2

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee

Eooia?oe A?eoi??y Aiaoie??aia

OAeE 882

OOAeIAEIss I?ICA I.?. NAIEIANUeEIAI

10.01.02 — ?in?enueea e?oa?aoo?a

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Ae?na?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oi?aa?neoao? aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie (i. Oa?e?a)

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio *i?iee ?ai?
A?oae?eiae/, Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oieo ni?aa, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
oe?a?iiciaanoaa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? O??ciai Eaii?ae
Aai??oiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
A.N. Neiai?iaee, ca?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e.

Eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aenioeeee Aiae??e Aiaoie?eiae/,
Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.E.E?oinueei?,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee Oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, Aeiiaoeuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «18» ethoiai 1999 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.053.03. Oa?e?anueeiai
oi?aa?eoaoo A.N. Neiai?iaee (Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2 (cae can?aeaiue).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?a?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaiae/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? A.N. Neiai?iaee (Oa?e?a,
aoe. Aethoa?a,2)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 30 » a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.A. Ieaenaiei.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I.?.Naieianueeee – iaeia c oeaio?aeueieo o?ao?
e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano a ?in?? ia?oi? iieiaeie O?O noie?ooy. I?ioa,
aiai?y/e i?i iueiai, ia?aaaaeii caaaeothoue eiai ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/o
oa e?oa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/io ae?yeuei?noue, a oaeiae /eiaei iaoeiaeo ?ia?o c
i???ioae?noeee. ? i?e oeueiio iaeaea aeioneathoue c oaaae oo ianoaaeio,
ui, e??i iacaaieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino?, Naieianueeee caeiaany e /enoi
e?oa?aoo?iith oai?/?noth, iaienaa aaeeeo e?euee?noue ??ciiiai?oieo ca
aeai?ii ? oaiaoeeith oaeeaoii?a, iia?noae, a oaeiae aeae?eueea ?iiai?a.

Oe? oai?e naiai /ano iaee ao/iee, iaaecae/aeiee oni?o ? ei?enooaaeeny
aaeeeith iiioey?i?noth. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeueiai ciaoiaeeii o a?aeiiiio
ae?aeic? Oeanoaeiaa c Aiiith Aiae???aiith o aiaie?anueeiio “?aa?ci??”,
aea eaea iiaa i?i ana iaienaia “i?ae ?iaiai aa?iia A?aiaaona”. I?ae
oaeei e?oa?aoo?iei inaaaeii?iii i?eoiaoaaany Inei ?aaiiae/ Naieianueeee.

Oai?e Naieianueeiai-A?aiaaona cia/iith i??ith aieeioee ia ?icaeoie
no/anii? eiio, a oaeiae iiaeaeueoi? ?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e. A?i noiya
a?ey aeaea?ae oaioanoe/iiai aeai?o a ?in?enuee?e neiaaniino?. Eiai
“Oaioanoe/aneea iooaoanoaey aa?iia A?aiaaona” noaee iaeiei c
iaeyne?aa?oeo c?ace?a oeueiai aeai?o a ?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo?? ia?oi?
iieiaeie O?O noie?ooy. Aiie a?aecia/athoueny ni?eea?noth iaoeiaeo
a?iioac, i?ea?iaeuei?noth o?aeooaaiiy aeayeeo iieiaeaiue no/anii?
I.?.Naieianueeiio iaoee, nai???aeiith iaia?ith aeeeaaeaiiy e iiaoaeiae.
Ia aeaeue, oaioanoe/io i?ico ienueiaiieea ia aoei iaeaaeiei /eiii
ioe?iaii e?eoeeith oa e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaii. Oea ii/anoe iiynith?oueny
oei, ui aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano oaioanoeea ye aeai? e?oa?aoo?e aaaaeaeany
“iana?eiciith ni?aaith”, yea ia caneoaiao? ia niaoe?aeueio oaaao c aieo
aeine?aeiee?a.

O ii?ae?noe/i?e i?ic? I.?.Naieianueeee oi?ea?oueny i?iaeai, ui
oaeethaaee ?in?enueea noni?euenoai 1830-1840-o ?ie?a. Oea, ianaiia?aae,
oaia aeuiai na?oo, yeee ?icaauoaaa ? i?aa/ea iniaeno?noue. C iniaeeaith
neeith oey oaia cao/eoue o oai?ao, ui ?iciia?aeathoue i?i aeieth ae?iee
a na?onueeiio noni?euenoa? (“Eaeaaeueiay e?anaaeoea”, “Ethaiaue e
nia?oue”, “Any aeaineay aeeciue a ianeieueeeo /anao”). E??i oiai,
Naieianueeiai oe?eaaeoue ? /eiiaieoeueeee na?o ?c eiai i?aaiaiiyi ca
aoaeue-yeo oe?io c?iaeoe ea?’??o e aeinyaiooe aaaaonoaa. ?yae iia?noae ?
oaeeaoii?a ienueiaiieea ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi eiai e?oa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino?. A ieo iieno?oueny noai no/anii? e?eoe/ii? neiaaniino?,
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy e?oa?aoi??a. Ii/anoe a i?ic? I.?.Naieianueeiai
a?aeia?aaeaeenue ? eiai caiyooy i???ioae?noeeith. Aeaye? c eiai oai??a
aacothoueny ia nthaeaoao, acyoeo c? no?aeieo e?oa?aoo?. Oea /e
iai?aia?aeeaaee – iai?aia?a?iaee a?aanueeeo i?naiue ? eaaaiae, /e
i?ea?iaeuei? oai?e c? no?aeiith oaiaoeeith.

Oeae aaeeeee ieano oai?/i? niaaeueie I.?.Naieianueeiai ia i?eaa?oaa
oaaae e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a. ?niothoue eeoa ie?ai? e?eoe/i? noaoo?,
i?enay/ai? aeayeei eiai aaeao?enoe/iei oai?ai, /e ?iaioe caaaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, ye? oi?eathoueny oeo /e ?ioeo i?iaeai ?icaeoeo ?in?enueei?
e?oa?aoo?e, aea na?aae aaaaoueio ?iai oa oai??a caaaeothoueny ?i’y oa
oai?e I.?.Naieianueeiai.

Ona, ui aoei iaienaii i?i I.?.Naieianueeiai ye ca aeeooy, oae ? iae?aco
i?ney nia?o?, iaeaaeaei ia?o ethaeae, ye? ia?aaaaeii ea?oaaeeny a
ioe?ioe? noaooyie eiai ai?ia?a aai i?inoi ie?oeaie. I?ioyaii
/ioe?iaaeoeyoe ?ie?a Naieianueeee ea?oaaa “Aeaeeioaeie aeey /oaiey”,
i?ioyaii o?eaeoeyoe – aoa o oeaio?? e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy ?in??. ??aeei
yeee iiia? ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue 30-40-o ?ie?a ia caaaeoaaa eiai ?iai?,
ia ae?oeoaaa noaoae, ?aoeaic?e, aiaeaeio?a i?i iueiai. Aea iaeaea an?
oe? noaoo? iaee a?aeaa?oi iaaaoeaiee oa?aeoa?. Eeoa aeaye? e?eoeee
(O.Aoeaa??i, I.Iiaiae?i, I.Iaae?aeae?i, I.Iie?aie, I.Iaaeeuaa,
A.A?e?inueeee) iioe?ioaaee iaeaaeii eiai cae?aiino? ye i?aai?caoi?a
aeo?iaeueii? ni?aae, a/aiiai-i???ioae?noa, naoe?eea.

O e?ioe? 50-o – ia ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a O?O noie?ooy ?i’y ienueiaiieea
aoei caaooi. Aeayeee nieane ?ioa?ano niinoa??aaany c?aco ae i?ney nia?o?
I.?.Naieianueeiai, o 1858 ?ioe?. Ioae?eothoueny /eneaii? niiaaaee
(I.Aoiaoiai?, A.Naieianueei?, I.Ae?oaeei?ia, I.Ieeeoaiea,
I.Noa?/aanueeiai) i?i aeeooy ? oai?/?noue eaaaiaea?iiai A?aiaaona. I?ney
aeoiaeo “Nia?aiey ni/eiaiee” I.?.Naieianueeiai o 1858-1859 ?ieao
c’yaeythoueny e?eoe/i? noaoo? (I.A?eai?’?aa, N.Aeoaeeoe?ia, I.Eiia?iiaa,
?.Ei?noinueeiai, ?.Nieiaeiaa) ye i?i aeo?iae?noeeo, oae ? i?i
e?oa?aoo?io ae?yeuei?noue ienueiaiieea. ?o aaoi?e oi/a e aaaaeaee
oai?/?noue A?aiaaona caeaiith a a?o?a, ana ae c?iaeee ni?iao aea/eoe
iniaeeaino? eiai aeo?iaeueiiai noeeth, iaoia?aaeaeaii iinoaaeoeny aei
eiai oai?/ino?.

