C:11aref.doc

I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??

Neii?*aiei Aeieo?i Ieeieaeiae*

OAeE 616.711.11-007.51-053.1- 089

O??o?a?*ia e?eoaaiiss oai?iae oi?aiaaess

14.01.21 – “O?aaiaoieia?y oa i?oiiaae?y”

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo?
o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?uaiei A?oae?e sseiae/,

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo

o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??,

ea??aiee Oe?a?inueeiai nieiaeueiiai
(iae?io??o?a?/iiai)

oeaio?o c ee?i?eith o??o?a?? o?aaoa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieueieoeueeee Ieaa Aieiaeeie?iae/ – aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, eao?aao
Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeeoy/i? o??o?a?? oa
i?oiiaae?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey;

E?enue-Ioaa/ Aiaoie?e Iaaeiae/ – aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
ea??aiee a?aeae?eo aeeoy/i? i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia?? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??.

Iia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Aei?i?iiao?ianueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “18” n?/iy 2000 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.606.01 i?e Oe?a?inueeiio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? ca aae?anith:
01601, i. Ee?a, aoe. Ai?ianueeiai, 27.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? ca aae?anith:
01601, i. Ee?a, aoe. Ai?ianueeiai, 27.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “17” a?oaeiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe
Oeauaiei A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ieoei o?ioe a?eueoe 135 ?ie?a c
oiai /ano, ye M.Eulenberg iia?aeiiea aia?oa a e?oa?aoo?? i?i 3
niinoa?aaeaiiy a?iaeaeaiiai aenieiai noiyiiy eiiaoee. I?ci?oa iiae?aio
ee?i?/io ea?oeio o 4-o oai?eo iienaa I. Sprengel (1891), /e?i ?i’yi ?
iacaaia oea caoai?thaaiiy.

Oai?iaa Oi?aiaaey a?aeiineoueny aei ??aee?nieo oyaeeeo caoai?thaaiue
neaeaoa, i?i ui na?ae/aoue ioae?eaoe?? ye a?o/eciyieo, oae ? ca?oa?aeieo
aeine?aeiee?a. Oae ca aeaieie aeeoy/eo i?oiiaaee/ieo onoaiia
(Naa?aeeianueeiai IAe?OI, Eai?ia?aaenueeiai aeeoy/iai i?oiiaaee/iiai
?inoeoooo ?i. A.?.Oo?ia?a, eaoaae?e aeeoy/i? o??o?a?? oa i?oiiaae?? II
IIEI? ia aac? aeeoy/i? e?ea?i? ?i.I.O.O?eaoiaa i. Iineae) oai?iaa
Oi?aiaaey coaiiaeoue iaioa i?ae 0,5% a?ae on?o a?iaeaeaieo
caoai?thaaiue iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoa. ?c cia/ieo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ii aeai?e i?iaeai? a eieeoiueiio ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc?
aeeiiaii anueiai aea? eaiaeeaeaonuee? aeena?oaoe??: A.E.Aiae??aiiaa
(1964), aea iiaeaiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy o 39 oai?eo ?
TH.A.Aanaeianueeiai (1973) ?c niinoa?aaeaiiyie 52 oai?eo c a?iaeaeaiei
aenieei noiyiiyi eiiaoee.

?c ioae?eaoe?e i?oiiaae?a Oe?a?ie iiiaeeiie? niinoa?aaeaiiy
i?aaenoaaeai? a iia?aeiieaiiyo O.?.Aiaaeaiiaa (1958), I.E.Aeieo???aa
(1966), E.A.I?ieiiiai? (1966). Na?aae ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a
iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue niinoa?aaeaiue c oai?iaith Oi?aiaaey iaee:
A.Smith (1941) — 48 oai?eo, C.Jeannoulos (1952) — 35 oai?eo,
B.Greitemann et al. (1993) — 37 oai?eo. A ?ioeo iia?aeiieaiiyo
(J.Nahode, J.Slavic, 1959; M.Kowalski, 1962; L.Greenberg, 1962;
G.Serafin, B.Sotirov, 1966; J.Cervenensky, E. Kalman , I968)
e?euee?noue niinoa?aaeaiue cia/ii iaioa.

Iaaaeeea /anoioa oeueiai caoai?thaaiiy ia ciaioo? cia/eiino? i?iaeaie,
iia’ycaii? c oyaeeeie einiaoe/ieie aeaoi?iaoe?yie iea/iaiai iiyna ?
cieaeaiiyi ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?ae? a oe?eiio. A oie aea /an,
iacia/ia e?euee?noue iniaenoeo niinoa?aaeaiue eiaeiiai aaoi?a ia
aeicaieeea caaaeii oyaeoe anth aaio aa??aio?a a?iaeaeaiiai aenieiai
noiyiiy eiiaoee, ?o ?ieue a ao?ieia?? oa iaoiaaiac?, ii?ooaii? ooieoe??
iea/iaiai iiyna ye i?e naiino?eiiio caoai?thaaii?, oae ? a ii?aeiaii? c
?ioeie a?iaeaeaieie ii?ieaie neaeaoa ? aioo??oi?o i?aai?a.

Aacoiiaii, a ao?ieia??, iaoiaaiac?, ae?aaiinoeoe? oa i?e
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiio i?aeoiae? aei iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy oai?iae Oi?aiaaey
cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue o?a?ici? oyae? i?ae eiiaoeith ? o?aaoii,
iiiaa?oaa?aeuei? e?noeia? ooai?aiiy; cia/i? ia?aeii? ? aoi?eii? ci?ie
i’yc?a iea/iaiai iiyna; ci?ia ?ici??o ? aeaoi?iaoe?y ??cieo a?aeae?e?a
eiiaoee i?e iaeiinoi?iii?e ? ua a a?eueo?e i??? i?e aeainoi?iii?e
iaoieia??. Oneeaaeiththoue aeaoi?iaoe?th ? cieaeothoue ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iiaeeeaino? aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie ii?aeiaiiy a?iaeaeaiiai aenieiai noiyiiy
eiiaoee ?c neiae?iiii Ee?iiaeue-Oaeey, a?iaeaeaiei neie?icii, neiinoicii
?aaa? oa ?i.

Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui /a?ac iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue niinoa?aaeaiue,
eeaneo?eaoe?? oai?iae Oi?aiaaey, cai?iiiiiaai? ??cieie aaoi?aie ia
iniia? aiaoiii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue (V.Putti, 1908; L.Ombredanne,
1949; A.E.Aiae??aiia, 1964; TH.A.Aanaeianueeee, 1973), iaee aaaaoi
iaaeie?e?a, ye? iicia/aeeny ia aecia/aii? oaeoeee iia?aoeaiiai
e?eoaaiiy, aeai?? iaoiaeo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy, ui a
e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? iicia/eeiny ia ?acoeueoaoao e?eoaaiiy.

Ana aeua neacaia aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie: Eaiaeeaeaonueea
aeena?oaoe?y aeoiaeeoue ?c iaoeiai? oaiaoeee Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??, ?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? IE N0196U017996, ui aeeiioaaeany a 1997-1999??.

Iaoa ?iaioe: aea/eoe ??ci? ee?i?/i?, ?aioaaiieia?/i? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei?
i?iyae oai?iae Oi?aiaaey ? ?ic?iaeoe aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei
o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue aeey iie?ioaiiy ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iio??aii aoei ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

i?iaanoe aiae?c aiaoii?/ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?iya?a a?iaeaeaiiai
aenieiai noiyiiy eiiaoee;

i?iaanoe aiae?c naiino?eieo aeaoi?iaoe?e i?e oai?ia? Oi?aiaaey ? a
eiia?iaoe?? c ?ioeie a?iaeaeaieie caoai?thaaiiyie neaeaoa;

noai?eoe eeaneo?eaoe?th a?iaeaeaiiai aenieiai noiyiiy eiiaoee ca
aiaoiii-ooieoe?iiaeueieie iciaeaie ? ?o aieeaii ia nooi?iue ae?aaeaiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?? iea/iaiai iiyna;

aeoiaey/e ?c eeaneo?eaoe?? oai?iae Oi?aiaaey ?ic?iaeoe oaeoeeo
o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue;

aea/eoe ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?iae Oi?aiaaey;

aea/eoe ?ieue ii?oieia?/ieo ? aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo ci?i i’yc?a iea/iaiai
iiyna a iaoiaaiac? oai?iae Oi?aiaaey;

aea/eoe iae?i- ? i?e?ino?oeoo?i? ci?ie eiiaoeiai-o?aaoeaaeo ooai?aiue
i?e o?a?ici?e ? e?noeia?e oi?iao oai?iae Oi?aiaaey;

aeaoe o?aeooaaiiy ee?i?/ieo, aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo ? no?oeoo?ieo ci?i a
ao?ieia?? ? iaoiaaiac? oai?iae Oi?aiaaey.

Iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy

Aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aoei i?iaaaeaii aiae?c
ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/ieo ? aiaoiii-o?c?ieia?/ieo i?iya?a oai?iae
Oi?aiaaey o 81 oai?iai (90 niinoa?aaeaiuea?noieia?/i? (24 i?aia?aoe) ?
aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i’yc?a iea/iaiai iiyna o 8 oai?eo,
aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i- ? i?e?ineii?/ieo eiiaoeiai-o?aaoeaaeo ooai?aiue
(15 i?aia?ao?a) i?e o?a?ici?e ? e?noeia?e oi?i? aenieiai noiyiiy
eiiaoee, aea/ai? aeeaei? ?acoeueoaoe ca ooieoe?iiaeueieie ? einiaoe/ieie
e?eoa??yie o 81 oai?iai ? a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy o 50
oai?eo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

C iaoith aea/aiiy ao?ieia?? ? iaoiaaiaco a?iaeaeaiiai aenieiai noiyiiy
eiiaoee aoei i?iaaaeaia ni?anoaaeaiiy ee?i?/ieo, ?aioaaiieia?/ieo,
ii?oieia?/ieo, aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo ci?i ooai?aiue iea/iaiai iiyna ?
aeneiaeaia noaeaeaiiy i?i i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaee aca?iica’ycie ??cieo
iciae oai?iae Oi?aiaaey.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy:

?ic?iaeaia aiaoiii-ooieoe?iiaeueia eeaneo?eaoe?y oai?iae Oi?aiaaey, yea
iineoaoaaea e?eoa???i iaa?oiooaaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
oaeoeee o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue aeey iie?ioaiiy ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy.

Iniaenoee aianie

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ee?i?/ieo ? ?aioaaiieia?/ieo i?iya?a oai?iae
Oi?aiaaey o 81 oai?iai; ?ic?iaeaia aiaoiii-ooieoe?iiaeueia
eeaneo?eaoe?y; i?iaaaeai? ii?oieia?/i? ? aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i’yc?a iea/iaiai iiyna; aea/aia iae?i- ? i?e?ino?oeoo?a
iiiaa?oaa?aeueieo ooai?aiue, i?inoaaeaiee i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaee ca’ycie
an?o iciae caoai?thaaiiy a ao?ieia?? oa iaoiaaiac?; aeeiiaii 20 %
o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iia?aoe?e i?e oe?e
iaoieia??, ye? aeeiioaaeenue a ee?i?oe? o??o?a?? o?aaoa; i?iaaaeaiee
aiae?c aeeaei?o ? a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy; ioi?ieai? noaoo?,
aeiiia?ae? ia iaoeiaeo oi?oiao ? oaeno aeena?oaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iniiaieo iieiaeaiue

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? a 3 noaooyo,
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia can?aeaii? A/aii? ?aaee Oe?IAe?OI, iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo, ai?iaaaeaeai? a ee?i?oe? o??o?a?? o?aaoa.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??

?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, o?ueio ?icae?e?a
aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a. Aeeeaaeaia ia 143
noi??ieao, ?ethno?iaaia 44 iaethieaie, 34 oaaeeoeyie, 2 noaiaie.
Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae neeaaea? 155 iaca, ?c ieo 43
?in?enueeiiiaieo ? 112 ca?oa?aeieo aeaea?ae.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

I?iaaaeaiee ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/iee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy 81
iaoe??ioa (90 niinoa?aaeaiue) c a?iaeaeaiei aenieei noiyiiyi eiiaoee
a?eii a?ae 2 aei 21 ?ieo. Na?aae iaoeo iaoe??io?a oai?iaa Oi?aiaaey
niinoa??aaeany o 33 (40,7 %) in?a /ieia?/i? ? 48 in?a (59,3%) ae?ii/i?
noao?. Iao? aeai? a?aeiinii /anoioe caoai?thaaiiy a in?a /ieia?/i? ?
ae?ii/i? noao? ni?aiaaeathoue c iia?aeiieaiiyie ?ioeo i?oiiaae?a
(A.I.Iaaeiaa-Naeueaainueeiai, 1908; I.N.E?aoeoey, 1929; A.E.Aiae??aiiaa,
1964; TH.A.Aanaeianueeiai, 1973). Ca iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith a ee?i?eo
o??o?a?? o?aaoa Oe?IAe?OI iao? iaoe??ioe caa?oaeeny o a?oe? 4-8 ?ie?a
(57 iaoe??io?a), i?ioa i?aee?oee, 11 iaoe??io?a iieiaeiai a?eo
noaiiaeee 13,5 %.

