?INOEOOO O?EINIO?? ?i. A.N.NEIAI?IAeE

IAOe?IIAEUeII? AEAAeAI?? IAOE OE?A?IE

IAAeAAIss Ieueaa Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 21.15.61

A?AEI-EAOIEEOeECI A EIIOAENO? AeOOIAIIAI NAIIAECIA*AIIss OE?A?IOe?A I?AE
O?ENOEssINUeEEI NOIAeII ? CAOIAeII

niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.11. — ?ae?a??ciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? i?iaeai ?ae?a?eieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?
A?aeae?eaiiy ?ae?a??ciaanoaa ?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?
ss?ioeueeee Iao?i Eaa?aio?eiae/ (?inoeooo
o?einio?? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii i?iaeai ?ae?a?eieo

i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?)

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, a.i.i?ioani?a
E?aethe Iao?i Ieoaeeiae/ (Aieeinueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee, a.i.
i?ioani?a eaoaae?e eoeueoo?ieia??),

— eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo
iaoe, aeioeaio

Cae?i?oe Na?a?e ?aaiiae/ (Iaoe?iiaeueiee
?inoeooo no?aoaa?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?aaee

Iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii iie?oe/ieo
? aoiai?oa?ieo

aeine?aeaeaiue)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.?.O?aiea,
eaoaae?a oai??? oa ?noi??? eoeueoo?e, i.Euea?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “29” /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.161.03 a ?inoeooo? o?einio?? ?i.
A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeooo? o?einio??
?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “27” o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Iaaeoiea A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oaiiiai oe?a?inueeiai
a?aei-eaoieeoeecio aei oeueiai /ano aeeeeea? noia?a/eea? ioe?iee ye
oea?eiaieo, oae ? na?onueeeo aeine?aeiee?a. A oeaio?? aeeneon?e iinoa?
i?iaeaia aaeaeaaoiino? Aa?anoaenueeiai oeyoo iaoe?iiaeueiei
oea?eiaii-?ae?a?eiei o?aaeeoe?yi oe?a?ioe?a, a ia ia?aoa??? oaaae — i??a
a?aeiia?aeiino? oeeo o?aaeeoe?e canaaeiaei ?enai oe?a?inueei?
aeooiaiino? oa i?e?iaeiei i??i?eoaoai ?o eoeueoo?iiai ni?eeoaaiiy,
i?e/eie iaiaeiicia/ii? aeooiaii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a i?ae
o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii.

I?ioa, ye ia nueiaiaei?, iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecio a eiioaeno? i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy
oe?a?ioeyie naiai iaeaaeiiai i?noey a ?o neeaaeiiio
eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiio ioi/aii?, cie?aia, i?ae no?aeii- oa
cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeeie ni?eueiioaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiiiaio
oe?a?inueeiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecio, ii/eiath/e a?ae ia?aaeoiia
cae?eniaiiai a 1596 ?ioe? aeai?o, i?aeaiaeeoue aei aeyaeaiiy
iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae ?noi?e/ii-eoeueoo?ieo i???ioaoe?e oe?a?ioe?a
oa ao?a/aieo oain?a o aeooiaiiio e oea?eiaiiio, iaoe?iiaeueiiio e
aea?aeaaiiio iinooi? Oe?a?ie a ia?oeo ?? o?enoeyinueeeo noie?ooyo. Oea,
a naith /a?ao, niiioea? aei ioe?iee ??cieo iai?yie?a aaiethoe??
?ae?a?eii? e aeooiaii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a o aeiaeieeoiueiio
na?o? c iaeyaeo ia ?o a?aeiia?aei?noue no?aoaa?/iei iaoe?iaea?aeaaiei
?ioa?anai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Ioaea, aiae?c i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy e
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecio noa? iniiaith ?noi??inionueei?
?ae?a??ciaa/i? ?aoeaen?? iaae iaaeiaa?oaiei aeooiaiei aeai?ii oe?a?ioe?a
i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii.

Aaea naia ?ao?iniaeoeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy c icia/aii? oaie ia?
naiiaeinoaoith iaoeiao ? i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue. Iaeiae, eaeaoueny i?i
aea/aiiy ?noi?e/iiai e no/aniiai aeina?aeo naiiaecia/aiiy
a?aei-eaoieee?a i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii, ui ia?
aeooaeueia cia/aiiy aeey anueiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a no/anieo oiiaao
eiai iiaa?iaiiy a ?a?iiaenueeo o?enoeyinueeo oeea?e?caoe?th.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. O a?o/eciyiiio oa ca?oa?aeiiio
?ae?a??ciaanoa? ia a?aeo? aeine?aeaeaiue oe?a?inueeiai
a?aei-eaoieeoeecio, iaeiae aein? aiie ia noaaaee iniiaith a?aeaa?oiai e
iine?aeiaiiai aiae?co i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy oe?a?ioeyie nai??
?aeaioe/iino? i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii — ni?eueiioaie
??cieo aeooiaieo o?aaeeoe?e, ??cieo ?aeaieia?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo nenoai.

Iaeaeeae/a i?aeoiaeeee aei iiae?aiiai aiae?co, c iaeiiai aieo,
aeine?aeieee Oe?a?inueei? A?aei-Eaoieeoeueei? Oea?eae, ui ?icaeyaeaee
?icaeoie oe??? Oea?eae ye oaiiiaiaeueiiai aeoai?o i?ioeano c?oeiaiiy
aeaio o?enoeyinueeeo o?aaeeoe?e, a c ?ioiai, — ?noi??inioe ?
?ae?a??ciaaoe?, eio?? inienethaaee i?noea ? ?ieue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo
i?ae cao?aeieie ? no?aeieie eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eieie /eiieeaie,
«??aiii» ? «Oo?aiii», i?aaenoaaeaiieie aeey oe?a?ioe?a ianaiia?aae
non?aei?ie aieeaia?oeie cao?aeii- oa no?aeiio?enoeyinueeeie neeaie.
Na?aae ia?oi? a?oie iaoeiaoe?a iaeie?aei?oeie aoee oae? oea?eiai? ?
na?onuee? aaoi?e, ye A.Oaioeoeueeee, E.Ne?iee, ?.Iaaa?anueeee, I.Aa?ai,
?.Oiia, ?.Oaaoe?a, N.Naiee, I.Aaeaaeca, ?.Ianeaanueeee. Ieie aoei
anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aeaei? aeoiee Aa?anoaenueeeo ??oaiue nyaathoue
aeno?aeii? iaiaeiicia/ii? i???ioaoe?? ?one/?a-iaio?o?a i?ae
o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii. Aei ae?oai? a?oie iaoeiaoe?a
iaeaaeaoue I.Einoiia?ia, A.Eeieinueeee, ?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee,
A.Eoaeieoeueeee, ?.I?oeinueeee, Ae.Aeaaeaeianueeee, N.Oiiao?anueeee.
Naia aiie, canoiniaoth/e ??ci? a?aoiaioe e i?aeoiaee, aeiaaee caoai?noue
aeey oea?eiaieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a oe?a?ioe?a ?o iaiaaiiai
iieiaeaiiy i?ae no?aeii- oa cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeeie ni?eueiioaie.

Oaeiae, cia/io oaaao ??ciei aniaeoai ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaiiai oa
iaoe?ieoeueoo?iiai noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a i?eae?eyee o nai?o i?aoeyo c
?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa ?yae a?aeiieo ?noi?ee?a ?
?ae?a??ciaaoe?a, cie?aia, I.A?ooaanueeee, I.*oaaoee, A.Aaeeeee,
I.Iieiinueea-Aaneeaiei, A.AEoeianueeee. Ni?eueiei a aei?iaeo oeeo
aaoi??a ??cii? eiioan?eii? i???ioaoe?? ? aeyaeaiiy aaiaoe/iiai
aca?iica‘yceo oea?eiaii? e eoeueoo?ii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a
i?ae ?o no?aeii- oa cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeeie non?aeaie.

I?iaeaie aeooiaiiai, noni?eueiiai aeeooy oe?a?ioe?a, iia‘ycai? c ?o
naiiaecia/aiiyi a o?enoeyinuee?e ?iaeei?, e cie?aia, c oi??th
oe?a?inueei? oea?eae c ?eiii, aoee ? ? i?aaeiaoii caoe?eaaeaiiai
aea/aiiy e ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a. Iniaeeai oe?eaaeie aeey ian ?
i?aoe? iieuenueeeo aaoi??a, ye io E.Oiaeeieoeueeiai, I.Aaeaoeueeiai,
A.Na?/eea, e ?in?enueeeo aaoi??a, ye io I.Eiyeiae/a, ieo?iiieeoa Iaea??y
(Aoeaaeiaa), A.Ea?oaoaaa, A.A?eai?aiea, ine?eueee ?o e?eoeea
oe?a?inueeiai oi?aoeoaa “c caoiaeo” oa “c? noiaeo” ?aeue?oii aeyaey?
i?iaeaie e iioaioe?? oi?? ye iaeiiai ?c cania?a aeooiaii?
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii.

Nueiaiaei? aeoea?coaaeeny iacaeaaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?o/eciyieo
iaoeiaoe?a, eio?? caieneththoueny iaae nae?aeueiei naieoe?iioaaiiyi oa
?aeaieia?/iei ne??ieaiiyi noaa?aiiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie — ?a?iiaenueei?
aea?aeaae. Oae? ?ae?a??ciaaoe?, ye A.Eieiaeiee, I.ss?ioeueeee,
E.Oeeeiiae/, Ae.Noaiiaee, N.Cae?i?oe, na?aeiii i?aoeththoue iaae
a?aeiia?aeieie iaoeiaeie i?iaeoaie. Na?aae aaaiieo ?o caeiaooe?a:
aeciaiiy e iaa?oiooaaiiy ia??aiioe?iiino? aieeao ??cieo oe?a?inueeeo
eiioan?eieo o?aaeeoe?e ia aaiethoe?th iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino?
oe?a?ioe?a, ia ?o naiiaecia/aiiy a ioi/oth/iio na?o?. Aaoi? i?aaioa
aeieo/eoe na?e o?oae aei i?aoe? oe??? eiai?oe aeine?aeiee?a, ui ?
iaoiiaeei iinoaaeaiiy ianooiieo iaoe ? caaaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaia iaoa oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy —
ia iniia? aiae?co ia?aaeoiia ? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
a?aei-eaoieeoeecio aeyaeoe i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy, iane?aeee o?eaaiiy oa
iiaeeeaino? ?ica‘ycaiiy i?iaeaie aaeaeaaoiiai aeooiaiiai
naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iio??aii aoei ae??oeoe oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— cae?enieoe e?eoe/iee iaeyae aea/aiiy aeine?aeieeaie ieoaiiy
naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii a eiai
?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaiiio eiioaeno? ? aei??ao, cie?aia a eiioaeno?
iioiaeaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecio;

— aeyaeoe o? iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa, ye?
aeaoa?i?ioaaee iaiaeiicia/io naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?th oe?a?ioe?a i?ae
no?aeii- oa cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeeie ni?eueiioaie, a oei naiei — ?
iaeaooith iiyao oaiiiaio a?aei-eaoieeoeecio ye ni?iae a?aeiaeaeaiiy
oe?a?ioeyie naiai i?noey i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii;

