?inoeooo a?oioiciaanoaa oa aa?iiii?? ?i. I.I.Nieieianueeiai OAAI

Aaee/ei Aieiaeeie? Aiae??eiae/

Oaee:631.47:631.48

A?oioiaee iie?ea Oe?a?inueeiai Iie?nny ye ciiaeueii iaoiiaeaiee
i?e?iaeiee eiiieaen, eiai ae?aaiinoeea oa eeaneo?eaoe?y

06.01.03 — aa?ia?oioiciaanoai ? aa?io?ceea

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Oa?e?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? a?oioiciaanoaa oa aa?iiii??
?i.I.I.Nieieianueeiai, Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y aa?a?ieo iaoe.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iieoiai Ieeiea ?aaiiae/

?inoeooo a?oioiciaanoaa oa
aa?io?i?? ! ?i.I.I.Nieaeuenueeiai, aieiaiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: 1.Aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
i?ioani?

Oeoiiaiei Aeieo?i A?eai?iae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. A.A.Aeieo/a?aa,

i?i?aeoi? c iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe

Aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio

No?aeue/aiei Aieiaeeie?
Iao?iae/,

?inoeooo n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa Iie?nny OAAI,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo
caiea?ianoaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a a?oioiciaanoaa ?
ioi?iie a?oio?a,

Eaa?iao i?i?no??a Oe?a?ie,
i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «16» «ea?oiy» 1999 ?. i «14» aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.354.01. a ?inoeooo? a?oioiciaanoaa
oa aa?io?i?? ?i. I.I.Nieieianueeiai OAAI ca aae?anith: 310024,
i.Oa?e?a-24, aoe. *aeeianueeiai, 4

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
a?oioiciaanoaa oa aa?iiii?? ?i.I.I.Nieieianueeiai OAAI 310024,
i.Oa?e?a, aoe. *aeeianueeiai, 4

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «16» «aa?aciy» 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
I. O.Iaaeaiei

. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. No/aniee noai ?icaeoeo a?oioiciaanoaa
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noaiiaeaiiyi eiai aeieiai/iiai iai?yio
(Aeia?iaieueneee, Ieeeoei, 1986; 1990; Ea?ia/aaneee, 1993). C oei?th
aaeoccth ciaiue iia’ycothoue iaa?oiooaaiiy ?iciiai oeio a?aaeaoeie
aeanoeainoae a?oioia aiaeiiaiaeii aei aeieiai/ieo oiia ?o oi?ioaaiiy,
aaeineiiaeaiiy iiiaieeaoo?e, eeaneoieaoei?

e aeiaaiinoeee.Ua E. A. ?aiainueeee (1938) ?icaeyaeaa oei caiaeue ye oei
na?aaeiaeua, ui aecia/a? i?e?iaeio ?ineeiiinoue i oeyoe ??
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy, oiaoi aeieiai/ii oaeoi?e oi?iothoue
aiaeiiaiaeia na?aaeiaeua oa aecia/athoue no?oeoo?o

e aeeiaiieo aiioe a iueiio. A?oio, ye aiaeiii, ? ooieoei?th aeieiai/ieo
oiia i aiieiai/iiai oaeoi?a. Inue /iio iaeiioeiiinoue inoaiiio
iaia’yceiai ciaoiaeeoue aiaeia?aaeaiiy o aiaeiiaiaeieo ii?oiaaiaoe/ieo
ia?aiao?ao a?oioo.

A?oioiaee iie?ea Oe?a?inueeiai Iieinny (19,5% ieiui Oe?a?ie), ui caeia?
iniaeeaa iinoea na?aae iioeo ?iaieiieo i?e?iaeieo cii e?a?ie,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/iei iioe?aiiyi iiuaieo ianeaia, aiae?iii?oieo
eaiaeoaooia i aenieei ?iaiai caeinaiinoi, aiaeiinii

iaaaeeeith inai?iinoth oa?eoi?i?, yei e coiiaeee oi?ioaaiiy o eiai
iaaeao ?iciiiaiioiiai i ae?iaiiiica?/iiai a?oioiaiai
iie?eao.?aoeiiiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo ?ano?nia iio?aao? oi/ii?
iioi?iaoei? i?i ?oiie yeiniee neeaae aeey aecia/aiiy aa?ia?oioiaiai
iioaioeiaeo, ioeiiee aa?oinoi, i?iaaaeaiiy na?oeoieaoei? oa iiiioi?eiao
ca noaiii.

I?ioa no/anii aeaii i?i no?oeoo?o a?oioiaiai iie?eao Iieinny ia iiaiith
ii?ith aiaeiiaiaeathoue ?aaeiyi. O ca’yceo c oeei aeooaeueiinoue
i?aaenoaaeaii? oaie iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaiii iieinueei? ciie ye
niaoeeoi/iiai oiceei-aaia?aoi/iiai ?aaiiio, aeyaeaiii iniaeeainoae
a?oioiooai?aiiy a iueiio, ?ic?iaoei eieueeinieo iieacieeia ?o aecia/aiiy
oa oaeineiiaeaiiy iiiaieeaoo?e i aeiaaiinoeee a?oioia. ?ica’ycaiiy
cacia/aieo ieoaiue aeanoue ciiao iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe ?aoeiiiaeueia
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy a ciii Iieinny.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue o iaaeao iaoeiai-oaoii/ii? i?ia?aie «?ic?iaeoe aeieiai/ii
aacia/ii oaoiieiai? aiaeoai?aiiy ?iaeth/inoi i ioi?iie a?oioia»,
iiaei?ia?aie «Oaoiieiai? iioeiicaoei? no/aniiai a?oioiooai?thaaeueiiai
i?ioeano» oa caaaeaiiy 01.01: «Oaeineiiaeeoe eeaneoieaoeith a?oioia oa
?ic?iaeoe a?oioiai-aeieiai/ia ?aeiioaaiiy caiaeueieo ?ano?nia i ioeiieoe
?o a?oioiaee iioaioeiae».

Iaoa oa caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiue — aeyaeoe caeiiiii?iinoi ca’yceo iiae
oeiieiai/ieie iniaeeainoyie a?oioiooai?aiiy a ciii Iieinny i ia?aiao?aie
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aoiono, anoaiiaeoe iieaciee oeueiai ca’yceo i ?ic?iaeoe
eiai ii?iaoeaii a?aaeaoei? aeey iaeaioeoieaoei? aaiaoe/iiai noaoono
a?oioo.Aiaeiiaiaeii aei iaoe ae?iooaaeenue oaei caaaeaiiy:

— iaa?oiooaaoe niaoeeoieo aiae?ioa?ii/ieo oiia ciie aeineiaeaeaiue;

— anoaiiaeoe ca’ycie iiae oeiaie a?oioiooai?aiiy oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi
aoiono;

— aeyaeoe nii?iaeiaiinoue ciiaeueiiai a?oioiooai?aiiy ia eaniaeo i
e?aeaeyii-ia?aaeueieo ii?iaeao;

— aecia/eoe niaoeeoieo oi?ioaaiiy ciie ia?acaieiaeaiiy a a?oioao eaaeiai
a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo;

— ?ic?iaeoe ii?iaoeaii iieacieee iaeaioeoieaoei? oeiia a?oioiooai?aiiy,
oaeineiiaeeoe iiiaieeaoo?o i aeiaaiinoeeo a?oioia o ?o iaaeao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia.

1. Aia?oa iaa?oioiaaii oa?aeoa?ii aeey ciie Iieinny ia?aiao?e/ii
iieacieee aiae?ioa?ii/ieo oiia. Iieacaii, ui AOE Naeyieiiaa ca ia?oo i
ae?oao /anoeio oaieiai ia?iiaeo iaeaioe/ii, ia aiaeiiio aiae Eininoaio,
a yeiio ae?oaa eiai /anoeia aieueo iinooeeaa. Oea aeaei ciiao ooi/ieoe
iaaeo iieinueei? ciie.

2. Aeyaeaii o?e iniiaii oeie a?oioiooai?aiiy iacaeaaeii aiae oa?aeoa?o
iaoa?einueeeo ii?iae: aea?iiai-iiaecieenoee, aea?iiaee iiiaecieaiee i
aea?iiai-aeaeiaee. Iieacaii, ui ?o oi?ioaaiiy coiiaeaii ?iciei
niiaaiaeiioaiiyi aea?aaieo i o?aa’yienoeo eiiiiiaioia oei?e, ui
aecia/a?oueny a?aioeiiao?e/iei neeaaeii ii?iae i nooiaiai caieiaeaiiy.

3. Aeiaaaeaii, ui eiaeiee oei a?oioiooai?aiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaieie
ia?aiao?aie eiaoioei?ioa aiaeiiniiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aoiono. ?ic?iaeaii
aeey ieo ii?iaoeaii a?aaeaoei? c aeeoa?aioeiaoei?th ca nooiaiai
aieiaicaaacia/aiiy.

4. Iieacaii, ui ia e?aeaeyii-ia?aaeueieo ii?iaeao ii?oieiai-aaiaoe/ii
iieacieee i?ioieth ia caiaathoueny c oeiii a?oioiooai?aiiy, inoaiii
aecia/athoueny ia?aiao?aie eiaoioei?ioia aiaeiiniiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy
aoiono.

5. Oaeineiiaeaii iiiaieeaoo?o a?oioia oa ?o aeiaaiinoeeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia iieyaa? a i?inoi?iaiio
?iciaaeoaaiii cii Iieinny oa Eininoaio, ?ic?iaoei eieueeinieo iieacieeia
iaeaioeoieaoei? oeiia a?oioiooai?aiiy e oaeineiiaeaiii eeaneoieaoei?
a?oioia oa ?o aeiaaiinoeee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi? a?aa aaciina?aaeiuei o/anoue o
iieueiaeo aeineiaeaeaiiyo a?oioia, cai?i eioa?aoo?ieo i oiiaeiaeo
iaoa?iaeia, i?iaaaeaiii noaoenoeei-iaoaiaoe/iiai aiaeico ?acoeueoaoia
aeineiaeaeaiue.

Iniiaii iaoeiai iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee io?eiaii aeena?oaioii.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe. Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue aaoi?a
aeiiiaiaeaeenue ia ?anioaeieainueeie ia?aaei c iaeii?aoeaii? aaia?aoi?
(i. Oaoeuee, 1980), ia ui?i/ieo caioao a/aii? ?aaee Iinoeoooo
a?oioiciaanoaa oa aa?ioiii? ii. I. I. Nieieianueeiai, eiioa?aioei? c
iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea i ?iaeth/inoi a?oioia a
Oe?a?ii (i. Oa?eia,

1985), a oaeiae ia V c’?caei a?oioiciaaoeia i aa?ioiiieia Oe?a?ie (i.
?iaia, 1998).