O OO noie?oo? na?aae ia?oeo ? iaeaaoi?eoaoi?oeo aeine?aeiee?a oai?/ino?
I.?.Naieianueeiai ne?ae iacaaoe A.I.Eaaa??ia. O 1929 ?ioe? aeoiaeeoue
eiai eieaa “I.E.Naieianeee (aa?ii A?aiaaon): aeeciue e aeayoaeueiinoue”.
O i?e aoei cae?eniaii ni?iao ci?ieoe oia?aaeaeaia noaaeaiiy aei
iniaenoino? Naieianueeiai. Aeine?aeaeaiiy Eaaa??ia iiaea aaaaeaoeny
c?aceiaei o aaaaoueio a?aeiioaiiyo. I?ae?anii iaienaia, aiii ii?aeio?
aeinoi?inoaa e?oa?aoo?ii? a?ia?ao?? e caaaa/aiiai oaeoaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith Eaaa??ia aoei oi/a a ii/anoe ?aaa?e?ooaaoe naiai
aa?iy c noni?eueiiai aieo, a?aeiiaeoe ni?aaaei? oyaeaiiy i?i
Naieianueeiai ye aeoii/aiiai e?eoeea oa ana?noa. O nai?e ?iaio? Eaaa??i
?icaeyaea? o?e a?oe a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aa?iia A?aiaaona – iie?aeioa e
i???ioae?noa, aeeieiiaoa e aeo?iae?noa. E?oa?aoo?io oai?/?noue
aeine?aeiee i?aeoe/ii ia ?icaeyaea?.

O iiaeaeueoiio niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oai?/ino? I.?.Naieianueeiai
ia c’yaey?oueny. Aeaye? e?iee a oeueiio iai?yieo ?iaeyoue o 60-o ?ieao
OO noie?ooy, i?ney ia?aaeaeaiiy a 1966 ?ioe? eieae A.Eaaa??ia. I?i
Naieianueeiai caaaeothoue o nai?o ?iaioao A.Iaeeao, A.Aaoeo?i,
A.Ii?icia, A.Aeaoethe, E.A?icao?a. Aea o an?o e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo ?iaioao
aaoi?e caeeoaeeny a iaaeao o?aaeeoe?eiiai oeoia/aiiy I.?.Naieianueeiai
ye iae?icii? o?ao?e, yea aoiaeeea ii?o/ ?c O.Aoeaa??iei oa I.A?a/ai aei
oae caaiiai “aeo?iaeueiiai o?eoia??aoo”.

C 80-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy ia?aaeaeathoueny aeaye? oai?e
I.?.Naieianueeiai. Oe?eaa? caoaaaeaiiy e niinoa?aaeaiiy iiaeia ciaeoe o
ia?aaeiiaao A.I.A??o?ia, A.?.Ei?ia?ia, I.?.Iiaeeiaa, TH.I.Iaaeaaae?aa,
A.A.Ia?eiae/a, A.?.Naoa?iaa. Ooo aoee ni?iae ii-iiaiio iiaeyiooe ia
oai?/?noue I.?.Naieianueeiai, iiaeieaoe noa?aioeie e oia?aaeaeai?
oi?ioethaaiiy, ye? caeaa?eueoiai caoaiithaaee oyaeaiiy i?i ienueiaiieea.

Oaeei /eiii, i/aaeaeii, ui e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai iaaeinoaoiuei aea/eei
oai?/o niaaeueio I.?.Naieianueeiai. Aaea aeaaii c’yaeeany iaiao?aei?noue
iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea,
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iiai cia/aiiy eiai iia?noae, ?o
ooaeiaeiuei? no?oeoo?e oa aeai?iai? nai???aeiino?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeinue o iaaeao ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaoaae?e
oe?a?iiciaanoaa Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie, yeee aeeth/a?
oaio “Iania? oa iiioey?i? oi?ie eoeueoo?e”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ni?iaa aeaoe
ia?oo oe?e?nio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice I.?.Naieianueeiai.
??oaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a? ?ica’ycaiiy ianooiieo caaea/:

1. Aeaoe oeiieia?th ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice I.?.Naieianueeiai;

2. ?icaeyiooe ?aeaeii-oaiaoe/iee ci?no, iniaeeaino? ia?acii? nenoaie,
aeai?iai? i?e?iaee, a?o?oaeoii?ee iaeiieacia?oeo oai??a ienueiaiieea;

3. Aecia/eoe ?ieue inaaaeii?io “Aa?ii A?aiaaon” o noaiiaeaii?
aaoi?nueei? iaia?e iiia?aeaiiy;

4. Anoaiiaeoe i?noea oaioanoe/ii? i?ice Naieianueeiai o ?icaeoeo
oaioanoe/iiai aeai?o o e?oa?aoo?? ia?oi? iieiaeie O?O noie?ooy;

5. I?ine?aeeoaaoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ooaeiaeiueiai ? ioae?oeenoe/iiai
aeaiaio?a o naoe?e/i?e i?ic? Naieianueeiai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa
i?aeaeaii e?oa?aoo?iciaa/iio aiae?co aaeao?enoe/io /anoeio niaaeueie
I.?.Naieianueeiai. Cae?eniaii ni?iao eeaneo?eoaaoe i?ico ienueiaiieea.
Ona?aeiieth?oueny e nooo?ai ooi/ith?oueny i?noea aaeao?enoeee
Naieianueeiai a eiai oai?/?e niaaeuei?, ?? ?ieue o ?icaeoeo ?in?enueei?
oaioanoe/ii? i?ice e naoe?e/ii? iia?no?. Aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaaaeaii
iia? a?o?ai? iaoa??aee, ye? aeicaieythoue ooi/ieoe aeaye? ianoaaeie
aeeooy oa oai?/ino? I.?.Naieianueeiai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeeeaaea/aie aeui? oeiee i?e /eoaii? eo?n?a
?noi??? ?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e oa aeo?iae?noeee O?O noie?ooy, ?noi???
ca?oa?aeii? e a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e, a oaeiae a ?ic?iaoe? niaoeeo?n?a oa
niaoenai?ia??a, i?enay/aieo ?in?enuee?e oaioanoeoe?. Ia i?aenoaa?
iaoa??ae?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii aeiouaii a?ioo?o, yea
aeei?enoiao?oueny ia eaeoe?yo oa nai?ia?nueeeo caiyooyo eo?no
“Oe?a?inueea oa ca?oa?aeia eoeueoo?a”, ui /eoaany o 1995-1998 ?ieao
eo?naioai Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Ie?ai? o?aaiaioe ?iaioe
caneooiaoaaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
oe?a?iiciaanoaa Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa o 1994-1998 ?ieao. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o aenooiao ia Ae?oaeo /eoaiiyo
iieiaeeo a/aieo iai’yo? E.ss.E?aoeoea (OAeIO ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee, 1997),
ia eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo o/aieo Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa (Oa?e?a,
1996).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii a
iaei?e a?ioo?? oa i’yoe noaooyo o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue (caaaeueiee
ianya 3.1 ae?.a.).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (201 iaeiaioaaiiy).
Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 168 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aecia/aii iaoo ? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie
i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie, iaoeiao iiaecio iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.
C’yniaaii noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Oaioanoe/ia i?ica I.?.Naieianueeiai” i?enay/aii
?icaeyaeo c?ace?a oaioanoe/iiai aeai?o a oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea. Ia
noaiiaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea o oe?eiio ? cie?aia ia
eiai oaioanoeeo aieeioei “Oiaa?enoai ooa?aaoe?a”, /eaiii yeiai c 1818
aei 1822 ?ieo aoa Naieianueeee. Noa?ith ae?? ooa?aaoe?a aoei aee?eooy
ethaenueeeo aaae ? iaaeie?e?a. Aeey nai?o noaoae ooa?aaoe? iae?aee
aioiao oi?io oai??a ienueiaiiee?a-i?ina?oiee?a ? ii?ae?no?a ieioeiai, a
i?aeienoaaee ?o cian?i iaeiia??ieie, aea?o?aeeaeie inaaaeii?iaie. Iiaeia
c oiaaiai?noth neacaoe, ui i?aeoe/ii aei e?ioey nai?o aei?a Naieianueeee
aoa a??iei o?aaeeoe?yi ooa?aanoaa: ceiaiaeaii?noue ? aeioaii?noue,
aea?o?aeea? inaaaeii?ie, aeoo iieai?ee, aeeaeaeoeci, yeee ii?aeio?oueny
c oai?euey?i?noth, oi?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a naoe?e e oaioanoeee,
i?eioeeiiaa ieaa?aoi?noai – an? oe? ?ene, oa?aeoa?i? aeey oai?/ino?
Naieianueeiai, ? iane?aeeii aieeao ooa?aanoaa.