— c‘ynoaaoe i?e/eie caiaiaaeo oe?a?inueei? oea?eae, ui oiai/ieany a OV?
noie?oo?, oa i?iiiiiaai? oeyoe ?? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy e naiiaecia/aiiy a
o?enoeyinueeiio na?o?, e aiaeii/an ni?anoaaii i?iaiae?coaaoe ?aaeueii c
ieo iiaeeea? oeyoe (i?i?einueeee ? i?iiineianueeee), ?c a?aooaaiiyi ?o
cia/aiiy aeey iiaeaeueoi? aaiiie?oe/ii?, eoeueoo?ii? e
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? i???ioaoe?? Oe?a?ie;

— na?aae eiea a?aeiieo a Oe?a?i? OV?-OV?? noie?oue oi?eieo ?aeae oa
ni?ia ?o ao?eaiiy, ae/eaieoe ? ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?aeaeiee iai?yiie,
ioi?ieaiee a Aa?anoaenuee?e oi?? 1596 ?ieo e i?iaeiaaeoaaiee a
ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?inueei? A?aei-Eaoieeoeueei? Oea?eae, aeyaeoe ?aeaeiee
iioaioe?ae Aa?anoaenueeeo ??oaiue, ei?eniee aeey ni?aae a?aeiaeaeaiiy
oe?a?ioeyie naiai iaeaaeiiai noaoono ? noaio a ?nioth/iio aeooiaiiio,
?aeaieia?/iiio e iie?oe/iiio ioi/aii?;

— aea/eoe e ioe?ieoe ia?aa?a, ni?yioaaiiy ? ia?niaeoeae
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?eieo iiooe?a a a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiio na?aaeiaeu?,
a?aeiinii aiaeia?/ieo i?ioean?a caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ianooaao ? c
iaeyaeo ia ?ioa?ane ?icaoaeiae noaa?aiii? Oe?a?ie — ?a?iiaenueei?
aea?aeaae.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy. A aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? aoee aeei?enoai? ??ciiiai?oi? iaoeia? iaoiaee i?ciaiiy:
caaaeueiio?einionuee?, niaoe?aeuei? caaaeueiiiaoeia? e eiie?aoiiiaoeia?,
oai?aoe/i? e aii??e/i?. Aeena?oaio ei?enooaaany iaoiaeaie aiaeia?e,
nenoaiaoecaoe?? e ocaaaeueiaiiy, ni?anoaaeaiiy ?noi?e/iiai iaoa??aeo c
eia?/iei aiae?cii ? neioacii, aeio?eioaaany i?eioeei?a ia‘?eoeaiino? oa
?noi?ecio.

Aeine?aeiee, ye iaoia?aaeaeaiee aoaeue-yeeie ai??i?ieie eiioan?eieie
ia?aeiiaiiyie, canoiniaoaaa a nai?e i?aoe? iicaeiioan?eiee i?aeo?ae.
Aeciath/e naiiaooith oe?ii?noue ??cieo ?ae?a?eieo ? eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?e, aaoi? ?icaeyaeaa ?o ianaiia?aae i?ae eooii ci?o no?aoaa?/ii?
a?aeiia?aeiino? oe?a?inueeei ooiaeaiaioaeueiei iaoe?iaea?aeaaiei
?ioa?anai.

Aii??e/iei iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoaeeee e?oiieni? oaenoe,
iieai?/i? oai?e oa oea?eiaia caeiiiaeaanoai /an?a Ee?anueeiai
o?enoeyinoaa, aeieoiaioe a?o?aieo ca??ie, eenoe oa a?aeicae ??cieo a?oi
a??oth/eo, oea?eiaia aeieoiaioaoe?y, ioae?eaoe?? oea?eiaii? i?ane.
Oaeiae a?aoiaoaaany, i?ney ii??aiyiiy e inieneaiiy, oa?aeoa?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? i?iaeaiaoeee aeooiaiiai naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a i?ae
o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii a aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
oe?a?inueeeo na?onueeeo oa oea?eiaieo ?noi?ee?a e ?ae?a??ciaaoe?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? oiai, ui a
oe?a?inueeiio a?aei-eaoieeoeeci? ?aae?co?oueny ni?iaa ia i?enoinoaaiiy
aei i?ii?aeiiai iieiaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ?
Caoiaeii, a aeoiaeo c oeueiai iieiaeaiiy. Eiai ci???ioiaai?noue
cana?ae/o? aeooae?caoe?y a oe?a?inueeeo a?aei-eaoieee?a ?a?iiaenueei?,
cao?aeii? aeooiaiino? oa eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiai naiiaecia/aiiy,
i?eoaiaiieo non?aei?i ?a?iiaenueeei ia?iaeai cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeeo
o?aaeeoe?e.

A ?aieao i?iaaaeaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii caeiaoo? ?acoeueoaoe ?
aenoiooi ?yae iieiaeaiue, ui neeaaeathoue aeaiaioe iiaecie:

1. O /eneaieo ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a i?ae no?aeieie ? cao?aeieie non?aeaie
aeyaeaii aaiaoe/iee ca‘ycie oe??? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? c aaiethoe??th
?ae?a?eiiai naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; a ?yae? aeine?aeaeaiue
?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecio oeae oaiiiai ?icaeyaea?oueny a
eiioaeno? i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy oe?a?ioeyie naiai i?noey i?ae
o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii. Eia?/iei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi ?
iiaeeaeaiiyi iiae?aieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaea aooe i?aaeiaoiee aiae?c
aeooiaii? i???ioaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii oeyoii aea/aiiy
oaei? i???ioaoe?? oe?a?inueeeo a?aei-eaoieee?a.

2. Oae? iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa, ye,
ia?aaeon?i, iaaeiaa?oaia ni?iaa naii/eiii? o?enoeyi?caoe?? oa
iaiaeiicia/i?noue naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a i?ae no?aeiei ? cao?aeiei
o?enoeyinoaii, aeaoa?i?ioaaee noai?aiiy i?iaeaie ?aeaioe/iino?
oe?a?ioe?a i?ae ?o cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeeie non?aeaie, /ey aeooiaia
nii??aeiai?noue ? eoeueoo?ia aeece?noue oe?a?ioeyi ia? i?e?iaeio iniiao,
oa no?aeiio?enoeyinueeeie non?aeaie, /ee aeooiaiee ca‘ycie c oe?a?ioeyie
iaaooee ?c canai?iiyi iaeieie ? ae?oaeie no?aeiio?enoeyinueeeo
oea?eiaieo o?aaeeoe?e.

3. I?iaeaiaoe/i?noue aeinoaoiuei ei?enii? aeey oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi
?aae?caoe?? ia?aaaa no?aeiio?enoeyinueei? oea?eae, /e? oai?aoe/i?,
i?aai?caoe?ei? iniiae noi?iiaai? a i?eioeeiiai a?aei?iiiio noni?eueiiio,
aeooiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?, aoea canaaeiaith i?e/eiith e?eciaeo yaeu a
oe?a?inuee?e oea?ea? oa ?? neaaei? eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino? ii?o/
eaoieeoeueei? oa iine?aeiaii? no?aeiio?enoeyinueei? (iineianueei?)
oea?eia. Ni?iae iioei?caoe?? oea?eiaiiai aeeooy,
na?oiaeyaeii-i?aai?caoe?ei? ooeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi, a?aeiia?aeii,
iaee aeaa ?aaeueieo iai?yiee: i?i?einueeee ? i?iiineianueeee.
A?aoiaoth/e aeno?aeiee aeooiaiee ? eoeueoo?iee niaaeie oe?a?inueeeo
o?enoeyi, a oaeiae iaaio/e?noue i?oiaeienaeueiiai i?aaineaa‘y, eiai
neaaeo caeaoi?noue i?ia?anoaaoe a?aeiia?aeii aei aeeeee?a ?a?iiaenueeiai
aeooiaiiai iinooio, ?ae?a?eia i???ioaoe?y oe?a?ioe?a ia ?ei caeiiii??ii
aeyaeeany ia?niaeoeaii ie?aei?oith aeey ?o aeooiaieo e iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a, i?ae i???ioaoe?y ia Iineao.

4. ?aeaieia?/iee iioaioe?ae Aa?anoaenueei? oi?? ?aeue?oi?oa aeyaey?oueny
o ii??aiyii? c iacae?eniaieie a Oe?a?i? oi?eieie caaeoiaie: a?i
ia‘?eoeaii iaoe?eaiee ia i?eaaaeaiiy aeooiaieo i???ioe??a oe?a?ioe?a o
a?aeiia?aei?noue c i?e?iaeieie aeey ieo i??i?eoaoaie eoeueoo?iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy. A?aeoae, oe?a?inueeee a?aei-eaoieeoeeci iinoaa ye
nae?aeueia naieoe?y iiaa?iaiiy oe?a?ioeyie naiai iaeaaeiiai i?noey a
?a?iiaenuee?e, ia?aaaaeii cao?aeiio?eyinuee?e, ni?eueiio?.

5. O?eaath/a c OV?? noie?ooy e ii nueiaiaei? naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a
a?aei-eaoieee?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ciaaaiiyie «ainoi/iee?a» ?
«cao?aeiee?a», i?e/iio ae?yeuei?noue «cao?aeiee?a» ? ianooiaeuei?oa, a
iniiaiiio oni?oi?oa oa e caaaeii ie?aei?oa aeey Oe?a?inueei?
A?aei-Eaoieeoeueei? Oea?eae, i?ae ae?yeuei?noue «ainoi/iee?a». Oaeee
ia?aa?a naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?eieo ooeaiue a?aei-eaoieee?a i?ae
o?enoeyinuee?i Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii ? aaaiaa?aeiei i?iyaii
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?ei?o i?ioean?a a iaaeao an??? iaoe?? — i?ioean?a
eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiai naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a i?ae aeooiaiei,
?aeaieia?/iei, iie?oe/iei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii, i?aaenoaaeaieie aeey
Oe?a?ie ianaiia?aae non?aei?ie e?a?iaie no?aeii- oa
cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeeeo o?aaeeoe?e.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??. Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui a iueiio ?ice?eaa?oueny iaeia c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo ia?aaeoiia a??iiai ?icoi?iiy e aoaeoeaiiai caoenoo
oe?a?ioeyie nai?o no?aoaa?/ieo iaoe?iaea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a: aaeaeaaoia
aecia/aiiy naiai i?noey a iaaeieeoiueiio na?o?, aaeeeith i??ith caeaaeia
ye aaciina?aaeiuei (a ieioeiio), oae ? aaciina?aaeiuei oa
iiina?aaeeiaaii (a no/aniino?) a?ae ?ae?a?eii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Oi?eaeueiee ia?aa?a iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? oa ?ae?a?eii?
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a aeyaey?oueny i?e aiae?c? oeo ?aeae, ui
ii?iaeeee oaiiiai oe?a?inueeiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecio. Ioe?iea ia?aaeoiia ?
oaiaeaioe?e eiai ?icaeoeo, aae aei o?eaath/eo aein? iiooe?a
?aeaioe/iino? a a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiio na?aaeiaeu?, ? eeth/aaith aeey
oai?aiiy iaa?oioiaaii? eiioeaioe?? ?ica‘ycaiiy i???ioaoe?eieo
?aeaieia?/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo i?iaeai no/anii? Oe?a?ie, aeooiaia iiaa?iaiiy
yei? a ?a?iiaenueeo ni?eueiioo oneeaaeiththoueny nae?aeueiine??ieaiei
ca‘yceii c ?in??th.