Noiniaii eieae?caoe?? iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano e?ainoi?iiiy aeaoi?iaoe?y
Oi?aiaaey niinoa??aaeany o 45 (55,6%) iaoe??io?a, i?aainoi?iiiy — o 27
(33,3%), aeainoi?iiiy — o 9 (11,1%) iaoe??io?a — anueiai 90
niinoa?aaeaiue aenieiai noiyiiy eiiaoee.

O neeaaei?e ao?ieia?? ? iaoieia?? a?iaeaeaiiai aenieiai noiyiiy eiiaoee
oa?aoiaaii? oaeoi?e aeeeeeaee ?icaeoie ?ioeo a?iaeaeaieo ?
aeenieanoe/ieo i?ioean?a neaeaoa, ui /anoi ii?aeioaaeeny i?ae niaith. O
iaoeo oai?eo niinoa??aaeeny neiae?ii Ee?iiaeue-Oaeey — o 26 iaoe??io?a;
a?iaeaeaiee neie?ic — o 5; aeenieanoe/iee neie?ic ?-?? nooiaiy — o 13
iaoe??io?a; neiinoic ?aaa? — o 5 iaoe??io?a; e?eeiiiae?aia oey — o 4
oai?eo; e?eaioey — o 2 oai?eo; ai?iieiiiae?aia aeaoi?iaoe?y a?oaeii?
ee?oeie — o 1 oai?iai; eeeaiiae?aia aeaoi?iaoe?y a?oaeii? ee?oeie — o 1
oai?iai; ?aae?ioeueia?iee neiinoic — o 1 oai?iai; a?iaeaeaiee ii?ie
na?oey — o 1 oai?iai.

Iiiaa?oaa?aeuei? ooai?aiiy a oi?i? niieo/iioeaieiieo oyae?a ? e?noie
aeey aaaaoueio i?oiiaae?a ? e?eoa???i ?iciiae?eo oai?iae Oi?aiaaey ia
aea? oi?ie: o?a?icio ? e?noeiao.

O iaoeo oai?eo aoee oae? iiiaa?oaa?aeuei? ooai?aiiy: o?a?ici? ?
o?a?icii-o?yuia? oyae? — o 37 aeiaaeeao; iiiaa?oaa?aeuei? e?noee — o 43;
e?noeia? aecinoice — o 4; e?noeia? neiinoice c o?aaoii ? ?aa?aie — o 6
aeiaaeeao.

Ia oyaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe?? Oi?aiaaey aieeaaee ?ici??e eiiaoee ia oai??e
noi?ii?. I?e oeueiio ii?iaeuei? ?ici??e eiiaoee aoee o 17 aeiaaeeao;
ciaioaiiy ?ici???a ia 1/3 — o 48 aeiaaee?a; ciaioaiiy ?ici???a ia 1/2 —
o 25 aeiaaeeao.

?ici?? eiiaoee ? iiiaa?oaa?aeuei? ooai?aiiy ci?ithaaee iieiaeaiiy
eiiaoee ii a?aeiioaiith aei o?aaoa, ui oaeiae aieeaaei ia oyaee?noue
aeaoi?iaoe??. I?e oeueiio iieiaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai e?ath eiiaoee ii
a?aeiioaiith aei o?aaoa a iaoeo oai?eo aoei: ia?aeaeueiei — o 18
niinoa?aaeaiiyo; i?ae eooii aei 300 — o 47 niinoa?aaeaiiyo; i?ae eooii
aei 600 — o 25 niinoa?aaeaiiyo.

Aaaeeeaei iiiaioii o aecia/aii? oyaeeino? caoai?thaaiiy ? aeai?? iaoiaeo
e?eoaaiiy aoea aeaoi?iaoe?y iaaea?aaaiaai? /anoeie eiiaoee. Ca oe??th
iciaeith iao? oai?? ?iciiae?eyeeny: aac aeaoi?iaoe?? -12 niinoa?aaeaiue;
iacia/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y — 15 niinoa?aaeaiue; ae?aaeaia aeaoi?iaoe?y — 63
niinoa?aaeaiiy.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae aenioe noiyiiy eiiaoee, ui aecia/aeinue ii ieaeiueiio
eooo eiiaoee ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?aeeyaath/iai ?aa?a, iao? oai??
?iciiae?eyeeny: ia ??ai? V? ?aa?a — 8 niinoa?aaeaiue; ia ??ai? V ?aa?a —
17 niinoa?aaeaiue; ia ??ai? ???-IV ?aa?a ? aeua — 65 niinoa?aaeaiue.

An? aiaoiii-no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? eiiaoee ? i?eeiiaoeiai? iaeano?
iicia/aeeny ia ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee. Ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy o
iaoeo oai?eo, ye? aecia/aeeny ca nooiaiai a?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a,
?icae?eyeeny oaeei /eiii: a?aeaaaeaiiy a?eueoa 1600 — o 10 aeiaaeeao;
1200 – 1600 — o 21 aeiaaeeo; iaioa 1200 — o 59 aeiaaeeao.

I?ia?aoe aiae?c ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca iienaieie iciaeaie, iaie
cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y oai?iae Oi?aiaaey (noaia 1).

Ca?aeii c noaiith 1 aeaoi?iaoe?y ?iciiae?eyeanue ca oyaee?noth
caoai?thaaiiy ia 3 nooiai? ? aecia/aeany ca oaeeie e?eoa??yie: ?ici??e
eiiaoee, ?? ?icai?io ii a?aeiioaiith aei o?aaoa, aeaoi?iaoe??
iaaea?aaaiaai? /anoeie, aenioa ieaeiueiai eooa eiiaoee ii a?aeiioaiith
aei ?aa?a, oiaoi c o?aooaaiiyi aiaoiii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo iciae.