Ioaeieaoei?. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii 8 iaoeiaeo ?iaio.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoei?. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ic anooio, 6
?icaeieia, aeniiaeia, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (186 iiceoeie, c ieo
— 5 eaoeieoeath). Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoei? 155 noi?iiie, 31
oaaeeoey oa 5 ?enoieia.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

1. Ia’?eoe i iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiue. Ia’?eoii
aeineiaeaeaiue aaoi?a ? a?oioiaee iie?ea Oe?a?inueeiai Iieinny. Aeey
eiai aea/aiiy canoiniaaii eiiieaen iaoiaeia, a iniiao yeeo aoei
iieeaaeaii ii?iaiyeueii-aaia?aoi/iee, inoi?e/iee (aaiaoe/iee) i
nenoaiiee iiaeoiaee, a oaeiae iaoaiaoe/ii iaoiaee. ?iaioa aeeiioaaeany
oeyoii aeanieo iieueiaeo oa aiaeioe/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue, a oaeiae
ocaaaeueiaiiy /eneaiieo ioaeieaoeie i oiiaeiaeo iaoa?iaeia. Aoei
c?iaeaii aiaeic oaeoe/iiai iaoa?iaeo e?oiiiianooaaieo aeineiaeaeaiue
a?oioia onio ?aaiiiia Oe?a?inueeiai Iieinny. Ia?o?ooii aeineiaeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue o Ee?anueeie, *a?iiaianueeie, AEeoiie?nueeie, ?iaiainueeie
oa Aieeinueeie iaeanoyo iaoiaeii eaoai ia ?icieo aeaiaioao ?aeue?oo a
oiiaao i?e?iaeieo oeaiicia oa aa?ioeaiicia caeeaaeaiiyi a?oioiaeo
?ic?icia i aiaeai?ii c?aceia ca aaiaoe/ieie ai?eciioaie aeey aiaeicia.
Aiaeioe/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeeny caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie.

2. Inoi?e/ii aniaeoe aeineiaeaeaiue iieinueeeo a?oioia. Iaaaaeaii iaeyae
eioa?aoo?ieo i ea?oia?aoi/ieo aeaea?ae uiaei ?icaeoeo ciaiue i?i a?oioe
Iieinny, ?o iiiaieeaoo?o, aeiaaiinoeeo oa aaiaoeei-aa?iiiii/io
oa?aeoa?enoeeo. Iieacaii, ui inioth/i ia nueiaiaeii aeaii i?i aaiaoe/iee
noaoon a?oioia oa ?oii aeanoeainoi ia aiaeiiaiaeathoue ?aaeueiie
?icieoei, yea iiaeiia inioaaoe iiae a?oioaie ?iciiai oeio
a?oioiooai?aiiy. Aecia/aii iaaeineiiaeinoue aeiaaiinoeee a?oioia ca
ii?oieiai/ieie iieacieeaie, iaa?oioiaaii iai?yie aeineiaeaeaiue, yeei
i?enay/aia aeena?oaoeiy.

3. Aeieiai/ii iniaeeainoi oi?ioaaiiy a?oioiaiai iie?eao. Iieacaii ?ieue
i?e?iaeieo oiia ye a?oioiooai?thaa/ia o oi?ioaaiii a?oioiaiai iie?eao,
eiai ciiaeueieo iniaeeainoae. Iaa?oioiaaii, ui iiii?ii-oaieee, aieiaee,
i’yeee ia caoiaei e iiii?ii-eiioeiaioaeueiee ia noiaei eeiiao o oeieiio
ni?eyoeeaee aeey einiai? ?ineeiiinoi ye ia?aaeoiiae ?icaeoeo
iiaecieenoiai i?ioeano. Iaiaeii?iaeiinoue aaieiai/ii? aoaeiae o iaaeao
?icieo aaieiai/ieo no?oeoo? Noiaeii-?a?iiaenueei? ieaooi?ie
(Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? caiaaeeie, Oe?a-

?inueeiai e?enoaei/iiai ueoa, Aeiii?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei? caiaaeeie oa ia
noeei Ai?iiacueeiai e?enoaei/iiai ianeao) coiiaeea no?ieaoinoue iaci- i
iie?i?aeue?oo, aeayeith ii?ith a?oioiooai?thth/eo ii?iae, ui ? i?e/eiith
iaaecae/aeii? iica?/iinoi a?oioiaiai iie?eao Oe?a?inueeiai Iieinny. Ia
?? oi?ioaaiiy oaeiae aieeioei iaaeeaiea caeyaaiiy a?oioiaeo aiae, ui
aiaeia?aceeiny ia nooiaii aiae?iii?oiinoi a?oioia.Iaoa?einueei ii?iaee
i?aaenoaaeaii ii?aiith, oethaiiaeyoeiaeueieie aiaeeeaaeaie, ica?ieie
i?iniiaiaeieie noaeeieaie, aeaaiueiaethaiaeueieie iineaie, eanaie,
e?aeaeyii-ia?aaeueieie oa no/anieie ?i/eiaeie

aiaeeeaaeaie.Na?aae ieo ia?aaaaeathoue ii?iaee eaaeiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai
neeaaeo. A Eiaiaa?aaeiiio i Oeaio?aeueiiio Iieinni iiuaii (0-5% oice/ii?
aeeie) i ca’ycii-iiuaii (6-10%) ii?iaee caeiathoue 23 i 22% oa?eoi?i?,
eaaei noiinee (11-15%) — 33 i 29%, aaaeei

noiinee (16-20%) — 30 i 31%, eaaei noaeeiee — 14 i 15%, oiaei ye a
Caoiaeiiio — aiaeiiaiaeii 69, 24, 4 i 3%. Oea iaia?aae aecia/a? ?iciee
nooiiiue ni?eyoeeainoi oa?eoi?i? aeey einiai? ?ineeiiinoi i aiaeii/an
iiina?aaeeiaaii — iioe?aiiy ?iciiai oeio a?oioiooai?aiiy, ui
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?icieie oiiaaie caeyaaiiy, iiooaeiinoth i
oiceei-oiii/ieie

aeanoeainoyie.Aeey iaoa?einueeeo ii?iae Iieinny oa?aeoa?ia iaeiaeiaa
niiaaiaeiioaiiy iiae o?aeoeiyie ?o a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo (?en. 3.1).
Oae, iiae aiinoii ioeo oa oice/ii? aeeie eiaoioei?io ei?aeyoei? a
aeaaiueiaethaiaeueieo ii?iaeao, eanao, ii?aii e oethaiiaeyoeiaeueieo
ii?iaeao noaiiaeoue 0,98; ieeii — 0,97-0,94, e?ii eania, aea aii
aei?iaith? 0,59, a iineii R= -0,91 — -0,99. Ci caieueoaiiyi aiinoo ioeo
iaeaea i?yii i?iii?oeieii c?inoa? eieueeinoue oice/ii? aeeie, ieeo i
aaeaeaaoii ciaioo?oueny iayaiinoue iineo. Oaea caeaaeiinoue, ia iaoo
aeoieo, naiae/eoue i?i iaeiioeiia ?o iioiaeaeaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaia no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeiiiaeueia caeaaeiinoue oioioeaiicia aiae
i?e?iaeieo /eiieeia Iieinny ye iniiaa eiai a?oioiaiai ?icia?ooy.

4. Iieinny — ciiaeueii iaoiiaeaiee oiceei-aaia?aoi/iee ?aaiii. Iieinny
caeia? iniaeeaa iinoea na?aae iioeo ?iaieiieo i?e?iaeieo cii Oe?a?ie.
?i/ii noie iiaaeia oa aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? Oe?a?inueeiai Iieinny aeecueei
aei oeeo iieacieeia caoiaeii? /anoeie Eininoaio, yeo aaiaioaiiee
aaaaeathoue i?iaeiaaeaiiyi ciie oe?ieieenoyieo einia, aeanoeai?
Oeaio?aeueiie i Caoiaeiie ?a?iii. I?ioa iayaiinoue o iaaeao
Oa?iiiieuenueei? i /anoeiai Aieeinueei? iaeanoae

/i?iicaiieo a?oioia aea? iiaenoaao aaaaeaoe oa?eoi?ith
aieiaieininoaiiaith, niaoeeoiea aiae?ioa?ii/ieo oiia yei? aecia/a?oueny
i?ia?aoi/iei aoaeoii Aieeinueei? oa Iiaeieuenueei? aeni/ei i iio?aao?
aeeeth/aiiy ic neeaaeo oeiiaiai Eininoaio.Aiaeic aeaieo aeeiaiiee
aiae?ioa?ii/ieo oiia Iieinny aeyaea eiai niaoeeoi/io iniaeeainoue —
oioiaeiinoue

aaeaino oaiea e aieiae o ia?oo i ae?oao /anoeie oaieiai ia?iiaeo. Aeey
aaniethoii? aieueoinoi iaoainoaioeie Iieinny cia/aiiy aiae?ioa?ii/iiai
eiaoioei?ioa (AOE Naeyieiiaa) ca ia?iiaee o?aaaiue — eeiaiue i na?iaiue
— aa?anaiue caiaathoueny (oaae. 4.1).

?a?aaeo O?aaaiue-eeiaiue Na?iaiue-aa?anaiueIiaaee, ii Noia oaiia?aoo?
iiiaae 10°NAOEIiaaee, iiNoia oaiia?aoo? iiiaae 10°NAOE

1 170-185 1500-1550 1,10-1,20 100-110 900-950 1,10-1,20

2 180-200 1500-1550 1,20-1,30 110-120 900-950 1,20-1,30

3 195-220 1470-1510 1,30-1,40 120-130 900-950 1,30-1,40

4 215-240 1470-1510 1,40-1,50 130-140 900-950 1,40-1,50

C o?aooaaiiyi naciiii? aeeiaiiee aiae?ioa?ii/ieo oiia Iieinny a eiai
iaaeao iaie aeaeieaii 4 eeiiaoe/ii a?aaee.Aeey Eininoaio, iaaiaee,
aeanoeaa inoioia ?icieoey o aiae?ioa?ii/ieo oiiaao ia?oi? i ae?oai?
/anoei oaieiai ia?iiaeo — aiia eieeaa?oueny aiae 0,07 aei 0,25-0,30.
Iinooeeainoue ae?oai? /anoeie oaieiai ia?iiaeo coiiaeth? iaioo
eiioi?oiinoue aeioiiia aeey einiai? ?ineeiiinoi. O ca’yceo c oeei
aiae?ioa?ii/ii oiiae Iaeiai Iieinny, yeei aeanoeaa ?icieoey o 0,2-0,3
AOE, aiaeiiaiaeathoue Eininoaio, ui iio?aao? ia?aaeyaeo inioth/eo noai

?aeiioaaiue. Oei iieacieee aeaee ciiao ooi/ieoe i?e?iaeii iaaei Iieinny.
A a?aooaaiiy iioe?aiiy iaaieo no?oeoo? oeiia a?oioiaiai iie?eao a iueiio
oa aiieeiiaoe/ieo oiia, ui oi?iothoue nai??iaeii eaiaeoaooe, aia?oa
iaa?oiooaaoe iieacieee, ia?aiao?e oa iaaei a?oioiai-aeieiai/ii? ciie.

