Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Aeai/oe Iaoae?y ?iiai?aia

OAeE 883 — 3; 92 Oaa/.

OOAeIAEI?E NA?O I?ICE O.OAA*AIEA

(I?IAEAIA INEOIEIA?*IIAI AIAE?CO)

10.01.01 ( oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

EUeA?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e iiai? aeaaeai?ea
Ieoaeea Aiciyea Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo iiai? Iaaia
O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Aiiaea? Ea?ena Iao?iaia,

aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo o?aieiciaanoaa

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo iiai? Iaaia O?aiea,

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Eooea Ieueaa Iaae?aia

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oai??? e?oa?aoo?e

oa ii??aiyeueiiai e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa

Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea,

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Iaoe?e ?aaai Eaceie?iae/,

aee?aeoi? Euea?anueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy

?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e

?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, i. Ee?a,

eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “17” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.051.06 c oieieiai/ieo iaoe i?e
Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? iiai? Iaaia O?aiea ca aae?anith:
290602, i. Eueaia, aoe. Oiiaa?neoaonueea, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Eueaianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo iiai? Iaaia O?aiea (Eueaia, aoe.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “16” ethoiai 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oa?eae C.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

“I?ae aai??i ? no/ani?noth caaaeaee eie?c?y. Aai?e, – ia aeoieo
?.Iaeaithea, – aea? anueiai naaa, a no/ani?noue aa?a oa, ui caeoaea?
acyoe”. No/ani?noue caoiieaii a?oaea “Eiaca?” O.Oaa/aiea ?
aacaiaeyoe?eii caia?a/eea, aai, ?ioeie neiaaie, “ia caeoaeaea acyoe”
Oaa/aieiai? i?ice. Nueiaiaei? oaeo ?? aeaaaeoeyoee?oiueiai oa’yciaiiy
iaceaa?ii caaaeueii a?aeiiei, iaeiae cia/aiiy oaeiai “oooeyaeiiai”
caneaiiy ia?aioe?ieoe aaaeei.

C /an?a no/aniee?a O.Oaa/aiea – I.Eoe?oa oa N.Aenaeiaa – iaoeiaoe?a,
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy yeeo aoea i?ica ienueiaiieea, oe?eaaeee
i?eaeecii iaei? e o? nai? ieoaiiy, ye-io: /an iaienaiiy oa ioae?eaoe??
oaeno?a (?.Aecaiooie, A.A?iinueeee, N.Aeiooianueeee, E.Eiaeaoeueea,
I.Eiienueeee, oa ?i.), ?in?enueea iiaa iia?noae (N.?o?aiia, I.Ca?ia,
E.Eiaeaoeueea, ?.E?oo?eiaa, ?.I?eueaoe, A.N?iiae/, I.Oaa?iyi oa ?i.),
ci?ia aeai?o (N.Aenaeia, A.Aooaeueae, I.A?oioeinueea, N.Noaoaiei oa
?i.), aaoia?ia?ao?ci (?.A?eaoeueeee, E.Eiaeaoeueea, I.Einoiia?ia,
?.I?eueaoe, I.Oaa?iyi oa ?i.). Aeine?aeaeaiiy c inoaii?o ?ie?a OO no.
nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae iiia?aaei?o oaa/aieiciaa/eo nooae?e ia?o
ca ana aecia/aiei oai?aoe/iei ?aeo?nii e a?aeiia?aeiei oaenooaeueiei
aiae?cii. Oea, cie?aia, ?ica?aeee I.A?eoethoe i?i “Aeeciaoeu” oa
“Ooaeiaeiee” ye ?iiaie aeoiaaiiy, A.?oa/aea i?i Uiaeaiiee ye yaeua
iinoiiaea?ii? i?ice, nooae?? I.Caaoaeei, aea aaoi?ea ia??oioiao?
ae?aeaeoeeo e eia?eo Oaa/aie?anueeiai i?oo Oe?a?ie nie?ath/enue ? ia
eiai i?ico. I?ioa e o e?ioe? OO noie?ooy aeaeaei ia on? iiaeeea? /eiieee
iie?iaoiaee/iiai oai?aoe/iiai niaeo?o no/aniiai e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa aoee
caae?yi? o iia?oi?e iieai?oe? i?i Oaa/aieiao i?ico. Ienoaoeoao
O.Oaa/aiea-ineoieiaa o oea?ei? i?ice ia i?enay/aii o ian, cie?aia,
aeiaeiiai niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia niaoeeo?eo ineoieiai-aiae?oe/iiai ae?aiaciio iia?noae /e ia iaeia?oei
caa?ioa oaaao ?.O?aiei. Aaoi? aaa?e?oaoe?eii? eaeoe?? iiaea? aaiaaeia?th
Oaa/aieiai? oaie iaeie/ee o o?ueio iaeaaaeeea?oeo, oaiaoe/ii aeecueeeo,
iaeiae nooo?ai a?aei?iieo ia?acao. O i?ioean? O?aieiaiai oeiieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic??ciy?ii aeaa aoaie: 1) Eaoa?eia (iaeiieiaiia iiaia) –
Aaiia (iiaia “Iaeie/ea”); 2) Aaiia (“Iaeie/ea” – iiaia) – Eoe?y
(“Iaeie/ea” – iia?noue). Ii??aithth/e iaeiieiaii? iiaio oa iia?noue,
e?eoee cacia/aa: “Eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ioa?ano ia iinoao? iaeie/ee ooo i? i?e
/?i”, aaeaea o iia?no? ciaoiaeeii ia aano?aaiaaiee ia?ac-neiaie, yeiai
aeiaaaei ?iiaioe/ia ??/eua iiaie, yeee aoa noai?aiee, aacoiiaii,
iaenoa?ii, ooo “yaey?oueny iai aiiai? ethaeeia…, ui aenooia?
ae?yeueii, a?aeneiith? iaeaeeao? oaeieee nai?? aeoo?”.

Iaaeae? aeoiee oaa/aieiciaaoe?a o oe?e i?iaeai? neeaaeathoue aaniethoiee
niaeo? ioe?iie – a?ae aacoiiaiiai aeciaiiy ineoieia?/iiai ci?noo
iia?noae aei eaoaai?e/iiai eiai caia?a/aiiy. Ioaea, aeooaeuei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia ia?o ca ana noaiii inieneaiiy i?iaeaie:

1) cina?aaeaeoth/e oaaao ia ie?aieo aeaiaioao ia?aciiai anana?oo
iia?noae, iaoeiaoe? i?aeoe/ii iaieioee i?iaeaio niaoeeo?ee
ooaeiaeiuei-ineoieia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee;

2) o?aoa?ao iiaoa-?iiaioeea, yeee ui?aco i?eeeaaeaee aei Oaa/aieiai?
oai?/ino?, ia aeicaieya e?eoeeai oa /eoa/ai aa/eoe o eiai i?ic? oiai
iiaiai, ui ?.O?aiei ia ceai? noie?oue iacaa “iaa?/iith eaiiith”, /anoeia
iaoeiaoe?a eaoaai?e/ii caia?a/o? ineoieia?/iee ci?no iia?noae;

3) iaa?oue o? oaa/aieiciaaoe?, ye? aeciaaaee “ineoieia?/io i?aaaeo
iia?noae”, eiinoaooaaee ?? ye oaeo, ia iineoaiaoth/enue aeiaeiith
oai?aoe/iith eiioeaioe??th oa oaenooaeueiei aiae?cii. Ca?aene
aeooaeueiith ? iio?aaa aeine?aeaeaiiy ooaeiaeiueiai na?oo i?ice
O.Oaa/aiea, aaea?a? ??ciiiai?oieo ca oaoi?eith oa iaia?ith aeeiiaiiy
ii?o?ao?a, a ie?aneaiiio nenoaiii-oe?e?niiio c??c?. Iaeiei ?c oaeeo
neie?aoe/ieo ca iaoiaeeeith oa iaoeiaei ?ino?oiaioa???i aaaaea?ii
cai?iiiiiaaiee oai?aoe/iee ?aeo?n – eiioeaioe?th ooaeiaeiueiai
ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia ia
eaoaae?? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e ?iai? aeaaeai?ea Ieoaeea Aiciyea
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, ocaiaeaeaia
c ieaiaie, oaiaoeeith oa caaaeueiei i?io?eai iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iia?no? O.Oaa/aiea, ui
?icaeyaeathoueny ye oe?e?nia, naiiaooi? yaeua oe?a?inueei? i?ice XIO
noie?ooy. Ine?eueee cai?iiiiiaaiee oai?aoe/iee ?aeo?n aeiaaa?
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai e oa?i?iieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei
iaioa?ii-aaoia?ia?ao?/ii? (“Uiaeaiiee”) oa ooaeiaeiuei-aaoia?ia?ao?/ii?
(iia?no?) i?ice, “Uiaeaiiee” O.Oaa/aiea aeei?enoaii eeoa ye
?ethno?aoeaiee iaoa??ae na?oiaeyaeii-ienoaoeueei? i?ia?aie ienueiaiieea.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? ia
iao? c’ynoaaoe oa?aeoa? ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co o i?ic?
O.Oaa/aiea, ie?aneeoe ae?aiacii eiai oi?i oa iaoiae?a, a?aoiaoth/e
eiioaeno iiaoeee ?iiaioecio, aeai?iao i?e?iaeo oai??a, ?iaeea?aeoaeueio
oai?/o iaia?o ienueiaiieea. Cacia/aia iaoa aeiaaa? ae??oaiiy iecee
eiioeaiooaeueii aaaeeeaeo, i?eioeeiiaeo caaea/:

1. Neanoaaoe oa?i?iieia?/io iie?nai?th oeyoii aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iiiyoue
“ineoieia?ci” oa “ooaeiaei?e ineoieia?/iee aiae?c”, iiaeaoe oai?aoe/ia
ia??oiooaaiiy inoaiiueiai;

2. C’ynoaaoe niaoeeo?eo oa?aeoa?o ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co a
caeaaeiino? a?ae eiioaenoo e?oa?aoo?iiai iai?yio oa aeai?iai? i?e?iaee
oai?o;

3. Inieneeoe cia/aiiy e iioaioe?eiee aianie iieniaiai aeaiaioo ai?/ii?
nenoaie a iae?o?o cania?a aenoa?aaioiiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co;

4. Noai?eoe ? aaanoe a iaoeiaee ia?a ieceo oa?i?i?a, ni?aa?aeiinieo ?c
?acoeueoaoaie eiie?aoiiai oaenooaeueiiai aiae?co;

5. I?inoaaeeoe aca?iica’ycie oa aca?iicaeaaei?noue aaeaeaaoiiai
aena?oeaiiy aioo??oiueiai na?oo aa?iy oa oi?iaeueii-no?oeoo?ii?
i?aai?caoe?? oai?o;

6. Nie?ath/enue ia ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, ni?inooaaoe oaco i?i
ae?oai?yaei?noue i?ice O.Oaa/aiea, iiaeaoe ia’?eoeaio oi/eo ci?o.