A?aeoae, i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaea i?aeoe/ii i?eneoaeeoeny ye
?ae?a??ciaaoeyi, iniaeeai i?aoethth/ei a no?aoaa?/iicia/oueo aeey
Oe?a?ie iai?yieao, oae ? an?i, a?ae eiai caeaaeeoue oai?aoe/ia
caaaeaiiy, o?aineyoe?y oa ona?aeiieaia i?eeiyooy iaeaaeieo ?aeaieia?/ieo
iniia ?icaoaeiae noaa?aiii? Oe?a?ie-?a?iiaenueei? aea?aeaae.

Ii-ia?oa, oea — aiae?oeee-a/ai?, i?aoe?aieee aeaaeieo no?oeoo?. Aaeaea
aeey ae?iaeaiiy iaoeiai aea??aii?, iaoe?iiaeueii ei?enii? aioo??oiuei? e
ciai?oiuei? ?aeaieia?/ii? oa eoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee iaiao?aeii
a?aooaaoe ?aeaeiee, oi?ioth/ee iaai? aeooiai? e eoeueoo?i?
i???ioaoe??, iioaioe?ae aieeaiaeo oe?a?inueeeo oea?eia.

Ii-ae?oaa, oea — iaaeaaiae: a?ae ni?a?ia?oiee?a ii/aoeiaeo ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a aei aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a oa i?ina?oyi. Aaeaea, aeath/e noio
ciaiue, iaiao?aeieo aeey caeiyooy naiai i?noey na?aae ni?aa?o/eciee?a,
o?aaa oaeiae aeiianoe aei neooa/?a ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i oa, ui aecia/a?
noeoiia ?o i?noea na?aae non?aei?o ni?eueiio, a oea, cie?aia, e
?ae?a?eia, aeooiaia i???ioaoe?y a?iiaaeyi. Ioaea, iaoa i?aoey iiaea
noaoe i?iiaaeaaoe/iei iaoa??aeii aeey i?aeaiooaaiiy iaa/aeueieo
iin?aiee?a, eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a ? niaoeeo?n?a c ?ae?a??ciaanoaa, ?noi???
Oe?a?ie, ?noi??? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie, ?noi??? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei,
iie?oieia??, noni?euenoaiciaanoaa, ia?iaeiciaanoaa.

Ii-o?ao?, oea ?aaeaeoi?e ae?oeiaaieo, ?aae?i- ? oaeaa?aeiiinoae. Aiie
iiaee a caeo/aoe iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iieai?/ieo
aeia??ie, i?enay/aieo aeooaeueiei e aca?iiiia‘ycaiei i?iaeaiai
?ae?a?eiiai, aeooiaiiai, eoeueoo?iiai oa iie?oe/iiai aeeooy a Oe?a?i?.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui iciaeiieaiiy c eiai i?aoeath iiaea noeioethaaoe aei
aeoeai?oi?, a?eueo na?aeiii? o/ano? a ?ae?a?ei?e, a?iiaaenuee?e,
iie?oe/i?e ae?yeueiino? ye eiai iaeiiaeoioe?a, oae ? iiiiaio?a, ui
ia‘?eoeaii i?enei?thaaei a a?aeiaeaeaiiy oe?a?ioeyie naiai i?e?iaeiiai
i?noey a ?o eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiio ioi/aii?.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? a ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a, eiai
iia?aeiieaiiyo ia eiioa?aioe?yo ??cieo ??ai?a, cie?aia: «?ae?a?y ?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaai? ?ioa?ane Oe?a?ie: eiioeaiooaeuei? aniaeoe
ieoaiiy» — ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «?ae?a?y a eiioaeno?
noni?eueieo ? aeooiaieo ?aae?e nueiaiaeaiiy» (Ee?a, 1995);
«Aeueoa?iaoeai? oeyoe ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? oea?eae a OV?? no. ? aea??
Iao?a Iiaeee» — ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iao?i Iiaeea ?
no/ani?noue» (Ee?a, 1996); «Aei ieoaiiy o?enoeyinueeiai aeai?o
?on?-Oe?a?ie» — ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «O?enoeyinoai a
eiioaeno? ?noi??? ? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie» (Ee?a, 1997); «Oe?a?inueea
aeooiai?noue: i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii» — ia anaoe?a?inuee?e
i?aeia?iaei?e o?enoeyinuee?e anaiaea? «Caiia?aeue iiao aeath aai:
etha?oue iaeia iaeiiai» (Ee?a, 1998); «Oe?a?inueea o?enoeyinoai: i?ae
Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii» — ia anaoe?a?inueeiio o?enoeyinueeiio oi?oi? «Ie?ae
i?aaaee n??oueny oai?oeyie ie?o» (Ee?a, 1998); «?aeaioe/i?noue
oe?a?ioe?a i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii ye i?iaeaia ?o
iaoe?ieoeueoo?iiai aecia/aiiy» — ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
«O?enoeyinoai ? aeooiai?noue» (Ee?a, 1998).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?iaioa iiaoaeiaaia ca i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei i?eioeeiii ? neeaaea?oueny
c? anooio, i‘yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, e nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?
e?oa?aoo?e. O ia?oiio ?icae?e? cae?eniaii aiae?c iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e c
aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee, a?aecia/ai? ?? aeine?aeaeoaai? e iaeiaea/ai?
aniaeoe, ie?aneai? iai?yiee aaoi?nueeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy i?e/ei ? ianoaaei iaiaeiicia/ii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??
oe?a?ioe?a i?ae no?aeii- oa cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeeie ni?eueiioaie
iaiao?aeii aoei i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
o?enoeyinoaa, ?o aieea ia aaiethoe?th i?e?iaeieo aeooiaieo ? eoeueoo?ieo
ca‘yce?a oe?a?ioe?a. Oeueiio i?enay/aii ae?oaee ?icae?e i?aoe?.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aaoi?, aea/ath/e i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
oea?eae i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii, c‘yniao? ?aaeueii
iiaeeea? oeyoe aeoiaeo c e?ece oe?a?inueei? oea?eae (i?i?einueeee,
?aae?ciaaiee /a?ac oeeaaeaiiy Aa?anoaenueei? oi??, oa i?iiineianueeee) c
oi/ee ci?o ?o a?aeiia?aeiino? no?aoaa?/iei oe?a?inueeei
iaoe?iaea?aeaaiei ?ioa?anai.

Uia aaeaeaaoii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe eiino?oeoeaiee iioaioe?ae Aa?anoaenueeeo
??oaiue aeey ?ica‘ycaiiy i?iaeaie eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiai
naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a, a /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeiee aaea?oueny
aei ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ?aeaeiiai eiea Aa?anoy oa iaao?eaieo a
Oe?a?i? OV?-OV?? noie?oue oi?eieo caaeoi?a.

A i‘yoiio ?icae?e?, ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aa?ao e oaiaeaioe?e
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?eieo iiooe?a oe?a?ioe?a a?aei-eaoieee?a OV??-OO
noie?oue, aeena?oaio aeyaey? ia‘?eoeaia ni?yioaaiiy oeeo iiooe?a, ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c aiaeia?/ieie i?ioeanaie a ?aieao an??? iaoe??, oa ?o
cia/aiiy, c iaeyaeo ia iio?aae ?icaoaeiae noaa?aiii?
Oe?a?ie-?a?iiaenueei? aea?aeaae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O ANOOI? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aiae?co?oueny noai
aeine?aeaeaiiino? i?iaeaie, aecia/a?oueny iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy
?iaioe, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «I?iaeaia aeooiaiiai naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a i?ae
Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii ye ia‘?eo iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy» — aaoi? ei?ioei
oa?aeoa?eco? a?aeiia?aeiee iaoeiaee aei?iaie oa aeaco? iai?yiee aeaniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A?o/eciyia o?aaeeoe?y aea/aiiy i?iaeaie eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiai
aecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a o iaaeieeoiueiio na?o?, ye i?iaeaie, iia‘ycaii? c
?o o?enoeyinueeei aeai?ii, caii/aoeiao?oueny i?aeoe/ii aaea a
iaenoa?oeo ienaiieo iai‘yoeao — Iia?no? a?ai‘yieo e?o oa «Neia? i?i
caeii ? aeaaiaeaoue» ?ea??iia Ee?anueeiai. Naia a ieo ii/eia?oueny
inieneaiiy ?ae?a?eii?, aeooiaii?, eoeueoo?ii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??
?one/?a i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii.

Iaiaeiicia/i?noue, ??ciiaaeoi?i?noue naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?eieo i?ioean?a
ioe?ith?oueny a ?aii?e iieai?/i?e e?oa?aoo?e, a e?oiienieo eiiaioa?yo, a
ai?noiey?i?e niaaeuei? ?onueeeo eiyc?a ? ieo?iiieeo?a (yne?aaee i?eeeaae
— eeno ieo?iiieeoa Iena?ea aei iaie Neenoa ?V). Aeueoa?iaoeai? aeoiee
noiniaii ?aaeueiiai ? aaaeaiiai i?noey ?onueeiai ia?iaeo a eoeueoo?iiio
na?o? ? a o?enoeyinuee?e ?iaeei? aeneiaethaaee a?o/eciyi? e ca?oa?aei?
iieai?noe OV?-OV?? noie?oue. E?au? i?aaenoaaieee i?aaineaaii? ?
oi?aonueei? oea?eia, ye I.Iiaeea, I.Niio?eoeueeee, ?.Iio?e, i?enay/oaaee
nai? o?oaee, a oiio /ene? e ienaii?, iiooeo iaeaaeiiai noaoono ? noaio
oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi i?ae non?aei?ie no?aeieie oa cao?aeieie
o?enoeyiaie. A?aeoae, ?o i?aoe? oaeoe/ii caii/aoeoaaee aiae?c ia?aaeoiia
aeieeiaiiy oaiiiaio oe?a?inueeiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecia.

Ii noo?, a caaaeaieo aeiiaoeiaeo ? ia?aaeiaoeiaeo ?ica?aeeao
caeeaaeathoueny eiioeaiooaeuei? iniiae iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue c ?icaeyaeoaaii? oaiaoeee. *eiaei a?o/eciyieo oa
?iicaiieo aaoi??a OV???-O?O noie?oue ii/eiaee aea/aiiy ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecia c aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/ei caeeth/aiiy
Aa?anoaenueei? oi??. Na?aae ieo iaeaecia/i?o? — I.Einoiia?ia,
I.Eiyeiae/, I.Eaaeoeueeee.