5. Oeie a?oioiooai?aiiy, ?o iiiaieeaoo?a oa aeiaaiinoeea. Oe?a?inueea
Iieinny ye ciiaeueii

iaoiiaeaiee i?e?iaeiee eiiieaen ic nai??iaeieie eeiiaoe/ieie
aaieiai-aaiii?oieiai/ieie, eioia?aioeiiao?e/ieie, aiae?ieiai/ieie i
oioioeaiioe/ieie oiiaaie aiaecia/a?oueny iica?/iei i iacieiiieaeniei
a?oioiaei iie?eaii.O ?acoeueoaoi aeineiaeaeaiue aeyaeaii o?e oeie
a?oioiooai?aiiy: aea?iiai-iiaecieenoee, aea?iiaee iiiaecieaiee i
aea?iiai-aeaeiaee.Aea?iiai-iiaecieenoee oei a?oioiooai?aiiy ?icaeaaany a
iaeni?eyoeeaioeo oiiaao aeey einiai? ?ineeiiinoi ye ca o?ioi/iei, oae i
aiaeiei ?aaeeiii, ui iaoiiaethaaei iiiiiaeueio o/anoue o iueiio o?aa. O
ca’yceo c oeei oi?ioaaiiy a?oioia noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny iecueeei
aoioniiaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi. O ca’ycii-iiuaieo a?oioao eieueeinoue aoiono
eieeaa?oueny aiae 0,3-0,4 aei 0,7-0,8%, a a eaaeinoaeeieiaeo aiae —
1,1-1,5 aei 2,0-2,6%.Ca aeiaaiinoe/iei e?eoa?i?i eiaoioei?ioa aiaeiinii?
uiaei 10% oice/ii? aeeie aeoioeyoei? aoiono (EAAA),