I?e aeaoi?iaoe?? I nooiaiy: eiiaoea ii?iaeueiiai ?ici??o; ?? aioo??oi?e
e?ae ?icoaoiaaiee ia?aeaeueii aei o?aaoa; iaaea?aaaiaaa /anoeia aac
ci?i; ieaei?e eoo ?icoaoiaaiee ia ??ai? ?aa?a; eoo a?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a
ia iaioa 1600. Oaea aeaoi?iaoe?y niinoa??aaeany o 18 niinoa?aaeaiiyo.

I?e aeaoi?iaoe?? ?? nooiaiy: eiiaoea ciaioaia a ?ici??ao ia 1/3. ??
aioo??oi?e e?ae ?icai?iooee ii a?aeiioaiith aei o?aaoa i?ae eooii aei
300, iaaea?aaaiaaa /anoeia iii??ii aeaoi?iiaaia; ieaei?e eoo
?icoaoiaaiee ia ??ai? V ?aa?a; eoo a?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a – 1200-160°. Oaea
aeaoi?iaoe?y niinoa??aaeanue o 39 aeiaaeeao.

I?e aeaoi?iaoe?? ??? nooiaiy: eiiaoea ciaioaia a ?ici??ao ia 1/2;
aioo??oi?e e?ae ?? iiaa?iooee a?aeiinii o?aaoa i?ae eooii aei 600;
iaaea?aaaiaaa /anoeia neeueii aeaoi?iiaaia ? ca?eueoaia; ieaei?e eoo
?icoaoiaaiee ia ??ai? III-IV ?aa?a ? aeua; eoo a?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a —
iaioa 1200. Oaea aeaoi?iaoe?y a?aei?/aia o 33 niinoa?aaeaiiyo.

Iacia/i? a?aeoeeaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai ia?aiao?a niinoa??aaeeny o oai?eo c
oai?iaith Oi?aiaaey ??-??? nooiaiy.

Ia oyaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe?? aieeaaee: o?a?iciee oyae, iiiaa?oaa?aeueia
e?noea, e?noeiaee aecinoic aai e?noeiaee neiinoic eiiaoee /a?ac
iiiaa?oaa?aeueio e?noeo c o?aaoii aai ?aa?aie, a oaeiae ii?aeiaiiy
aenieiai noiyiiy eiiaoee c aeaoi?iaoe?yie o?aaoa (neiae?ii
Ee?iiaeue-Oaeey, a?iaeaeaiei aai aeenieanoe/iei neie?icii), iaeii- /e
aeainoi?iii? o?aaeaiiy iea/iaiai iiyna.

Ia iao iiaeyae, on? oai?? c oai?iaith Oi?aiaaey i?aeeyaathoue
o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaiith, ni?yiiaaiiio ia iie?ioaiiy ooieoe?? aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee ? ciaioaiiy einiaoe/ieo aeaoaeo?a iinoaae. I?e a?iaeaeaiiio
aenieiio noiyii? eiiaoee I nooiaiy iieacai? iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy ia
i’yeeo oeaieiao ?c aen?eaiiyi iiiaa?oaa?aeueieo ooai?aiue. I?e oai?ia?
Oi?aiaaey ?? ? O nooiaiy aeey iiaiioe?iiiai iecaaaeaiiy eiiaoee ?
caiia?aaiiy iaa?ieia?/ieo ?iceaae?a iieacai? o??o?a?/i? ao?o/aiiy ia
i’yeeo oeaieiao ? e?noeao ii onoiaiith an?o eiiiiiaio?a aeaoi?iaoe??.

I?ioeiieacaiiyi aeey o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iaoe??io?a c oai?iaith
Oi?aiaaey ? oyaee? caoai?thaaiiy aioo??oi?o i?aai?a ?c aeaeiiiainaoe??th
ooieoe?? na?oeaai-noaeeiii?, eaaaiaai?, aiaeie?eiii? nenoai, ia/?iee ?
ie?ie, a oaeiae ?icoiiaa a?aenoae?noue i?e oai?ia? Aeaoia ? E?ooey.

Ii?aeiaiiy a?iaeaeaiiai aenieiai noiyiiy eiiaoee ?c neiae?iiii
Ei?iiaeue-Oaeey — oyaeeith aeaoi?iaoe??th oe? ? iea/iaiai iiyna —
ni?e/eith? einiaoe/i? aeaoaeoe iinoaae ? cia/ii ii?ooo? ooieoe?th
aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee ? oeeiiai a?aeae?eo o?aaoa. I?iaeaia aoaiiino?
e?eoaaiiy oaeeo oai?eo aeoaea neeaaeia ? iaeaea ia aena?oeaia o
a?o/eciyi?e ? ca?oa?aei?e e?oa?aoo??. O ee?i?oe? o??o?a?? o?aaoa
Oe?IAe?OI ? iaaaeeeee aeina?ae ii iecaaaeaiith eiiaoie (/ano?oa i?e
aeainoi?iiiueiio o?aaeaii? iea/iaiai iiyna) ? «iiaeiaaeaiith» oe?
oeyoii ?acaeoe?? aa?oaa?aeueieo e?ioe?a 3-o aa?oi?o ?aaa? ? noyaeee
oianoith eaanaiiaith ieoeith. Aeey aeeiiaiiy an?o aoai?a (2 iia?aoe?? ii
iecaaaeaiith eiiaoie ? 2 iia?aoe?? ii «iiaeiaaeaiith» oe?) — ia?oeie
aeeiioaaeeny iia?aoe?? ia eiiaoeao, ae?oaeie — ia ?aa?ao o 4 aoaie. Ia
aeeeth/aii, ui i?e a?aei?aoeueiaai?e oaoi?oe? ?c ciaioaiiyi
o?aaiaoe/iino? iia?aoe??, oaea e?eoaaiiy iiaeia aoaea cae?enieoe a 2
aoaie (iecaaaeaiiy eiiaoee ? ?acaeoe?y ?aaa? c iaei??? noi?iie, /a?ac
2-3 i?nyoe? iiae?aio iia?aoe?th aeeiiaoe ia ae?oa?e noi?ii?).