Iaiaaath/enue i?ioyaii an??? e?oa?aoo?ii? ? aeo?iaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
noai?eoe nai? iaiiaoi?ia iaee//y ooaeiaeieea-iiia?aea/a, na?e aeaniee
e?oa?aoo?iee aeai? “a?aiaaon?aie”, Naieianueeee aeei?enooaaa aeey
iaienaiiy oai??a i?ea?iaeueio eiino?oeoe?th, uinue iiae?aia aei
“aeai?iaiai eiiaeiia?aoo”, yeee ii?aeio? ciai? aaniethoii noia?a/eea?
aeaiaioe ooaeiaeiuei? iiia?ae?. Oiio eeaneo?eaoe?y oai??a
I.?.Naieianueeiai ca aeai?aie aeayeith i??ith oiiaia.

I.?.Naieianueeee ia aoa aaoi?ii aeania oaioanoe/ieo oai??a. O eiai
oai?ao iaaei?e?iaeiee, oaioanoe/iee aeaiaio, yeui cono??/a?oueny, ?
o?eueee oe?eaaith oi?iith aeey e?oa?aoo?ii? ? noni?eueii? naoe?e. Oaeo
i?ico ie a?aeiineii aei oeio oae caaii? “caaoaeueiaaii?” /e “oiiaii?”
oaioanoeee. Aeae?ey?oueny aeae?eueea nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, yeeo
oi?ea?oueny Naieianueeee o oaioanoe/ieo oai?ao: naoe?a ia “iiaei?”
iaoeia? oai???, e?eoeea e?oa?aoo?ii? ai?ioueae 30-o ?ie?a O?O noie?ooy,
aee?eooy aaae na?onueeiai noni?euenoaa.

O oaeaio? Naieianueeiai niinoa??aa?oueny i/aaeaeiee aeoae?ci uiaei
iaoee. Naieianueeee-a/aiee, iaeei c iaeina?/ai?oeo ethaeae naiai /ano,
aeey yeiai ?icoiiaa i?aoey aoea oaeith ae iio?aaith, ye aeey ?ioeo ?aea,
i?ina?uaa naiai /eoa/a, iiioey?ii ? i?inoi ciaeiiey/e c iaeiia?oeie
a?aee?eooyie a iaooe?. Naieianueeee-naoe?ee ea?oaa iaa?aeanoai
ethaenueea e iaoeiaa, ooiaii? oai???, i?noeoeeci, noieanoeeo.

Iaea?eueo aino?? aeiaaee aioo??oiueie?oa?aoo?iiai oa?aeoa?o aeaa
Naieianueeee o iia?noyo “Aieueoie auoiae o Naoaiu”, “Iaciaeiiea”,
“I?aa?auaiea aieia a eieae”. E?eoeea naioeiaioae?cio, aeocoaaiiy iaae
?iiaioe/iith oeieith, ai?ioueaa c o?aioeocueeei aieeaii ciaoiaeyoue
i?noea ia noi??ieao oeeo oai??a. Ia caeeoa?oueny aaeaeoaeei Naieianueeee
? aei iiioey?iiai a 20-30-o? ?iee aeai?o “aioe/iiai ?iiaio”. Oae,
iia?noue “Aenyuee ainoue”, ? ia?iae??th ia oeeea??anuee? “?ica?eieoeuee?
iiaaee”, aeni?thth/e eiai aa?i?a – “aeaai?iaeieo ?ica?eiee?a”, a
iia?noue “I?aa?auaiea aieia a eieae” – aaoi??a, neaaey/eo o nai?o oai?ao
aeaoe, /i?o?a, a?aeueii oa ?ica?eiee?a.

Naieianueeee aeineoue aeia?a ciaa nai?o no/aniee?a ?, aieiae?th/e
oaeaioii naoe?eea, ci?a iieacaoe an? aaaee e i?eno?ano? ethaenueeiai
?iaeo: oeo??noue oa aeoiioo, a??ieiinoai oa oao?aenoai, oeaneea?noue oa
aai?ci, ia/oe?noue oa eeoeai??noai.

O 1833 ?ioe? ie?aiith eieaeeith aeoiaeyoue “Oaioanoe/aneea iooaoanoaey
aa?iia A?aiaaona”, ye? ia’?aeiaee an? oaie e i?iaeaie, ui oe?eaaeee ia
oie /an ienueiaiieea. Eieaa iaea iaaaeyeee oni?o ? aeeeeeaea aeeneon??,
ye? oi?eaeeny i?iaeaie aeyaeaiiy aeaea?aea “Oaioanoe/aneeo iooaoanoaee
aa?iia A?aiaaona”. Ia iao iiaeyae, a?eueo?noue oeeo oaa?aeaeaiue ia
aeathoue i?aenoaa aiai?eoe i?i oaenooaeuei? caeeaeaiiy oai??a
Naieianueeiai c oai?aie A.Noa?ia, O.?aaea, O.Aieueoa?a, Ae.Na?ooa.
“Oaioanoe/aneea iooaoanoaey aa?iia A?aiaaona “– oa??, aac noii?ao,
i?ea?iaeueiee, aea iacaai? aaoi?e ia iiaee ia aieeiooe ia oi?io ? ia
i?iaeaiaoeeo ?iiaio Naieianueeiai, ai naiai /ano aoee aeciaieie
e?oa?aoo?ieie e ?aeaeieie aaoaaeeaie ooa?aaoe?a.

“Oaioanoe/aneea iooaoanoaey aa?iia A?aiaaona” iiae?eythoueny ia o?e
/anoeie: “Iiyoe/aneia iooaoanoaea ii aaeo-naaoo”, “O/aiia iooaoanoaea ia
Iaaeaaaeee ino?ia” oa “Naioeiaioaeueiia iooaoanoaea ia ai?o Yoio”.
“Iiyoe/aneia iooaoanoaea” oaeoe/ii ? niiaaaeaie aa?iy i?i iaaaeaeee
iiooe “neeueieo ii/ooo?a”, a yeeo cian?i a?aenooi?e oaioanoe/iee
aeaiaio. “Oaioanoe/ieie” ? aea? iiaeaeueo? “iiaei?iae?”. A “O/aiii
iooaoanoaee”, aeei?enoiaoth/e i?eeii anoaaii? iiaaee, Naieianueeee ia
eeoa ?iciia?aea? oaioanoe/io ?noi??th caaeaae? “Aa?aa?enueei?
oeea?e?caoe??”, aea e aenoaa? ia’?eoii naoe?e/iiai cia?aaeaiiy iaeiia?o?
iaoeia? a?aee?eooy Oaiiieueeiia ? Etha’?, a oaeiae /ooee i?i iaaeeaeaiiy
aei Caie? eiiaoe Aaeay. O “Naioeiaioaeueiii iooaoanoaee”, iienoth/e
iaeiia??ia iaae?iiy aa?iia A?aiaaona aei aea?ea aoeeaia Aoie oa eiai
i?eaiaee o oaioanoe/iiio i?aecaiiiio na?o?, Naieianueeee io?eiaa
iiaeeea?noue ia o?eueee aeeneo/a iiynieoe a?iioaco i?i aoaeiao Caie?, a
e aeni?yoe i?noe/i? oai??? i?i “oaa?eiiee iaaiaoeci” oa ?aea?
i?iaoeueei? ?aeaae?noe/ii? o?einio?? Eaioa, O?ooa, Oae?iaa, aeneiaeoe
naith oi/eo ci?o ia nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie noni?eueiiai ono?ith.
?acii ?c oeei Naieianueeee oae naii, ye eiai iiia?aaeieee (N??aii aea
Aa?aea?ae, Aeaeiiaoai Na?oo) oa no/anieee (A.?.Iaei?anueeee,
O.A.Aoeaa??i), ia iaiaaa?oueny i?aoethaaoe a aeai?? iaoeiai? /e
nioe?aeueii? ooii?? oa aioeooii??. O “Oaioanoe/aneeo iooaoanoaeyo aa?iia
A?aiaaona” iaia? ni?ia noai?eoe /e iienaoe ye?-iaaoaeue /oaeana iaoai?ee
/e iaeiia??i? aeiaoiaee. Aeaiaey/e iaoeiao ?noeio o “cieaeaiiio”, ?iiae?
ao?eaneiiio aeaeyae?, ienueiaiiee iaiaaa?oueny ni?inoeoe iaoeo c iaoith
?? a?eueoi? aeinooiiino?.