Iaeiae, ye aeyaeaii, i?iia?aie iine?aeiaiiai aiae?co ia?aaeoiia
oeeaaeaiiy Aa?anoaenueei? oi?? oa inieneaiiy ?noi??? Oe?a?inueei?
A?aei-Eaoieeoeueei? Oea?eae a eiioaeno? ae?eaie o?enoeyinueeee No?ae —
o?enoeyinueeee Cao?ae aoee na?onuee? e oea?eiai? (a ia?oo /a?ao
a?aei-eaoieeoeuee?) iaoeiaoe? OO noie?ooy. Oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy a
eiiieaeniiio aea/aii? an??? oe?a?inueei? o?enoeyinueei? ?noi???
i?iaiaeeee A.Oaioeoeueeee, A.Aaeeeee, I.*oaaoee, ?.Iaaa?anueeee,
N.Oiiao?anueeee, A.Eoaeieoeueeee. A ?o ?iaioao Aa?anoaenueea oi?y ? ??
ae?oeua, OAEOe, iinoathoue ye yaeua ?noi?e/ii iaoiiaeai? e caeiiii??i?
a neooaoe?? a?aceeaiai iieiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ?
Caoiaeii.

Ieoaiiyie i?noey ? i?n?? oe?a?ioe?a i?ae ia?iaeaie no?aeieo oa cao?aeieo
aeooiaieo, eoeueoo?ieo, ?aeaieia?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo o?aaeeoe?e e
aeiiii?/ieo oeeaae?a, cie?aia, i?ae iaeaeeae/eie: i?aaineaaieie
?in?yiaie oa ?a?iiaeoeyie, ia?aaaaeii cao?aeieie o?enoeyiaie,
caaaeaaaeeny I.Einoiia?ia, A.Eeieinueeee, ?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee,
Ae.Aeaaeaeianueeee, ?.I?oeinueeee. ?o a?aeiia?ae? i?noeee oe?eee niaeo?
aa??aio?a: a?ae ac??oeaaiai i?noey ? nianaiii? aeey an?o neia‘yi (aai e
an?o o?enoeyi) i?n?? oe?a?ioe?a, ui oa?a?aee (/e aaa?ooue) ana e?aua c?
Noiaeo ? Caoiaeo, — aei i?ii?aeiiai i?noey oe?a?ioe?a i?ae Noiaeii ?
Caoiaeii (a oiio /ene? ? o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii), oa,
a?aeiia?aeii, ?o ia‘?aeioaaeueii? i?n??. Eeoa a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?
A.Eaaaiaeianueeee iaaaaeeany i?e?aeiaoeny aei i?ia?aeieo ?a?iiaenueeeo
o?einio?a ? ?ae?a??ciaaoe?a a ?o ia?aeiiaii?, ui oe?a?ioe? aeooiaii,
eoeueoo?ii, ?aeaieia?/ii iaeaaeaoue aei ?a?iie ? aeaeae? a?ae ?in??,
iaeiae aeieeaaeii ia ?icaeioa oe??? aeoiee noiniaii ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaii?
noa?e.

Aeaa ?icaeyioo? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue ii/aee
ceeaaoeny a iaeei ?i?oe?aoeaith oe?a?inueeeo ?ae?a??ciaaoe?a c
ae?anii?e, ye iai?eeeaae, ?.Oaaoe?aa, ?.Iii/aea, N.?aoiaiiiai. Aei
oaei? i?aoe? inoaii?ie ?ieaie ie?aeii i?aeeeth/eeeny a?o/eciyi?
iaoeiaoe?: I.ss?ioeueeee, Ae.Noaiiaee, N.Cae?i?oe, ?.Ianeaanueeee,
iaeiae aiia iio?aao? ua aaeeeeo, a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ? ni?eeaeo coneeue
aaaaoueio aaoi??a.

Aein?, /a?ac caeoee o?eaaeiai ?aeaieia?/iiai eiio?ieth oe?a?inueei?
aeoiee, ? iaeiaeine?aeaeaiei ?aii?e (a O-O??? noie?ooyo) ca‘ycie
eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiai naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a c ?o ?ae?a?eiith
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??th. Aea/ath/e oeth i?iaeaio, aeena?oaio ia
niiae?aaany ?ica‘ycaoe ieoaiiy, ye noaany no?aeiio?enoeyinueeee
(th?enaeeeoe?eiee) aea??, aea aaaaeaa ca iaiao?aeia i?iaiae?coaaoe, ye
oeae aea?? a?aeaeany ia aaiiie?oe/iiio, eoeueoo?iiio i???iooaaii?
Oe?a?ie, c‘ynoaaoe ?aii? iiaeeeaino? aeueoa?iaoeaieo ??oaiue oa
?aeaieia?/ia i?aea?oioy i?ci?oiai caa?iaiiy aei ?eio a 1596 ?ioe?.

Aa?anoaenueea oi?y aeiiei? aea/aeany ia?aaaaeii ye eoeuei?iaoe?eiee aoai
oi?eiiai ?ooo, ? iaaeinoaoiuei — ye aoai aeooiaii? aaiethoe??
oe?a?ioe?a. Aaoi? aa/ea iiaeeea?noue iai/i?oa aeyaeoe noeioethth/ee
eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eio naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?th oe?a?ioe?a iioaioe?ae
?aeae, iinooiiai ao?ethaaieo a ae?yeueiino? OAEOe. /a?ac ?o
ni?anoaaeaiiy c ?ioeie, ia?aae?ciaaiieie oi?eieie caaeoiaie e?ioey OV? —
ia?oi? iieiaeie OV?? noie?oue.

O?e aea iao? neoaoaaa e aiae?c i?ioeai?noaa i?ino?aeieo ? i?icao?aeieo
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?eieo iano?i?a a eii? OAEOe. Oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeicaieeee ioe?ieoe iiooee ?aeaioe/iino? a a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiio
na?aaeiaeu? a eiioaeno? o?eaath/iai naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a i?ae
aeooiaiei, eoeueoo?iei, ?aeaieia?/iei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii, oa c iaeyaeo
ia oe?a?inuee? no?aoaa?/i? iaoe?iaea?aeaai? ?ioa?ane.

Iai?ee?ioe? ia?oiai ?icae?eo aeena?oaio ei?ioei ?ic‘ynith?, ui a?i
?icoi?? i?ae oaeeie oiiaieie aai ua iaonoaeaieie a caaaeueiiiaoeiaiio
aaeeoeo oa?i?iaie, ye «oe?a?inueea o?enoeyinoai», «Ee?anueea
o?enoeyinoai», «iineianueea o?enoeyinoai», «o?enoeyinueeee No?ae» ?
«o?enoeyinueeee Cao?ae», oa aeayeeie ?ioeie. ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oeeo
oa?i?i?a a aeai?e aeena?oaoe?? a iniiaiiio ca?aa?oueny c i?iiiiiaaiith
i?ia?aeieie oe?a?inueeeie ?ae?a??ciaaoeyie a oaeeo iioae?eiaaieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ye «Oe?a?inueea oea?eaa i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii», a
oiiao ia?oiio ? ae?oaiio «?noi??? ?ae?a?e a Oe?a?i?» oa ?ioeo aeaeaiiyo
A?aeae?eaiiy ?ae?a??ciaanoaa ?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee
IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e — «Naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?y oe?a?ioe?a a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo
o?enoeyinoaa a Oe?a?i? (O-OV? noie?ooy)» — i?enay/aii aiae?co
iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa, ye oaeeo,
ui a icia/aiee ia??iae ni?aaeee aeaoa?i?ioth/ee aieea ia noaiiaeaiiy
eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiai naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a a ioi/oth/iio
na?o?.

A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui Ee?anueea ?onue O noie?ooy a?aecia/aeany
?aeaioe/iei na?aaeiuei?a?iiaenueeiio noni?eueiei, aeooiaiei ?icaeoeii,
aaoi? aiae?co? ni?euei? ?ene o?enoeyi?caoe?? ?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a e.?
— i.?? oen. i.a. oa niaoeeo?/i? ?ene Ee?anueeiai o?enoeyinoaa ia??iaeo
eiai noaiiaeaiiy. A oiae? aiae?co aeyaeaii ianooiia:

— canai?iiy o?enoeyinueeeo ?aeae ? oai?aiiy aeanieo o?enoeyinueeeo
o?aaeeoe?e iaio?oaie caaaeaaaeeny ia no?eueee aieeaaie «noa?eo»
o?enoeyi, ne?eueee, ye naiai /ano ? a inoaii?o, iiia?aaei?ie aeooiaieie
iaaeaaiiyie, a?oaoeiaie noni?eueiiai aeeooy, iaioaeuei?noth ia?iaeo;

— ci?no o?enoeyinueeeo o?aaeeoe?e, ye? caeeaaeaeeny «iiaeie»
o?enoeyiaie, aoa a?eueo /e iaio iiae?aiee ci?noia? onoaeaieo o?aaeeoe?e
«noa?eo» o?enoeyi: no?aeieo (ianaeaiiy ia?aaaaeii ac?aonueeiai, /anoeiai
aeai?ciaaiiai ianeao) /e cao?aeieo (aaniethoii? a?eueoino? ?a?iiaenueeeo
aaoiooii?a);

— a?aeiia?aeia iiae?ai?noue aoea aeinoaoiuei iaa?oioiaaia, noaey/e c
oiai, ui e o? iaio?oe, ye? nia?oo i?aoaiaeoaaee ia naiino?eio oea?eiaio
?icaoaeiao, oaeaeei aeeeeny a ??/eua no?aeii- aai
cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeiai iai?yieo. ?aeeia aeeeth/aiiy neeaaeathoue
oe?a?ioe?, a eio?eo no?aeiio?enoeyinueea i???ioaoe?y ia anoaiiaeeany
aaciiai?ioii;

— niaoeeo?/ieie iniaeeainoyie Ee?anueeiai o?enoeyinoaa aoee, cie?aia,
?aeaieia?caoe?y naii/eiiiai o?auaiiy (a «Neia? i?i caeii ? aeaaiaeaoue»
?ea??iia Ee?anueeiai), oa a?aenoo?noue iine?aeiaiiai naiiaecia/aiiy
uiaei no?aeiiai ? cao?aeiiai o?enoeyinoaa, aca?iia aeciaiiy
iaeiia??iino? ?onueeeo ? cao?aeieo o?enoeyi, iaa?oue ii onoaeaiith
Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ia?oeo, ? i?ney 1I54 ?ieo.

Ni?anoaaeaiiy icia/aieo ni?eueieo, c ?ioeie iaio?oaie ?a?iie iaae? ?-??
oen.i.a., e iniaeeaeo ?en Ee?anueeiai o?enoeyinoaa aeicaiey? c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui, ii-ia?oa, ii/aoeiaa o?enoeyinoai oe?a?ioe?a-?a?iiaeoe?a ia
aoei ? ia iaei i?aenoaa (ia?aaeoiia) aooe iane?aeoaaiiyi a?caio?enueeiai
? ia i?ioenoaaeyeiny cao?aeiiio o?enoeyinoao, ? ii-ae?oaa, oea?eaa
Ee?anueeiai o?enoeyinoaa, iath/e iaai? iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?
naiino?eiiai iinooio, iaea oe?eeii ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino? ?icaeaaoeny a
?aieao cao?aeiio?enoeyinueei? nenoaie.