I?e aeainoi?iii?e aeaoi?iaoe?? Oi?aiaaey ? neiae?ii? Ee?iiaeue-Oaeey i?e
ia?aeiiiio ianoaaeaii? a 4 oai?eo aeyaeaia e?eeiiiae?aia oey, ua o 2 —
i?ney iecaaaeaiiy eiiaoie c’yaeeeny iii??i? oe??yi? neeaaeee. Ia iao
iiaeyae iia?aoe?? ii onoiaiith oe??yieo neeaaeie o oeeo oai?eo iieacai?
ia caeeth/iiio aoai? aaaaoiaoaiiiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

Noiniaii oaeoeee o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ii?aeiaieo a?iaeaeaieo ii?ie?a
iea/iaiai iiyna ? oe? o ian iaaaeeeee aeina?ae. I?ioa ie ae??oeee
iiae?eeoeny iei o?eueee /a?ac oa, ui o na?oia?e e?oa?aoo?? a?i iiai?noth
a?aenooi?e. Iiaeeeai iaaeae? oaeoeea ? oaoi?ea o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy
aoaea aaeineiiaeaia ? ci?iaia.

Ieoaiiy i?i aoaii?noue o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy i?e ii?aeiaii? oai?iae
Oi?aiaaey ? a?iaeaeaiiai neie?ico caaaeaee ae??ooaaeinue
?iaeea?aeoaeueii caeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy ae?aaeaiino? oiai /e ?ioiai
aeaoaeoo ? a?eo oai?iai. Oeueiai iieiaeaiiy ie aeio?eioaaeeny ? i?e
ii?aeiaii? oai?iae Oi?aiaaey c ?ioeie caoai?thaaiiyie neaeaoa.

O iaoeo oai?eo iecaaaeaiiy eiiaoee aoei canoiniaaia a aeaio aa??aioao:
o?eueee ia i’yeeo oeaieiao; ia i’yeeo oeaieiao ? e?noeao. A iniiao
o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue ia i’yeeo oeaieiao iieeaaeaia iia?aoe?y
N.Ae.Oa?iianueeiai — A.E.Aiae??aiiaa a iiaeeo?eaoe?? I.ss.O?uaiea.
Iia?aoe?th aeeiioaaee oaeei /eiii: aeoaiiiae?aiei ?icoeiii iaae aa?oi?i
? aioo??oi?i

e?ayie eiiaoee ?icoeiaee oe??o, i?aeoe??yio ee?oeiaeio, ciai?oith
oanoe?th. A?ae aioo??oiueiai e?ath eiiaoee a?aeoeiaee o?aiaoe??iiae?aiee
? ?iiaiiiae?aiee i’yce. Aen?eaee o?a?iciee aai o?a?icii-o?yuiaee oyae.
I?aeie?nii aeae?eyee aioo??oith iiaa?oith eiiaoee, a?ey iniiae
ia?aoeiaee aecueiaiiiae?aiee a?ae?inoie. Iecaiaeeee eiiaoeo ia cae/ia
i?noea. Ieaei?e eoo o?enoaaee oianoith eaanaiiaith e?aaoo?ith aei VII
?aa?a. I?e oai?ia? Oi?aiaaey II-III nooiaiy iai?ioeyoe?? ia i’yeeo
oeaieiao aeiiiaithaaee aeaeaeaiiyi iiiaa?oaa?aeueii? e?noee, ?acaeoe??th
iaaea?aaaiaai? /anoeie eiiaoee. O aeiaaeeao ?c ciaioaiith a ?ici??ao
eiiaoeith, ca ?aeiiaiaeaoe??th I.ss.O?uaiea, i?e iecaaaeaii? eiiaoee
i???iooaaeeny ia iieiaeaiiyi ieaeiueiai eooa, a a?aaaiai eiiaoee,
anoaiiaethth/e eiai ia iaeiiio ??ai? ?c caei?iaith noi?iiith. I?e
aeainoi?iii?e aeaoi?iaoe?? ??aaiue ae?oai? eiiaoee anoaiiaethaaee ca
??aiai ia?oi?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iaoiaeeee N.Ae.Oa?iianueeiai —
A.E.Aiae??aiiaa — I.ss.O?uaiea o?enaoe?th eiiaoee oianoith eaanaiiaith
ieoeith i?iaiaeeee ia 1-2 ?aa?a ieae/a eooa eiiaoee. Oeei i?eeiiii
noai?thaaee iiaeeea?noue cae?enithaaoe eiiaoeith iayoieeiiiae?ai? ?ooe,
iie?iooth/e ooieoe?iiaeueiee ?acoeueoao e?eoaaiiy.

Aeey aea/aiiy aeeaei?o ? a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy ie
aeoiaeeee c aeaio e?eoa???a: ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ? einiaoe/iiai. I?e
oeueiio ei?enooaaeeny o?ueioaaeueiith nenoaiith ioe?iie: oi?ioee,
caaeia?eueiee ? iacaaeia?eueiee ?acoeueoaoe.

Ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe ioe?ithaaeeny ii nooiaith a?aeaaaeaiiy
iea/a. I?e oeueiio:

— aei oi?ioeo a?aeianai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?eo, o yeeo a?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a
aoei ia iaioa 1400;

— aei caaeia?eueieo a?aeianai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?eo, o yeeo a?aeaaaeaiiy
iea/a aoei ia iaioa 1100;

— aei iacaaeia?eueieo a?aeianai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?eo, o yeeo a?aeaaaeaiiy
iea/a aoei iaioa 1100.

E?eoa??yie einiaoe/ii? ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy aoee: aenioa ?

neiao?e/i?noue iaaeie?/ ? eeth/eoeue, iieiaeaiiy ? ??aaiue eiiaoee,
iieiaeaiiy eiiaoee ii a?aeiioaiith aei o?aaoa, ao?io?y i’yc?a iea/iaiai
iiyna. I?e oeueiio:

— aei oi?ioeo a?aeianai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?eo, o yeeo aenioa iaaeie?/ ia
ia?aaeuoaaea 1 ni, eiiaoea ?icoaoiaoaaeany ia?aeaeueii o?aaoo, a?aai?
aoee ia iaei?i ??ai?, ao?io?? i’yc?a iea/iaiai iiyna ia aoei;

— aei caaeia?eueieo a?aeianai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?eo, o yeeo aneiao??y
iaaeie?/ ia ia?aaeuoaaea 3 ni, eoo i?ae o?aaoii ? aioo??oi?i e?a?i ia
ia?aaeuoaaa 800, a?aa?iue ciaioaii? eiiaoee aoa ia aeua 2 ni, ao?io?y
i’yc?a iacia/ia;

— aei iacaaeia?eueieo a?aeianai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?eo, o yeeo: aneiao??y
iaaeie?/ ia?aaeuoaaea 3 ni, eoo i?ae o?aaoii ? aioo??oi?i e?a?i aoa
a?eueoei 8-100, a?aa?iue ciaioaii? a ?ici??ao eiiaoee aoa aeuei 2 ni,
a?aei?/aeanue ae?aaeaia ao?io?y i’yc?a iea/aaiai iiyna.