Ia iaio aaaeeeaei ? e oa, ui oaioanoe/iee nthaeao o oai?ao Naieianueeiai
aoa eeoa oeii aeey naoe?e/iiai cia?aaeaiiy no/aniiai noni?euenoaa.
Eaaeiaeoii?noue, aaiaai?noue, ae??a’yceia?noue iaoeaioe?a
“ia?aaeiioiiiiai Oooo?oia” i?/ei ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aeeooy o
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c? O?O noie?ooy, a na?o ona?aaeei? Aoie, a yeiio anoia?a/
aaaeaiith iieieany aa?ii A?aiaaon, oea ia?aaa?iooee na?o. Iienoth/e
aeeooy oaioanoe/ieo “na?o?a”, Naieianueeee noaaea oe?eeii eiie?aoia
caaaeaiiy – aeni?yoe ii?aeue no/aniiai noni?euenoaa, aeei?enoiaoth/e
i?eeiie a?ioaneo ia “iaoeia?e” iniia?.

“Oaioanoe/aneea iooaoanoaey aa?iia A?aiaaona” – oa?? ia eeoa aeayeith
i??ith i?aenoieiaee, aea e ia?aeiiiee o aeie? “e?oa?aoo?ii? iniae”
aa?iia A?aiaaona. ?i’y “Aa?ii A?aiaaon” oia?oa c’yaeeinue o cia/aii?
inaaaeii?ia i?ae iia?noyie “Aieueoie auoiae o Naoaiu”, “Iaciaeiiea”.
I?ci?oa o oaeeaoii? “Ee/iinoe” a?i aenooia? iaeiei c aa?i?a ?
cia?aaeaiee a?aenoi?iiaii, a?ae ?iai? iiia?aea/a. I?i iioiaeaeaiiy ?iai?
“Aa?ii A?aiaaon” oa cia/aiiy aeey Naieianueeiai ?nio? aaaaoi ?noi??e.
Aea aac noii?ao, Naieianueeee ia?aa oaeee ao/iee inaaaeii?i aeineoue
aeiaaeeiai, nei?enoaaoenue ?iaiai a?aeiiiai e?oa?aoo?iiai aa?iy OV???
noie?ooy, c iaoith ?iciaaeoaaiiy nai?? iaoeiai? oa e?oa?aoo?ii?
ae?yeueiino?. A “Oaioanoe/aneeo iooaoanoaeyo” “Aa?ii A?aiaaon”
ia?a?inoa? iaae? cae/aeiiai inaaaeii?ia e iinoa? o aeaeyae? aeaaaeaiiai
naoe?e/iiai ia?aco c aeaniith a?ia?ao??th e ae?aciei oa?aeoa?ii, a yeiio
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy e?eoe/ia noi?iia aeoo? ienueiaiieea, eiai
“caei?iaee aeocae” ? caei?iaa ii/oooy. I?ioyaii onueiai oai?/iai oeyoo
a?ia?ao?y “Aa?iia A?aiaaona” iino?eii oneeaaeithaaeanue. A?i ao?o/aany a
nthaeaoe aaaaoueio oai??a ia eeoa Naieianueeiai, aea e ?ioeo aaoi??a, a
caiaeii eiio aoei a?aeaeaii iaeaea an? ?icae?ee “Aeaeeioaee aeey /oaiey”
— a?ae “Neiaaniinoe” aei “Naeueneiai oicyenoaa”.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Ii?ae?noe/ia i?ica I.?.Naieianueeiai” i?enay/aii
aeine?aeaeaiith iniaeeainoae aaeao?enoeee ii?aeueii-naoe?e/ii?
ni?yiiaaiino?. A “Aeaeeioaea aeey /oaiey”, yea ii/aea aeaeaaaoeny c 1834
?ieo, aeoeaii eoeueoeaoaaany aeai? iia?no?. Naieianueeee, ye i?aai?caoi?
? ?aaeaeoi? aeo?iaeo, ia eeoa an?eyei ni?eya ?iciianthaeaeaiith
“aeo?iaeueii?” iia?no?, aea e nai i?aoethaaa o oeueiio aeai??.
Oai?/?noue Naieianueeiai ia aoea eeane/iei c?aceii “ianiai?” e?oa?aoo?e
o oiio ?icoi?ii?, yeee ie ca cae/a?i oeeaaea?ii a oea iiiyooy.
Iieaciaeie ? ? oae? caaaeuei? ?ene: aeoeaioiaaia i???ioaoe?y ia?aaaaeii
ia “ianiaiai” /eoa/a; ?acth/a e?oa?aoo?ia ieiaeth/?noue; aeeaiaeaeia
cae?ai?noue aei ni?eeiyooy aniaeo?a ?aeaieia??; iiaooiy oaiaeaioe?y
aea?aoeny aei aaaiaa?aeieo, iaea?eueo “iii?oieo” ?yae?a e?oa?aoi??a;
anaioiiethaai?noue oai oa ??ciiiai?oi?noue oi?i.

E??i oaioanoe/ieo iia?noae, o oai?/ino? Naieianueeiai iiaeia aeae?eeoe
(oi/a ? c iaaiith /anoeith oiiaiino?) iia?no? “no?aei?” e na?onuee?.

Ienueiaiiee eaoaai?e/ii aenooiaa i?ioe a?eueiiai noaaeaiiy aei oaeo?a
no?aeii? ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e. A?i aaaaeaa, ui ienaoe i?i No?ae ne?ae,
eeoa ciath/e eiai. Aeaa ?iee iiaei?iaeoaaiue Oo?oe??th, Ne???th,
?aeioii, aea/aiiy aeanyoe no?aeieo iia, eoeueoo?e, e?oa?aoo?e, cae/a?a
ia?iae?a Aeecueeiai Noiaeo c?iaeee Naieianueeiai a?aeiiei o na?o?
i???ioae?noii. O 20-o? ?iee a?i ioae?eo? aeae?eueea “no?aeieo” iia?noae,
ye?, aeania eaaeo/e, i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith oi/i? ia?aeeaaee /e a?euei?
ia?aeace no?aeieo aeaea?ae. Ia?oei i?ea?iaeueiei oai?ii Naieianueeiai
?in?enueeith iiaith aoea iia?noue “Aioa?” (1833), iaienaia a aeon?
a?aanueei? e?oa?aoo?e. A iia?no? Naieianueeee ia?a?o? o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey
no?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e ?icaeoie i?i ia?i?noue ? oe?ii?noue caiiiai aoooy ?
a?/i? no?aaeaeaiiy aacnia?oy.

O?ioe aeiaaeathoue c aeai?o “no?aeii?” iia?no?, aea iia’ycai? c?
no?aeiith oaiaoeeith ia?iae?eii-??ii?/i? iia?no?, iaienai? Naieianueeei
o 40-a? ?iee: “Iaaeaiea Oe?aaineiai oea?noaa”, “Niaa?oaiiaeoay ec anao
aeaiuei”, “Ieea?ey-Ieeueneay eeeey”. A oeeo iia?noyo Naieianueeee
aeni?th? ia eeoa naio ae?eni?noue (no?aei? cae/a?, iiaoo), aea e
iniaeeaino? ?? a?aeoai?aiiy o e?oa?aoo??, iniaeeai a ii?ae?noe/ieo
oai?ao, (aei oiai ae o oeo aea oi?iao ? oeie ae caniaaie, ui ? a
i?ea?iae?).