Aeey c’ynoaaiiy i?e/ei oiouaiiy oeeo iiaeeeainoae i?iaaaeaii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aiiuei? ?noi??? Ee?anueei? ieo?iiie??, ??
i?aai?caoe?eieo, aeaaeieo i?iaeai. Ca a?aeii aeaea?aeueieo aeaieo, aaoi?
a?aeiiaeany a?ae aeeneoooaaiiy ieoaiiy, /iio ia /ie? Ee?anueei? oea?eae
iieieeeny ieo?iiieeoe c Eiinoaioeiiiiey, ? i?eeiya ye aeai?noue
onoaeaiiy Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueei? th?enaeeeoe?? c 1055 ?ieo. Iaoii?noue,
ii/eiath/e c oeueiai ia??iaeo, ?aoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaai? ia?eiao??
?ic?inoaiiy e iiae?eo Ee?anueei? ieo?iiie??, ni?yioaaiiy aaiethoe??
oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa ? ?? iane?aeee. Aeiaaaeaii, ui a?aeiia?aei?
iiae??, ?icaeyioo? a ?o o?iiieia?/i?e iine?aeiaiino?, aeyaeythoue ?
eia?/io iine?aeiai?noue:

— ae.i.O? — ae.i.O?? no.: a?caio?enuee? noaaeaieee ia?ane?aeothoue
naiiaooi? o?aaeeoe?? Ee?anueeiai o?enoeyinoaa ? ??aiii?aaia ni?eeoaaiiy
?onueeeo o?enoeyi ?c cao?aeieie — oa aaciina?aaeiuei e iiiiiieueii
ea?othoue i?aai?caoe??th oea?eiaieo no?oeoo? a i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo
ee?ai?onueeeo iin?einoyo;

— ae.i.O?? — ii/.O??? no.: iinooiiaa ao?aoa Ee?aii cia/aiiy
ia’?aeioaaeueiiai oeaio?o (na?onueeiai e oea?eiaiiai), oa ai?ioueaa ca
eiai aeaaeiee, na?onueeee ? oea?eiaiee aaoi?eoao i?ae
i?aaeaiii-cao?aeieie e i?ai?/ii-no?aeieie eiyc?anoaaie, oaeoeea
«nionoioeeaiai niaaeei?iieoeoaa» eiycy Aiae??y Aiaiethanueeiai,
naia?aoe?y i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo caiaeue e a?aeiia?aei? ieaie oea?eiaiiai
a?aeie?aieaiiy;

— 20 — 50-o? ??. O??? no.: Ee?anuee? ieo?iiieeoe (ii/eiath/e c Ee?eea
(1224-1233), aei oaoa?nueei? iaaaee!) ana a?eueoa ia?aaoaathoue ia a
noieeoe? ieo?iiie??, a a i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ?ieneiinoaao, aea c oni?oii
ni?ai?aoeththoue c oaioaoiith na?onueeith aeaaeith, oiae? ye
i?aaeaiii-cao?aei? eiyc? (Aeaieei, Aaneeueei) aeiiiaeythoueny c ?eiii,
Aeaieei iineea? ?aoiaia Iao?a ia E?iinueeee oi?eiee niai? 1245 ?ieo.

Oeae ?yae iiae?e caeiiii??ii a?i/a?oueny ?icae?eaiiyi oea?eiaieo oeyo?a
i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii? oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeii? /anoeie Ee?anueei? ieo?iiie??:
aaciiai?ioiei ia?a?caeii Ee?anueeeo ieo?iiieeo?a a i?ai?/ii-no?aei?
eiyc?anoaa a 1299 ?ioe? oa noai?aiiy ie?aii? (Aaeeoeueei?) ieo?iiie?? a
1303 ?ioe?. Aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui iaiaeii/aniaee
o?enoeyinueeee ?icaeoie ??ciiaoi?/ieo caiaeue Ee?anueei? ?on? oa ??
iin?einoae i?e?iaeii a?aecia/aany a?aei?iieie i?eeiaoaie (cie?aia,
Ee?anueea o?enoeyinoai oiea?aioi?noth aei cao?aeiiai, a iieiaeoa
o?enoeyinoai i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo caiaeue — oi?ioaaiiyi iaoa?ieiino? aei
cao?aeieo o?enoeyi), oa i?e?iaeii i?iaeiaaeeany ye ??ciini?yiiaaiee.

Iieacaii, ui i?aaeaiii-cao?aei? eiyc?anoaa iaiaaathoueny i?iaeiaaeeoe
naiino?eio oea?eiaio iie?oeeo ii/aoeiaiai oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa ?
oeyoii i?yiiai aeiaiai?o c iaiith ?einueeei, ? oeyoii aeiiaaaiiy ie?aii?
ieo?iiie??.

Aaoi? oa?aeoa?eco? cai?oaiiy Aeaieeiai? oaiaee c ?eiii ye ao?aoo oaino
oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi iiaa?iooeny ??aiii?aaieie /eaiaie a ?a?iiaenueeo
ni?eueiioo, e aeiaiaeeoue ?ethci?i?noue oain?a ia naiiaooiee ?icaeoie
Aaeeoeueei? ieo?iiie?? o a?aeiini?e a?aeie?aieaiino? a?ae » Ee?anueei?»
c oeaio?ii a Iinea?. Inoaii? iiynith?oueny c aeiiiiiaith aiae?co
nooi?nieo iniaeeainoae no?aeiio?enoeyinueeeo oea?eia, ianaiia?aae
aeno?aeieo c oeaca?iiaiecio. Aeyaeaii, ui aeey no?aeiio?enoeyinueei?
oea?eae ia aoaeue-yeiio aoai? ?? aaiethoe?? oa?aeoa?i? oae? i?ioe??/ea?
oaiaeaioe??: i?aaiaiiy ooaa?aeeoeny ie?aiith oea?eiaiith iaeeieoeath,
aea?aeaaiith, iaoe?iiaeueiith oea?eaith, — ? iioya aei iiooaei?oi?
no?aeiio?enoeyinueei? oea?eiaii? iaeeieoe?, ii?eoaaii? neeueiei
na?onueeei aaoie?aoi?ii.

Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny an??th ?noi???th oe?a?inueei? oea?eae — o
neeaae? ? Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai, ? Iineianueeiai iao??a?oaoo.
Iineiaueia, ye noi?iiaaia ianaeaiiyi iiae?aiiai a?caio?enueeiio
(?a?ac?enueeiai) iioiaeaeaiiy, caeiiii??ii oniaaeeiao? iie?oe/i? e
?aeaieia?/i? o?aaeeoe?? A?caio?enueei? ?iia???, oa iinooiiai ia?aae?a?
e?aea?noai a no?aeiio?enoeyinuee?e oea?eiai? nenoai?. Ia oaea e?aea?noai
ia iaea oain?a Oe?a?ia, c ?? aieaethaieie noni?eueieie o?aaeeoe?yie,
a?aenooi?noth aa?aneaieo aaeeeiaea?aeaaieo aia?oe?e oa oeiiaei aeey
?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i oaioaaiiyi neoaeeooe?a eoeueoo, iai?aeii?yaeeiaaieo
na?onueeei aieiaea?yi. Ioaea, aeyaeaii: i?aaineaaia Oe?a?ia i?e?a/aia ia
a?aceeaa iieiaeaiiy ii?o/ c non?aeiueith i?aaineaaiith ?in??th.

Iieacaii, ui aaea a O?V no. «aic’?aeioaaoe» Aaeeoeueeo ieo?iiie?th c
«Ee?anueeith» iaiaaaeeny naia c Iineiaueie, a a?aeie?aieaiiy aeiaeaaeeny
c oe?a?inueei? noi?iie. Iaeiae, iineianueeiio oea?eiaiiio oyae?iith
oe?a?ioe? ia iiaee i?ioenoaaeoe ?icaeiooi? naiiaooii? o?enoeyinueei?
o?aaeeoe??, a iiaeeeaino? aaeaoeny aei aeueoa?iaoeaii?,
cao?aeii-o?enoeyinueei?, i?ney o?ueio noie?oue ?icaeoeo a
no?aeiio?enoeyinuee?e oea?eiai?e nenoai?, aoee nooo?ai iaiaaeai?.

Cacia/aii, ui, i?ney ao?aoe aeanii? aea?aeaaiino? a 1340 ?ioe?,
oe?a?inuee? o?enoeyie oa?eoee a cao?aeiio?enoeyinueea aea?aeaaia
ooai?aiiy aaea ye aeciaaoe? «a?aoeueei? a??e». I?e?iaeia eoeueoo?ia
i???ioaoe?y oe?a?ioe?a aoea ii?ooaia, i?aeeaaeee iie?oe/iee ca’ycie ?c
cao?aeieie o?enoeyiaie aaea oneeaaeithaaany ?ae?a?eiith a?aei?ii?noth, a
no?aoaa?/ii iaaacia/i? aeey oe?a?ioe?a ?in?enuee? i?aoaic?? iaaoee
nae?aeueii? iioeaaoe??.

Oaeei /eiii, i?aenoiiao? aaoi?, o?enoeyinueeee aea?? oe?a?ioe?a, ui a
neeo i?i?aooie?a oea?eiaii? iie?oeee Ee?anueei? ?on? caiaeeany aei
iaiine?aeiaiiai iinooio a ?aieao no?aeiio?enoeyinueei? i???ioaoe??,
i?eca?a aei noaiiaeaiiy i?iaeaiii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a na?aae
ioi/oth/eo ia?iae?a iaeiicia/iiai no?aeii- /e cao?aeii-o?enoeyinueeiai
aeai?o. Oe?a?ia, eieeoiy aieeaiaa ?a?iiaenueea aea?aeaaa, iieieeany i?ae
non?aei?ie cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeeie ?a?iiaenueeeie e?a?iaie ?
no?aeiio?enoeyinueeith Iineiaueiith ye i?ae aeooiaiei, ?aeaieia?/iei,
eoeueoo?iei, iie?oe/iei Caoiaeii ? Noiaeii.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — «Aeueoa?iaoeae i???ioaoe?eiiai aeai?o
oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa a oiiaao eiai e?ece (OV?-OV?? noie?ooy)» —
i?iaiaeeoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/ei caiaiaaeo oe?a?inueei? oea?eae,
i?i??aiyeueii ioe?iththoueny ??ciini?yiiaai? ni?iae icaei?iaeaiiy
oea?eiaii-?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy.

Aaoi?, ne?aeii ca aaaaoueia a?o/eciyieie iaoeiaoeyie: I.Eiyeiae/ai,
I.A?ooaanueeei, I.Eaaeoeueeei, ?.Ianeaanueeei, N.Ieio??i,
I.E?eaeai?anueeei, aiae?co? e?eco oe?a?inueei? oea?eae, ye oieon
aaaaoueio aca?iiiia‘ycaieo oe?a?inueeeo i?iaeai. Aeyaeai? aioo??oi?,
aein? iine?aeiaii ia aeine?aeaeai?, i?e/eie e?ece, noai?ai? aai
aeiiouai? ieceith iiia?aaei?o iieie?iue oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi.