Aa?oi cacia/eoe, ui cai?iiiiiaaia ?iaioa ia noaiiaeoue ni?iae ae/a?iiiai
aeine?aeo on?o iayaieo iaoiae?a oa a?aeiia?aeieo cania?a nenoaie
ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co Oaa/aieiai? i?ice – aeoeaio c?iaeaii ia oeiiaeo,
cana?ae/aieo a?eueo?noth oai??a, ae??oaeueii aaaeeeaeo aeaiaioao oe???
nenoaie. Naia oiio eiaeia ie?aia iia?noue ye aeiaa?oaia aaoiiiiia
oe?e?ni?noue iiaea noaoe ia’?eoii naiino?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c
a?aeiia?aeiei aeiiiaiaiiyi oai?aoe/iiai niaeo?o i?iaeaie.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe??. Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeai?
eiai caaaeaiiyi, niaoeeo?eith iaoa??aeo oa noaiii oai?aoe/iiai
inieneaiiy i?iaeaie. Aeena?oaio iineoaiaoaaany noeoii?noth oaeeo
iaoiae?a, ye: ineoieia?/iee, ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iee,
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, eiiieaenii-nenoaiiee ?c eiie?aoiei
oaenooaeueiei aiae?cii. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? iaoeia?
i?aoe? c i?iaeai ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co, oaa/aieiciaa/?
nooae?? ??cieo /an?a oa oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaoeee ie?aieo
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo eaoaai??e: I.A?eaoeueeiai, O.Aauoe, I.Aa?aothe,
I.Aieeinueeiai, E.A?icao?a, I.A?eoethoe, O.Aeaieniai?. ?.Aeaienthea,
N.Aeiooianueeiai, I.Caeoeaaa, ?.Ee?eethea, I.Eiaeaea, E.Eiaeaoeueei?,
I.Eiienueeiai, I.Eioethaeinueei?, I.E?oo?eiai?, I.Eanei-Eooethe,
A.Eaneea, A.Iao?oiueiiea, A.Iaa?ioeueeiai, I.Ia?iea, ?.Iaoe?ea,
I.Iaea?/aiea, I.Iioaai?, A.?oa/aea, ?.Naiai/oea, A.Neioey, I.O?ai/aiea,
?.O?aiea, I.Oaa?iyi oa ?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny iinoaiiaeith i?iaeaie o aeaio
aniaeoao: oai?aoe/iiio (aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iiiyoue “ineoiaiae?c”,
“ineoieia?ci”, “ooaeiaei?e ineoieia?/iee aiae?c” oa ia??oiooaaiiy
inoaiiueiai ye oa?i?ia) ? i?aeoe/iiio (aia?oa ?icaeyaeathoueny iia?no?
O.Oaa/aiea c oi/ee ci?o ia?aaeeaie ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai
aiae?co). Cae?eniaia ni?iaa oe?e?niiai, eiie?aoii oaenooaeueiiai aiae?co
Oaa/aieiai? i?ice, yea ? neeaaeiith, ?ioa??iaaiith o
caaaeueii-?a?iiaenueeee ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iee i?ioean OIO no. e
aiaeii/an aeeaiei iaoe?iiaeueiith, iicia/aiith no?aoaa??th aaoi?nueei?
i?enooiino?, nenoaiith ?c ae?acieie iciaeaie aeai?iai? aaiethoe?? ia
??ai? oi?iaeueii-no?oeoo?ieo oa oaiaoe/ieo aeie?a. Ca?aeii ?c
?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ii aiioeaiaaii e aaaaeaii a oaeno
aeena?oaoe?? iia? iiiyooy (?io?iniaeoeaiee ineoieia?/iee aiae?c,
iaecaae-ii??aiyiiy, iaecaae-ai?oao, iaecaae-iaoaoi?a), ui nooo?ai
aaeineiiaeeoue oa?i?iieia?/io ia?aaeeaio aeacaii? i?iaeaie.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iao?aaeeoe?eiee
i?aeo?ae aei Oaa/aieiaeo iia?noae aeiiiaieoue oaa/aieiciaa/? nooae??
ye?nii iiaeie ?ioa?i?aoaoe?yie, ni?eyoeia iiooeia? i?ea?iaeueieo
iaoiaeee oa eiioeaioe?e. O ?ic??c? cacia/aii? i?iaeaie ia?niaeoeaiei oa
aeioe?eueiei aeaea?oueny canoinoaaiiy ie?aneaieo oai?aoe/ieo iinooeao?a
aeey aiae?co i?iciaiai ianeao oe?a?inueei? ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? i?i/eoai?
aeiiia?ae? ia: 1. Oa?e?anuee?e i?aeaoc?anuee?e iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? (15 – 16 o?aaiy 1996 ?.); 2. I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oa?an Oaa/aiei ? no/ani?noue” (??aia,
21 o?aaiy 1996 ?.); 3. I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “?aai O?aiei
– ienueiaiiee, ieneeoaeue, a?iiaaeyiei”, i?enay/ai?e 140-??//th a?ae
aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy ?.O?aiea) (Euea?a, 25 – 29 aa?aniy 1996 ?.); 4.
Iaoeiaeo /eoaiiyo ia iioaio Oaio?ey Eiia?eioey (Euea?a, 1997); 5.
Anaoe?a?inueeiio iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? “Oaiiiai oaenoiaino? o no/ani?e
eoeueoo??” (Euea?a, 1997 ?.); 6. I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
“Neaayineea eoeueoo?u a eiioaenoa ie?iaie” (I?inuee, 18 – 20 eenoiiaaea
1997 ?.); 7. I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? iai’yo? i?ioani?a
Einoyioeia O?ioeiiae/a (Euea?a, 1 – 3 ea?oiy 1998 ?.). 8. I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueea o?eieia?y: oeiee, iinoao?, i?iaeaie”
(Euea?a, 25 – 28 aeiaoiy 1998 ?.). Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy e iiaiee oaeno
aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?ai? ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e
?iai? aeaaeai?ea Ieoaeea Aiciyea Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Ca?aeii c i?iaeaiaoeeith aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiie?aoieie
caaaeaiiyie e eia?eith aeeeaaeo aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? Anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a oa Aeniiae?a e aeeeaaeaia ia 212 noi??ieao (c ieo 183
noi??iee iniiaiiai oaenoo). Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 293
iiceoe??.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue, iaoo e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy,
c’yniaaii iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiy ?iaioe.

?ICAe?E 1. Ooaeiaei?e ineoieia?/iee aiae?c: oai?aoe/iee oa ?noi?e/iee
aniaeoe. I?iaeaia ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co – iaeia c
aaaiieo, iaeiae oai?aoe/ii iaaeinoaoiuei aiioeaiaaieo i?iaeai no/aniiai
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa. Iacaaaeath/e ia /eiaeee ia?ae?e nooae?e, ??cieo ca
ianyaii oa ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?aei?noue o aecia/aii? oeueiai
iiiyooy a?aenooiy ?, ye iane?aeie, a?aenooi? oa?i?i oa a?aeiia?aeia
aeao?i?oe?y o e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo neiaieeao oa aioeeeeiiaae?yo. Ua a?eueo
ia?aaeienaeueiei aeaea?oueny oaeee noai ?a/ae, eiee caaaeeii ia
o?iiieia?/i? iaae? i?iaeaie, aaeaea ia?oei ua ia ii/aoeo noie?ooy aaeea
oea iiiyooy ?.O?aiei. Ii??aithth/e Na?aaioaniaiai “Aeii E?oioa” ?c
I?ea?eeii Ae?eeaina, “Im Reih und Gleid” Oi?eue?aaaia, “Mis(rables”
A?eoi?a Athai, “Germinal” Ciey, “Cei/eiii oa ea?ith” O.Aeinoi?anueeiai,
e?eoee aeoeaiooaaa oaaao ia a?aei?iiinoyo ooaeiaeiuei-ineoieia?/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee: “…?ioa?ane iniaenoi? ineoieia?? aa?i?a eieinaeueii
?ic?ineenue ? ?icoe?eeenue, – eiinoaooaaa aaoi?, – iana?aaoe?y aeania
iaeae??ai?oeo iiya, ?oo?a ? a?ae?oo?a aeoo? c?iaeeany aac ii??aiyiiy
noa?aii?oith e aaaaooith. Aacnia?oia aa?o?noue oeo ienueiaiiee?a a
aeeaei? oa oiieino? ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co (eo?nea iao. – I.Ae.), a o?e
iaioeai?e yniici?ino? a noa?? iaeoaii?oeo aeeaei ethaenueei? aeoo?, a
cian?i ia a ?o a?iiaaenueeeo nioe?ieia?/ieo iiaeyaeao”. Ia’?eoeaii
ie?aneeaoe ia?aaeoiiae e?oa?aoo?iiai “?iceaaeaey”, iaeaaaeeea?o?
caaaeaiiy ineoieia?/ieo iana?aaoe?e e?oa?aoo?e e?ioey OIO – ii/aoeo OO
no., ?.O?aiei cai?iaaaeea o iaoeiaee ia?a iiiyooy ineoieia?/iiai
aiae?co, i?ioa oa?i?iieia?/ii? /?oeino? ia iaaoei aiii e aein?. Co/aniee
noai i?iaeaie ia ??ai? eiie?aoieo niinoa?aaeaiue aeiaaa? ia?aaaaeaiiy ??
c eeano i?aeoe/ii-aeiiii?aeieo o ?ic?yae iaoiaeieia?/ii-naiino?eieo. O
ca’yceo c oeei aaaaeaee ca iaiao?aeia iiaeaoe o ?iaio? oai?aoe/io
iioeaaoe?th cacia/aiiai oa?i?ia.