Aeeaei? ? a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy a?iaeaeaiiai
aenieiai noiyiiy eiiaoee aea/ai? a 3 a?oiao oai?eo a caeaaeiino? a?ae
nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? ca?aeii c iaoith eeaneo?eaoe??th .

Aiae?c aeeaei?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy o 17 iaoe??io?a
(18 niinoa?aaeaiue) c oai?iaith Oi?aiaaey I nooiaiy iieacaa: oi?ioee
?acoeueoao aoa o 13 aeiaaeeao, caaeia?eueiee — o 4 aeiaaeeao,
iacaaeia?eueiee — a 1 aeiaaeeo. Einiaoe/iee ?acoeueoao: oi?ioee — o 15
aeiaaeeao, caaeia?eueiee -o 3 aeiaaeeao. A?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe a
no?iee a?ae 2 aei 6 ?ie?a aoee i?inoaaeai? o 10 oai?eo. I?e oeueiio
ooieoe?iiaeueiee ?acoeueoao aoa oi?ioei o 7 oai?eo, caaeia?eueiei — o 3
oai?eo. Einiaoe/iee ?acoeueoao: oi?ioee — o 8 oai?eo, caaeia?eueiee — o
2 oai?eo.

Aiae?c aeeaei?o ? a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy 35 oai?eo (39
niinoa?aaeaiue) c oai?iaith Oi?aiaaey ?? nooiaiy iieacaa, ui aeeaei?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aoee: oi?io? — o 29 aeiaaeeao, caaeia?euei?
— o 8 aeiaaeeao, iacaaeia?euei? — o 2 aeiaaeeao. Einiaoe/i?
?acoeueoaoe: oi?io? — o 28 aeiaaeeao, caaeia?euei? — o 10 aeiaaeeao,
iacaaeia?euei? — o 1 aeiaaeeo. A?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe a no?iee a?ae 2
aei 6 ?ie?a i?inoaaeai? o 22 oai?eo. I?e oeueiio a?aeaeaeai?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aoee: oi?io? — o 16 oai?eo, caaeia?euei? — o
4 oai?eo, iacaaeia?euei? — o 2 oai?eo. Einiaoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aoee:
oi?io? — o 18 oai?eo, caaeia?euei? — o 3 oai?eo, iacaaeia?euei? — o 1
oai?iai.

Aiae?c aeeaei?o ? a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy a a?oi? 29 oai?eo
(33 aeiaaeee) c oai?iaith Oi?aiaaey ??? nooiaiy iieacaa, ui aeeaei?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aoee: oi?io? — o 15 niinoa?aaeaiiyo,
caaeia?euei? — o 11 niinoa?aaeaiiyo, iacaaeia?euei? — o 7
niinoa?aaeaiiyo. Einiaoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aoee: oi?io? — o 13
niinoa?aaeaiiyo, caaeia?euei? — o 13 niinoa?aaeaiiyo, iacaaeia?euei? — o
7 niinoa?aaeaiiyo.

A?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe o no?iee a?ae 2 aei 6 ?ie?a aea/ai? o 18 oai?eo.
I?e oeueiio ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aoee: oi?io? — o 8 oai?eo,
caaeia?euei? — o 7 oai?eo, iacaaeia?euei? — o 2 oai?eo.

I?e ii??aiyii? a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy c ?acoeueoaoaie ?ioeo
aaoi??a (N.Ae.Oa?iianueeee, A.E.Aiae??aiia, 1964; TH.A.Aanaeianueeee,
1973; E.Woodward, 1961; L.Greenberg, 1962) iao? aeai? aeaui e?au?.
I/aaeaeii, oea iia’ycaii c aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei i?aeoiaeii aei aeai?o
iaoiaeo o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe iiieeee ? oneeaaeiaiiy, ye? iaee i?noea o iaoeo oai?eo:
iaa?ieia?/i? ?iceaaee c aieo iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy aoee o 3 aeiaaeeao,
e?aaoo?i? ii?eoe? — o 2 aeiaaeeao, iacia/ia ao?io?y iaaeeiiaoeiaiai
i’yca — o 4 aeiaaeeao, iii??iee ?icaeoie eaei?aeieo ?oaoe?a — o 4
aeiaaeeao. I?ney o?eaaeiai a?aeiiaethaaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy ooieoe?th
iea/iaiai nieaoaiiy a?aeiiaeaii, i?ney aeaeaeaiiy e?aaoo? ii?eoe?
cae?eeeny, i?ney aeaeo?ioi?aco c iaia?iii a na?aaeiaeu? aeeiaeneaeo
eaei?aei? ?oaoe? ciaioeeeny ? ?icniieoaeeny.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue o 81
oai?iai c oai?iaith Oi?aiaaey, aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/ieo ? a?noieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i’yc?a iea/iaiai iiyna, iae?i- ? i?e?ineii?/iiai aea/aiiy
no?oeoo?e iiiaa?oaa?aeueieo ooai?aiue, aoea noi?ioeueiaaia iiaeaia
ieae/a noaia ao?ieia?? ? iaoiaaiaco a?iaeaeaiiai aenieiai noiyiiy
eiiaoee: o iiiaio caeeaaeaiiy o?aaoa ? iea/iaiai iiyna ia 4-5 oeaei?
aia??iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ieiaea aeieea? oe?aeeeaee aieea oa?aoiaaiiiai
aeci- aai aiaeiaaiiiai aaaioa, yeee aeeeeea? aeano?oeoe?th iacaio?ie,
ia?a?iaeaeaiiy i’yc?a iea/iaiai iiyna, ooai?aiiy iiiaa?oaa?aeueieo
o?a?icieo aai e?noeiaeo oyae?a. Inoaii? cao?eiothoue i?a?aoe?th eiiaoee
c ??aiy 5-6 oeeieo naaiaio?a ia cae/ia i?noea. O i?aiaoaeueiiio ?
iinoiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?, /a?ac ii?ooaiiy i’yciaeo oya, ?icaeaa?oueny
aeaoi?iaoe?y eiiaoee, ci?ith?oueny ooieoe?y aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee,
noai?thth/e neiioiiieiiieaen aeaoi?iaoe?? Oi?aiaaey.

aeniiaee:

1.Aiae?c ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/ieo iciae ? iia?aoe?eieo ciao?aeie
na?ae/eoue i?i cia/i? ci?ie iea/iaiai iiyna i?e oai?ia? Oi?aiaaey, ye?
coiiaeththoue einiaoe/i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy aa?oiuei?
e?ioe?aee.