Oea cae?eniaii iina?aaeieoeoaii aacnoi?iiiueiai ?icaeyaeo iaaieo iaae
iiaeeeainoae ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? oea?eae ye neeaaeiai?
no?aeiio?enoeyinueei? oea?eiaii? nenoaie, a non?aenoa? c aieeaiaeie
/eaiaie inoaiiuei?. Iieacaii, ui ia?aaaae no?aeiio?enoeyinueei? oea?eae
ia iiaee aooe ?ice?eo? aiiai? ei?enii aeey oe?a?inueeeo oa?ai?a, ye oea
aoei a Iineiauei?. A?aoiaoth/e noeoii?noue ianoaaei, ye? ia?aoeiaeaeaee
ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, iniaeeai — iani?eyoeeaa
aaiiie?oe/ia ioi/aiiy, aeciaii, ui no?aeiio?enoeyinueea i?aai?caoe?y a
Oe?a?i? ia ? naiiaeinoaoiueith, iio?aao? aeey naiai oni?oiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy noie aaaeeicaaacia/oaaieo iaiao?aeieo oiia. I?e oiio
oaeiae aeciaii, ui cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeee oene oneeaaeiea ? caieooaa
i?iaeaie iaoeiiai? ieo?iiie?? Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai iao??a?oaoo.
C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui, a?aeoae, oe?a?inueea oea?eaa aeyaeeany neaai
eiieo?aioiicaeaoiith ye a?ey eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae, oae ? a?ey
iine?aeiaii? no?aeiio?enoeyinueei? (iineianueei?) oea?eae.

Aiae?coth/e ?aaaoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi ia caiaiaae nai?? oea?eae,
aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui oiai/ani? oe?a?ioe? iaee aeoaea aocueeee aeinooi
aei ?noi?e/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?? ?icaeoie, ? a ?icaeoiao i?i oea?eiaia
aeeooy iiaee iineoaiaoaaoeny ia?aaaaeii nai?ie iniaenoeie
niinoa?aaeaiiyie aeanieo oa non?aenueeeo ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaieo i?iaeai.
Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aiioaeuei? ?ae?a?ei? iiae?? icia/aiiai ia??iaeo,
i?iaiae?ciaai? niiioee aei ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? oea?eae a
eiioaeno? aeeeee?a OV? noie?ooy, ye? iinoaee ia?aae an?i o?enoeyinueeei
na?oii. C‘yniaaii, ui ni?eueiei ci?noii na?oiaeyaeieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e
an?o o?enoeyinueeeo ni?eueiio aoa aeo?ae ia iiaee aoai naiiona?aeiieaiiy
ieie nai?? ?aeaioe/iino?, eiee ci?ie noaio ? noaoono a o?enoeyinuee?e
?iaeei? nae?ae?coaaee ?aaeueii iaaooo aaao ie?aieo ia?iae?a /e
naieoe?iioaaee aea?eueiaiiy ?o iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae ia a?ai?
o?enoeyinueeiai Noa?iai Na?oo.

Aeyaeaii, ui oe?a?inuee? o?enoeyie i?eeoee aei oaeeo ci?i c iniaeeaei
?noi?e/iei niaaeeii. Inieneaiiy aeya?a ia?iaiaioieo i???ioaoe?eieo
ooeaiue oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi, cie?aia, aeeneon?e i?i iiaeeeaa e
aeioe?eueia oea?eiaia i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy, aeicaieeei c?iaeoe ianooiiee
aeniiaie: oe?a?inueeith niaoeeo?eith aoea aeooaeuei?noue ia?aaeyaeo
o?aaeeoe?e ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaiiai aeeooy ia no?eueee ye oaeeo, ui
aaiethoe?iioaaee aei eia?/ieo ye?nieo aaeineiiaethth/eo ia?aoai?aiue,
ne?eueee ye oaeeo, ui iio?aaoaaee i?eeeaaeaiiy aaeeeeo ei?aaoth/eo
coneeue /a?ac naith i?aai?caoe?eii-na?oiaeyaeio iac??e?noue.

Aeine?aeaeaia, caeiiii??ia a oae?e neooaoe?? ??ciiiai?oia, aae aei
iiiiaioii?, ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi, ni?yiiaaia ia iiooe
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ? caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaeo ?c
iacaaeia?eueiiai oea?eiaiiai noaiiaeua. Aeae?eaii i‘youe iniiaieo
aa??aio?a aeai?o iiaeaeueoeo o?enoeyinueeeo oeyo?a, cae?eniaiiai
oe?a?ioeyie e.OV? — i.i.OV?? noie?oue:

1. i?eeiyooy ?eii-eaoieeoeecio, aoiaeaeaiiy a ?eii-eaoieeoeuee? ia?ao??
?a/? Iiniieeoi?;

2. i?eeo/aiiy aei i?ioanoainueeeo ia?aeiiaiue, o/anoue o noai?aii?
i?ioanoainueeeo a?iiaae a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo;

3. ona?aeiieaiiy ?aeeiiai nian?iiy oe?a?inueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae o
i?eeiyoo? iineianueei? ii?ee, aeoeaia i?aeaioiaea /e ni?eyiiy
a?aeiia?aeiei caoiaeai;

4. ni?iae icaei?iaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? oea?eae a ?aieao ?nioth/iai
Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy oa no?aeiio?enoeyinueei?
i???ioaoe??;

5. ni?iae a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? oea?eae o ni?a?ia?oieoeoa? c
?eiii.

I?iaiae?ciaaii eiino?oeoeaiee iioaioe?ae icia/aieo aa??aio?a, i?e/eie ?o
aeeoo?caeaoiino? /e iaaeeoo?caeaoiino?. Aecia/aii, ui ia?oee ? ae?oaee
aa??aioe ia caaacia/oaaee ae/a?iiiai ae??oaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaieo i?iaeai, ?, a?aeoae, caeiiii??ii ia aoee
?aae?ciaai? a caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiio ianooaa?. Aeyaeaii, ui o?ao?e
aa??aio, c iaeyaeo ia iniaeeaino? i?noey ? ?ie? Oe?a?ie e Iineiaueie a
no?aeiio?enoeyinuee?e ni?eueiio?, aoa eia?/iei aeey oe?a?inueei? oea?eae
ye neeaaeiai? no?aeiio?enoeyinueei? nenoaie, aea ia aeey oe?a?inueei?
oea?eae ye naiiaooii? no?aeiio?enoeyinueei? iaeeieoe?. Aeciaii
neooi?noue ?ic?aooieo ia e?aua caa?aaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? oea?eae ye
i?aaineaaii? i?ae iineianueeith ii?eith. Aeyaeaii, ui iiaeeeaino?
?aae?caoe?? /aoaa?oiai ? i‘yoiai aa??aioo aoee iaoiiaeai? i??ith
aaeaeaaoiino? i?iiiiiaaiiai iai?yieo iioei?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
o?enoeyinueeiai oeyoo eiai aeno?aeiei canaaeai oa oe?a?inueeei
no?aoaa?/iei iaoe?iaea?aeaaiei ?ioa?anai. Iieacaii, ui /aoaa?oee aa??aio
ia aeaiaeea ia aeiaeaoeia?, ua ia caae?yi? neee aeey ?aoi?ioaaiiy
oea?eae, ? aeyaeany ei?ioeei i?noeii aei i?iiineianueeiai aa??aioo.

Aecia/aii, ui a i‘yoiio aa??aio? i?iiiio?oueny ia cai?ia ?iia??ii?
na?onueei? aeaaee (ye a i?iiineianueeiio aa??aio?), a ciyooy ?ae?a?eii?
iioeaaoe?? ia??aieo noinoie?a ?c cao?aeieie o?enoeyiaie, ui caa??aa?
i?e?iaeiee aeey oe?a?ioe?a aaiiie?oe/iee ca‘ycie, nae?aeueii
naieoeeiioth/e eiai ??aiii?aai?noue. C‘yniaaii: oi/a i‘yoee aa??aio, ye
? /aoaa?oee, ua ia ae??oo? anueiai niaeo?o i?iaeai oe?a?ioe?a —
iaoe?iiaeueieo, nioe?aeueieo, iie?oe/ieo — , aea ?icieea? eiei ia
o?eueee ciai?oi?o, a e aioo??oi?o ianoaaei, a yeeo ?icaeaaeany e?eca
oe?a?inueei? oea?eae, ? oea aeyaeeiny ia?niaeoeaii ei?eniei aeey
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oea?eiaieo e iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a oe?a?ioe?a.

Aaoi? i?aenoiiao?: ?aeeieie i?aeoe/ii iiaeeeaeie aeueoa?iaoeaaie
i???ioaoe?eiiai aeai?o oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa, ?icaeoie yeiai caeoia
o e?eco, aoee: a?aeeeeeaiiy aei Iineae aai a?aeeeeeaiiy aei ?eio —
iine?aeiaia aecia/aiiy i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — «Noaiiaeaiiy a?aei-eaoieeoeueeeo ?aeae a oiae?
oi?eieo iiooe?a oe?a?ioe?a» — /a?ac inieneaiiy iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueeeo
oi?eieo ooeaiue oa oeyoii ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ??cieo oe?a?inueeeo
oi?eieo i?iaeo?a, aeae?ey?oueny e ioe?ith?oueny iai?yiie oe?a?inueei?
o?enoeyinueei? aeoiee, ui ioi?ieany a Aa?anoaenuee?e oi?? oa iinooiiai
?aae?coaaany a ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?inueei? A?aei-Eaoieeoeueei? Oea?eae.

Ianaiia?aae aaoi? c’ynoaaa, ui ia?aae?noi??y Aa?anoaenueei? oaiaee o
aeeeaae? aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a, ye io ?.Ia??iea, A.Eoae?eea,
N.Oiiao?anueeiai, ?.Oaaoe?aa, i?aaenoaaey?oueny ieceith ie?aieo
??cii??aeieo iiae??. C ieo eeoa /anoeio ei?aeoii a?aeiineoe aei oi?eieo
aeoe?e, oiae? ye ?ioa /anoeia noino?oueny aeainoi?iii?o oe?a?inueei-
?einueeeo eiioaeo?a. Inoaii? noa?o? ca aoaeue-yeo oe?a?inueeo o/anoue a
oi?eiiio ?on?. Aea oe?a?inueea oea?eaa, aeeth/aia a no?aeiio?enoeyinueeo
i?a?oo, i?iaeiaaeoaaea ciineie c ?eiii /anoi i?ae /an ? a neeaae? ??cieo
oi?eieo aeoe?e. Aiane?aeie oeueiai, ye aeyaeaii, oe?a?inueei-?einuee?
eiioaeoe oa oe?a?inueea o/anoue a oi?eieo caoiaeao caeaa?eueoiai
iine?aeiaii ia ?ic??ciythoueny. Iaeiae ? ia oea?eiaieo niai?ao, ui
?icaeyaeaee oi?ei? ni?aae, ? a eenooaaii? e ia?aaiai?ao oe?a?inuee?
oea?eiai? ? na?onuee? e?aea?e cayaeyee i?i niaoe?aeuei? oe?a?inuee?
oi?ei? ?ioa?ane.