Aeei?enoaaoe a?aeiiee nthaeao, iienaiee Aa?iaeioii, Naieianueeee o
iia?no? “Ieea?ey-Ieeueneay eeeey” ia?aeaco? eiai ii-nai?io. A?i ia eeoa
aea? aa?iyi Aa?iaeioa ?iaia, aea e aeiei??iii ci?ith? ?o oa?aeoa?e, ia
eeoa oaiaeeoue iia? aeaiaioe a eiiiiceoe?th, aea e aea? aeania,
“a?aiaaon?anueea”, iiyniaiiy nthaeaoieo eie?c?e ? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo
ca’yce?a, ye? ia ca?aathoueny c i?eeiyoeie aei oeueiai.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e i?eioeei ia?aa?eueoaiiy, a?ia?aie?caoe?th, a?ioaneia
caaino?aiiy, yea /anii aeinyaa? aano?aeo, Naieianueeee a iia?no?
“Niaa?oaiiaeoay ec anao aeaiuei” iieno? aoiia?ao?th Eeoath. Eii?/ii
cia?aaeoth/e iiaoo, cae/a?, na?oiaeyae eeoaeoe?a, ienueiaiiee aeineoue
aino?i aenooia? i?ioe ethaenueeeo aaae no/aniiai noni?euenoaa; a oie
oaeo, ui aaoi? c oe??th iaoith aeei?enoiao? ini?aaiee no/anieeaie Eeoae,
iaaea? eiai e?eoeoe? ua a?eueoiai aoaeoo.

Iaeiei ?c oethaeaieo aeai??a Naieianueeiai aoa “aaeao?eciaaiee
oaeeaoii”. ?aioia? caa?oaiiy aei /eoa/a, ia ca’ycai? c nthaeaoii,
iaaei?a/ia ??ii?y, ia?iae?thaaiiy, c?icoi?e? iaoyee ia ?aae?? no/aniiai
aeeooy – ana oea iaaeeaeo? oai?e Naieianueeiai aei oaeeaoiiiiai aeai?o.
Ii?aeiaiiy ooaeiaeiueiai ? ioae?oeenoe/iiai noee?a a?ae/oaa?oueny o
oeeee? ia?en?a “Iaoa?ao?aneea i?aau”, iaienaiiio a aeon? ooa?aanueei?
nioe?aeueii? naoe?e. A oeueiio oeeee? ienueiaiiee aea? nai???aei?
ia/a?ee oai ? i?iaeai, ye? caiaeii ?icaeioeeny a eiai iia?noyo oa ?iiai?
“Eaeaaeueiay e?anaaeoea”.

Na?onueea iia?noue 30-o ?ie?a O?O noie?ooy nie?aeany ia ?aaeuei?
niinoa?aaeaiiy, ia eiie?aoiee aeeoo?aee iaoa??ae. Naieianueeee, yeee ? a
aaeao?enoeoe? caeeoaany aeo?iae?noii, a?aeiiaeany a?ae oe???
o?aaeeoe?eii? eiioeaioe??. A?i ia noaaeoue ca iaoo i?aaaeeaa cia?aaeaiiy
ae?eniino?; eiai oe?eaaeoue aeoiaiee iiiaio, a yeiio ii?aeuei? ianoaiiae
?ethno?othoueny i?eeeaaeaie c aeeooy oa na?onueeeie aiaeaeioaie. Iiaeia
c oiaaiai?noth neacaoe, ui Naieianueeee iaeii/anii aenooiaa a e?oa?aoo??
ye ia?iaeeno ? i?eoeeueiee ii?ae?noe/ii? i?ice.

Iia?no? “Any aeaineay aeeciue a ianeieueeeo /anao”, “Ethaiaue e
nia?oue”, “I?aaeoaaaeaeaiea” iaienaii ca iaeei ??e ? i?enay/aii iaei?e
oai? – aeie? na?onueei? ae?iee. Ienueiaiiee ?icaeyaea? a ieo oeiia? aeey
na?onueei? iia?no? ieoaiiy: aeieeiaiiy eioaiiy, uanoy a oetha?,
i?ecia/aiiy ae?iee. Aea nthaeaoe iia?noae Naieianueeiai i?aeii?yaeeiaai?
ii?ae?coth/i-iia/aeuei?e ?aea?. I?e/eio o?aaaae?e nai?o aa?i?iue, oaeeo
??cieo ca oa?aeoa?ii ? nioe?aeueiei noaiii, Naieianueeee aa/ea ia
no?eueee a nenoai? a?aeiinei, ye? noi?ioethaaeeny a na?o?, ne?eueee o
?icaauaiino? ie?aieo eiai i?aaenoaaiee?a.

O iia?noyo Naieianueeiai iaia? neeaaeii? nthaeaoii? noaie, ?icia?oino?
iiae?e, eiiiiceoe?eieo cai?io?a, ye? a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a cono??/aeeny
a ?ioeo ienueiaiiee?a, ui oi?eaeenue oaie na?oo. ?ici?ciaaaeueiith
?enith oai??a Naieianueeiai ? iaeiiiae?ei?noue. Ienueiaiiee ia no?eueee
iaiaaa?oueny aeaoe i?aaaeeaa ciaethaaiiy oa?aeoa??a ? iiae?e (oi/a
aacnoii?ai? ? aaeae? ciao?aeee), ne?eueee aeeeanoe /eoa/ai nai? aeoiee
ia?aaaaeii ii?aeueii-aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o; a?i aeei?enoiao? ia no?eueee
o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey e?oa?aoo?e i?eeiie ooaeiaeiuei? oei?caoe??, ne?eueee
nai? noaaeaiiy aei iaaaoeaieo yaeu aeeooy.

40-a? ?iee – aeoaea neeaaeiee ia??iae ? a aeeoo?, ? a oai?/ino?
ienueiaiieea. A?ae/ae a?ae iaiaae?a aeieo/eeaeo aeo?iae?no?a, iiaia
e?oa?aoo?ia e iniaenoa naiioi?noue, aoiia ? aeeaiea a?ae/oaeaiiy
iaieiae?ee Naieianueeei. A?i i?aeoe/ii a?aeoiaeeoue a?ae aeeeaaeaoeueei?
e aeo?iae?nonueei? ae?yeueiino?, ooea? iia? aaeoc? canoinoaaiiy nai?o
??ciia?/ieo cae?aiinoae ? ia?aae?ciaaieo caeiaooe?a: ?iaeoue oe?eaa?
a?aee?eooy a ioceoe?, o?i??, iaoai?oe?, n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?,
oioia?ao??. A?i iaei ieoa, aea iaei/eneaii? oai?e oeueiai ia??iaeo
iiaeia aac ia?aa?eueoaiiy iacaaoe cia/ieie o eiai i?ica?/i?e niaaeuei?.
Oea iia?no?-ia?iae?? “Niaa?oaiiaeoay ec anao aeaiuei”,
“Ieea?ey-Ieeueneay eeeey”, “Iaaeaiea Oe?aaineiai oea?noaa” oa ?iiai
“Eaeaaeueiay e?anaaeoea”.

Naieianueeee ia i?eeiaa iiai? i?ice (iath/e ia oaac? ia?aaeon?i ?iiaie
?.Nth oa Iieue aea Eiea c aeeooy aaeeeina?onueeeo /aio?oi?a oa e?anoiue,
ui iaiiaieee ?in?enueeee eieaeeiaee ?eiie, a oaeiae ?o ?in?enueeeo
ai?aii?a) ? iieai?coaaa c ?? aaoi?aie, aaaaeath/e, ui ?o eieae ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue aenie?e iao? ienoaoeoaa, yea iieyaa? a oiio, uia
“iaeaai?iaeeoe ethaeeio /a?ac i?ae?ania”. E??i iieai?ee c no/anieie
naeiiieie ?iiaiaie, Naieianueeee i?aaioa aeaoe a nai?io oai?? a?eueo /e
iaio oi/ia cia?aaeaiiy ae?eniino? c on?ia iiae?iaeoeyie aoaeaiiiai
aeeooy, c ianith ??cieo ieoaiue, ye? noinothoueny noni?eueiiai e
n?iaeiiai iiaooo.

sse ? a ?aii?o oai?ao, o ?iiai? “Eaeaaeueiay e?anaaeoea” aeai?iaa
no?oeoo?a aeoaea iano?eea. Ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii oeae ?iiai ii?aeio? ?ene
iieai?/iiai ?iiaio c ?iiaiii o?einionueeei. C iaeiiai aieo, aaoi? i??eo?
i?i no/aniee ethaiaiee ?iiai, iaiaaath/enue ia i?aeoeoe? ?aae?coaaoe
nai? aeoiee i?i i?ecia/aiiy e ci?no ?iiaio, a c ?ioiai, – ?iiai
iaiiaiaiee ?icaeoiaie i?i ?ieue ? i?noea ae?iee a no/aniiio
noni?euenoa?. E??i “ae?ii/i?” oaie, ienueiaiiee ?icaeyaea? oaio oai?/i?
iniaenoino? ? ?? i?noey o na?o?, naoe?e/ii cia?aaeo? ii?aeue “aaeeeiai”
na?oo e ea?oeie aeiiaoiueiai aeeooy eiai i?aaenoaaiee?a, i??eo? i?i
ethaia e uanoy, ae?oaeao e iaiaaenoue.