oeae oei a?oioiooai?aiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeeie ia?aiao?aie: aiae
0,35-0,55 aei 0,85-0,95.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaiaoe/iee oei a?oioiooai?thth/eo ii?iae ia aieeaa? ia
aeoioeyoeith aoiono a aea?iiai-iiaecieenoeo a?oioao. Eiai eieueeinoue
aecia/a?oueny aiinoii oice/ii? aeeie a ieo oa iioaineaiinoth caieiaeaiiy
(?en. 5.1). Cai?iiiiiaaii 4 aeaee a?oioia ca nooiaiai caieiaeaiiy i
?ic?iaeaii aeiaaiinoe/ii iieacieee ?o iaeaioeoieaoei?: aaoiii?oii
(EAAA<0,55), neaaiaeathaaoi (0,56-0,68), aeathaaoi (0,69-0,82), aeaeiai (0,83-0,95). ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaei aecia/aiiy aiinoo aoiono a aea?iiai-iiaecieenoeo a?oioao caeaaeii aiae eieueeinoi oice/ii? aeeie oa aieiaicaaacia/aiiy. Noi?ioaaeeny aea?iiai-iiaecieenoi a?oioe ia aiaeiieueiaeiaeeiaeo, ii?aiieo, eaniaeaeieo oa aethaiaeueieo ii?iaeao ia?aaaaeii noiiuaii-noaeeieiaiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo, ?iaeoa - ca'ycii-iiuaiiai ia aeai/eaiieo ii?iaeao ca oiia nii?aaee/ii-canoieii-i?iieaiiai oa canoieii-iai?iieaiiai aiaeieo ?aaeeiia ia ii?aiii-caiae?iaeo i aethaiaeueieo ?iaieiao, oa?anao, ii?aiieo ai?aao oa ianiao.Aieiaiith aeiaaiinoe/iith iciaeith aea?iiai-iiaecieenoeo a?oioia ? /ioea oaenoo?ia aeeoa?aioeiaoeiy i?ioieth ia aoioniai-aethaiaeueiee, aethaiaeueiee oa iethaiaeueiee ai?eciioe. ?iciiaeie i?ioieth ia aaiaoe/ii ai?eciioe /ioeioa i?iyaey?oueny c iiaaae/aiiyi a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo oa caieueoaiiyi nooiaiy iaea?iiy, ui i?iyaey?ouey o ae?aaeaiinoi ii?oieiai? i iiooaeiinoi aethaiaeueiiai ai?eciioo.Aea?iiai-iiaecieenoi a?oioe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny /ioeith aeeoa?aioeiaoei?th ioeenoeo /anoie oa oice/ii? aeeie ca aaiaoe/ieie ai?eciioaie iacaeaaeii aiae oeio a?oioiooai?thth/eo ii?iae. Oiceei-oiii/ii aeanoeainoi aecia/athoueny a?aioeiiao?e/iei neeaaeii i aeayeith ii?ith nooiaiai caieiaeaiiy. Aaiaoe/iee oei a?oioiooai?thth/eo ii?iae i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia oiceei-oiii/ii ia?aiao?e aea?iiai-iiaecieenoeo a?oioia. ?ieinoue iaiiiii-aae?ieo eaoiiiia iecueea, aiia c?inoa? ci ciiiith a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo (aiae 4-6 o ca'ycii-iiuaieo aei 8-9 ia-aea/100 a a eaaeinoaeeieiaeo). ?aaeoeiy a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio neaaieenea, ?I nieueiaa 5,0-5,8. Oei iieacieee cia/aiue aeecueei aei iioeiaeueieo aeey aieueoinoi eoeueoo?, yei ae?iuothoue o ciii. I?ioa o?aieythoueny a?oioe, iniaeeai ia ii?aiao, c iieacieeaie ?I nieueiaiai iaioa 5. O oeieiio i?e cia/aiiyo ?I nieueiaiai 5,0-5,5 aaiioaaiiy iaeiaoaeoeaia (Oeeueieeia, Eaaaaeaaa, 1987). O ca'yceo c iacia/iei aiinoii eaeueoeith o neeaaei oaia?aiiai eiiieaeno, aea?iiai-iiaecieenoi a?oioe iio?aaothoue aianaiiy iaaaeeeeo aeic eaeueoeieaiinieo niieoe ye aeaiaioa aeeaeaiiy aeey eaeueoei?oieueieo eoeueoo? ia i?ioeaaao onoaeaiie aeoioei i?i iio?aao aeiaaaeaiiy ?aaeoei? na?aaeiaeua o a?oioi aei iioeiaeueiiai ?iaiy aaeeeeie aeicaie aaiiyeiaeo iaoa?iaeia. Oiii/iee neeaae oeeo a?oioia oinii ca'ycaiee c a?aioeiiao?i?th i aeayeith ii?ith c iniaeeainoyie a?oioiooai?thth/eo ii?iae. I?e iiaaae/aiii a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo a a?oioao ciaioo?oueny aiino SiO2 i caieueoo?oueny R2O3, eaeueoeith, iaaiith, eaeith i ?2I5. Ia aiaeii-oice/ii aeanoeainoi aea?iiai-iiaecieenoeo a?oioia i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? nooiiiue aiae?iii?oiinoi, aiie aecia/athoueny a?aioeiiao?e/iei neeaaeii.Iacia/ia eieueeinoue ioeo i oice/ii? aeeie aecia/a? iaaaeeeo ?o aieiai?ieinoue, yea caieueoo?oueny i?e iayaiinoi a i?ioiei noaeeieiaeo oa?ia. *a?ac aieiai?ieinoue (aieiaicaiane) oa o?ioi/iee ?aaeei i ae?aaea?oueny, ia iaoo aeoieo, aenieee ei?aeyoeaiee ca'ycie (0,61-0,89; Aea?aayiei, 1983) iiae o?iaea?i ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? i aiinoii oice/ii? aeeie a i?ioiei aea?iiai-iiaecieenoeo a?oioia. Neaaiiiaecieenoi aeaee na?aae aea?iiai-iiaecieenoiai oeio a?oioiooai?aiiy i?aeoe/ii ia cono?i/athoueny, a neeueiiiiaecieenoi - o?aieythoueny aeoaea ?iaeei, ia?aaaaeii a iie?icieaeaiiyo ?aeue?oo, aea inio? aeiaeaoeiaa aeeaeaiiy iiaa?oiaaeie aiaeaie ci noai?aiiyi oiia oei/aniaiai aiaa?iaiiceno, oa a iinoeyo iioe?aiiy yeeiiaeo einia, yei iaee ino?iaia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i aoee ia?ainii ?iaeeiniei ?ineeiiei oa?oiiaaiiyi o ciii. A ca'yceo c oei, ui ia?aaaaeathoue aea?iiai-na?aaeiueiiiaecieenoi aeaee, i?iiiio?ii nooiiiue iiaecieenoinoi a iacai a?oioo ia aaeeaaoe, a aeaeieyoe ?o ye aea?iiai-iiaecieenoi. O ciii Iieinny aaoiii?oii aea?iiai-iiaecieenoi a?oioe ia ? oiiiaeie, aiie oaeaeoa aeiyoie na?aae ?iciiai nooiaiy aiae?iii?oieo aeaeia. I?ioa ia aeeeth/a?ii ei?ioeiai ia?iiaeo ia?acaieiaeaiiy a ?o ?icaeoeo, yea ia ciaeoei aiaeia?aaeaiiy o ii?oieiai/ieo iciaeao. O?aieythoueny aaoiii?oii aea?iiai-iiaecieenoi a?oioe i?aeoe/ii ia anio a?oioiooai?thth/eo ii?iaeao Iieinny. Ia eaniaeaeieo noaeeieao aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeith aoaeiaith i?ioieth i ii?oieiai/ieie iciaeaie. Aoioni-aethaiaeueiee ai?eciio (IA) iiooaeiinoth 15-25 ni a i?ieo a?oioao caiaa?oueny c aeeaeiith i?aiee, aieani-ni?ee, a nooiio noaii iiiaeynoi-ni?ee, ieeoaaoee. Aethaiaeueiee ai?eciio (A) iiooaeiinoth 5-20 ni, aieani-iaeaaee, ic iiiioiith ieanoei/anoinoth, ia?aoiae yniee. Iethaiaeueiee ai?eciio (I) ao?ee, i?eciiaeaeiee o aa?oiie /anoeii iiiaei ae?acii aethaieiaaiee - aieae SiO2, oaiaeaioeiy aei ai?eciioaeueii? iiaeieueiinoi. Caaaeueia iiooaeiinoue i?ioieth 70-90 ni, aeeaoa caeyaa? iaeaaee, ia?aaaaeii o aa?oiie /anoeii aacea?aiiaoiee eaniaeaeiee noaeeiie. Eiiiy neeiaiiy cae/aeii aeeaoa 140-150 ni aai acaaaei aiaenooiy.Ia ii?aiieo noaeeieao ii?oieiai/ii iciaee iiaeiaii aei eaniaeaeieo ii?iae, i?ioa iethaiaeueiee ai?eciio c ae?aciei /a?aiiei aiaeoiieii, eiiiy neeiaiiy a ii?iaei ia?aaaaeii aiaenooiy, a iie o?aieythoueny ie?aii eiice iineo. Ia eaniaeaeieo noiineao aea?iiai-iiaecieenoi a?oioe iathoue iaio ae?aaeaiee iethaiaeueiee ai?eciio, yeee aac /ioei aeyaeaii? no?oeoo?e, iaeaai-ao?iai eieuei?o, iiiaei nioaanoee - o aeaeyaei /a?aoaaiiy ao?eo i?ioa?eia c aieaneie, iiooaeiinoth 0,5-2,0 ni. Iaoa?einueea ii?iaea iiiioii iiiuaiaia, ia?aaaaeii aacea?aiiaoia, a iie /anoi o?aieythoueny ie?aii eiice iineo, iaae yeeie ean aieueo iioaineaiiai ao?iai eieuei?o. Ia oethaiiaeyoeiaeueieo i aeaaiueiaethaiaeueieo ii?iaeao ia?aaaaeii noiiuaiiai i eaaeinoaeeieiaiai a?aineeaaeo aaoiii?oii aea?iiai-iiaecieenoi a?oioe iathoue ai?eciio IA ia?aaaaeii iiooaeiinoth 15-20 ni, a aa?ioeaiicao caiaa?oueny c aeeaeiith i?aiee, ni?ee, aacno?oeoo?iee. Aethaiaeueiee ai?eciio ynii-ni?ee, iiiaei neaaiaoioniaaiee o aa?oiie /anoeii, ia?aaaaeii aii?oii? no?oeoo?e, iiooaeiinoth 5-20 ni, o ieaeiie /anoeii iiiaei c aieanei aiaeoiieii, ia?aoiae ia?iaiiii?iee. Iethaiaeueiee ai?eciio cae/aeii ca eieuei?ii iica?/iee, ia naioeiei?e/iaaiio oiii aeaeieythoueny aiicaea i i?ioa?ee aieaniai iineo. Aea?iiai-iiaecieenoi neaaiaeathaaoi a?oioe iathoue iiaeiaio c aaoiii?oieie aoaeiao i?ioieth, eeoa aethaiaeueiee ai?eciio aieueo aieaniai eieuei?o c ie?aieie io?enoeie ae?aieaiiyie, iiiaei a aoioni-aethaiaeueiiio ai?eciioi ae?iaii ioieoaoei?, iaoa?einueea ii?iaea cae/aeii c neaaeeie iciaeaie iaea?iinoi o aeaeyaei necoaaoiai aiaeoiieo. Aea?-aethaieiaaiee i?ioa?ie o iaaeao i?ioieth aiaenooiie. Ca eioieiai/ii? iaiaeii?iaeiinoi (iiaenoeeaiii ia aeeaeii 1-2 i iioeie ii?iaeaie) neaaeee nooiiiue aeathaaoinoi aeiaaiinoo?oueny caieueoaiiyi ia eiioaeoi iiooaeiinoi aea?-aethaieiaaiiai oa?o iiiaae 5 ni.Aea?iiai-iiaecieenoi aeathaaoi aiaeiiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aiaeiai/iith aaoiii?oiei a?oioai aoaeiaith i?ioieth, i?ioa c iciaeaie iaea?iiy o aeaeyaei ie?aieo i?aeaaeo ieyi i i?eiacie a aethaiaeueiiio, caeici-ia?aaioeaaeo ioieoaoeie a aoioni-aethaiaeueiiio, iica?/iinoth a iethaiaeueiiio ai?eciioi oa iiiioiith iaea?iinoth iaoa?einueei? ii?iaee i?e aeeaieiio (iiiaae 2 i) caeyaaiii ?iaiy a?oioiaeo aiae. Ca aiaenooiinoi a iaaeao i?ioieth aiaeio?eaeeo i?ioa?eia ia iaaei c iaoa?einueeith ii?iaeith aiaeiniaeth?oueny aea?-aethaieiaaiee i?ioa?ie, iiooaeiinoue yeiai aecia/a?aueny ia'?iii aeiaeaoeiaiai iiaa?oiaaiai noieo oa aa?oiueith iaaeath oei/aniaiai aiaa?iaiiceno. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao iiaecieenoee (aethaiaeueiee) oa aea?-aethaieiaaiee ai?eciioe i?aeoe/ii ceeaathoueny ooai?aiiyi aieaniai i?ioa?eo iiooaeiinoth 40-70 ni. A inoaiiueiio ?aci eieeoiie ?ethaiaeueiee ai?eciio oaenoo?ii iaeiiiiioiee, aicoaeueii i?inoaaeo?oueny eeoa ca eieuei?ii o aeaeyaei ei?e/iaaaoi-ao?iai i?ioa?eo iiooaeiinoth 10-20 ni. Aea?-iethaieiaaiee (aea?- iaoaii?oiciaaiee) ai?eciio ?igl caeyaa? ia aeeaeii 60-90 ni ia?aaaaeii ei?e/iaaaoi-ao?ee, iiiaei c necoaaoi-/i?iei aiaeoiieii, o aa?oiie /anoeii c aieaneie aieaaie SiO2, ia noaeeieao eoaiaeaeii-i?eciiaeaeiee, iinooiiai ciiith?oueny iaoa?einueeith ii?iaeith, yea ieae/a ?aaiiiaeueiiai aiaeio?eao iiaea aooe aac iiiioieo iciae iaea?iinoi. Aea?iiai-iiaecieenoi aeaeiai a?oioe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ii?yae ic ?icaeiaiei ai?eciioii Egl iiyaith a iueiio oaa?aeeo caeici-ia?aaioeaaeo aiaiaei aeiaiao?ii 0,5-1,0 ni aai ieyi i noyaeiiue caeica, yei caeiathoue iiiaae 25% ieiui. Ia?aaiieii-aeoioeyoeaiee ai?eciio (IEgl) - 20-30 ni ia noaeeieao ic ae?aciei ieeaeiaei aiaeoiieii, ia? i?aeaai-io?enoi ieyie oa i?iaeeeee. Aethaiaeueii-aeaeiaee ai?eciio Egl iiooaeiinoth 20-60 ni, o aa?oiie /anoeii aieanoaaoi-ni?oaaoi-necee c ie?aieie io?enoeie ieyiaie, iiiaei c ia?aaioeaaeie ioieoaoeiyie, oa?oaaoee, o ieaeiie /anoeii i?aeaai-aieanee c /eneaiieie caeici-ia?aaioeaaeie aiaiaeiaie aeiaiao?ii 5-10 ii aai ieyiaie i noyaeiiiyie caeica, ui caeiathoue iiiaae 25% ieiui ?icei ia?aoiaeeoue a legl - aea?-iaoaii?oiciaaiee, cae/aeii ni?i-ao?ee c necei aiaeoiieii, o aa?oiie /anoeii c ai?eciioaeueiith iiaeieueiinoth.Aea?iiaee iiiaecieaiee oei a?oioiooai?aiiy aeanoeaee iinoeaiieiaeaiiyi c iaio ni?eyoeeaeie oiiaaie aeey einia i aiaeiiaiaeii e?aueie aeey o?aa aianeiaeie o?ioi/ieo iaiaaeaiue, ea?aiiaoiinoi oa iaea?iinoi iaoa?einueeeo ii?iae. Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii a?oioe, o ia?oiio aeiaaeeo, oi?iothoueny iiae ?ic?iaeaeaieie, ia?aaaaeii niniiaeie einaie ia ii?iaeao eaaeiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo. I?ioieue neaai oaenoo?ii aeeoa?aioeieiaaiee, aac ae?aaeaiiai aethaiaeueiiai ai?eciioo. I?ioa ia aiaeiiio aiae aea?iiaeo a?oioia, a ieo ia niinoa?iaa?oueny aoioniaaiinoi ia cia/io aeeaeio aianeiaeie aiieiai/iiai aap'??o o aeaeyaei ei?aiia aea?aaii? ?ineeiiinoi, yei caaaaeathoue ei?aiyi o?aa eoe a aeeaeio. Aiie iathoue oaeo aoaeiao i?ioieth. Aoioniaee neaaiaethaieiaaiee (Ia) iiooaeiinoth 13-18 ni, oaiii-ni?ee, a oeieeiieo oiiaao ia eiioaeoi c einiaith iiaenoeeeith aieani ca?ia aiaeieoiai eaa?oeo, iiiaei neaaiaeyaeaii ieyie aieueo naioeiai eieuei?o. *ioei ia?aoiaeeoue o ia?aoiaeiee neaaiiethaieiaaiee ai?eciio Pi(h) - ia?aaaaeii ei?e/iaaaoi-, ni?i-ao?ee, ouieueiaiee, neaaiaoioniaaiee, yeee iinooiiai ia aeeaeii 65-85 ni ciiith?oueny iaoa?einueeith ii?iaeith. Ca iiuaiiai i ca'ycii-iiuaiiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo aiia yaey? niaith inaaaeioia?iai iinee - /a?aoaaiiy aieanoaaoiai iineo c icaeiciaieie, oeia?ii caeaenoeie i?ioa?eaie.Aea?iiaiio iiiaecieaiiio oeio a?oioiooai?aiiy oa?aeoa?ia aieueoa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aoiono ia oieueee o aa?oiie /anoeii i?ioieth a?oioia ii?iaiyii c aea?iiai-iiaecieenoeie, a i ii anueiio eiai i?ioieth. I?iii?oeieia c?inoaiiy aoiono aeanoeaa ia oieueee aaoiii?oiei aeaeai, a i iiaeaeuaiiai caieiaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui eieueeinoue aoiono a aea?iiaeo iiiaecieaieo a?oioao c?inoa? ic caieueoaiiyi aiinoo a ieo oice/ii? aeeie oa iineeaiii nooiaiy caieiaeaiiy. Aeyaeaii 4 oeie a?oioia ca aiae?iii?oiinoth, ?ic?iaeaii ?o aeiaaiinoe/ii e?eoa?i?: aaoiii?oii (eiaoioei?io aiaeiinii? aeoioeyoei? aoiono (0,96-1,15), neaaiaeathaaoi (1,16-1,35), aeathaaoi (1,36-1,60) oa aeaeiai (1,61-2,00). ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaei aecia/aiiy aiinoo aoiono a aea?iiaeo iiiaecieaieo a?oioao caeaaeii aiae eieueeinoi oice/ii? aeeie oa aieiaicaaacia/aiiy ia aoaeue-yeeo iaoa?einueeeo ii?iaeao (?en. 5.3). Oeiieiai/iee oa?aeoa? aea?iiaiai iiiaecieaiiai a?oioiooai?aiiy ia caeaaeeoue aiae aaiaoe/io iniaeeainoae iaoa?einueeeo ii?iae, i?ioa ii?oieiai/ii aeanoeainoi a?oioia, ?o aa?iiiii/ii yeinoi, a oaeiae i ?iaeth/inoue aecia/athoueny cia/iith ii?ith oeiii a?oioiooai?thth/eo ii?iae. O ca'yceo c oeei i?iiiio?ii aea?iiaee iiiaecieaiee oei ?iciiaeieyoe ia 2 aeaee a?oioia: aea?iiai iiiaecieaii inaiiaaiii i aea?iiai iiiaecieaii ia ea?aiiaoieo ii?iaeao. Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii icaiiaeiii a?oioe oi?iothoueny ia oethaiiaeyoeiaeueieo i aeaaiueiaethaiaeueieo aiaeeeaaeao ia?aaaaeii iiuaiiai i ca'ycii-iiuaiiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo, i?ioa o?aieythoueny i ia noiiuaieo ?iciiaeaeao. Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii inaiiaaiii iaea?ii a?oioe ca aoaeiaith i?ioieth iiaeiaii aei aaoiii?oieo, aiae?iciyth/enue aieueo naioeei caaa?aeaiiyi o ieaeiie /anoeii i?ioieth aianeiaeie nii?aaee/iiai ia?acaieiaeaiiy, ieae/a caeyaa? aeia?a ae?aaeaia inaaaeioia?a aei 2-3 ni.Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii inaiiaaiii neaaiaeathaaoi a?oioe ii?oieiai/ii aiae?iciythoueny noi?iiaaiei ia aeeaeii 1,0-1,5 i i?ioa?eii (oiaueiith 5-10 ni) aieaniai iineo c inaaaeioia?aie iiooaeiinoth 0,3-0,6 ni caaaeyee iayaiinoi ia oeie aeeaeii i?ocaiaeo.Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii inaiiaaiii aeathaaoi a?oioe aiae?iciythoueny aiae aaoiii?oieo o?eaaeioei ia?acaieiaeaiiyi ieaeiio oa?ia a?oioo, ui ii?oieiai/ii aeyaey?oueny o ciaaa?aeaiii ieaeiuei? /anoeie i?ioieth ia aeeaeii 40-70 ni. Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii inaiiaaiii aeaeiai a?oioe aiae?iciythoueny iiyaith o i?ioiei oi?i naa?aaaoei? caeica o aeaeyaei i?aeaai-ao?eo ?icaiaeia, ui caeiathoue iiiaae 25% ieiui, a?oioiai aiaee caeyaathoue, ye i?aaeei, ia aeeaeii 80-140 ni.O aea?iiaeo iiiaecieaieo inaiiaaiieo a?oioao aiaenooiie ia?a?iciiaeie ioeenoeo /anoie ii i?ioieth. I?ioa inaaaeioia?iai i i?ocaiaeiai i?ioa?ee ye ?aaiiiaeueii aiaeio?eae /anoi aeaeieythoueny a i?ioiei caaaa/aiiyi o?aeoei? oice/ii? aeeie. Aiie iathoue iaeo ?ieinoue iaiiio, caiaeiaii eaeueoei?i, ?aaeoeiy a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio ia?aaaaeii neaaieenea.Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii iiuaiiai oa ca'ycii-iiuaiiai a?aineeaaeo iathoue aei 95-96% o nai?io neeaaei SiO2, aei 2% R2O3, aei 0,4-0,5% eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia, 0,5-0,7% E2I i iaeo eieueeinoue ?2I5 - 0,04-0,06%. O noiiuaieo ?iciiaeaeao aiino SiO2 aeaui ciaioo?oueny, a iioeo aeaiaioia caieueoo?oueny aei ?iaiy aea?iiai-iiaecieenoeo a?oioia aiaeiai/iiai a?aineeaaeo. A oeieiio ?iaeth/inoue oeeo a?oioia iecueea /a?ac iaeo eieueeinoue iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, iaaeinoaoith aieiai?ieinoue, a a aeaeiaeo ?iciiaeaeao - ia?acaieiaeaiinoue.O naith /a?ao aea?iiai iiiaecieaii a?oioe ia eanao i e?aeaeyii-ia?aaeueieo ii?iaeao oaeiae ?iciythoueny, ye ii?oieiai/ieie iciaeaie, oae i oiceei-oiii/ieie, oice/ieie oa aa?ioiii/ieie. A ca'yceo c oeei i?iiiio?ii aeaeieyoe ia eanao ye aea?iiai iiiaecieaii iiaeaeueii, ia e?aeaeyii-ia?aaeueieo ii?iaeao - aea?iiai iiiaecieaii ea?aiiaoii. Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii iiaeaeueii a?oioe ia ea?aiiaoieo eaniaeaeieo ii?iaeao i?eo?i/aii aei eaniaeo ino?iaia. Aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aoioniaaiinoth iiiiioi aeaio aaiaoe/ieo ai?eciioia, yea coiiaeaia aeoeaiith o/anoth o?aa'yienoi? aiioe a a?oioiooai?aiii. Caaaeueia iiooaeiinoue aoioniaaii? /anoeie i?ioieth noaiiaeoue 40-70 ni. O ?o i?ioiei aiaenooiie aacaoioniee aethaiaeueiee (iiaecieenoee) ai?eciio. Iiooaeiinoue aoioni-aeoioeyoeaiiai ai?eciioo ia?aaaaeii noaiiaeoue 30-40 ni.Iiaeie ca nooiaiai iaea?iinoi aiaeiai/iee iioei a?oioai - ia neaaiaeathaaoi, aeathaaoi oa aeaeiai, i?ioa ii?oieiai/ii iciaee a ca'yceo c noaeeieiaei a?aioeiiao?e/iei neeaaeii ae?aaeaii iiaeoa. Neaaiaeathaaoi aiaeiiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iiyaith a iaoa?einueeie ii?iaei (ia aeeaeii 1-2 i) ia/ioei ae?aaeaiiai necoaaoi-ieeaeoaaoiai aiaeoiieo, aeathaaoi - a ieaeiie /anoeii i?ioieth aai o aa?oiie /anoeii iaoa?einueei? ii?iaee, iiiaei c aiaeiniaeaiiyi ia aeeaeii 65-90 ni aea?-aethaiaeueiiai i?ioa?eo. A aeaeiaeo aiaeiiiao o i?ioiei, ia?aaaaeii a iethaiaeueiiio ai?eciioi - i?aeaai-io?enoi ieyie oa caeici-ia?aaioeaai aiaiaeie.Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii iiaeaeueii a?oioe ca a?aioeiiao?e/iei neeaaeii ia?aaaaeii eaaeinoaeeieiai, i?ioa /anoi o?aieythoueny aaaeeinoiiuaii (oice/ii? aeeie 16-20%) i na?aaeiueinoaeeieiai ca aiinoo oice/ii? aeeie 31- 35%. O oeeo a?oioao aiaenooiie ia?a?iciiaeie ioeenoeo /anoie ii i?ioieth. Oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/ieie caianaie aoiono, iiaeaeuaiith eieueeinoth oaia?aieo iniia, neaaieeneith ?aaeoei?th a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio. O aaeiaiio neeaaei eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia 1-1,5%, eaeith - 1,3-1,8, oinoi?o 0,09-0,12%. Ii?iaiyii c aea?iiaeie iiiaecieaieie inaiiaaiieie a?oioaie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iiaeaeuaiith ?iaeth/inoth. Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii ea?aiiaoii a?oioe ia e?aeaeyii-ia?aaeueieo iaoa?einueeeo ii?iaeao aaaaeathoueny iaeieie c iae?iaeth/ioeo a Oe?a?inueeiio Iieinni. Iioe?aii ia?aaaaeii o Aieeinueeiio Iieinni, iinoeyie - a Iiaai?iae-Niaa?nueeiio Iieinni (Oeoiiaiei, 1995). Ia iaoo aeoieo, ca aiaeiai?th, c oaeeie a?oioaie a ?aeiii Iaeiai Iieinny, aea ia?ii oe?ieieenoyii eine ia e?aeaeyii-ia?aaeueieo ii?iaeao, aea?iiai iiiaecieaii ea?aiiaoii a?oioe noi?ioaaeeny iiae oe?ieieenoyieie einaie, a yeeo aea?aaia ?ineeiiinoue ii?aeio?oueny c aeia?a ?icaeiaiith o?aa'yienoith. I?i oea naiae/aoue oaeiae iieacieee EAAAo ia oeeo a?oioao. Aiie oeeaaeathoueny a iaaeao aea?iiaiai iiiaecieaiiai oeio a?oioiooai?aiiy. Iniaeeainoth ?o ii?oieiai/ii? aoaeiae ? aiaenooiinoue oaenoo?ii? aeeoa?aioeiaoei? i?ioieth i?e caaaeueiie aoioniaaiinoi i?ioieth 26-65 ni, a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao iiaea aeinyaaoe 100 ni. Oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aiie aeineoue i?inoith aoaeiaith i?ioieth c aeeoa?aioeiaoei?th ia oaei aaiaoe/ii ai?eciioe: aoioniaee, ia?aoiaeiee oa a?oioiooai?thth/a ii?iaea. Aiino aoiono o aa?oiueiio ai?eciioi noaiiaeoue 2,5-6,0%. Aoioniaee ai?eciio iiaea aeinyaaoe 20-40 ni caeaaeii aiae a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo, EAAA eieeaa?oueny aiae 1 aei 2. O neeaaei aoiono ?icei ia?aaaaea? o?aeoeiy aoiiiiaeo ?a/iaei, iia'ycaieo ic eaeueoei?i (Oeeueeaae/, 1968). ?aaeoeiy a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio - aiae iaeo?aeueii? aei neaaieoaeii? - ?I o iaaeao 7,0-7,5 i eeoa a noiiuaieo i aeeienoi-iiuaieo aiaeiiiao noaiiaeoue 6,2-6,7, ui naiae/eoue i?i aeayeo aeeoaoaaiinoue aa?oiio ai?eciioia ea?aiiaoieo a?oioia eaaeiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo, /iai ia niinoa?iaa?oueny o noaeeieiaeo. Nooiiiue iane/aiiy eiei?aeiiai eiiieaeno iniiaaie aeinyaa? 95%. Aiino ea?aiiaoia eaeueoeith noaiiaeoue a i?iiio oa?i 4-50%, ic caieueoaiiyi aeiieco.Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii ea?aiiaoii a?oioe i?eo?i/aii aei iiaeaeuaieo aeaiaioia iaci?aeue?oo - aa?oei i aa?oiio /anoei noeeia e?aeaeyieo ianii, ai?aia oiui. Oiio ?i i?eoaiaiia aiaeiinia nooinoue aianeiaeie ia?a?iciiaeieo aieiae aoiinoa?ieo iiaaeia, a oaeiae /anoeiai? ao?aoe /a?ac iioieueo?aoeith a o?iueie iaoa?einueei? ii?iaee. Oi?ioaaiiy aea?iiaeo iiiaecieaieo ea?aiiaoieo a?oioia Iieinny iiae einaie aecia/a? aiaeiinio oei?i/aiinoue ?o i?ioieth ii?iaiyii c aea?iiaeie iaiiiaecieaieie a?oioaie, ui aecia/a?oueny iayaiinoth aiieiai/iiai aa?'??o aeey ei?aiia i o?aa'yienoi? ?ineeiiinoi. A ca'yceo c oeei niinoa?iaa?oueny oaeiae ?iceee niaae aiinoo aoiono c aeeaeiith. Iane/aiiy iaoa?einueei? ii?iaee oa i?ioieth ea?aiiaoaie eaeueoeith aecia/a? oaeiae ianeoaaiiy o?aaeeoeieieo iciae iaea?iinoi i?e caeyaaiii a cieaeaiiyo ?aeue?oo, a ca'yceo c /ei ioeiieo nooiaiy aieiaicaaacia/aiiy ii?yae c aicoaeueiei iaoiaeii iio?iaii aeiiiaithaaoe anoaiiaeaieie aeiaaiinoe/ieie e?eoa?iyie EAAAo. Niiaaiaeiioaiiy aaeiaeo oiii/ieo aeaiaioia o aea?iiaeo iiiaecieaieo a?oioao aecia/a?oueny aiinoii ea?aiiaoia. Caieueoaiiy inoaiiio coiiaeth? ciaioaiiy aiinoo iioeo aeaiaioia. Ca a?aioeiiao?e/iei neeaaeii ia?aaaaeathoue eaaei- e na?aaeiueinoaeeieiai ?iciiaeaee. C iiaaae/aiiyi a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo ciaioo?oueny uieueiinoue neeaaeaiiy, caieueoo?oueny oia?oaaoinoue i caiane aieiae. A?oioe aiaeii ia ai?, iiaeue, eiaaeueo e iniaeeai oeeie (Ii/au Oe?aeiu, 1988). ?aaeoeiy a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio iaeo?aeueia aai neaaieenea. O oeieiio aea?iiai iiiaecieaii ea?aiiaoii a?oioe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith ?iaeth/inoth, iniaeeai ii?iaeueii ?icaeiooi aeaee.Aea?iiai-aeaeiaee oei a?oioiooai?aiiy aeanoeaee cieaeaiei iaeiae?aiiaaiei oa?eoi?iyi c iaaeeaieei ?iaiai a?oioiaeo aiae, yei iaeii?eaeaoii aeey einia i aoee caeiyoi o?aa'yienoith, ia?aaaaeii eo/ii-aieioiith, ?ineeiiinoth. Aeiaaiinoo?oueny ca eiaoioei?ioii aiaeiinii? aeoioeyoei? aoiono aieueoa 2,0. Oi?io?oueny ia anio iaoa?einueeeo ii?iaeao Iieinny. Ca ii?oieiai/iith aoaeiaith i?ioieth a?oioe oeueiai oeio iiaeieythoueny ia aeai a?oie: iiaeaeueii c iaaeeoa?aioeieiaaiei i?ioieai i aea?-aethaiaeueii, a yeeo ia aeeaeii 25-35 ni i aeeaoa oi?io?oueny aethaiaeueiee ai?eciio aianeiaeie canoith oa naciiii? ioeuenaoei? a?oioiaeo aiae.Aea?iiai aeaeiai a?oioe iathoue aoioniaaiee i?ioieue 25-40 ni, c aoioniai-aeaeiaei i iaaaeeeei (5-7 ni) ia?aoiaeiei aeaeiaei ai?eciioaie, aeeaoa caeyaa? iaea?ia ii?iaea (aiae iiuaiiai aei na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo). Eieueeinoue aoiono a 0-20 (25) ni oa?i eieeaa?oueny aiae 1,0-3,2 a iiuaieo aei 10-14% a na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaeo. Ca nooiaiai iaea?iiy i?iiiio?ii oei a?oioe aeieeoe ia aeai a?oie: aeaeiai (eiaoioei?io aiaeiinii? aeoioeyoei? aoiono 2,0-2,8) oa neeueiiaeaeiai (>2,8). Iiooaeiinoue aoioniaaiiai
i?ioieth cia/iith ii?ith iia’ycaia c aeeaeiith caeyaaiiy a?oioiaeo aiae.
Eieueeinoue aoiono aecia/a?oueny a?aioeiiao?e/iei