2.Oyaee?noue oai?iae Oi?aiaaey iaoiiaeththoue iaeii- aai aeainoi?iii?
o?aaeaiiy, aeaoi?iaoe?y eiiaoeiai? e?noee oa iiiaa?oaa?aeuei?
ooai?aiiy.

3.Iaoieia?/iee i?ioean oneeaaeith?oueny ii?aeiaiiyi oai?iae Oi?aiaaey c
?ioeie caoai?thaaiiyie neaeaoa, iniaeeai o?aaoa: neiae?iiii
Ee?iiaeue-Oaeey, a?iaeaeaiei ? aeenieanoe/iei neie?icii oa ?i.

4.Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i ee?i?/ieo i?iya?a ?ic?iaeaia
eeaneo?eaoe?y oai?iae Oi?aiaaey, o ye?e nooi?iue aeaoi?iaoe?? aecia/aany
ca e?eoa??yie: ?ici??, aenioa ?icoaooaaiiy, iiai?io ii a?aeiioaiith aei
o?aaoa, ci?ie iaaea?aaaiaai? /anoeie eiiaoee, iayai?noue
iiiaa?oaa?aeueieo ooai?aiue, ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee.

5.?iciiae?e oyaeeino? oai?iae Oi?aiaaey ia o?e nooiai? aeicaieea
aecia/eoe oaeoeeo aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy ii onoiaiith an?o eiiiiiaio?a aeaoi?iaoe??.

6.I?e aea/aii? einiaoe/ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy
oai?iae Oi?aiaaey ii iecaaaeaiith eiiaoee a o?ueio a?oiao aoei
a?aei?/aii, ui:

— iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy ia i’yeeo oeaieiao, ye? canoiniaoaaeenue i?e
aeaoi?iaoe?? I nooiaiy, aeyaeeeny iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie;

— iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy ia i’yeeo oeaieiao ? e?noeao, ye?
canoiniaoaaeenue i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? ?? nooiaiy, aeyaeeeny oaeiae
aoaeoeaieie;

— iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy ia i’yeeo oeaieiao ? e?noeao, canoiniaai? i?e
aeaoi?iaoe?? ??? nooiaiy, iniaeeai i?e aeainoi?iiiueiio o?aaeaii? ? a
ii?aeiaii? c aiiiae?yie neaeaoa, aeyaeeeny iaio aoaeoeaieie, i?ioa
aeicaieeee iie?ioeoe ooieoe?th aa?oiuei? e?ioe?aee.

7.Aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/i? ? a?noieia?/i? ci?ie i’yc?a iea/iaiai iiyna, iae?i-
? i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiiaa?oaa?aeueieo ooai?aiue aeicaieeee
ooi/ieoe aeaye? iiiaioe ao?ieia?? ? iaoiaaiaco oai?iae Oi?aiaaey, ye?
iieyaathoue o oiio, ui: o iiiaio caeeaaeaiiy iea/iaiai iiyna ae?y
oa?aoiaaiiiai aaaioa aeeeeea? ii?ooaiiy no?oeoo?e iacaioeiaeueii?
oeaieie, ui o iiaeaeueoiio i?ecaiaeeue aei ooai?aiiy iiiaa?oaa?aeueieo
oyae?a ? ia?a?iaeaeaiiy i’yc?a iea/iaiai iiyna, ii?oooth/e i?a?aoe?th
eiiaoee ia cae/ia i?noea ? aeeeeeath/e ?? aeaoi?iaoe?th.

Nienie ?ia?o, iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Neiie/aiei Ae.I. Yoeieiaey e iaoiaaiac aieacie Oi?aiaaey
//Eeeie/aneay oe?o?aey.– 1999.- ? 6.– N.29-31.

2. Neiie/aiei Ae.I. Oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea aieacie Oi?aiaaey II noaiaie
//I?oiiaaeey, o?aaiaoieiaey e i?ioace?iaaiea.– 1999.- ? 3.– N.108-111.

3. Neiie/aiei Ae.I. Oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea aieacie Oi?aiaaey
//Eeeie/aneay oe?o?aey.– 1999.- ? 7.– N.28-29.

AIIOAOe?ss

Neii?/aiei Aeieo?i Ieeieaeiae/. O??O?A?*IA E?EOAAIIss OAI?IAE
OI?AIAAEss. — ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.21. – o?aaiaoieia?y
oa i?oiiaae?y.

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??
IIC Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

A ?acoeueoao? aea/aiiy ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/ieo iciae caoai?thaaiiy o 81
oai?iai c oai?iaith Oi?aiaaey c iaeii- ? aeainoi?iii?i o?aaeaiiyi
iea/iaiai iiyna (90 ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue), a oaeiae o ii?aeiaii? c
?ioeie a?iaeaeaieie caoai?thaaiiyie neaeaoa (neiae?iiii Ee?iiaeue-Oaeey,
a?iaeaeaiei ? aeenieanoe/iei neie?icii, neiinoicii ?aaa?,
eeeiiiiae?aieie o?aaoeyie oa ?io.) ?ic?iaeaia aiaoiii-ooieoe?iiaeueia
eeaneo?eaoe?y, yea aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae
aei aeai?o iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy oyaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe??. Aea/ai? aeeaei? ? a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy a 3 a?oiao oai?eo ca ooieoe?iiaeueieie ? einiaoe/ieie
e?eoa??yie. Aeaeo?ii?ia?ao?/i? oa a?noieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i’yc?a
iea/iaiai iiyna, a oaeiae iae?i- ? i?e?ino?oeoo?ieo ci?i
iiiaa?oaa?aeueieo ooai?aiue a ii??aiyii? c ee?i?/ieie ?
?aioaaiieia?/ieie i?iyaaie aeicaieeee aeyaeoe i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia?
aca?iica’ycee ? ae??oeoe aeaye? ieoaiiy c ao?ieia?? oa iaoiaaiaco
oai?iae Oi?aiaaey.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiiaoea, iea/iaee iiyn, oai?iaa Oi?aiaaey.