Nenoaia ia?ac?a ?iiaio “Eaeaaeueiay e?anaaeoea” iia’ycaia c ?iciiae?eii
ia?niiaae?a ia a?oie ca ?o noaaeaiiyi aei aieiaii? aa?i?i? oa ca ?o
i?noeai o eiioe?eo? oai?o. A ia?oo /a?ao, oea n?i’y e?anoi? Aiie, ?o
aeecuee? ?iaee/? ? ciaeii?; ii-ae?oaa, /ieia?ee, caeioai? a ia?. On?
ia?niiaae? “Eaeaaeueiie e?anaaeoeu” iathoue noaoe/iee oa?aeoa?. Aea ia
iiaeia ia iii?oeoe, ui a ia?acao aieiaieo aa?i?a aaoi? ?iaeoue ni?iao
i?inoaaeeoe iaaio aaiethoe?th: nii/aoeo ia aa?iyo eaaeeoue a?aeaeoie
caoiieaiino?, iio?i – ?ic/a?oaaiiy. ? Aiia, ? Aaea??ai ci?iththoue nai?
noaaeaiiy aei aeeooy; ?o ?iiaioe/i? ii/oooy iaaoaathoue a?eueo c??eiai
oa?aeoa?o, ia??oo/?noue ? ianeai?noue ia?aae “noaeii na?oo”
ci?iththoueny ia aia?a?eio, aeoeaio, ae??ao iiceoe?th uiaei naaa ? naiai
uanoy.

Iiae?? ?iiaio ?icai?oathoueny iia?eueii e i?e?iaeii. Naieianueeee yaii
oieea? ooo/ieo aoaeo?a ? iaiine?aeiaiinoae, aei yeeo /anoi caa?oathoueny
aaoi?e naeiiieo ?iiai?a. A?ae ii/aoeo aei e?ioey ienueiaiiee noai?ea
?iiai o aeaeyae? ?aeeii? iecee iiae?e ?c aeeooy iaeii? aa?i?i?, iiae??
?icai?oathoueny aeineoue ceaaiaeaeaii e eia?/ii. O Naieianueeiai ia aoei
aaaeeeai? aeey ?iiai?noa caeaoiino? e?eoe/ii aiae?coaaoe noni?eueia
aeeooy; a eiai i?ic? caeaa?eueoiai ia?aaaaeathoue iiene iiae?e ?
aaoi?nuee? noa’?eoeai? i??eoaaiiy. Iiaeia c oiaaiai?noth neacaoe, ui
Naieianueeee ia no?eueee ?iciia?aea?, ne?eueee ianoaaey?. Ia aeaeue,
?iiai “Eaeaaeueiay e?anaaeoea” ia o?eueee ia i?eaa?ioa aei naaa oaaae
no/aniee?a, aea e aoa caaooee caiaeii.

AENIIAEE

Naith e?oa?aoo?io ae?yeuei?noue Naieianueeee ii/eia? o 1820-o ?ieao ?
a?eueoa o?eaeoeyoe ?ie?a i?aoeth? ia oe?e iea?. A?i ienaa ia eeoa
aaaaoi, aea e ??ciioaiii, aaaaoueia iiaaie. Eiai ooaeiaeiy i?ica
aeeth/a? oai?e ??ciiai iai?yieo: “no?aei?” iia?no?, oaioanoe/i? iia?no?,
ia?iae?eii-naoe?e/i?, ?iiaioeei-aaaioth?i?, ii?ae?noe/i?. An? oe? oai?e
ienueiaiieea, oe?eeii i?e?iaeii, ciaoiaeeeenue o aa?iii?/iiio ca’yceo c
eiai aeo?iae?noeeith. Oiio iaia? iiaeeeaino? eeaneo?eoaaoe aaeao?enoeeo
Naieianueeiai ca o?aaeeoe?eii e?oa?aoo?ieie iciaeaie. A eiai oai?/ino?
aa/eii iacae/aeia caeeaeaiiy ooaeiaeiueiai oa ioae?oeenoe/iiai noee?a,
yea i?eaaei aei aeieeiaiiy iniaeeaiai “a?aiaaon?anueeiai” aeai?o, ui
aaco?oueny ia ceeoo? e?eueeio e?oa?aoo?ieo aeai??a. E??i oiai,
?icaeyaeath/e ooaeiaeith i?ico Naieianueeiai, ne?ae iaoe ia oaac? eiai
iaci?iio i?eoeeuei?noue aei o?aaeeoe?e iieuenueeiai nooaeaionueeiai
oiaa?enoaa ooa?aaoe?a.

Oaioanoe/ia i?ica I.?.Naieianueeiai iaeaaeeoue aei oeio oae caaii?
“oiiaii? oaioanoeee”, ai ienueiaiiee ia noaaea ca iaoo cia?aaeaiiy
aeania oaioanoe/iiai. Aeey Naieianueeiai oaioanoeea aoea oi?iith
naoe?e/iiai cia?aaeaiiy aeayeeo noi??i ae?eniino?. C oe??th iaoith a
eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio oai?? ienueiaiiee aeei?enoiao? ??ciiiai?oi? i?iyae
oaioanoe/iiai, yea iiaea a?ae?a?aaaoe i?aaeiaoii-ia?acio ?ieue
(oaioanoe/i? aa?i?, i?aaeiaoe, yaeua), /e noai?thaaoe iiaoeeo oai?o
(oaioanoe/i? iiaei?iae?, ia?aoai?aiiy), eiai ?aeaeii-i?iaeaiio iniiao.
Oaeei /eiii, iiaeaii aiai?eoe ia no?eueee i?i oaioanoe/i? oai?e
Naieianueeiai, ne?eueee i?i oaioanoe/iee aeaiaio, cai?iaaaeaeaiee iei o
oai?e.

Ca ciai?oi?i oaioanoe/iei nthaeaoii iae/ano?oa i?eoiaothoueny iaaaeuei?
i?iaeaie oa ieoaiiy, ui oe?eaaeee cae/aeiiai iaeaaoaey.
?aaeueii-iiaooia? ?ethc?? oa eiia?iaoe?? ?aaeueieo ia?ac?a, yaeu,
iioea?a, ye? ai?uaii o oaioanoe/iiio nthaeao?, noai?thaaee ae?oaee ieai,
nia?iae?eiaaiee, i?eoiaaiee, aea oae /e ?iaeoa aeacaiee a iiia?aeaii?.

sse iane?aeie cia/ou?noue oaioanoe/iiai aeaiaioa iiaeeaeth?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith aeinoia??ieo a?aeiiinoae. Oaioanoeea Naieianueeiai ia
iia’ycaia c yeeienue oiiaiinoyie iaoeiaiai iioeaoaaiiy iiae?e /e yaeu, a
a a?eueoino? cina?aaeaeaia ia i?iaeaiao ii?aeueii-aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o.
Iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeae?eueea oai, ui neeaaeathoue iniiao oaioanoe/ieo
oai??a Naieianueeiai: iieai?ea c no/anieie iaoeiaeie oai??yie, naoe?e/ia
ini?yiiy ii?ae? no/aniiai noni?euenoaa, a?aeia?aaeaiiy
aioo??oiueie?oa?aoo?ieo a?aeiinei ia?oi? iieiaeie O?O noie?ooy.