neeaaeii i nooiaiai iaea?iiy.Aea?iiai aea?-aethaiaeueii a?oioe iathoue
aoioniai-aethaiaeueiee ai?eciio 18-30 ni, aeeaoa yeiai caeyaa?
aea?-aethaiaeueiee aei 15-30 ni iiooaeiinoi, a ieae/a
aea?ai-iethaiaeueiee ai?eciio, yeee ia?aoiaeeoue o aeaeiao iaoa?einueeo
ii?iaeo. Eieueeinoue aoiono a oeeo a?oioao aecia/a?oueny ye nooiaiai
iaea?iiy, oae i aiinoii oice/ii? aeeie.

A?oioe aea?iiai-aeaeiaiai oeio a?oioiooai?aiiy oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iecueeith ?iaeth/inoth /a?ac ia?acaieiaeaiiy. sse i?aaeei, aac ae?aiaaeo
oei a?oioe ia i?eaeaoii aeey aeei?enoaiiy a ?ieei, iacaaaeath/e ia
cia/io ?o ?ici?aiinoue.6. Eeaneoieaoeiy a?oioia Iieinny. O noaii
eeaneoieaoei? iiia?aeueieo a?oioia Iieinny i?iiiio?oueny 7 i??a?oi/ii
iiaeii?yaeeiaaieo ?iaiia (oaae. 6.1).Eeane a?oioia aeaeieythoueny ia
iiaenoaai a?aaeaoeie a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo, ineieueee aii aecia/a?,
ia?aaeonii, ani ia?aiao?e a?oioiooai?thth/iai i?ioeano i caaaeueiee
aaaioon a?oioo.O?aaeeoeieii, ye i o anio aaiaoe/ieo eeaneoieaoeiyo, oei
a?oioo acyoee iaie ca iniiaio iii?io oaeniiiii/io iaeeieoeth. Aeaeieaii
iaie oeie a?oioiooai?aiiy ia noia?a/aoue aeaoiiioei? oeio a?oioo,
i?eeiyoiai oaia? o a?oioiciaanoai. A iaeei oei ia’?aeiothoueny a?oioe,

yei noi?ioaaeenue a iaeii?iaeieo aiae?ioa?ii/ieo oiiaao iiae iaeiaeiaith
?ineeiiinoth, ia ii?iaeao aeecueeiai ca iao?ia?aoi/iei i
a?aioeiiao?e/iei neeaaeii, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaeiioeiiinoth aoaeiae
i?ioieth, aeecueeei ?iaiai ?iaeth/inoi oa ?aeiinoth caniaia uiaei ?o

iieiioaiiy. Aiaeiiiiinoue eeoa a oiio, ui i?iiiio?oueny aecia/aii
iieacieee oeiia a?oioiooai?aiiy aeiaaiinooaaoe ca ia?aiao?aie
eiaoioei?ioia aiaeiiniiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aoiono.Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeoeie
a?oioia aiae?iciythoueny aeanoeainoyie, yei noi?ioaaeenue iiae aieeaii
?iciiai nooiaiy caieiaeaiiy i aeiaaiinoothoueny aecia/aieie ia?aiao?aie
eiaoioei?ioia aiaeiiniiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aoiono.

?iciiaeie oeiia a?oioia ia ?iaee i?iaiaeeoueny ca ea?aiiaoiinoth,
?icaeoeii aea?-aethaiaeueieo i?ioeania oa ii.O ca’yceo c aeaoaeueiith
aeeoa?aioeiaoei?th a?oioiooai?aiiy ia ?iaii eeania ca a?aioeiiao?e/iei
neeaaeii iiaeie a?oioia ia ?iaii aeaeo ca inioth/eie iiaeoiaeaie ca
nooiaiai i?iyao oeiiaeo, iiaeoeiiaeo i ?iaeiaeo aeanoeainoae aaoiiaoe/ii
aiaeiaaea?, oiio i?iiiio?ii ia oeueiio ?iaii a?oioe iiaeieyoe ca
oeiieiai/ieie iniaeeainoyie iaoa?einueeeo ii?iae.