Uia aecia/eoe nooi?noue oe?o ?ioa?an?a, aaoi? iaa ianaiia?aae
i?iaiae?coaaoe aoiaeaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a a o?enoeyinueeo ?iaeeio, ?o
i?iaeaio naiiaecia/aiiy a i?e. Aecia/aii, ui oey i?iaeaia coiiaeaia
i?ioe??//yi i?ae i?e?iaeieie, ye aeey ?a?iiaenueeiai ia?iaeo, oa
naieoe?iiiaaieie no?aeiio?enoeyinueeei i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiyi i??i?eoaoaie
eoeueoo?iiai ni?eeoaaiiy. Aeyaeaii, ui ia aaia?ao?/ia ?icoaooaaiiy
Oe?a?ie i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii naia ii nia?, a nei??oa
iaiaeiicia/ia naiiaecia/aiiy i?ae ieie ?iaeei oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi
iioaioe?eieie o/anieeaie oi?eiiai ?ooo. A?aeoae, anoaiiaeaii: ine?eueee
aeooiai?noue oe?a?ioe?a ia oi?ioaaeany canaaeiai ye ?a?ac?enueea,
ine?eueee ?o aeio?enoeyinueea ?ae?a?ei?noue aoea ?aeaioe/ia
na?aaeiuei?a?iiaenuee?e, ino?eueee oe?a?ioe?a ye /eai?a
no?aeiio?enoeyinueei? ni?eueiioe /aeaee iaa?aeai?ioi? oo?oaeiaiiy
aeooiaii? naii?aae?caoe??. Oea e iiaei noai?thaaoe iniaeeao aeey
oe?a?ioe?a iioeaaoe?th ?o o/ano? a oi?eiiio ?on?: oi?eiee ?oo i?a
?icaeyaeaoeny ye oi?ia ?ooo a a?e ?a?iiaenueei? aeooiaii? e eoeueoo?ii?
ni?eueiioe, iiaiii?aaieie /eaiaie eio?i? aoee iaio?oe Ee?anueei? ?on?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a i?iaeaii?e neooaoe?? ?ae?a?eieo ca’yce?a c
no?aeiio?enoeyinueeith ni?eueiioith oa iie?oe/ieo ? eoeueoo?ieo ca’yce?a
?c cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeith ni?eueiioith, aeoea?coaaeeny ?icaeoie
oe?a?ioe?a iaae aeaniei i?noeai i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii.

Aeyaeaii, ye o a?aeiia?aeieo ooeaiiyo iinooiiai iiey?ecothoueny ia
o?eueee o? /e ?io? «aeicao?aei?» oa ?i aeueoa?iaoeai? iiceoe??, aea e
oae? iiceoe??, eio?? o?aaeeoe?eii ia’?aeiothoueny aecia/aiiyi «oi?ei?».
C’yniaaii, ui na?aae o/aniee?a oi?eiiai ?ooo o? oe?a?ioe?, /ey
iaioaeuei?noue o?ainoi?ioaaeany ca?aeii ianoaae?iue
Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeeo a/eoae?a, aoaeoaaee naith o/anoue a oi?eieo
ni?aaao ca?aeii i?aeoiaeo: «a?ae ei?eniiai aeey oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi —
iiaeeeaiai aeey oe?a?ioe?a — i?aaineaaieo». Oaea iiceoe?y iaaaaeoaaea
a?aeiioaiiy aei oi?eieo ?aeae a?aoeueeeo oaiaeiaoe?a, aiia ia
caa?iaeoaaea oe?a?ioeyi eeiiioaie i???ioaoe?eieo ci?i oa
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth ca ieo. O? ae oe?a?ioe?, ye? aeyaeeenue caeaoieie
aei naiino?eiiai, iaaeeaeaiiai aei ?a?iiaenueeiai ieneaiiy a oe?oeo
o?enoeyinueeeo ianooaaao, aeaiiino?oaaee i?eioeeiiai a?aei?iiee
i?aeo?ae: «a?ae ei?eniiai aeey oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi — i?e?iaeii
aeioe?eueiiai aeey oe?a?ioe?a — ?a?iiaeoe?a». Oey iiceoe?y iiaea aooe
ocaiaeaeaia c aeaaiueith ?einueeith caoe?eaaeai?noth o ni?a?ia?oieoeoa?
c oe?a?ioeyie, ye ocaaaeueiaiith caoe?eaaeai?noth cao?aeieo o?enoeyi —
?a?iiaeoe?a o i?e?iaeiiio ia?oia?? — Oe?a?i?, ui ? noaeiny a 1595-1996
?ieao.

sse iieaco? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?eiao?e ai?ioueae ca ??ci? oe?a?inuee?
oi?ei? i?iaeoe, ?a/ieee aeaio aecia/aieo iiceoe?e aenooiaee nei??oa
iiiiaioaie, i?ae ni?a?ia?oieeaie (ii/eiath/e c eiycy E.Ino?icueeiai e
?.Iio?y). Aeyaeaii, ui ia?aeiiaiiy o iiaeeeaino? oi?? eeoa ye caaaeueii?
i?aaineaaii-eaoieeoeueei? aeiiiaeaiino? (aai i?eiaeii? ye oaiaee,
naieoe?iiiaaii? Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeei iao??a?oii), ?iaeei iai?eeiyoiith
i?yio oe?a?inueei-?einueeo aeiiiaeai?noue ? niiioeaei aei ae?yeueiino?
oaeoe/ii aioeoi?eii?, ia’?eoeaii iaaeeaeath/i? oaoaeuei? aeey Oe?a?ie
iiae?? 1654 oa 1686 ?ie?a. Iaoii?noue, ?aeaieiae e aoae?aie/?
Aa?anoaenueei? oi?? ?.Iio?e, E.Eoioeaae/, A.?oonueeee, ?icoi?th/e anth
ia?aaeuei?noue caaaeueii? oi?? a neooaoe?? e.XVI-i.i.XVII no., aa/eee
e?auo ia?niaeoeao ?icaeoeo nai?? oea?eae a ?ioaa?aoe?? c oea?eaith
eaoieeoeueeith. *a?ac ia’?aeiaiiy c oe??th iaea?eueoith
caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeith i?aai?ciaaiith neeith aiie niiae?aaeeny
iiaa?iooe aeciaiiy cao?aeieo o?enoeyi oa i?e?iaeia i?noea oe?a?ioe?a a
?a?iiaenuee?e ni?eueiio?. A?aeoae, aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo i?i
oi?iaeuei?noue canoinoaaiiy iacae «oi?ei?» uiaei iiae?aieo ?aeae.

Oi/ aecia/aia ia’?eoeaia ?aeaeia ni?yioaaiiy ??oaiue Aa?anoy caiaeii
i/aaeaeii ?icai?oa?oueny a ae?yeueiino? OAEOe, eiai iiaeia aeyaeoe, ye
aeiaiaeeoue aeine?aeiee, ? oeyoii ni?anoaaeaiiy c ?aeaeiei eieii ?ioeo
oe?a?inueeeo oi?eieo caaeoi?a e.XVI-i.i.XVII no.

Inoaii? aeieeaaeii aiae?cothoueny, c o?aooaaiiyi ?noi?e/iiai oea oi?eii?
ae?yeueiino? i?ia?aeieo na?oiaeo o?enoeyinueeeo /eiiee?a. Ia?oei, a
eiioaeno? ?ioa?an?a aaeeei? o?enoeyinueei? iie?oeee, ua a e?ioe? XVI no.
aenoaa?oueny i?iaeo oe?a?inueeiai iao??a?oaoo i?ae ii?eith iaie.
C’yniaai? aeyaeai? a oe?e ni?aa? iiceoe??: caoe?eaaeaia — ?eio,
iii??eiaaia — Eiinoaioeiiiiey, ? iaiine?aeiaia — oe?a?inueei? noi?iie.
Iaaieioaii, ui a oie naiee /an Iineaa, aac aeiaaeo i?aeoniaieo
aeeneon?e, aeiaeeany aeciaiiy aeaniiai iacaeaaeiiai iao??a?oaoo. Aaea
oeae ia?oee ia?aae?ciaaiee oi?eiee ieai i?iaeaiiino?oaaa a?aenooi?noue
?aaeueieo oain?a i?iaeoeoeaiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a?ae?aco an?o iacaaieo
o?enoeyinueeeo /eiiee?a, ? aeoea?coaaa iiooe /anoeiith oe?a?inueeeo
o?enoeyi ie?aii? oe?a?inueei-?einueei? aeiiiaeaiino?. Aiia e aoea
aeinyaiaia a 1596 ?ioe?. Iaeiae, Aa?anoaenueeo oi?th ia i?eeiyee an?
oe?a?ioe?, ? iiooe oi?eieo oeyo?a i?iaeiaaeoaaany a ia?.iie. XVI no.,
ca?aaee i?eie?aiiy «?on? c ?onnth».

C’yniaaii, ui o an?o a?aeiia?aeieo ni?iaao 20-40-aeo ??., yeeie aeoeaii
ia?aeiaany ?ei ? ye? ia?aaaaeii ?aii?oaaa Eiinoaioeiiiieue, oi?aoe
iaiaaaeeny ia?aeiiaoe i?aaineaaieo i?eeiyoe iii’yeoaiee aa??aio oi?? (ye
i?i?ioi, ca?aeii Oei?aio?enueeiai c?aceo), a i?aaineaai? iiaiaeaeoaaeeny
eeoa ia neiaie?/ia aeciaiiy iaie a ia’?aeiaiiio iao??a?oao?
(???a?o?/iee ca’ycie yeiai c Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeei ?aca?aoaaany), ? ia
i?iaieioaiiy aaeeaaiiai o?enoeyinueeiai «e?aaei» ?aeaioe/iei
cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeiio. Iieacaii, ioaea, caeiiii??i?noue iaaaea/
ei?aeoe?? Aa?anoaenueei? oi?? — iaea?eueo iine?aeiaii?
oe?a?inueei-?einueei? aeiiiaeaiino?.

Ia iniia? cae?eniaiiai aiae?co aaoi? noi?ioethaaa ianooiiee aeniiaie:
?aeaeiee iioaioe?ae oiai iai?yieo oe?a?inueei? o?enoeyinueei? aeoiee,
eio?ee iinooiiai ?aae?coaaany /a?ac caeeth/aiiy Aa?anoaenueei? oi??, aoa
ia’?eoeaii iaoe?eaiee ia i?eaaaeaiiy aeooiaieo i???ioe??a oe?a?ioe?a
o a?aeiia?aei?noue c i?e?iaei?ie aeey ieo i??i?eoaoaie eoeueoo?iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy, ?, oaeei /eiii, ia ona?aeiieaiiy ? iiaa?iaiiy oe?a?ioeyie
naiai aaeaeaaoiiai i?noey a ?a?iiaenuee?e ni?eueiio?.

A i’yoiio ?icae?e? — «?noi?e/iee aeina?ae ? no/ani? i?iaeaie aeooiaiiai
naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a a?aei-eaoieee?a» — aeine?aeaeothoueny
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?ei? iiooee a?aei-eaoieee?a ye ni?iae a?aeiaeaeaiiy
oe?a?ioeyie nai?? aeooiaii? ?aeaioe/iino? i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii.