Oeaio?aeueiei oai?ii o oe?e oai?/?e niaaeuei? Naieianueeiai ? ?iiai
“Oaioanoe/aneea iooaoanoaey aa?iia A?aiaaona”. O iueiio aaoi? c?iaea
nai???aeiee i?aenoiie on?o nai?o e?oa?aoo?ieo aeinyaiaiue o oaioanoe/i?e
i?ic?. “Oaioanoe/aneea iooaoanoaey aa?iia A?aiaaona” – ni?aaae?
aeai?iaee “eiiaeiia?ao”. O ieo aeei?enoai? a?ia?ao?/i? caienee oa
uiaeaiieee Naieianueeiai i?i eiai iiaei?iae? ia Noiae?, ciaeoea
a?aeia?aaeaiiy oaeeaoiiia iaia?a ooa?aanueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? oeiee oa
ea?eeaoo?ii iiaeaiee iaoeiaee iaoa??ae. A “Oaioanoe/aneeo iooaoanoaeyo”
aaoi? o caoiiethth/?e, aeinooii?e oi?i? iiioey?eco? iaeiia?o? iaoeia?
a?aee?eooy: aeaoeo?oaaiiy ?aeiaonueeeo ???iae?o?a AE.-O.Oaiiieueeiiii,
a?iioace i?i aoaeiao Caie?, nioe?ieia?/i? oai???. I?e oeueiio
ienueiaiiee aee?eaa? aaaee e ii?iee noni?euenoaa, ??ii?co? c i?eaiaeo
iiaeo ?aeae i?i ae?ii/o aiaineiaoe?th oa iaaeeaeaiiy e?ioey na?oo,
e?eoeeo? nai?o e?oa?aoo?ieo noi?ioeaiee?a oa caeiaooee ?o oaioac??.
Nooo?aei aeey iiaeaeueoi? e?oa?aoo?ii? e aeo?iaeueii? oai?/ino?
Naieianueeiai aoei aeieeiaiiy e ooaa?aeaeaiiy a oeueiio oai??
e?oa?aoo?ii? iniaenoino? “aa?iia A?aiaaona”.

Iiaeia neacaoe, ui oai?/?noue Naieianueeiai caaa?oeea iaaiee aoai
?icaeoeo oaioanoeee a ?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo??. Naoe?e/iee iai?yi o
?in?enuee?e oaioanoeoe? O?O no. ia io?eiaa oe?ieiai ?icaeoeo. A?eueo
iioe?aiei iaaeae? noa? iai?yi, c?acee yeiai ciaoiaeeii a oai?ao
O.A.Aoeaa??ia oa A.O.Iaei?anueeiai, oiaoi aeai? nioe?aeueii? ooii?? ?
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiai ?iiaio, aea ?ic?iaeyeenue ??ciiiai?oi? iiaeae?
iaeaooiueiai, aenoaaeenue oe?eaa? iaoeia? i?iaiice, iienoaaeenue
iaaecae/aei? aeiaoiaee.

O 30-o? ?iee O?O noie?ooy iia?noue noa? iaeiei ?c oeaio?aeueieo aeai??a
o ?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo??. Caa??aath/e iaae? “aeo?iaeueii? iia?no?”,
Naieianueeee noai?th? na?e iniaeeaee aeai?, yeee ii?aeio? ?ene,
i?eoaiaii? ? aaeao?enoeoe?, ? aeo?iae?noeoe?. C iaeiiai aieo, a?i
eoeueoeao? aeai? oaeeaoiio c eiai ii?ae?noe/iei iaoa??aeii ? naoe?ith ia
noni?eueia aeeooy acaaae?, a c ?ioiai, ia?iae?th? ?iiaioe/io iia?noue o
an?o ?? ??ciiaeaeao – a?ae oaioanoe/ii? oa aaaioth?ii-aa?i?/ii? aei
na?onueei?. Iiaeia neacaoe, ui Naieianueeiai oe?eaaeoue ia ae?eni?noue
ye oaea, a yeanue ocaaaeueiaia naioaioe?y. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith
“aeo?iaeueii? iia?no?” ienueiaiieea ? aeeaeaeoeea oa ii?ae?caoe?y,
aeoiee yei? ii/eiathoueny a?ae i?ina?oieoeueeeo ?aeae ooa?aaoe?a.
Aaoi?nueea noaaeaiiy aei iiae?e ? aa?i?a /anoi cai?ith? ni?aaaeith
aioo??oith eia?eo nthaeao?a; oe?eaa?noue ? aaaaoiiiae?ei?noue
ci?iththoueny aeiaaeie aaoi?nueeeie i??eoaaiiyie oa ?acoeueoaoaie eiai
aeeaieiaeoiieo niinoa?aaeaiue. Oiio ie iiaeaii a?aeianoe oae? oai?e
Naieianueeiai aei ii?ae?noe/iiai aeai?o.

Naieianueeee i?eaa?oa? oaaao aei noni?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua e iaioth/eo o
iueiio i?aaee iiaaae?iee. Nthaeaoe eiai oai??a oi?eathoueny ie?aieo
iiiaio?a ?c aeeooy na?oo. Iaei??th ?c oeaio?aeueieo i?iaeai, ui ciaeoea
nai? ooaeiaei? ao?eaiiy ye a iaeeo, oae ? a aaeeeeo ?iciia?aeieo oi?iao,
iiaeia iacaaoe i?iaeaio noaiiaeua ae?iee a n?i’? ? noni?euenoa?.
Naieianueeee ia ?iaeoue oe?ieeo nioe?aeueieo ocaaaeueiaiue. Eiai,
ianaiia?aae, oe?eaaeyoue ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe e aeeooy i?eaaoia, a ia
noni?eueia.

Ia?ane?aeoth/e iaaio, oi/a e aeaui ooii?/io iaoo – aei?aaeaiiy ii?ae?
noni?euenoaa /a?ac e?eoeeo eiai aaae, Naieianueeee oe?iei iineoaiaoaaany
caniaaie aeaai???, o?einionueeeo a?aenooi?a, ??ii?? oa na?eacio.
Ii?aeiaiiy oeeo, ia/aaoi, ??cii??aeieo aeaiaio?a i?ecaiaeeei aei oiai,
ui c onueiai iei neacaiiai o oai?? iai’yoaeiny o?eueee yea-iaaoaeue
ia?aa?eueoaiiy /e iaiio??aia o?ea?aeuei?noue. Aei oiai ae o
ii?ae?noe/ieo oai?ao Naieianueeiai i?enooi?e yne?aai ae?aaeaiee
noa’?eoea?ci, aaoi?nueea aeoiea e ioe?iea a?aeoai?thaaieo neooaoe?e ?
yaeu. Iiaeeeai, eiee a o eiai naoe?? aoei a?eueoa ia’?eoeaiino?,
aecia/aiino? aeoiie, oi e?oa?aoo?ia cia/aiiy eiai oai??a iaei a a?eueoo
aaao.

O Naieianueeiai-ienueiaiieea aoee /?oei ie?aneaia ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue ?
aaoi?nueea iaia?a. sse i?ooi ?ioee, a?i oi?a i?inoi e aeinooiii aeeeanoe
iaena?eici?o? ieoaiiy ??ciiiai?oiiai oa?aeoa?o, iaiiaieoe oa??
iai?ae?iaiei aoii?ii, iieaieoaaoe ? iaae i?aaeiaoii, yeee
?icaeyaea?oueny, ? iaae niaith, noai?eoe aaniethoii iiaee e?oa?aoo?iee
aeai?, i?aeaeaoe noii?ao oi/eo ci?o aoaeue-eiai, aeeth/ath/e naith
aeanio, aeeaoaaoe nai?ie ciaiiyie a on?o aaeocyo iaoee e ienoaoeoaa. Aea
oe?, aac noii?ao, iiceoeai? ?ene “a?aiaaon?anueeiai” noeeth ia?ic?eaii
iia’ycai? c iaaieniith ia?aa?eueoaiith aeooeai?noth o?ac, aeayeei
caiice/aiiyi iiia?aeieo oi?i, ?aeaae?caoe??th aa?i?a, o?ea?aeuei?noth,
iaoyaioo?noth iiae?iaeoeue, a?aenooi?noth iiaoe/ii? ni?eeiyoeeaino? ?
aeeoo?aino? e ni?a/oooy aei ethaeae. sseae Naieianueeee iaienaa
ui-iaaoaeue o aeon? “Oeiae?” /e “?noi??? iaeiiai i?noa”, a?i,
aacia?a/ii, caeeoeany a o eie? aeoeaii? oaaae iauaaee?a. Aea a?i ca
nai?ie ia?aeiiaiiyie aoa aeaeaei ia ?aaeeeaeii. Eiai naoe?o (?c cia/ieie
canoa?aaeaiiyie) iiaeia a?aeianoe aei oiai iai?yio, yeee aoa
i?aaenoaaeaiee a /ane Naieianueeiai oai?/?noth Aoeaa??ia, Ao?’yiiaa,
I?eiaa. Oea oae caaia “aeaaiiaia?aiiay naoe?a” (Aoeaa??i), ae?th/a o
iaaeao io?oe?eii aeicaieaii? e?eoeee. Oai?e oaeiai ?iaeo i?aeaeaaaeenue
??ce?e e?eoeoe? c aieo “aeaiie?aoe/iiai oaai?o”, ui aecia/eei ia aaaaoi
aeanyoe??/ e?oa?aoo?io aeieth oa ?aiooaoe?th ienueiaiiee?a
“eiina?aaoeaiiai” iai?yio. Ana oea, iiaeeeai, ? caaaaeeei iiaiiio
?ice?eooth oai?/eo iiaeeeainoae Naieianueeiai.