Iiaeaeae a?oioia aeaeiey?oueny ca ia?aiao?aie iiaenoaeaiiy iaoa?einueeeo
ii?iae iioeie oeiaie ii?iae.O cai?iiiiiaaiie noaii eeaneoieaoeiy
inai?ieo a?oioia i?iaiaeeoueny ia ?iaii aa?iaioia caeaaeii aiae ciii,
yei coiiaeaii aio?iiiaaiieie aeiyie.Ca oei?th noaiith iacao a?oioo
iaiaoiaeii aoei a ii/eiaoe c a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo, iai?eeeaae:
ca’ycii-iiuaiee aea?iiai-iiaecieenoee neaaiaeathaaoee iiaeaeueiee ia
aiaeiieueiaeiaeeiaeo aiaeeeaaeao, iiaenoaeaiee ii?aiith c aeeaeie 2 i,
oeieeiiee (inai?iee, ieoeueoo?aiee). I?ioa o?aaeeoeieii iacaa a?oioia o
aaiaoe/iiio a?oioiciaanoai ii/eia?oueny c oeio a?oioiooai?aiiy. Uia ia
ii?oooaaoe onoaeaii iiaeoiaee aei iiiaieeaoo?e a?oioia, i?iiiio?ii iacao
a?oioo ii/eiaoe c oeiiaiai ?iaiy, aea ia ae?oaiio iinoei iaia’yceiai
aeacoaaoe eean — ca a?aioeiiao?i?th, a aeaei ana ca noaiith:
aea?iiai-iiaecieenoee ca’ycii-iiuaiee neaaiaeathaaoee ia
aiaeiieueiaeiaeeiaeo aiaeeeaaeao, iiaenoaeaieo c aeeaeie 2 i ii?aiith,
inai?iee, ieoeueoo?aiee.

CAAAEUeII AENIIAEE

1. Ciia Iieinny oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oioiaeiinoth aaeaino oaiea i aieiae o
ia?oo (o?aaaiue — eeiaiue) i ae?oao

(na?iaiue — aa?anaiue) /anoeie oaieiai ia?iiaeo, ui coiiaeth?
niiaiaaeaiiy cia/aiue aiae?ioa?ii/iiai eiaoioei?ioa (AOE

Naeyieiiaa) ca oei i?iiiaeee /ano ia aiaeiiio aiae Eininoaio c
iinooeeaith ae?oaith /anoeiith. Oea noai?th? iacieeiiaoe/ii ia?aaeoiiae

aeey nooeieueiiai iioe?aiiy einiai? ?ineeiiinoi i ? iniiaith aeey
?iciaaeoaaiiy Iieinny ic noiiaeieie ciiaie. Iaa?oioiaaii

iaeaaeiinoue oae caaiiai Iaeiai Iieinny aei ciie Eininoaio.

2. A?oioiooai?aiiy o ciii Iieinny ? ianeiaeeii ?iciiai niiaaiaeiioaiiy
aea?aaieo i o?aa’yienoeo

eiiiiiaioia oei?e, yea aecia/a?oueny a?aioeiiao?e/iei neeaaeii oa
nooiaiai caieiaeaiiy i ciaoiaeeoue

aaeaeaaoia aiaeia?aaeaiiy o ia?aiao?ao iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aoiono. Aiii
iacaeaaeii aiae oa?aeoa?o iaoa?einueeeo

ii?iae, aeeoa?aioeith?oueny ia 3 iniiaii oeie: aea?iiai-iiaecieenoee,
aea?iiaee iiiaecieaiee oa aea?iiai-aeaeiaee.

3. Aea?iiai-iiaecieenoee oei a?oioiooai?aiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iioaineaiei i?iyaii iiaecieenoiai i?ioeano oa iiiiiaeueiei
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi aoiono, aiaeiiniee eiai eiaoioei?io noaiiaeoue
0,35-0,95, ui ca’ycaii c iacia/iith o/anoth o?aa’yienoi? ?ineeiii? aiioe
o iaaeiii?oiaaiaci, a aeiaiacii cia/aiue coiiaeth?oueny 4 nooiaiyie
aieiaicaaacia/aiiy: aaoiii?oiei, neaaiaeathaaoei, aeathaaoei i aeaeiaei
— aiaeiiaiaeii 0,35-0,55, 0,56-0,68, 0,69-0,82, 0,83-0,95.

4. Aea?iiaee iiiaecieaiee oei a?oioiooai?aiiy ?icaeaaany o einao c
iaeneiaeueiith o/anoth o?aa, ui coiiaeei aeoioeyoeaiee eiai oa?aeoa? i
aiaenooiinoue iiaecieenoiai ai?eciioo. Cia/aiiy eiaoioei?ioa
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aoiono noaiiaeyoue 0,96-2,00 caeaaeii

aiae 4 nooiaiia caieiaeaiiy: aaoiii?oiee — 0,96-1,15, neaaiaeathaaoee —
1,16-1,35, aeathaaoee — 1,36-1,60 oa aeaeiaee — 1,61-2,00.

5. Aea?iiai-aeaeiaee oa?aeoa? a?oioiooai?aiiy aeanoeaee aiae?iii?oiei
aeioiiai i ?icaeaaany aeeeth/ii iiae eo/ii-aieioiith o?aa’yienoith
?ineeiiinoth, ui coiiaeei iaeneiaeueia iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aoiono,
eiaoioei?io yeiai aeey aeaeiaeo a?oioia noaiiaeoue 2,00-2,80,
neeueiiaeaeiaeo — aieueoa 2,80.

6. A?oioiooai?aiiy ia e?aeaeyii-ia?aaeueieo ii?iaeao coiiaeth?oueny
ciiaeueiei oa?aeoa?ii, a iniaeeainoi i?iyao eiai oeiia aecia/athoueny
nooiaiai caieiaeaiiy. I?ioa aaaioon i?ioieth a?oioia iaei
aiae?iciy?oueny ca ii?oieiai/ieie iciaeaie aianeiaeie aeiiiioth/iai
aieeao iaoa?einueei? ii?iaee. Oei a?oioiooai?aiiy ia oeeo ii?iaeao
iaaeieii aeiaaiinoo?oueny ?ic?iaeaieie iieacieeaie aiaeiiniiai
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aoiono.

7. Eeaneoieaoeiy iiia?aeueieo a?oioia Iieinny aaco?oueny ia eieueeinieo
ia?aiao?ao ?o aeanoeainoae i

neeaaea?oueny c 7 oaeniiiii/ieo iaeeieoeue: eean — oei — iiaeoei — ?iae
— aeae — iiaeaeae — aa?iaio. Oeiieiai/ia

noaia iiaoaeiaaia ca i??a?oi/iei i?eioeeiii, o iie oaeniiiii/iee ?aia
aiaeia?aaea? aaaeeeaee ?iaaiue aaiaoeei-

aa?iiiii/ieo yeinoae, ui iaaea? nenoaii ceaaiaeaeaiinoi i
aiaeiiaiaeiinoi i?e?iaeiei ?aaeiyi.

NIENIE I?AOeUe, IIOAEIEIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOeI?

1. Nieiaae A. A., Aaee/ei A. A. Ciiaeueii iniaeeainoi a?oioiaiai iie?eao
Iieinny oa i?iaeaie aaiaceno i

aeiaaiinoeee eiai eiiiiiaioia // Ainiee aa?a?ii? iaoee. — 1997. — ? 2. —
N. 10-14.

2. Nieiaae A. A., Aaee/ei A. A. Ooieoeiiiaeueii-aeieiai/ii
caeiiiii?iinoi oi?ioaaiiy aea?iiai-ea?aiiaoieo

a?oioia // Ainiee aa?a?ii? iaoee. — 1997. — ? 7. — N. 14-18.

3. Aaee/ei A. A. Eieueeinia aeiaaiinoeea aea?iiai-iiaecieenoeo a?oioia
Oe?a?inueeiai Iieinny // Aa?ioiiiy i

a?oioiciaanoai. — Niaoeiaeueiee aeione. *anoeia ae?oaa. — 1998. — N.
111-112.

4. Aaee/ei A. A. Aea?iiai iiiaecieaii a?oioe Oe?a?inueeiai Iieinny, ?o
eeaneoieaoeiy oa i?eioeeie aeiaaiinoeee //

Aa?ioiiiy i a?oioiciaanoai. — 1998. — Aei. 59. — N. 83-86.

5. Iieoiai I. I., Nieiaae A. A., Aaee/ei A. A. Iiai iiaeoiaee aei
eeaneoieaoei? a?oioia Iieinny // Ainiee

aa?a?ii? iaoee. — 1998. — ? 5. — N. 23-29.

6. Nieiaae A. A., Aaee/ei A. A. Ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe
Iieanuey e Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu // Aa?a?iay iaoea. — 1998.

— ? 4. — N. 29-30.

7. Oaa/aiei E. I., Aaee/ei A. A. E iaoiaeeea ninoaaeaiey
eaiaeoaooii-aaioeie/aneeo ea?o // Oece/aneay

aaia?aoey e aaiii?oieiaey. — E.: Aeua oeiea, 1981. — ? 25. — N. 90-94.

8. Aaee/ei A. A. ?aaeoeiy a?oioo / Aaia?aoi/ia aioeeeeiiaaeiy Oe?a?ie. —
E.: Oe?a?inueea aioeeeeiiaaeiy, 1993.

— O. 3. — N. 117.

Oei a?oioiooai?aiiy, ai?no aoiono, a?aioeiiao?e/iee neeaae, eiao?oe?cio
a?aeiinii? aeoioeyoe?? aoiono, iiiaieeaoo?a a?oio?a, eeaneo?eaoe?y
a?oio?a.

Oei ii/aiia?aciaaiey, niaea?aeaiea aoiona, a?aioeiiao?e/aneee ninoaa,
eiyooeoeeaio ioiineoaeueiie aeeoioeyoeee aoiona, iiiaieeaoo?a ii/a,
eeanneoeeaoeey ii/a.

Type of soil formation, humus amount, granulometric structure, factor or
relative humus accumulation, nomenclature of soils, classification of
soils.