Neiie/aiei Aeieo?ee Ieeieaaae/. OE?O?AE*ANEIA EA*AIEA AIEACIE OI?AIAAEss
– ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.21. – o?aaiaoieiaey e
i?oiiaaeey.

Oe?aeineee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo o?aaiaoieiaee e
i?oiiaaeee IIC Oe?aeiu, Eeaa , 1999.

A ?acoeueoaoa eco/aiey eeeieei-?aioaaiieiae/aneeo i?eciaeia o 81
aieueiiai n aieaciueth Oi?aiaaey n iaeii- e aeaonoi?iiiei ii?aaeaieai
iea/aaiai iiyna (90 iaaethaeaiee), a oaeaea a ni/aoaiee n ae?oaeie
a?iaeaeaiiuie caaieaaaieyie neaeaoa (neiae?iiii Eeeiiaeue-Oaeey,
a?iaeaeaiiui e aeenieanoe/aneei neieeicii, neiinoicii ?aaa?,
eeeiiaeaeiuie iicaiieaie e ae?.), nicaeaia aiaoiii-ooieoeeiiaeueiay
eeanneoeeaoeey, a iniiao eioi?ie iieiaeaiu: aaee/eia eiiaoee e
aeaoi?iaoeey ioaeaeueiuo aa ia?aciaaiee, ?aniieiaeaiea ii ioiioaieth e
iicaiii/ieeo e a?oaeiie eeaoea, iaee/ea oea?iciiai eee einoiiai oyaea
iaaeaeo eiiaoeie e iicaiii/ieeii, a oaeaea ia?ooaiea ooieoeee iea/aaiai
iiyna. Ii yoei i?eciaeai ana aieueiua ?acaeaeaiu ia 3 a?oiiu ii noaiaie
eeeieei-?aioaaiieiae/aneeo i?iyaeaiee, e eioi?ui inouanoaeyeny
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae i?e auai?a iaoiaea ea/aiey. A iniiao
oe?o?ae/aneiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ii iecaaaeaieth eiiaoee iieiaeaia
iaoiaeeea N.Ae.Oa?iianueeiai e A.E.Aiae?eaiiaa a iiaeeoeeaoeee
I.ss.Oeuaiea. Aeey eco/aiey aeeaeaeoeo e ioaeaeaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia
ea/aiey enoiaeeee ec aeaoo e?eoa?eaa: ooieoeeiiaeueiiai e
einiaoe/aneiai. I?e yoii iieueciaaeenue o?aoaaeueiie nenoaiie ioeaiie:
oi?ioee, oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue e iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue ?acoeueoao.

Aiaeec aeeaeaeoeo e ioaeaeaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia i?iaaaeai a 3 a?oiiao
eeeie/aneeo iaaethaeaiee. I?e yoii o 17 aieueiuo (18 iaaethaeaiee) n
aieaciueth Oi?aiaaey oi?ioee ooieoeeiiaeueiue ?acoeueoao ioia/ai o 13
iaaethaeaieyo, oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue o 4 iaaethaeaieyo,
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue

a iaeiii iaaethaeaiee. Einiaoe/aneee ?acoeueoao: oi?ioee – o 15
iaaethaeaieyo, oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue – o 3 iaaethaeaieyo. O 39 neo/ayo n
aieaciueth Oi?aiaaey II noaiaie: oi?ioee ooieoeeiiaeueiue ?acoeueoao aue
o 29 neo/ayo, oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue – o 8 neo/ayo, iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue
– a 2 neo/ayo. Einiaoe/aneee ?acoeueoao: oi?ioee – o 28 iaaethaeaieyo,
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue – a 10 iaaethaeaieyo, iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue – a 1
iaaethaeaiee. A 33 neo/ayo n aieaciueth Oi?aiaaey III noaiaie: oi?ioee
ooieoeeiiaeueiue ?acoeueoao ioia/ai o 15 iaaethaeaieyo,
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue – a 11, iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue – o 7.
Einiaoe/aneee ?acoeueoao: oi?ioee – o 13 iaaethaeaieyo,
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue – o 13, iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue – o 7 iaaethaeaieyo.

YIA e aenoieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iuooe iea/aaiai iiyna, a oaeaea
iae?i- e iee?ino?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey iiiaa?oaa?aeueiuo ia?aciaaiee a
niiinoaaeaiee n eeeie/aneeie i?iyaeaieyie iicaieeee onoaiiaeoue
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua acaeiiioiioaiey e ?aoeoue iaeioi?ua aii?inu
yoeieiaee e iaoiaaiaca aieacie Oi?aiaaey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiaoea, iea/aaie iiyn, aieaciue Oi?aiaaey.

Skopichenko D.M. SURGICAL Treatment of sprengel’s deformity —
Manuscript. Thesis for Candidate of Medical Scienses degree,
specialization 14.01.21 «traumatology and orthopedics». Ukrainian
Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Ministry of
Public Health of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999

As a result of study of clinical and roentgenologic signs of Sprengel’s
disease in 81 patients with uni- and bilateral involvement of shoulder
girdle (90 clinical cases) as well as in connection with other
congenital sceleton diseases (Klippel-Fail-syndrome, congenital and
dysplastic scoliosis, rib synostosis, wedge-shaped vertebrae etc.) the
anatomic and functional classification has been worked out which allows
the differential approach to the choice of treatment method depending on
the severity degree of the deformity. Close and end results of the
surgical treatment have been studied in 3 groups of patients according
to the functional and cosmetic criteria. Electromyographic and
histologic investigations of the shoulder girdle muscles as well as of
macro- and microstructural changes of formations in the comparison with
clinical and roentgenologic manifestations permitted to determine the
cause and effect relations and to solve some questions concerning
etiology and pathogenesis of Sprengel’s deformity.

Key words: scapula, shoulder girdle, Sprengel’s deformity

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