Ia iiaeia ia a?aoiaoaaoe ? oa, ui a?aeie?aieai?noue Naieianueeiai a?ae
no/aniiai eiio e?oa?aoo?iiai na?oo aoea aeeeeeaia eiai iacae/aeii
i?ace?eeaei, oeei?/iei noaaeaiiyi aei ethaeae. ? oi/a eiai
aeo?iae?nonueea ae?yeuei?noue aeicaieyea iaeaea /aa?oue noie?ooy aooe o
oeaio?? e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy ?in??, Naieianueeee a?ae/oaeoaaany a?ae
ethaeae. O oeueiio, ia iao iiaeyae, e?e?oueny i?e/eia oai?/i? e?ece
iaaea?iaaiiai ienueiaiieea.

Iaaooue, iaia? a ?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo?? ua iaei??? oaei?
ia?aaeienaeueii? iniaenoino?. Naieianueeee aoa o i?e aaniethoii
i?ea?iaeueiei, aeiyoeiaei yaeuai. Eiai aieea ia ia? aoa iina?aaei?e ?,
iacaaaeath/e ia eiai i/aaeaeio neeo, oei/aniaee, nei?iieio/ee.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oaeee aaeeeee e?oa?aoo?iee ae?aiacii ? cia/ia
iaaea?oaaiiy, Naieianueeee ia caeeoea i?ney naaa i? i?eoeeueiee?a, i?
iine?aeiaiee?a, i? o/i?a. O?aa?/ia o?ao?a Naieianueeiai aeineoue oi/ii
aienaeany a ?in?enueea aeeooy 30-40-o ?ie?a O?O noie?ooy. Aea iia?
a?yiiy a noni?eueiiio e e?oa?aoo?iiio aeeoo? ni?eyee “oaeaeeiio e
o?eaaeiio caaoooth” eiai ?iai? e caneoa. Oa ana ae aieea ienueiaiieea ia
?in?enueeo e?oa?aoo?o aacnoii?aiee, ye aacnoii?ai? i?ea?iaeuei?noue ?
naiiaooi?noue eiai oai?/i? niaaeueie.

NIENIE I?AOeUe, IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Oai?/aneee iooue I.E.Naieianeiai: Iaoa?eaeu e eaeoeeyi / Nino.
A.A.Eooia?oe. – Oa?ueeia: Oieaa?neoao aioo?aiieo aeae, 1996. – 12 n.

2. Eooia?oe A.A. I?eai eeoa?aoo?iie “ianee” a oai?/anoaa
I.E.Naieianeiai // Ie?iaay eeoa?aoo?a a oeiea e aoca: Na. no. –
Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1996. – Aui. 3. – N. 30-35.

3. Eooia?oe A.A., *a?iue E.A. Aeaa “e?anaaeoeu” (“Eaeaaeueiay
e?anaaeoea” I.E.Naieianeiai e “Enoi?e/aneay e?anaaeoea” I.A.Eoeieueieea)
// Ie?iaay eeoa?aoo?a a oeiea e aoca: Na. no. – Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1996. –
Aui. 4. – N. 27-34.

4. Eooia?oe A.A., Ia/eiieeia I.A. E aii?ino i “oaioanoe/aneii yeaiaioa”
a ?onneie i?ica 1830-o aiaeia (“Caienee aeiiiaiai” I.E.Naieianeiai e
“Caienee *ooeia” O.A.Aoeaa?eia) // Iaoeia? caienee OAeIO ?i.
A.N.Neiai?iaee. Na?.: E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998. – Aei.
2(13). – N. 14-21.

5. Eooia?oe A.A. I aeai?iaie niaoeeoeea ?iiaia I.E.Naieianeiai
“Oaioanoe/aneea iooaoanoaey aa?iia A?aiaaona” // Iaoeia? caienee OAeIO
?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee. Na?.: E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998. –
Aei. 3(14). – N. 63-66.

6. Eooia?oe A.A. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe iiaanoe I.E.Naieianeiai
“Ieea?ey-Ieeueneay eeeey” // Iaoeia? caienee OAeIO ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee.
Na?.: E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. – Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998. – Aei. 3(14). – N.
66-70.

AIIOAOe??

Eooia?oe A.A. Ooaeiaeiy i?ica I.?.Naieianueeiai. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.02 – ?in?enueea e?oa?aoo?a. –
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee,
Oa??a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice a?aeiiiai
?in?enueeiai ienueiaiieea, aeo?iae?noa ? e?eoeea 1-i? iieiaeie O?O
noie?ooy I.?.Naieianueeiai. A i?e ?icaeyiooi oaioanoe/io i?ico
ienueiaiieea, a oaeiae eiai oaeeaoiie, naoe?e/i? iia?no? oa ?iiaie c
aeaiaioaie ii?ae?caoi?noaa. Aiae?cothoueny iniaeeaino?, ye? aeae?eythoue
i?ico Naieianueeiai ?c ?in?enueei? aaeao?enoeee 1-i? iieiaeie O?O
noie?ooy. C?iaeaii ni?iao aeaoe eeaneo?eaoe?th eiai i?iciaeo oaeno?a,
aena?oeaii iniaeeaino? ?ici?uaiiy a ieo ia?ac?a, ?o ?aeaeii-oaiaoe/iee
ci?no, nai???aei?noue a?o?oaeoii?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?ica, oaioanoeea, naoe?a c aeaiaioaie ii?ae?caoi?noaa.

Eooia?oe A.A. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay i?ica I.E.Naieianeiai. -?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.02 – ?onneay eeoa?aoo?a. – Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei. A.N.Neiai?iaeu,
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth ooaeiaeanoaaiiie i?icu ecaanoiiai
?onneiai ienaoaey, aeo?iaeenoa e e?eoeea 1-ie iieiaeiu O?O aaea
I.E.Naieianeiai. A iae ?anniao?eaaaony oaioanoe/aneay i?ica ienaoaey, a
oaeaea aai oaeueaoiiu, naoe?e/aneea iiaanoe e ?iiaiu n yeaiaioaie
i?aaiiienaiey. Aiaeece?othony iniaaiiinoe, auaeaeythuea i?ico
Naieianeiai ec iniiaiie iannu ?onneie aaeeao?enoeee 1-ie iieiaeiu O?O
aaea. I?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea aeaoue eeanneoeeaoeeth aai i?icae/aneeo
oaenoia, inaauaiu iniaaiiinoe ?annoaiiaee ia?acia, eo
eaeaeii-oaiaoe/aneia niaea?aeaiea, naiaia?acea a?oeoaeoiieee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?ica, oaioanoeea, naoe?a n yeaiaioaie i?aaiiienaiey.

Kushneruk V.A. Prose Fiction by Senkovsky O.I. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Science in Philology,
speciality 10.01.02 — Russian literature. –Kharkiv State Pedagogical
University after G.S.Skovoroda, Kharkiv, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the research of the prose fiction by the famous
Russian writer, journalist and critic of the 1st half of the 19th
century O.I.Senkovsky. The research deals with the fabulous prose by the
writer as well as his moralistic topical satire, stories and a novel.
The peculiarities which single out Senkovsky’s prose from the bulk of
the Russian fiction of the 1st half of the 19th century are analyzed. An
attempt is made to give a classification of his prosaic texts;
peculiarities of the arrangement of images, their moral and subject
content, peculiar architectonics are elucidated.

Key words: prose, fabulousness, moralistic satire.

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