Oai?aoe/ia iioeaaoe?y oa?i?ia. I?ioean ia?aoiaeo iaoeiaiai iiiyooy o
naiino?eio oa?i?iieia?/io iaeeieoeth, ye i?aaeei, neeaaeiee oa
nai???aeii aeoeaioiaaiee ia?aaeoiiaaie. Niaoeeo?ea oai?aoe/ii?
iioeaaoe?? iiiyooy “ineoieia?/iee aiae?c” iieyaa? o e?eueeio aniaeoao:
1. C iaoith oieeiaiiy oa?i?iieia?/ii? iie?nai?? ne?ae onoiooe
iiii?i?/iee oa?aeoa? iiiyoue e ?iciaaeoaaoe “ineoiaiae?c” ye
a?aeaaeoaeaiiy i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ii? iaoee i?i ineoieia?th oai?/ino? oa
“ooaeiaei?e ineoieia?/iee aiae?c” ye e?oa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/io i?iaeaio; 2.
Ine?eueee no/ania oai?aoe/ia aeoiea iineoaiao?oueny iaeii/anii oa?i?iaie
“ineoieia?ci” oa “ineoieia?/iee aiae?c” e aeei?enoiao? ?o iae/ano?oa ye
??aiiaaeee?, iaiao?aeii aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe cacia/ai? iiiyooy ca noa?ith
aaeeaaiiy oa eaene/iith i?e?iaeith, c’ynoaaoe oa?aeoa? ???a?o?/ieo
ca’yce?a. Caaaeath/e ia ia?aio iaoiaeeeo, a iniia? yei? i?eioeei
aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai caia?a/aiiy, nei?enoaeenue iaoiaeii a?ae
noi?ioeaiiai, iineoaiaoth/enue eiino?oeoe??th: “Ooaeiaei?e ineoieia?/iee
aiae?c ia oioiaeiee…”

Ioiae, ii-ia?oa, ooaeiaei?e ineoieia?/iee aiae?c ia oioiaeiee
ineoiaiae?cia?. Ine?eueee aiae?c ye iaoeiaa yaeua ia? iaai? eiinoaioe,
ni?iaoaaee aecia/eoe eiai noa’?eo, ia’?eo ? oa?aeoa? c a?aeiia?aeiith
i?iaeoe??th ia oa?i?iieia?/io nenoaio oa iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe.
Niinoa?aaeaiiy oeeo iaoeiaeo eaoaai??e ioi?ieeenue o oaaeeoeth:

INEOIAIAE?C OOAeIAEI?E INEOIEIA?*IEE

AIAE?C

NOA’?EO OA IA’?EO AeINE?AeAEAIIss

(ooi cae?enith? aiae?c? ui ? eiai i?aaeiaoii?)

Ineoiaiae?oee aiae?co? ooaeiaei?e oa?? ye aeya ineoio?ce/ii?
i?aai?caoe?? aaoi?a Aaoi? aiae?co?

(?iceeaaea? e iieiiiiiaioii

aeine?aeaeo?) ineoieia?th ia?niiaaea

OA?AEOA?, OA?I?IE

Iaoeiaee

Oa?i?ie: noae?iaoe?y, iaaea na?aeiiino? (ii??a na?aeiiino?) ciai?oiy,
e?a?aei, eiiieaen Ooaeiaei?e

Oa?i?ie: ?ioa?aaioiee, aenoa?aaioiee ineoieia?/iee aiae?c; aioo??oiy
iiaa

(Aeaienthe ?.); aeeiai?/iee, oeiieia?/iee, aiae?oe/iee (O?ai/aiei I.,
Iao?oiueiiae A.); iiae?eiee, aiae?oe/iee, neioaoe/iee (Eiaeae I.)

?ACOEUeOAO

?a?no? iaoai?ci?a

iaona?aeiiethaaii? ineo?ee aaoi?a Ineoieia?/ii aiioeaiaaiee,

oe?e?niee ooaeiaei?e ia?ac

Ii-ae?oaa, ineoieia?/iee aiae?c ia oioiaeiee ineoieia?ciia?.

Iie?ooieoe?iiaeueia i?e?iaea neiaioai?/i? ii?oaie (noo?ena -?ci)
ni?e/eieeany aei iie?naiaioe/iiai oa?aeoa?o ooai?aii? eaene/ii?
iaeeieoe?, e iiaeaii aiai?eoe uiiaeiaioa i?i o?e cia/aiiy iiiyooy
“ineoieia?ci” ni?aa?aeiinii ?c a?aeiia?aeiei cia/aiiyi noo?ena: 1.
Aano?aeoia iiiyooy; 2. ?iaiaioia aeanoea?noue ienoaoeoaa caaaeii,
anoaoe/ia eiinoaioa ienoaoeoaa neiaa cie?aia. 3. Iciaea yeino? –
iiaeeaeaia cia?aaeaiiy ineo?/ieo yaeu, aeooaaieo ia?aaeeaaiue,
ineoieia?ci ye anoaoe/iee i?eioeei oai?o (oaaoea o oaeeo oai?ao
caniiaaia ia ia ciai?oi?o ia?eiao?yo, a ia eie?c?? aioo??oiueiai na?oo,
ui niaoeeo?/ii ?aoeaeno? ia ioi/aiiy). I?ae oeeie iiiyooyie o ?iaio?
?icoi?ee: ineoieia?ci – ?iaiaioia aeanoea?noue ienoaoeoaa neiaa
niia?uaoe aeaui i?i aioo??oi?e na?o ethaeeie; ooaeiaei?e ineoieia?/iee
aiae?c – iaoiae iieiiiiiaioiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ineo?/ieo noai?a,
i?ioean?a, aeanoeainoae, caeiiii??iinoae ?o i?iya?a oa ?icaeoeo caniaaie
ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e.

Oai?aoe/ia ia?aaeeaia: niiniae, i?eeiie oa caniae ooaeiaeiueiai
ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co. O i?iaeai? ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co
no/ania e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai noi?ioaaei e?eueea aeueoa?iaoeaieo oi/ie
ci?o. Iaea?eueo naiino?eieie, eeane/ieie ?, cie?aia, aea? c ieo –
eiioeaioe?? I.A.O?ai/aiea oa ?.I.Aeaienthea. Ine?eueee cai?iiiiiaai?
I.A.O?ai/aieii niiniae ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co (aeeiai?/iee,
oeiieia?/iee, aiae?oe/iee) iani?aaae? ? eeoa ie?aieie eiai ??ciiaeaeaie
e ia noaiiaeyoue aii?yaeeiaaii? oe?e?niino?, oey eeaneo?eaoe?y iio?aao?
ooi/iaiue, a oiio aeaea?oueny iai?eaeaoiith aeey ianooiieo aeine?ae?a.
?noioii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iiia?aaeiuei? ia?o ca ana aecia/aiei
ia?oiaeaiaioii e /?oeith oa?i?iieia?/iith nenoaiith eiioeaioe?y
ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co ?.I.Aeaienthea. Iaoeiaaoeue
i?iiiio? oa?i?ie “?ioa?aaioiee” niin?a ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co oa
“aenoa?aaioiee”.

Caii/aoeiaaiee ia?iaeii-iiaoe/iith o?aaeeoe??th, inieneaiee iiaoeeith
i?ina?oieoeoaa e naioeiaioae?cio, aenoa?aaioiee ineoieia?/iee aiae?c
o?iiieia?/ii icia/aiee ia?oith iieiaeiith OIO no. a?aeoai?th? aioo??oi?e
na?o iiaith ciai?oi?o iciae, ienueiaiiee o?eno? eeoa ciai?oi?e
?acoeueoao aioo??oiueiai i?ioeano. Aieiaiei ia?niiaaeai ?ioa?aaioiiai
ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co ? ia ?acoeueoao, a i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee,
ui eiio ia?aaeoaaee – ia no?eueee aaaeeeaa iiae?y, ne?eueee noiaai?
iaoai?cie ineo?ee, ui ?? coiiaeee. Ioiae, caaaeaiiy ienueiaiieea –
caniaaie ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e iio?aeooaaoe oi?ie e caeiie
aioo??oiueiai i?ioeano – ae?aeaeoeeo aeoo?. Eiee ae a iniiao iiae?eo
iieeanoe niaoeeo?eo noa’?eo-ia’?eoieo a?aeiioaiue, iaiao?aeii aiai?eoe
i?i aiae?c a?aeaaoi?nueeee oa ?io?iniaeoeaiee. “Oie /e ?ioee aioo??oi?e
noai, – cacia/a? I.Aaoo?i, – ye /aniaa e i?inoi?iaa oe?ea iiaea
eiie?aoecoaaoenue o aeaio ??cieo eaoaai??yo. Aai o ieiuei? y-aeey-naaa,
eiee oea ii? ia?aaeeaaiiy, aai o ieiuei? ?ioee-aeey-iaia ye aioo??oi?e
noai eiie?aoii? ?ioi? ethaeeie”.

O ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaee aea? (?c cacia/aieo aeua) eiioeaioe??, ca yeeie
ooaeiaei?e ineoieia?/iee aiae?c iiae?ey?ii: 1) ca oa?aeoa?ii
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aioo??oiueiai e ciai?oiueiai o ineo?oe?: aenoa?aaioiee
(aioo??oi? /a?ac ciai?oi?), ?ioa?aaioiee (aioo??oi? o aioo??oiueiio); 2)
ca niaoeeo?eith noa’?eo-ia’?eoieo a?aeiioaiue: a?aeaaoi?nueeee (noa’?eo
– aaoi?, ia’?eo – aa?ie), ?io?iniaeoeaiee (y-aeey-naaa aa?iy: aa?ie –
noa’?eo ? ia’?eo, y-aeey-naaa aaoi?a: aaoi? – noa’?eo ? ia’?eo, iniaeeai
aaaeeeaee o oai?ao aaoia?ia?ao?/iiai oa?aeoa?o).

Ianooiia i?iaeaia ineoieia?/iiai ??aiy iiaoeee – i?iaeaia i?eeii?a oa
cania?a ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co. ? ooo iaiao?aeii aiai?eoe
i?i oai?aoe/io ???a?o?th, ca caeiiaie yei? niiniae e a?aeiia?aei? caniae
aiae?co i?iaeeeoiaai? oi?iaeueiei eiai oa?aeoa?ii. Oa?aeoa?iei i?eeiiii
aenoa?aaioiiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co ? ciai?oiy iiaa, ci???ioiaaia ia
iiene, aeanoe oa a/eiee aa?i?a, ae?aeia; i?eeii ?ioa?aaioiiai – ?icaeoie
aa?iy, ieeii?noue na?aeiiino? – aioo??oi?e iiiieia (aioo??oiy iiaa).
Ia?aaeeaia niinia?a, i?eeii?a oa cania?a ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co o
ooaeiaeiueiio oai?? coiiaeaia o?ueiia iniiaieie oaeoi?aie: 1)
?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iei eiioaenoii, 2) aeai?iaith i?e?iaeith oai?o, 3)
?iaeea?aeoaeueiith oai?/ith iaia?ith ienueiaiieea.

