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaae. A ?iaio? iieacaii, ui ?aeay aea?aeaaiino?
?ic?iaeyeany o aeaio aa??aioao — naiino?eii? aea?aeaae ? aaoiiii??
Oe?a?ie o oaaea?aoeai?e ?in??, i?iaiae?ciaaii nooi?iue ?ic?iaee oe???
?aea? eiaeiith c ia?o?e, c’yniaaii i?e/eie oiai, /iio ca oiiae ??
?ic?iaee an?ia ia?o?yie, aiia ia noaea ia’?aeiaa/ei /eiieeii
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo.

Oeoei A.A. Eaeay ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a i?ia?aiiuo e oai?aoe/aneeo
aeieoiaioao oe?aeineeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e i?aaiecaoeee: 1900 a. —
ia?o 1917 aiaea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — enoi?ey Oe?aeiu — Iaeanneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Iaeanna, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey eaeae
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a i?ia?aiiuo aeieoiaioao oe?aeineeo iieeoe/aneeo
ia?oee ia/.OO a., /oi niinianoaiaaei ?aaeecaoeee aeaaiie oeaee iaoeee —
nicaeaiey nianoaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa. A ?aaioa iieacaii, /oi eaeay
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe ?ac?aaaouaaeanue a aeaoo aa?eaioao —
naiinoiyoaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa e aaoiiiiee Oe?aeiu o oaaea?aoeaiie
?innee, i?iaiaeece?iaaii noaiaiue ?ac?aaioee yoie eaeae eaaeaeie ec
ia?oee, auyniaiu i?e/eiu oiai, ii/aio i?e oneiaee aa ?ac?aaioee anaie
ia?oeyie, iia ia noaea iauaaeeieoaeueiui oaeoi?ii
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey.

O.G.Shishko. The Ukraine National Idea in Program and Theoretical
Documents of Ukrainian Politikal Parties and Organization: 1900 — March
1917. — Manuscript

Master’s thesis on History Specialiti 07.00.01 — History of the Ukraine.
— The Mechnikov State University, Odessa, 1998.

The thesis is dedicated to the problem of the formation and development
of the Ukraine national idea in the program dokuments of the Ukrainian
political parties at the beginning of the 20-th centure. These dokuments
contributed to the realization of the main aim of the nation which was
the creation of the Ukrainian sovereign state. This work shows that the
Ukrainian national idea had two variants: one of them — the sovereign
Ukrainian State and the second one — the Ukrainian’s autonomy within the
Russian Federation. The level of working out of this idea by each party
was analized in this work. Though all parties had great attention to the
development of the Ukrainian national dea it hadn’t become an unifying
factor of national liberating movement. The work discovers all the
reasons of this fact.

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