Aeena?oaoeiy i?enay/aia aea/aiith a?oioiaiai iie?eao Oe?a?inueeiai
Iieinny, ooi/iaiith eiai aeiaaiinoeee i

eeaneoieaoei?. Iaa?oioiaaii niaoeeoieo aiae?ioa?ii/ieo oiia Iieinny,
aecia/aii ?o iieacieee oa ia?aiao?e e

ooi/iaii oa?eoi?iaeueii iaaei ciie. Anoaiiaeaii o?e iniiaii oeie
a?oioiooai?aiiy: aea?iiai-iiaecieenoee,

aea?iiaee iiiaecieaiee i aea?iiai-aeaeiaee. Aecia/aii ii?iaoeaii
a?aaeaoei? aeeoa?aioeiaoei? oeiia a?oioia ca

nooiaiai caieiaeaiiy. Iieacaii iniaeeainoi aieeao iaoa?einueeeo ii?iae
ia ii?oiaaiac iieinueeeo a?oioia i

aeiaaaeaii aiaenooiinoue ?o aieeao ia oa?aeoa? a?oioiooai?aiiy ca
aeiiiioth/i? ?iei a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee iiaeoiae aei i?iaeaie eeaneoieaoei? a?oioia, yeee
iieyaa? a i??a?oi/iiio ?aiaeoaaiii

aaaeeeaeo /eiieeia a?oioiooai?aiiy ia eiai oeiiai i ia?aiao?e/ii
iniaeeainoi, yei aecia/athoue eiai yeinoi.

. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai eco/aiey ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa
Oe?aeineiai Iieanuey, ooi/iaieth aai

aeeaaiinoeee e eeanneoeeaoeee. Iainiiaaiu eeeiaoe/aneay niaoeeoeea
Iieanuey, ninoiyuay a iinoiyinoaa

aeae?ioa?ie/aneeo oneiaee a oa/aiea oaieiai ia?eiaea, ciiaeueiay
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue Iaeiai Iieanuey e

Eaninoaie, iieacaoaee, ia?aiao?u e a?aieoeu ii/aaiii-yeieiae/aneeo cii.
A?aoiaioe?iaaii iieiaeaiea i

oii, /oi ii/aiia?aciaaiea a ciia Iieanuey yaeyaony neaaenoaeai ?aciiai
niioiioaiey eaniie e o?aayienoie

?anoeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony a?aioeiiao?e/aneei ninoaaii e
noaiaiueth oaeaaeiaiey e iaoiaeeo

aaeaeaaoiia ioia?aaeaiea a ia?aiao?ao iaeiieaiey aoiona. I?aaeeiaeaii
aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue ieia?aeueiua

ii/au iieanneie ciiu, iacaaeneii io iaoa?eineeo ii?iae ia o?e oeia
ii/aiia?aciaaiey: aea?iiai-

iiaecieenoue, aea?iiaue iiiaecieaiiue e aea?iiai-aeaaaue.
Aea?iiai-iiaecieenoue oei ii/aiia?aciaaiey

oa?aeoa?ecoaony eioaineaiui i?iyaeaieai iiaecieenoiai i?ioeanna e
ieieiaeueiui iaeiieaieai aoiona,

ioiineoaeueiue aai eiyooeoeeaio ninoaaeyao 0,35-0,95, /oi naycaii n
iacia/eoaeueiui o/anoeai o?aayienoie

?anoeoaeueiie aeiou a iaaeiii?oiaaiaca, a aeeaiacii cia/aiee
iaoneaaeeaaaony 4 noaiaiyie aeaaiiaania/aiey:

aaoiii?oiui, neaaiaeaaaaoui, aeaaaaoui e aeaaaui — niioaaonoaaiii
0,35-0,55, 0,56-0,68, 0,69-0,82, 0,83-

0,95. Aea?iiaue iiiaecieaiiue oei ii/aiia?aciaaiey ?acaeaaeny iiae eanii
n iaeneiaeueiui o/anoeai o?aa,

/oi iaoneiaeei aeeoioeyoeaiue aai oa?aeoa? e ionoonoaea iiaecieenoiai
ai?eciioa. Cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa

ioiineoaeueiiai iaeiieaiey aoiona ninoaaeyao 0,96-2,00 a caaeneiinoe io
4 noaiaiae oaeaaeiaiey: aaoiii?oiue —

0,96-1,15, neaaiaeaaaaoue — 1,16-1,35, aeaaaaoue — 1,36-1,60 e aeaaaue —
1,61-2,00. Aea?iiai-aeaaaue oei

ii/aiia?aciaaiey i?enou aeae?iii?oiui yeioiiai e ?acaeaaeny
eneeth/eoaeueii iiae eoaiai-aieioiie

o?aayienoie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth, /oi iaoneiaeei iaeneiaeueiia iaeiieaiea
aoiona, eiyooeoeeaio eioi?iai aeey

aeaaauo ii/a ninoaaeyao 2,00-2,80, neeueiiaeaaauo — aieueoa 2,80.
Oniaa?oainoaiaaia yeieiae/anee

iainiiaaiiay iiiaieeaoo?a onoaiiaeaiiuo oeiia ii/aiia?aciaaiey. Iieacaiu
iniaaiiinoe aeeyiey

iaoa?eineeo ii?iae ia ii?oiaaiac iieanneeo ii/a e aeieacaii ionoonoaea
eo aeeyiey ia oa?aeoa?

ii/aiia?aciaaiey i?e aeiieie?othuae ?iee a?aioeiiao?e/aneiai ninoaaa.
Aeey eaaeaeiai oeia

ii/aiia?aciaaiey ?ac?aaioaiu aeeaaiinoe/aneea ii?iaoeau a?aaeaoeee
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ii noaiaie

oaeaaeiaiey. N oeaeueth aeeaaiinoeee i?ioeannia iaeaaiey a ii/aao
i?aaeeiaeaii eniieueciaaoue aianoa n

eeanne/aneeie i?eciaeaie iaeaaiey oaeaea aeoaeio e ia?aiao?u
aeaa-yeethaeaeueiiai ai?eciioa. ?anniio?aiu

i?iaeaiiua aii?inu aaiacena e aeeaaiinoeee ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa eanniauo
ino?iaia, eioi?ue a ?yaea neo/aaa

i?aaenoaaeai ia na?uie eaniuie ii/aaie, a aea?iiai-iiaecieenouie
?acee/iie noaiaie iaeaaiiinoe.

Onoaiiaeaiu ooieoeeiiaeueii-yeieiae/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey
aea?iiai-ea?aiiaoiuo ii/a.

Ii/aiia?aciaaiea ia iaei-ia?aaeueiuo ii?iaeao iaoneaaeeaaaony ciiaeueiui
oa?aeoa?ii, a iniaaiiinoe

i?iyaeaiey aai oeiia ii?aaeaeythony noaiaiueth oaeaaeiaiey. Iaeiaei
aaaeoon i?ioeey ii/a iaei ioee/aaony ii

ii?oieiae/aneei i?eciaeai aneaaenoaea aeiieie?othuaai aeeyiey
iaoa?eineie ii?iaeu. Oei

ii/aiia?aciaaiey ia yoeo ii?iaeao iaaeaaeii aeeaaiinoe?oaony
?ac?aaioaiiuie iieacaoaeyie ioiineoaeueiiai

iaeiieaiey aoiona. A niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie oeiaie
ii/aiia?aciaaiey i?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey

ieia?aeueiuo ii/a Oe?aeineiai Iieanuey, eioi?ay iniiauaaaony ia
eiee/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ao eo naienoa e

ninoieo ec 7 oaeniiiie/aneeo aaeeieoe: eeann — oei — iiaeoei — ?iae —
aeae — iiaeaeae — aa?eaio.

Oeiieiae/aneay noaia iino?iaia ii ea?a?oe/aneiio i?eioeeio, a iae
oaeniiiie/aneee ?aia ioia?aaeaao

aaaeiue o?iaaiue aaiaoeei-aa?iiiie/aneeo naienoa, /oi i?eaeaao nenoaia
neaaeaiiinoue e ioaa/aao i?e?iaeiui

?aaeeyi. A iaeei oei iauaaeeiythony ii/au, noi?ie?iaaaoeany a
iaeii?iaeiuo aeae?ioa?ie/aneeo oneiaeyo iiae

iaeeiaeiaie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth, ia ii?iaeao aeeceeo ii iao?ia?aoe/aneiio
e a?aioeiiao?e/aneiio ninoaao,

oa?aeoa?ecothony iaeiioeiiui no?iaieai i?ioeey, aeeceei o?iaiai
ieiaei?iaeey e aaeeinoaii niiniaia eo

oeo/oaiey. Ioee/ea eeoue a oii, /oi i?aaeeaaathony onoaiiaeaiiua
iieacaoaee oeiia ii/aiia?aciaaiey

aeeaaiinoe?iaaoue ii ia?aiao?ai eiyooeoeeaioia ioiineoaeueiiai
iaeiieaiey aoiona. I?aaeeiaeaiiua iiaeoeiu

ii/a ioee/athony naienoaaie, noi?ie?iaaaoeieny iiae aeeyieai ?acee/iie
noaiaie oaeaaeiaiey e

aeeaaiinoe?othony onoaiiaeaiiuie ia?aiao?aie eiyooeoeeaioia
ioiineoaeueiiai iaeiieaiey aoiona. Aeaeaiea

oeiia ii/a ia ?iaeu i?iaiaeeony ii ea?aiiaoiinoe, ?acaeoeai
aeaa-yeethaeaeueiuo i?ioeannia e i?. Ia o?iaia

aeaea i?aaeeaaaaony aeaeeoue ii/au ii oeiieiae/aneei iniaaiiinoyi
iaoa?eineeo ii?iae. Iiaeaeae ii/a

auaeaeyaony ii ia?aiao?ai iiaenoeeaiey iaoa?eineeo ii?iae ae?oaeie
oeiaie ii?iae. A i?aaeeiaeaiiie noaia

eeanneoeeaoeey inaiaiiuo ii/a i?iaiaeeony ia o?iaia aa?eaioia a
caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiee, iaoneiaeaiiuo

aio?iiiaaiiuie aeaenoaeyie.

Thesis for a candidate degree by speciality 06.01.03 — agrosoil science
and agricultural physics. — Institute for

Soil Science and Agrochemistry Reseach named by A. N. Sokolovskiy,
Kharkov, UAAS, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the study of soil coverage of Ukrainian
Polisja, and clarification of its diagnostics and

classification. The specifity of hydrothermal conditions of Polisja and
their parameters are substantiated; territorial

boundaries of this zone are ajusted. The following three main types of
soil formation are established: turf-podzol, turf

partly-podzol and turf-gley. Normative gradation of differentiation of
types of soils on the degree of humidifying are

established. Peculiarities of mother layers’ influence upon
morphogenesis of Polisja soils is shown, and absence of

mother layers’ influence upon the character of soil formation at
dominating role of granulometric structure is proved.

New approach to the problem of classification of soils, consisting in
hierarchical ranking of important factors of soil

formation upon its typical and parametrical features, defining its
quality, is offered.

Key words: type of soil formation, humus amount, granulometric
structure, factor of relative humus accumulation,

nomenclature of soils, classification of soils.

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