1.3. ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iee eiioaeno. Ooaeiaeiy e?oa?aoo?a caaaeaee
i???iooaaeany ia aeaeea?iaaio anoaoe/iith na?aeii?noth aeiae
eiioeaioe?th ethaeeie, ? niiniae a?aeoai?aiiy eie?c?e aioo??oiueiai
na?oo coiiaeai? ?noi?e/ii aecia/aiei iiaeyaeii ia nooue oa iaoai?cie
ethaenueei? i?e?iaee. Aa?i?a aioe/iino? oa na?aaeiueia?//y ni?eeia?ii ye
neiaiee, aea ia ye aeeaeo ethaeae. Ia?o? aeaooe ii/ooo?a, /e, neacaoe a,
?o a?aeia?aaeaiiy ciaeaeaii o eeaneea A?ae?iaeaeaiiy – Oaeni??a, aea oe?
ia?o? ii/oooy aoee niiioaiieie ? aeey aa?i?a, ? aeey aaoi?a, oiio
caeaaaeeny ?aaeoa iaeiiaioiaaieie i?iyaaie iaoo?e, i?ae ni?iaaie
eia?/ieo iana?aaoe?e. Aiae? ooeaoe ineoieia?/ieo eie?c?e o ia?niiaae?a
aiioe eeaneoeecio. Eiioeaioe?y Aoaei i?i ethaeeio ieney/o, i?eioeei
?aoe?iiae?cio oa ii?iaoeaiino? – iieiaeaiiy ianoi?ni? ?c aioo??oiueith
eiioeaioe??th ineoieia?cio. I?iaieioaiee i?ina?oeoaeyie eoeueo “?aoe?i”
aae i?ye ia ni?aa?aeiiniee ?c ineoieia??th, iaeiaio ?aoe?iiaeueiei
iiiyooyi c on?o ?ioeo. C oaeeie ineoieia?/ieie i???ioe?aie, a, oi/i?oa,
ca ?o a?aenooiino?, ooaeiaeiy e?oa?aoo?a c?iaeea e?ie o a?e OIO. Caiaeii
ae?aeaeoe/iee caeii caia?a/aiiy-caia?a/aiiy ia?aoai?ea i?aaiaiiy aeeanoe
ethaeeio a /?oe? aaiiao?e/i? o?ao?e o aaaeaiiy inieneeoe neeaaeio
ineoieia?/io iieai?eo. Ia?iaeaeoth/enue ia oa?aiao I?ina?oieoeoaa oa
naioeiaioae?cio, ?iiaioeci oniaaeeoaaa a?ae ia?oiai aeeaeaeoeeo, a?ae
ae?oaiai – oaaao aei na?oo ia?aaeeaaiue. Iiaioaaaoe oaoi?eo
ineoieia?/ieo nooae?e naioeiaioae?cio, ?iiaioeci iiaea?i?coaaa ?? ia?o
ca ana uiaei ia’?eoa aeine?aeaeaiue. sseui “o i?ina?oeoaeuenuee?e
e?oa?aoo?? … ienueiaiiee noaaea ieoaiiy ? a?aeiia?aeaa ia ieo, o
?iiaioeci? nai???aeiei “ieoaiiyi” ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee na?o ethaeeie,
yeee ia iiaeia o?aeooaaoe iaeiicia/ii”.

Eiioaeno aeai?o. Aeey eiioeaioe?? ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co
eiioaeno aeai?o ia iaio aaaeeeaee, ai?ae eiioaeno noeeth.
E?oa?aoo?iciaaoe? iaiaeii?aciai a?aecia/aee ?ooii? iaae? ai?/iiai
aeai?iai-ineoieia?/iiai ae?aiaciio, ?ic??ciyth/e aeai?e c ??ciei
ineoieia?/iei iioaioe?aeii oa a?aeiia?aeieie oi?iaeueieie iciaeaie
ineoieia?/ieo nooae?e. Iia?noue, iiia?aeaiiy oa iiaaea aeoe?? (ae??)
aeei?enoiaothoue, ye i?aaeei, aenoa?aaioiee ineoieia?/iee aiae?c
(aioo??oi? /a?ac ciai?oi?). Iiaaeo iano?ith (ioi/aiiy) iaceaa?ii ua
?ioa?aaioiith, ine?eueee niin?a aiae?co ooo a?aeiia?aea? iiaeae?
“aioo??oi? o aioo??oiueiio”. ?iiai, ia caia?a/oth/e aaniethoii
aenoa?aaioiee ineoieia?/iee aiae?c, oe?iei canoiniao? aioo??oi?e
iiiieia, ieeii?noue na?aeiiino? – aioo??oith iiao.

?icae?e 2. I?e?iiiaoeea iieno a nenoai? aenoa?aaioiiai ineoieia?/iiai
aiae?co i?ice O.Oaa/aiea. O ia?aaeeai? i?eeii?a oa cania?a ineoieia?/ieo
nooae?e i?ice O.Oaa/aiea aeii?io? ciai?oiy iiaa aenoa?aaioiiai
ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co. *e ia iaee?aua oeae niin?a iana?aaoe?e
aioo??oiueiai na?oo a?aeoai?ththoue ??ciiiai?oi? aeeiai?/i? e
aeooae?ciaai?, iie?ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiene. Iiaeeo?eaoe?? ai?/ieo
ianooaa?a i?ice i?iaeoothoue iie?oii?/i? iienia? ia?niaeoeae. Ia iaioa,
a /anii a?eueoa aeeiai?/iee, ai?ae naia iiia?aeue, iien aaniethoii
iaiao?aeiee aeey iiaiioe ineoieia?/ii? ea?oeie. Iica oei, aaoaioe/ii
aeeaiienia eiie?aoeea ia?aco, ui o aecia/aieo oi?iao oa i?iii?oe?yo
?aaeueii ?nio? o /anii?inoi??, aeaeaei ia caaaeaee aeine?aeaeo?oueny c
ineoieiai-aiae?oe/ii? oi/ee ci?o – ineoieia?/ia oai??y iieno ?ic?iaeaia
ua iaaeinoaoiuei.

Ii?o?ao. Ienoaoeoai ii?o?aoii? oa?aeoa?enoeee o i?ic? O.Oaa/aiea ao?eth?
ae?aeaeoe/io ?aei?noue aioo??oiueiai na?oo aa?iy oa eiai ciai?oiino?.
Iath/e ia iao? cia?aceoe ethaeeio ye iniaeno?noue o an?e ?? neeaaeiino?
oa noia?a/eeaino? ? aiaeii/an aioo??oi?e aa?iii?? oa ??aiiaac?,
ienueiaiiee, aacia?a/ii, aeei?enoiao? naoe?e/iee, aoii?enoe/iee oa ?i.
ii?o?aoe, i?ioa, iae?ath/e oeyo iiaeeaeaiiy ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co,
aaoi? a?aeaea? ia?aaaao iienai ?c ae?acieie ineoieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie.

2.1.1. Ii?o?ao – a?aaeaiiy. Iaeiei c iaea?eueo aeni?aneaieo ii?o?ao?a,
iienii ciai?oiino? c ae??aei ineoieia?/iei iioaioe?aeii ?
ii?o?ao-a?aaeaiiy (ii?o?ao-aeni?an?y). O ii??aiyii? c a?oa?/ii
noaoe/iei, ?ac ? iacaaaeaee ae??oaiei ii?o?aoii, o yeiio ia iien
iaeaaeeoue aa?i?a?, a aa?ie iienia?, ii?o?ao-a?aaeaiiy ia? ieceo
iacaia?a/ieo ia?aaaa, ine?eueee:

ii-ia?oa, aeicaiey? oieeiooe aeaoaeueii iioe?aieo iien?a, a?aeiaeoe
aeii?iaioo, ui i?iaeoo? aioo??oi?e na?o aa?iy;

ii-ae?oaa, caaaeath/e ia oa, ui ciai?oi?noue eeoa “cae?i?ii”, aaoi?
caeeoa? ca niaith i?aai o oiae? ?iciia?ae? aeiaeaaaoe ianooii? oo?eoe,
i?aai ianooiiiai naaino, i?noea yeiai aeaeaei iaaeiaaeeiaa;

ii-o?ao?, ii?o?ao-a?aaeaiiy – aecia/aiee eoo ci?o, ui ia? aia?a?th
cai?ioii? ae??” (Aauoe O.) oa?aeoa?eco? uiiaeiaioa aeaio aa?i?a – ia’?eo
oa noa’?eo iieno. Ii?o?aoia ae??oaiiy eiioeaioe?? ?iiaioe/iiai
aeaina?ooy niinoa??aa?ii o aeaio Oaa/aieiaeo iia?noyo. Ii?o?ao Noaiaia
Ia?oeiiae/a (“Aeeciaoeu”) oa Aeeia Ooiaia (“Eaieoaioa”) – aeni?aneai?
iiene, a yeeo ia eeoa noaoeea (aa?ie no/aniee, o aecia/aio oaeeeio), aea
e iioa?ii?, i?eoiaai? iaoai?cie ethaenueei? ineo?ee. Ca nthaeaoiith
noaiith ?iiaio aeoiaaiiy ia?ac ianoaaieea i?eeiaoiee aioeoacith, ui
?aae?coaaeanue o ia?aaeien? ia?an?/ii? ciai?oiino? aa?iy oa
o?einionueeiai iioaioe?aeo eiai aioo??oiueiai ?noaa. O iia?no?
“Iocueaio” iaea?eueo aiioeaiaaiee, iiaeaiee o neeaaeiiio ineoieia?/iiio
c??c? ia?ac ne?eiaey Oa?ana. Eaeoiioeaii na??? ii?o?aoieo ia/a?e?a, ui
i?iaeoothoue aeii?iaioo ineoio?ce/ii? i?aai?caoe?? aa?iy ? a?ieii/aeue
ye neiaie aaee/iiai ienoaoeoaa oa na?aaoea iaaeiei ?oee ye a?/iee oaooi
e??iaoeoaa. Aeeiai?ee ii?o?aoia?-a?aaeaiith aeiaea? e oa, ui aa?i?
cia?aaeothoueny o ?on?, i?eeiaoiith iciaeith yeiai ? oa?aeoa?, ui
aecia/a? nai???aeiee niaeo? iano?i?a, ie?aneth? neiaie?eo aioo??oiuei?
eia?ee ia?aco.

2.1.2. Ii?o?ao-aeaoaeue c oi/ee ci?o ineoieiai-aiae?oe/ii? ia iaio
aaaeeeaee, ai?ae ii?o?ao-a?aaeaiiy, i?ioa iioeae eiai aeei?enoaiiy e
i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae aeaui ?io?.

Ii-ia?oa, iae?ath/e ii?o?ao-a?aaeaiiy, ienueiaiiee caeeoa? ca niaith
i?aai ianooiieo naain?a – oa, ui ia aeaeea?oaaa ia?oee ia/a?e, iiaeia
“aeiiaethaaoe” caiaeii. Oaoi?ea ineoieia?/ii? ii?o?aoii? aeaoae? oeueiai
ia ia?aaeaa/a?. Aaoi? iiaea iaiaeii?aciai iiaa?oaoeny aei ia?a?nii?
ea?oeie, iiaeaaaoe ?? o iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?yo, aea ia
aeiaeaaaoe iia? oo?eoe. Ia ia?oee iiaeyae, neiioeaio?iaaiee a iaei?e
aeaoae?, iien ??cei caoaeo?oueny, i?ioa oea cian?i ia oae. Ae?acia
ineoieia?/ia aeaoaeue iani?aaae? ia iaiaaeo? iioaioe?ae ii?o?aoa, a
o?ao?o? ye aeo?aeiee ioieo oai?aiiy, ii/aoie aaeoi?a, ni?yiiaaiiai o
aioo??oi?e na?o aa?iy;

ii-ae?oaa, yeui ii?o?ao-a?aaeaiiy, ye i?aaeei, caae?yiee aei
oa?aeoa?enoeee oeaio?aeueieo ia?niiaae?a, ii?o?ao-aeaoaeue ?
oi?aa?naeuei?oei, ine?eueee ie?aneth? ? oeaio?aeueieo aa?i?a, ?
ai?ciaee/ieo. *anii ii?o?ao-aeaoaeue iana iiaea?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy,
ine?eueee ? i?eeiaoiei ia eeoa aeey ai?ciaee/iiai aa?iy, aea e iiaea?
ii?o?ao oeaio?aeueiiai e??cue i?ecio ai?ciaee/iiai;

ii-o?ao?, ni?eueiith aeey iaio oei?a ii?o?aooaaiiy ? aia?a?y cai?ioii?
ae?? sse ? ii?o?ao-a?aaeaiiy, ii?o?ao-aeaoaeue ie?aneth? ia’?eo ?
noa’?eo iieno.

O i?ic? O.Oaa/aiea ii?o?ao-aeaoaeue i???ioiaaiee ia no?eueee ia ae?ac
iaee//y caaaeii, ne?eueee ia iiaeyae oa iini?oeo, ui ia eeoa
aeiiiaiththoue ii?o?ao, a e ? naiiaeinoaoi?ie eiiiiiaioaie nenoaie
a?aeoai?aiiy( cia?aaeaiiy(ae?aaeaiiy. O iine?aeiaiino? i?ene?aiee?a, ui
noi?iaiaeaeothoue ae?th Ia??? Oaaei??aie Oethi?ii? (“Ian/anoiue”)
“oeuaioeanue aaeaa caiaoii… eoeaai… ceiaii… eiaa?ii”
i?inoaaeo?oueny aeeiai?ea oa?aeoa?o. A?ae eaaeue iii?oii? aei
i?aenooiii? – oae ci?ith?oueny ae?ac iaee//y aa?i?i?, e aioo??oi?e na?o
aaeaeaaoiee ?? ciai?oiino?. Ia?ac Ia??? Oa?anaae/ (“Iocueaio”) –
i?ea?iaeueia aa?n?y iaei??? c iaeae?aiaoe/i?oeo oai o oai?/ino?
O.Oaa/aiea – i?iaeaie iie?eoee. Ii?o?ao aa?i?i? oaae i?eeiaoiee eaaeue
iii?oiith iini?oeith, i?ioa ae??ciy? eiai cian?i ?ioa
ineoieia?/ii-nieneiaa iaiiaiaiiy, ui neiaie?co? o?aaaae?th caac/auaii?
ae?iee, ia?aae?ciaaiiai ieooey, niethiae?iaaiiai oaeaioo. *eiaei
aa??aio?a oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e niinoa??aa?ii e oai, aea ineoieia?/ia
naiaioeea ia?aco a?aeoai?aia a i/ao aa?iy. Ii?o?aoia oa?aeoa?enoeea, a
ye?e, ca eaiiiaie naioeiaioae?cio, i?iaeyaea? iiaa iiaeyae?a ye iiaa
ii/ooo?a, aoea aeineoue iioe?aiith o oai?ao ?iiaioee?a, a?eueoa oiai –
/anii eeoa oe??th iiaith iiaeaii iio?aeooaaoe neeaaei? ineoieia?/i?
i?ioeane e neooaoe??.

2.2. Iaecaae. O oai?ao ai?/ieo iiene ciai?oiino? noi?iaiaeaeothoueny,
aeiiiaiththoueny, oneeaaeiththoueny iie?naiaioe/ieie, aeeiai?/ieie
iienaie i?e?iaee. Iaecaae – iaa?ae’?iia, iaia’yceiai aeoeaia /anoea
i?e?iiiaoeee iieno. Iinooi ineoieia?/ieo iana?aaoe?e iiaeaii
niinoa??aaoe o ?ic??c? aaiethoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai caaa?aeaiiy
iaecaaeii? oaoi?ee aiino, ui ?a?no?o?

oeyo a?ae iaeo?aeueii ie?aneaiiai iieno i?e?iaee aei iaecaaeo
?ii?an?ii?noe/iiai, /anii noeneiai, i?ioa iai?i/oae aaaaoicia/iiai. O
nenoai? a?aeiioaiue ethaeeia(i?e?iaea niinoa??aa?ii /eiaei aa??aio?a oa
?ioa?i?aoaoe?e. ?ic??ciythoue “ineoieia?ciaaiee iaecaae” (?.Aeaienthe,
I.Ieoaeuenueeee oa ?i.), “iaecaae ye can?a ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co”
(I.Eiaeae, I.Eo?aeiyi oa ?i.) oa aeania “ineoieia?/iee iaecaae”
(A.Aieothe, TH.Eoci?oeia oa ?i.). Ineoieia?ciaaiee iaecaae
(iaecaae-ia?aeaeue) – neiaie?/ii-i?ici?ee, iiaeeo?eiaaiee ae?ac ii/ooo?a
(ye i?aaeei, iia?o? iiaeaeeth ethaeeia(i?e?iaea, o ye?e ? ia?oee, ?
ae?oaee eiiiiiaioe ??aiicia/i?, /e, iiaith neioaeneno, no?yaei?);
iaecaae o nenoai? ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co oaea ? ia
naiino?eiei aeaiaioii, a i?aeii?yaeeiaaiei (ciaoiaeeoueny o
i?aaeeeaoeaieo a?aeiioaiiyo ?c ineoieia?/iith nooi?noth ethaeeie, ui ?
iciaeith i?ae?yaeiiai ca’yceo). Iaeiae oa?aeoa? oaeiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy
ia caaaeaee ? iaeiaeiaee. Iiae?aii aei i?ae?yaeiiai ?a/aiiy, iien
i?e?iaee aeeiio? iae??ciiiai?oi?o? ooieoe?? – a?ae aeaiaioa?iiai
oeoia/aiiy aei neeaaeiiai anioe?aoeaiiai ae?aiaciio
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a. O caeaaeiino? a?ae neeaaeiino?
aca?iica’yce?a, i?aai?cio ?o aioo??oiuei? iioeaaoe?? e nieneiaiai
iioaioe?aeo, o nenoai? ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co iaecaae? eaae?o?eo?ii ca
o??th ae nenoaiith, ui e ooaeiaei? o?iie (o ii?yaeeo c?inoaiiy
neeaaeiino?): iaecaae-ii??aiyiiy, iaecaae-ai?oao, iaecaae-iaoaoi?a.

2.2.1. Iaecaae-ii??aiyiiy – iaei?ino?oee ca ??aiai anioe?aoeaii?
iiina?aaeeiaaiino? iien i?e?iaee. Aaaeeeai ie?aneeoe o?e aecia/aeueieo
iiiaioe:

ii-ia?oa, cacia/eii, ui ii??aiyiiy ye oaeiai, o iaei?ino?oiio eiai
?icoi?ii? (eiee oi?iaeueii iayai? aeaa eiiiiiaioe) o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia
niinoa??aa?ii; ae?oaee aeaiaio, ui caaaeaee iayaiee o ineoieia?ciaaiiio
iaecaae?, ooo eeoa ia?oueny ia oaac?, e /eoa/ nai aeiaa?oo? eia?/io
o?aco ?icii/aoo aaoi?ii; iaecaae-ii??aiyiiy, caniiaaiee ia aioo??oi?e
anioe?aoe??;

ii-ae?oaa, o ci?noiai?e eiioeaioe?? oai?o oae? iaecaae? iathoue
/anii?inoi?iaa i?ecia/aiiy, ye i?aaeei, ciaoiaeyoueny ia iaae? aeaio
oiiaieo ieiuei: aei iiiaioo iaecaaeii? ae?? ? i?ney ia?, ui aeicaiey?
aeae?eeoe o no?oeoo?iee i?aeoei iaecaae-i?iaiic;

ii-o?ao?, o nenoaio ineoio?ce/ieo iioeaaoe?e iaecaaeo-ii??aiyiiy aaoi?
caeo/a? oa?i?ie e eaoaai??aeuei? iiiyooy noi?aeieo ienoaoeoa, cie?aia
ioceee, aeeaiieno, ui aea? i?aenoaae ?ic??ciyoe iaecaae, inieneaiee
iaoiaeii neioaco ienoaoeoa – iaecaae neie?aoe/iee.

Aioo??oi?e ci?no iaecaaeo Oaa/aieiai? “Iaeiu/ee” ia? ae?aciee
ineoieia?/iee i?aeoaeno. Iiaoaeiaaiee ca iaoiaeii aioo??oi?o ii??aiyiue,
oeae iien eaae?o?eo?ii ye can?a aenoa?aaioiiai (aioo??oi? /a?ac
ciai?oi?) aaoi?nueeiai (ca noa’?eoii) iiina?aaeeiaaiiai iiaith eieuei??a
ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co. I?eeiaoiee aeooae?ciaaiei
/anii?inoi?iaei ae??oaiiyi, caeo/aiiyi iiiyoue noi?aeieo ienoaoeoa,
cie?aia ioceee, aca?iica’yceii ineoieia?? ethaeeie (?ioo?oeaiiai oa
?aaeueiiai) e i?e?iaee ia ??ai? aioo??oi?o anioe?aoe?e, iien ?c
“Aa?iaea” — iaecaae-ia?anoi?iaa – neiaie ao?a/aiiai eioaiiy (ca
iaoai?ciii noa’?eo-ia’?eoieo a?aeiioaiue – can?a ?io?iniaeoeaiiai
(y-aeey-naaa aa?iy) ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co.

2.2.2. Iaecaae-ai?oao. Ca i?eioeeiii anioe?aoeaii? i?aai?caoe?? o
nenoai? aenoa?aaioiiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co iaecaae-ai?oao aeeiio?
?ieue ia?aciiai icia/aiiy, ooieoe?iiaeueia iaoiaeeea yeiai coiiaeea
?a?no? ia?aiao??a, aei yeeo caiaeeoueny niaoeeo?ea oaeeo iien?a. Oea,

ii-ia?oa, ine?eueee iien ia? ia iao? ia?acii iaaieineoe ia o?e /e ?io?e
ineoieia?/i?e eiinoaio?, aanue iaecaae iiaeaii caanoe aei iaeiiai
icia/aiiy, ui eaeoiioeaii cao/eoue oi?iaeiaae onueiai oai?o;

ii-ae?oaa, i?ae iaecaaeai-ai?oaoii cacae/ae ?icoi??ii ia iaeei iien, a
nai???aeiee iieniaee eiiieaen, yeee neeaaea?oueny c aeaio (?ieiee
a?eueoa) iaecaae?a, iia’ycaieo oaiaoeeith oa aoeiieia?/iei eiioaenoii,
ui ?acii oai?youe iiiyo?eiee ae?aiacii iaecaaeii? nenoaie;

ii-o?ao?, caaaeath/e ia caeaoi?noue icia/aiiy a ??cieo eiioaenoao
iia?e?coaaoe a?aeiia?aei? naiaioe/i? aa??aioe, iaecaae-ai?oao oeyoii
aeooae?caoe?? aaeaeaaoiiai naiaioe/iiai ?aeo?no iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee
o e?eueeio oai?ao.

Oaeee iieniaee eiiieaen, ui iiaea? iaecaaeia ae??oaiiy iaeiiai c
aeaeaoe/ieo (A??o ?io) ia?ac?a i?ice O.Oaa/aiea, cono??/a?ii o
“Ian/anoiiio” oa “Aeeciaoeao”. Oi?iaeuei?e i?e?iae? oeueiai no?oeoo?iiai
oeio a?aeiia?aea? oa, ui, aeaeaoe/ia naiaioe/ia iiea iiaeia caanoe aei
?aeeiiai icia/aiiy – “ian/anoiue”. Ie?anethth/e o?c?iiii?th i?noeaaino?,
ia?oee iien neiaie?co? “aeooiaia nionoioaiiy, i?ca?i?noue aeeoo?aeo
?ioa?an?a, aii?aeuei?noue aa?iy”; ae?oaee, “cana?ae/o? ?nioaaiiy caoaieo
oaiaeaioe?e, ui aa?ooue na?e ii/aoie o aeeoeinoa? e i?ecaiaeyoue aei
iioaiiaaii? e?ece ciainiaeaiiy”, ia?aaiaeeoue o?e?aeeio iaecaaeio
nenoaio ?c eeano iieniai-?ethno?aoeaieo o ?ic?yae naiino?eii
iaiao?aeieo. Ioaea, ia?acii-iaecaaeia aeeoioii?y ?icai?oa?oueny o
oe?e?nio eiioeaioe?th ao?a/aii? iniaenoino?.

2.2.3. Iaecaae-iaoaoi?a. Eiee aei eiaeiiai ?c iiia?aaei?o oei?a iiaeaii
ooai?eoe a?aeiia?aeio aeaai?e/io eiino?oeoe?th, neaae?ii,
iaecaae-ii??aiyiiy – noiaeee ia …; iaecaae-ai?oao – oaeee naiee, ye
…, iaecaae-iaoaoi?a iiae?aii? eaeii?/ii? o?ace ia ooai?th?, ine?eueee
ca ??aiai anioe?aoeaii? i?ae?yaeiino? cia/ii neeaaei?oee. Iaoiaeii
ae??aiai neioaco iaecaae-iaoaoi?a oai?/i o?ainoi?ioaaa i?e?iaeo iaio
neeaaeieo oei?a, yeithnue i??ith ia?aeiya ? ?o niaoeeo?eo, aacia?a/ii,
aeiiiaieaoe ?? iiaeie ?aeo?naie.

Ii-ia?oa, ye ? iaecaae-ii??aiyiiy, iaecaae-iaoaoi?a nai???aeii
caaiaaaeiaaiee o o?iiioii oai?o, i?ioa iien oaea ia i?inoi i?iaiico?
iaeaooi?, a niiioea? aei ae??;

ii-ae?oaa, ye ? iaecaae-ai?oao, oea aeaa e a?eueoa iien?a, i?ioa
iieniaee eiiieaen oaea ia i?inoi aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? iaei??? iia?no?,
aea ? caaaa/aiee eiioaenoii iaecaaeii? eaeneee an??? oai?/ino?
ienueiaiieea;

ii-o?ao?, ca niaoeeo?eith noa’?eo-ia’?eoieo a?aeiioaiue iaecaae-iaoaoi?a
caaaeaee ?io?iniaeoeaiee.

Iaecaae ?c “Aa?iaea” cana?ae/o? ianooiiee ??aaiue ?ioaa?aoe?? iaecaaeo o
aioo??oi?e na?o ethaeeie, ine?eueee ? ia ciai?oi?i noi?iaiaeii
aioo??oiueiai aiae?co, a eiai aaciina?aaei?i caoaeieeii, iaee?aua
aeaeea?o? aaoi?nueeo eiioeaioe?th oaie, o ye?e iiinoa anioe?th?oueny ia
?c ni?aaaaeeeaith ea?ith, a c ua iaeiei aaeanoaii. Na?o Oaa/aieiai?
i?ice – i?ino?? niiaiaiee oe?a?inueeith iiaoeeith, ui aeicaiey?
o?aeooaaoe iiene i?e?iaee o eaoaai??aeueieo iiiyooyo aoiiineoieia??. O
Oaa/aieia?e iia?no? “Eaieoaioa” ineoieia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ae??oaii iaoiaeii c?noaaeaiiy, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny
ia ??ai? iien?a i?e?iaee (neiaie aeiaeaiiai niioeai aaciaaeiiai noaio,
ui i?i?ieoaaa ianeiee ei/?aiee?a, aaceiia/i? a?eie, ?aanoai, neiaie
“ii/oiaie aei?iae”, ui anioe?thaaeany a oya? ienueiaiieea c a?aooii,
aoaiii, aea eiaeai e?ie – e?ie a?ae Oe?a?ie – a?/ia aei?iaa a i?eoaee,
aei aa?ae – ??aei? e aaaeai? ni?aa?o/ecieee). Caei??iaia o
ia?iaeii-iiaoe/io o?aaeeoe?th iaecaaeia neiaie?ea iia?no? aeoi? ?c
uiaeaiieeiaeie caienaie noaiiaeyoue iieniaee eiiieaen iaecaaeo-iaoaoi?e.
?ai?acaioiaaia iaecaaeaie eiioeaioe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai na?oo, i?iaeiaaeo?
o?aaeeoe?th aaia?ao?/iiai aeaoa?i?i?cio (Iiioane’?). Ci?noiaiee ?a?no?
iaecaae?a a?ae neiaie?/ii-i?ici?eo iien?a aei iie?ooieoe?iiaeueieo,
aaaaoinooiaiaaeo ea?oei i?e?iaee, caaaa/aiee aioo??oi?i ineoieia?/iei
iioaioe?aeii.

Na?aae o?aaeeoe?eieo niinia?a oa a?aeiia?aeieo cania?a aenoa?aaioiiai
ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co o i?ic? O.Oaa/aiea iiaeaii iacaaoe ieceo
niaoeeo?/ieo, na?aae yeeo aeni?aneaii caaa?aeaiee, anioe?aoeaii
aaaaoiieiueiiee ?ioa?’??, ui oae /e ?iaeoa aeiiiiaaa? oci?noiaieoe ia
eeoa cia?aaeaiiy, a e ae?aaeaiiy. Aoiinoa?a “eaa?iaoo” aa?iy
“Ian/anoiiai” – i?iiiaenoee ai?eia aei ianooiii? ?iciia?ae?, aeeoo?aa
naioaioe?y aeanieea – ooaeiaeiy aeaoaeue (i?oaiue ia no?i?) aeaiiino?o?
oeyo a?ae ciai?oiueiai i?ei?oea?cio aei aioo??oiueiai, a?ae iieno
e?iiaoe aa?iy aei noo? eiai oa?aeoa?o. Neiaie?/iei ? ia?ac oaeueoeaiai
oeeoa?aeaoa (“I?iaoeea n oaeiaieuenoaeai e ia aac ii?aee”). Ethaeeia
aeeaa ia/a iica /anii, a, c?aooith, ia aeeaa cian?i, ai no??eee
aiaeeiieea a?aoo? ia ?ooathoueny a aeiaeiiio iai?yieo e, ui
iaeaaaeeea?oa, ia aoaeooue ?ooaoeny i?eiee – iaiaeueiaaiee (!) aiaeeiiee
ia iiaeia iieaaiaeeoe. Eiaeia aeaoaeue ?ioa?’??o ?c iia?no? “Aa?iae” –
ie?aiee oo?eo o ea?oei? aeeooy aa?iy, aea c?a?ai? ai?aeeii ?iee e
iiae??, ui i?iaeoothoue i?e?ieini o?iiioiio. O iae?o?? iiae?aiiai
aaaaoinooiaiaaiai ?ioa?’??o ooieoe?iiothoue ?icia?o? ca ?aeaeiei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi aeaiaioe. Iaei? aeineoue i?ici?? e iaeiicia/i?, ?io?
aeii?iaioi?, eiioeaiooaeueii aaaeeea? aeiaaathoue aeiaeaoeiaeo
iiyniaiue, ianooiii? aaoi?nueei? aeaie?aiee. Oae, /e ia iaeaaaeeea?oeie
o e?iiao? aa?iaea ? aea? ?a/? – A?ae?y oa eaeaeaie, ui aeiaa?oothoue
iae?o?o ineoieia?? cei/eio e eayooy. Aaaeeeaei iioeaii o i?ic?
O.Oaa/aiea ? iioea ionoee. sse i?aaeei, ionoeo neiaie?cothoue aaceaae a
inae?, aeaeo? a?eia, iiaeoee iinoae, ?, ui iniaeeai aaaeeeai, ?icaaeaia
i?/ ? niaa, ui aeeaa o i?e. Naia a ia?ac? ia/?, ui iaeaaeeoue aei
iaeaeaai?oeo, iane??cieo neiaie?a oe?a?inueei? iaioaeueiino? ciaeoee
nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ia?iaeo, ui c aeaai?o
aeaaai oaioaaa inaeth. Oaia? ionoea, a eieenue uaneeaa inaey,
neiaie?cothoue ia eeoa caiono?iiy e aaceaae a aeii?aoe?, ionoea ?
neiaieii naiioiino? oiai /e ?ioiai aa?iy.

?icae?e 3. ?io?iniaeoeaiee ineoieia?/iee aiae?c: oaiaeaioe??, iioeae,
?aeo?ne. Aioo??oiuei noia?a/eeaee, oa?iie/ee oa ???aoe?iiaeueiee, a
/anaie aeia?/iee, aa?ie ?iiaioecio aoa noeeueiei oaea aei naiiaiae?co.
I?iaeaia ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co – eiiieaenia e neioaoe/ia.
Aae iaaeaoe neiai aa?i?a?, iaaeinoaoiuei neanoaaoe aaoi?nueeo iiiiiie?th
ia ?iciia?aeue, nooo?ai a?aeiaeoe aaeaeaaoio iiaeaeue iiia?ae? oa
niiniae ?? eiiiiceoe?eii? i?aai?caoe??. Ooaeiaei?e ineoieia?/iee aiae?c
oa oi?iaeueii-no?oeoo?ia i?aai?caoe?y oaenoo ni?aa?aeiinyoueny ye ci?no
oa oi?ia. Oi?iaeueieie /eiieeaie ci?noo ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai
aiae?co ? iiia?aeia iaia?a oai?o oa eiai eiiiiceoe?eia aoaeiaa. O
ooaeiaei?e no?oeoo?? iia?noae O.Oaa/aiea eaeii?/i? naioaioe??
a?aeaaoi?nueeiai aiae?co aeiiiaiththoueny e ooi/iththoueny iciaeaie
aiae?co ?io?iniaeoeaiiai – niia?aeaeth aa?iy oa eiai ai?noiey???i.

3.1. Aiaoii?y cei/eio e??cue i?ecio niia?ae?. I?eeiaoia iayai?noth
ianeaiiai aae?anaoa e /?oeei ?ao?iniaeoeaiei ?icaeoeii iiae?e, niia?aeue
o ?iiaioeci? ia can?a ?ioi?iaoe??, a niin?a naiiae?aaeaiiy. Ia?ac
ia?iaeiiai ianieea – a?oaoei, cana?ae/aiee a?eueo?noth na?oiaeo
eoeueoo?, iniaeeai i?aai?/ii e inieneaii i?icao/aa o ?iiaioe/i?e i?ic?.
I?ea?iaeuei?noue Oaa/aieiai? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aeooaeueiiai o ?a?iiaenuee?e
e?oa?aoo?? nthaeaoo iieyaa? ia?o ca ana o ci?i? eooa ci?o iiia?aea/a, ui
nea?iaaiee oaia? ia ia nioe?aeuei? ia?eiao??, a a?aeoai?th? aioo??oith
a?c?th ethaenueei? aeoo?. Aca?iiia?ao?ae nthaeaoiiai e niia?aeaeueiiai
ieai?a iia?no? O.Oaa/aiea “Aa?iae” aeicaieea ienueiaiieeia? inieneeoe
neeaaeio ineoieia?/io aeeeaio ni?aaaaeeeai? iiinoe oa o?enoeyinueeiai
i?iuaiiy, a?aeoai?eoe ia no?eueee ia?eiao?? ciai?oi?, ne?eueee aioo??oi?
eie?c??, caaaiooe aiaoii?th cei/eio e??cue i?ecio niia?ae?.

3.2. Ia?aoeaii-eiiiiceoe?eia i??ai?aea Oaa/aieiaiai “Iocueaioa” ?
aiaeii/an noaiith ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co. Ia?oa /anoeia oai?o –
eeane/iee c?acie aiae?co a?aeaaoi?nueeiai, iiina?aaeeiaaiiai iiaith
??ciiiai?oieo iien?a, ae?oaa, ui neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio eeno?a
ne?eiaey Oa?ana (aa?iy iia?no?) aei aioeeaa??y (iiia?aea/a), ?ai?acaioo?
aiae?c ?io?iniaeoeaiee. Icia/aiee o?iiieia?/ii (ui aeicaiey? i?inoaaeeoe
aaiethoe?th aioo??oiueiai na?oo aa?iy), eiaeai c eeno?a ia? ua e ie?aiee
naiino?eiee nthaeao. ?ao?iniaeoeaia iiaaea i?i aeieth Ia??? Oa?anaae/ –
nai???aeiee i?e?ina?o o ooaeiaei?e oeaiei? oai?o. Oaia aeaio ianooiieo
eeno?a – neeaaeiee ineoieia?/iee ?aaon, i?iaeaia a?ia?ieo ia?ac?a.
Inoaii?e, /aoaa?oee eeno, ui iiia?aea? ?noi??th ca?eueiaiiy c e??iaoeoaa
e uaneeaiai iae?oaeaiiy, – eia?/ia oa caeiiii??ia ?ica’ycea ia o?eueee
ai?noiey??th aa?iy, aea e on??? eiai aeie?.

3.3. Niaoeeo?ea ?io?iniaeoe?? o oai?ao aaoia?ia?ao?/iiai oa?aeoa?o
iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai cao/aiiy e iaia?aaeaa/aieo aeoeaio?a Aacia?a/iee
aeai?o?a o iaaeao ooaeiaeiueiai i?inoi?o, o oai?ao aaoia?ia?ao?/ieo
aaoi? oai?eoue e naaa naiiai. Coiiaeaiee niaoeeo?/iith nenoaiith iai’yo?
ienueiaiieea, o ye?e aeieoiaioaeueia a?eueii ii?aeio?oueny ?c
ooaeiaei?i, aaoia?ia?ao?/iee i?ino?? i?ice O.Oaa/aiea oiiaii iiae?ey?ii
ia aea? ia?aeaeuei? ieiueie, ui ni?a?niothoue o ??cieo aei??ao – na?o
?aaeueiee oa a??ooaeueio (iiaeeeao ?aaeuei?noue). Caaaeath/e ia ianya
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeineoue ??oioiai? nooae?? no/aniiai
oaa/aieiciaanoaa o i?iaeai? aaoia?ia?ao?cio, ie coieieeenue aeaoaeuei?oa
ia iaeiiio ?c aa??aio?a a??ooaeueii? ?aaeueiino?, ui a?aeoai?aiee o
iia?no? “Iocueaio”. Iioea Aiae?i?iia, oa?aeoa?iee aeey aioo??oiuei?
i?aai?caoe?? aaoi?a, icia/ea eiioeaioe?th na?oo i??e ienueiaiieea,
a?o?oaeoii?eo oai?o, nthaeaoia ae??oaiiy – iao?aaeeoe?eiee aeey i?ice
O.Oaa/aiea uaneeaee e?iaoeue ethaiaii? ?noi???.

O aeniiaeao cacia/a?oueny: 1. O nenoai? aenoa?aaioiiai ineoieia?/iiai
aiae?co i?e?iiiaoeeo iieno aa?oi ?icaeyaeaoe ia?o ca ana ye nenoaiio
oe?e?ni?noue, o ye?e eiaeai ie?aiee iien, oiiioiaaiee o iaaiee
a?coaeueiee ?yae, – caaaa/aiee naiaioeeith nenoaiieo ca’yce?a.
Ooieoe?iiaeueia ieanoeea ii?o?aoa, iaoaoi?e/ia ia?aci?noue iaecaaeo,
aaaaoicia/ia neiaie?ea ?ioa?’??o oai?youe oe?e?nio iieniao ea?oeio
ooaeiaeiuei-ineoieia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ia’?aeiaio ?aeeiei ia?aciei
iioeaii. 2. Onia niia?aeue aa?iy, eiai eenoe e uiaeaiieee – ia eeoa
oi?iaeuei? i?eeiaoe ?iiaioe/ii? noee?noeee, aea e iaiao?aeia oiiaa
?aae?caoe?? caaeoio aaoi?a – iiaeaoe aioo??oi?e na?o aa?iy o eiai ae
?ioa?i?aoaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o 7 ioae?eaoe?yo:

Ii?o?ao o i?ic? O.Oaa/aiea (i?e?iiiaoeea iieno a nenoai? aenoa?aaioiiai
ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co) – Euea?a: EAeO ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea; E?oiien,
1999. – 44 n.

Iaecaae o i?ic? O.Oaa/aiea (i?e?iiiaoeea iieno a nenoai? aenoa?aaioiiai
ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co) – Euea?a: EAeO ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea; E?oiien,
1999. – 46 n.

?ioa?’?? o i?ic? O.Oaa/aiea (i?e?iiiaoeea iieno a nenoai?
aenoa?aaioiiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co) – Euea?a: EAeO ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea; Eaiaiy?, 1999. – 34 n.

De te fabula narratur aai I?i ui ?iceaaea Aiae?i?ii (c ineoieia??
oai?/ino? O.Oaa/aiea) // Aeca?i. – 1998. – ? 5 – 6. – N. 144 – 147.

Iaecaae ye can?a ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co ia?aco o iia?noyo O.Oaa/aiea
“Aa?iae” oa “Iaeie/ea” // Ca??iee iaoa??ae?a ? oac i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? “Oa?an Oaa/aiei ? no/ani?noue”. – ??aia, 21 o?aaiy
1996 ?. – N. 82 – 86.

Aeaye? i??eoaaiiy i?i o?e “Iaeie/ee” // ?aai O?aiei – ienueiaiiee,
ieneeoaeue, a?iiaaeyiei: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??.
– Euea?a: Na?o, 1998. – N. 507 – 510.

?ioa?’?? o eiioaeno? ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co i?ice O.Oaa/aiea oa
TH.E?aoaanueeiai // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? neaa?noe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
iai’yo? i?ioani?a Einoyioeia O?ioeiiae/a, Euea?a, 1 – 3 ea?oiy 1998 ?. –
N. 101 – 107.

Aiioaoe?y

Aeai/oe I.?. Ooaeiaei?e na?o i?ice O.Oaa/aiea (i?iaeaia ineoieia?/iiai
aiae?co). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.01 – oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a. –
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ooaeiaei?e na?o i?ice O.Oaa/aiea i?io?aeoiaaii o
i?eioeeiiai iiaiio oai?aoe/iiio ?aeo?n?. Aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? iia?no? c
oi/ee ci?o niaoeeo?ee ia?aaeeaie ooaeiaeiueiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co e
i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiae?a: o ia?aaeeai? i?eeii?a oa cania?a
ineoieia?/ieo nooae?e i?ice O.Oaa/aiea aeii?io? ciai?oiy iiaa
aenoa?aaioiiai ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co; o ooaeiaei?e no?oeoo?? iia?noae
O.Oaa/aiea eaeii?/i? naioaioe?? a?aeaaoi?nueeiai aiae?co
aeiiiaiththoueny ? ooi/iththoueny iciaeaie aiae?co ?io?iniaeoeaiiai –
niia?aeaeth aa?iy oa eiai ai?noiey???i.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ooaeiaei?e ineoieia?/iee aiae?c, aenoa?aaioiee,
?ioa?aaioiee, ?io?iniaeoeaiee.

AiIioaoeey

Aeai/oe I.?. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiue ie? i?icu O.Oaa/aiei (i?iaeaia
ineoieiae/aneiai aiaeeca). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.01 – oe?aeineay eeoa?aoo?a. – Eueaianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei, Eueaia, 1999.

Ooaeiaeanoaaiiue ie? i?icu O.Oaa/aiei aeenna?oaio o?aeooao a
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaii oai?aoe/aneii ?aeo?na. Aaoi? ?anniao?eaaao iiaanoe
n oi/ee c?aiey niaoeeoeee ia?aaeeaiu ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ineoieiae/aneiai
aiaeeca e i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo: a nenoaia niiniaia e n?aaenoa
enneaaeiaaiey aioo?aiiaai ie?a aa?iy aeiieie?oao yenoa?aaioiue
ineoieiae/aneee aiaeec; ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie no?oeoo?u
i?icu O.Oaa/aiei yaeythony i?eciaee aiaeeca eio?iniaeoeaiiai: eniiaaaeue
aa?iy e aai yienoiey?ee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ooaeiaeanoaaiiue ineoieiae/aneee aiaeec, yenoa?aaioiue,
eioa?aaioiue, eio?iniaeoeaiue.

ANNOTATION

Demchuk, N.R. Artistic world of Taras Shevchenko’s prose (the problem of
psychological analysis). — Manuscript.

Dissertation for the Candidate’s Degree Speciality 10.01.01 — Ukrainian
Literature. — Ivan Franko State University of Lviv, Lviv, 1999.

Artistic world of Taras Shevchenko’s prose was presented in the
dissertation in an absolutely new theoretical view. Scientific novelty
of work is determined by the very setting of the problem in a
theoretical (differentiation of the terms “psychologism” and
“psychological analysis”, the last one being substantiated as a term;
presentation of theoretical instrumental means taking into consideration
the conclusion of home and foreign scientists), and practical (in this
theoretical way Shevchenko’s stories are considered for the first time)
aspects.

It is the first attempt to do a completely new analysis of Taras
Shevchenko’s prose poetry. His prose is a complicated, integrated into
general-European historic-literary process of the XIX century, system
that is at the same time deeply national, marked by the strategy of the
author’s presence, the system with distinct features of the genre
evolutions on the level of formal-structural and a thematic blocs.
According to the results of this research new conceptions were
introduced and theoretically motivated. This allowed to improve
considerably terminological paradigm in a given problem.

Artistic psychological analysis as a method of componential
investigation of mental states, process, features, regularity of their
display and development implies a distinct functional system of
corresponding methods and techniques. In his work the candidate for the
degree uses two the most independent motivated and whole conceptions in
conformity with which a psychological analysis in a work of art is
divided according to: 1) the character of correlation of internal and
external in psychology: extervental (internal motivated through
external), intervental (internal into internal); 2) the specific nature
of subject – object relations: from the author’s point of view (subject
is the author, object is a character), introspective (character’s
I-for-myself: character is a subject and an object; the author’s
I-for-myself: the author is a subject and an object of analysis).
According to the laws of theoretical hierarchy methods, techniques and
means of analysis are imposed by its formal nature. Characteristic
methods of extervental psychological analysis are as follows: inner
speech, oriented towards description, gestures and deeds of character’s,
dialogue; intervental methods – character’s considerations, stream of
consciousness inner monologue (inner speech).

In the paradigm of methods and means of psychological studies of Taras
Shevchenko’s prose external speech extervental psychological analysis
dominates. This method of observation is best of all presented by
different dynamic and actualised polyfunctional descriptions.

In the system of extervental psychological analysis microtheory of
poetry should be considered first of all as a systematic whole, in which
every description, integrated into a visual row, is enriched by semantic
of systematic links. Functional plastic of portrait, metaphorical image
of landscape, polisemantical symbolism of interior create whole
descriptional picture of artistic-psychological characteristics, united
by one image tune. It should be noted, that the choice of elements, and
principles, according to which the descriptive system is arranged, is
stipulated by genre version of a work, and also by psychological
potential of some descriptions.

The character of Romanticism, being contradictive inward, mysterious and
irrational, and sometimes illogical, had already an inclination for
self-analysis. In the artistic structure of Taras Shevchenko’s stories
laconic sentences of author’s analysis are completed and made more exact
by the features of introspective analysis – character’s confession
hero’s and his epistles. Being marked by the presence of passive
addressee and distinct retrospective development of events, confession
in the period of Romanticism is not a means of information, but a means
a self-expression. The narrative and compositional pyramid of Taras
Shevchenko’s «Musician» is at the same time a scheme of psychological
analysis. The first part of work is a classical example of author’s
analysis, mediated by speech of different descriptions; the second one
that consist in a four letters of violinist Taras (character of the
story) to antiquarian (the narrator), represent an introspective
analysis. Oral confession of the character, his letters and diaries –
are not only formal attributes of romantic stylistic, but also necessary
precondition for realisation of the author’s intention – to present
character’s inner world in his own interpretation.

The problem of introspection acquires a special interpretation and
unpredictable accents in the works of autobiographical nature. Demiurge
is undeniable within the limits of artistic space; in the
autobiographical works the author creates himself. Autobiographical
space of Taras Shevchenko’s prose, that is conditioned by a specific
writer’s system of memory, where documentary aspects are freely combined
with artistic ones, we divide roughly into two parallel spaces, that do
not deny and do not duplicate each other, but coexist in different
dimensions – real world and virtual (possible) reality.

As far as the novels are considered in the above – mentioned theoretical
view of the first time, emphasis is made on the elements of the artistic
system of Taras Shevchenko’s prose psychological analysis.

Key words: artistic psychological analysis, extervental, intervental,
introspective.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 9.02.99. Oi?iao 60o84\16

Iai?? ionaoiee. Ae?oe ionaoiee

Iaeeaae 100 i?ei. Cai ? 99\2-5

Ae?oe OcIA “I?ino?? I”

Iaeaithe ?. Aei ni?aaaeiueiai Oaa/aiea // Eieaa niinoa?aaeaiue. –
Oi?iioi, 1962. – O. 1. – N. 115.

O?aiei ?. “Iaeie/ea” O.Oaa/aiea. Aeeeaae aaa?e?oaoe?eiee, aeaieioaiee o
Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? 18 ethoiai 1856 ?ieo // C?a?aiiy oai??a: O 50
o. – E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1981. – O. 29. – N. 457.

O?aiei ?. “Iaeie/ea” O.Oaa/aiea. Aeeeaae aaa?e?oaoe?eiee, aeaieioaiee o
Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? 18 ethoiai 1856 ?ieo // C?a?aiiy oai??a: O 50
o. – E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1981. – O. 29. – N. 459.

O?aiei ?. I?eioeeie ? aaci?eioeeii?noue // C?a?aiiy oai??a: O 50 o. –
E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1981. – O. 34. – N. 363 – 364.

Aeaienthe ?. Aeaa oeie iiaaee o oai?/ino? ?aaia O?aiea // Oe?a?inueea
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai, 1970, Aei. 11. – Euea?a: Aeaeaaieoeoai Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. – N. 80. Iaiao?aeii a?ae??ciyoe oe? iiiyooy a?ae aeeeth/ii
ineoieia?/ieo – aeno?aaa?n?y (a?ae eao. extra – ciai? ? versio –
aeaeici?ithaaoe) – oa?aeoa?ia ye?noue ethaenueei? iniaenoino?, ui
aeyaey?oueny o ni?yioaaii? ?? ni?eeiyooy, ia?aaeeaaiue, ?ioa?an?a o
ciai?oi?e ieai, ia iaaeieeoith ae?eni?noue; ?io?iaa?n?y (a?ae eao.

intra – ana?aaeei? ? versio – aeaeici?ithaaoe) – ia?aaaaeia
nea?iaai?noue ineo?/ieo i?ioean?a ethaeeie (oaaae, ni?eeiaiiy, ieneaiiy
oiui) ia na?e aeaniee aioo??oi?e aeooaaiee na?o // Ei?ioeee
ineoieia?/iee neiaiee (Ca ?aae. A.?.Aieoea). – E.: Aeoa oe., 1976.

Aaooei I. Ynoaoeea neiaaniiai oai?/anoaa. – I.: Eneonnoai, 1979. – N.
23.

Iaoe?e ?. Oe?a?inueea ?iiaioe/ia i?ica 20 – 60-o ?ie?a OIO no. – E.:
Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1988. – C. 249.

A?eoethoa Iaoaey Ieeiea?aia. I?ica O.Oaa/aiea a eiioaeno? ? ?icaeoeo
?iiaio aeoiaaiiy: Aaoi?ao. aeen… eaiae. o?eie. iaoe: 10.01.02 / ?i-o
e-?e ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea. – E., 1993. – N. 13.

Oai naii. – N. 13.

____________

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