I?iaiae?ciaaii ia?aoai?aiiy, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a oi?aonuee?e oea?ea?.
Na?aae a?aoiaio?a ia ei?enoue iaiao?aeiino? oa iaa?aeai?ioiino? ci?i a
i?e, aaoi? iaaieinea ia oaeeo: ii-ia?oa, Aa?anoaenueea oi?y, aeania, e
oeeaaeaeany aeey oiai, uia ci?ieoe noai ? noaoon oe?a?inueei? oea?eae; ?
ii-ae?oaa, aoaeoeai?noue aca?iiae?? c ea??aiei oeaio?ii, ye ?
??aiii?aai?noue ni?aaeeooy c ?ioeie /eaiaie oea?eiaii? i?aai?caoe?? (a
?aeaieiae oi?? niiae?aaeeny ia aeiiiiiao ia?oiai ? aeciaiiy ae?oaeo)
caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, iane?eueee ie?aii acyoee o/aniee aieno?oueny o
aeaio nenoaio.

Aecia/aii aacaeueoa?iaoeai?noue aeicao?aeiiai iai?yieo ci?i a
oi?aonuee?e oea?ea?. Iaa?oue a oe?a?inuee?e i?aaineaai?e oea?ea?
a?aeaoaaeeny aiaeia?/i? ci?ie, noa?aiiyie ieo?iiieeoa I.Iiaeee,
cana?ae/oth/e iaaio/e?noue i?oiaeienaeueiiai i?aaineaa‘y, eiai neaaeo
caeaoi?noue i?ia?anoaaoe ca?aeii aeeeee?a ?a?iiaenueeiai aeooiaiiai
iinooio. I/aaeaeia i?eaaaeea?noue caa?iaiiy aei iaaooe?a aeeiai?/ii?
eiieo?aioiicaeaoii? eaoieeoeueei? o?aaeeoe?? aecia?oueny ia nueiaiaei?
aaaaoueia iaoeiaoeyie, iai?eeeaae, I.Aaeaaecith, ?. Ianeaanueeei, N.
Naiee. Iaoii?noue, aaoi? aeacaa ia i?e/eie, c yeeo oi?aonueea oea?eaa ia
iiaea o?ainoi?ioaaoeny o c?acie ?aeeii? aeineiiaei? o?enoeyinueei?
oea?eae, cie?aia: ii-ia?oa, oi?aonueea oea?eaa a ia??iae naiai
noaiiaeaiiy naia iio?aaoaaea aeiiiiiae, ?e ia ii neeai aoei aeeiioaaoe
neeaaeio ?ieue i?iia?a a?aeiiaeaiiy o?enoeyinueei? ?aeiino? e iiaiioe;
ii-ae?oaa, oi?aonueea oea?eaa iaea ?ioaa?oaaoeny c iino-O?eaeaionueeith
eaoieeoeueeith oea?eaith, ?aaeueii aeaeaeith a?ae aeoiai?/ieo
iaeaoooaaiue; ? ia?aoo?, ii-o?ao?, no?aei? e cao?aei? o?enoeyie XVI-XVII
no. aeaiiino?oaaee iaaeoi ??cia ?icoi?iiy aaaeaii? oea?eiaii? ?aeiino?,
i?i ui aoei a?aeiii oi?aoai, cie?aia c iieai?ee, onii? oa ae?oeiaaii?.

I?inoaaeaii o?ae ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? e naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oi?ao?a. Aiae?c
?noi?e/ieo na?ae/aiue Aa?anoaenueeiai ia??iaeo aeyaey?, ui i?aaineaai?,
ii/eiath/e c Aa?anoaenueeeo niai??a aaea aeeaeeeny ia oi?ao?a ye ia
c?aaeiee?a i?aaineaa’y, eio?? ia?aeoee ia eaoieeoeeci, /ei, aei iaaii?
i??e, aeia?aaeaeaee e i?enei?thaaee a?aeiia?aeio aaiethoe?th
naiiaecia/aiiy oi?ao?a. Inoaii?, c iaeiiai aieo, a Aa?anoaenueeeo
a?oeeoeao iaaieiooaaee ia aeio?eiaii? noa?eo cae/a?a. Iaeiae, i?iiioi?
oi?? ?. Iio?e aaaaeaa ca iiaeeeaa aaea o 1598 ?ioe? a eenooaaii? c
eiycai E.Ino?icueeei ?ici??eiaoaaoe i?i ia?aa?a a?aeiinei «?onueeiai ?
?einueeiai iaaiaeainoaa eaoieee?a».

I?iaeaie oeeo a?aeiinei, ye c‘yniaaii, aoee iaoiiaeai? ianaiia?aae oei,
ui Aa?anoaenueea oi?y oeeaaeaeany oe?a?inueeith oea?eaith, eio?a
noie?ooyie ?icaeaaeany a no?aeiio?enoeyinuee?e nenoai?, ? eaoieeoeueeith
oea?eaith, a?aeiia?aeii, aaea aeaeaeith a?ae eieeoiueiai (ca /an?a
Ee?anueeiai o?enoeyinoaa) aeciaiiy iaeiia??iino? oe?a?ioe?a.

Aeyaeaii, ui i?icao?aei? ci?ie a oi?aonuee?e oea?ea? o?eaaee ? a oiiaao
iieuenueei? aeaaee, /ey caeaoi?noue aaeaeaaoii ?ai?acaiooaaoe aeey
oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeee na?o aoea iaiaaeaia
aeano?oeoeaiei aeina?aeii i?aeei?aiiy oe?a?ioe?a e ?ae?a?eiiai
i?ioenoiyiiy c ieie, ? a oiiaao oiea?aioi?oi? aei oe?a?ioe?a
aano??enueei? aeaaee, aeey yei? naiiooaa?aeaeaiiy ca ?o ?aooiie ia aoei
ni?aaith ?nioaaiiy. ?acii c oei, iaaieioaii, ui oi?aonueea oea?eaa,
aeciaia aano??enueeith aaei?i?no?aoe??th ye a?aei-eaoieeoeueea (ioaea,
iaeiia??ia), ia?aeoea aei aeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? naiai iioaioe?aeo, ui
aiia aeyaeeany caeaoiith iaeooioai?eoe oe?a?inueea a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a
Aaee/ei?. Aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie: a?aeiia?aeia aeoeai?noue oea?eae iaea
aooe i?aeaioiaaia ?? iiia?aaei?i ?icaeoeii, a cia/eoue, e iaeiie/aieie
ia?aoai?aiiyie (i?icao?aeieie).

C‘yniaaii, ui inieneaiiy oeeo ci?i i?ecaaei, ii?o/ c iie?oe/ieie
i?e/eiaie, aei aeae?eaiiy a a?aei-eaoieeoeuee?e oea?ea? ianooiaeueiiai
e?eea — «cao?aeiee?a» oa ?i iiiceoe?eiiai — «ainoi/iee?a». I?inoaaeaii
?o i?ioeai?noai c e.O?O -a OO no., aeyaeaii eiai noeioethth/a cia/aiiy
aeey naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?eieo iiooe?a a?aei-eaoieee?a. Aecia/aii, ui
aeii?ioth/a oaiaeaioe?y aaiethoe?? oea?eae i?iaeiaaeoaaeany — ?
i?iaeiaaeoaaeany ei?enii aeey aeooiaieo e iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a
oe?a?ioe?a. Aiae?c aeieoiaioaeueii cao?eniaaiiai ?icaeoeo OAEOe iieaco?,
ui aiia aeooae?coaaea ?ene, oa?aeoa?i? aeey eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae, e
ianaiia?aae noaea naiiaeinoaoiueith ?inoeoooe??th. Oea i/aaeaeii
icia/eeiny a ?aae?yo ae?oaiai (i?aeai?iiiai) i?aeiieuenueeiai ?
i?ae?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo, oa ii?o/ caoaii? aaiethoe?? oe?a?inueei?
i?aaineaaii? oea?eae a neeaae? Iineianueei? iao??a?o??.

A?aeoae, c‘yniaaii, ui neioac a OAEOe no?aeii- oa cao?aeiio?enoeyinueei?
o?aaeeoe?e ? nei??oa aaaeaiee iaaieie eieaie, i?ae cae?eniaiee, ? ui
iaaeaaiiy e ia?niaeoeae OAEOe ye «i?noea» i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ?
Caoiaeii ? aeineoue i?iaeaiaoe/ieie.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe ooeaiiy aeanii? ?aeaioe/iino? a?aei-eaoieeeaie, a
eiioaeno? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?eieo iiooe?a a iaaeao an??? iaoe??, aaoi?
?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui aaiethoe?y aeooiaii? i???ioaoe?? a?aei-eaoieee?a ?
i?ia?aneaiei aaaiaa?aeiei i?iyaii aiaeia?/ieo i?ioean?a a iaaeao an???
iaoe??.

Caaa?oothoue i?aoeth ei?ioei noi?ioeueiaai? AENIIAEE.

Oaiiiai oe?a?inueeiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecio ? ii?iaeaeaiiyi i?iaeaie
iaiine?aeiaiiai, c iaeyaeo ia i?e?iaei? aeooiai? ca‘ycee oe?a?ioe?a oa
i??i?eoaoe ?o eoeueoo?iiai ni?eeoaaiiy, naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a i?ae
o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii.

A oe?a?inueeiio a?aei-eaoieeoeeci? ?aae?co?oueny ni?iaa ?ica‘ycaiiy
iacaaii? i?iaeaie: ia i?enoinoaaiiyi aei a?aceeaiai iieiaeaiiy i?ae
o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii — ni?eueiioaie ??cieo aeooiaieo ?
eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e, ??cieo ?aeaieia?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo,
nioeeaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo nenoai, a aeoiaeii c oaeiai iieiaeaiiy. Ia
ia‘?eoeaia ni?yioaaiiy oe??? ni?iae aeaco? aeooae?caoe?y a oe?a?ioe?a
a?aei-eaoieee?a oeiiai ?a?iiaenueei?, cao?aeii? aeooiaiino? oa
eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiai naiiaecia/aiiy, i?eoaiaiieo non?aei?i
?a?iiaenueeei ia?iaeai cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeeo o?aaeeoe?e.

Oaea aaiethoe?y oe?a?inueei? aeooiaii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??, ye oea
aeaeii ia i?eeeaae? o?enoeyinueei? aeoeaiino? e ae??ai? iao??ioe/ii?
iiceoe?? a?aei-eaoieee?a, ? ei?eniith aeey oe?a?inueeeo no?aoaa?/ieo
iaoe?iaea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a: aiia iiaea caaacia/eoe na?oiaeyaeia
ne??ieaiiy noaa?aiiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie-?a?iiaenueei? aea?aeaae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iaaeaaiy I.A. Oaiiiai Oe?a?inueeiai o?enoeyinoaa: i?ae Noiaeii ?
Caoiaeii // Oe?a?inueea ?ae?a??ciaanoai. — 1997. — N 5. — N. 4I-44.

2. Iaaeaaiy I.A. O?iee e?ece oe?a?inueei? oea?eae OV? noie?ooy //
Oe?a?inueea ?ae?a??ciaanoai. — 1999. — N 9. — N. 9-14.

3. Iaaeaaiy I.A. Oea?eaa ye /eiiee naiiaecia/aiiy iaoe?? a
eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiio ioi/aii? // Oe?a?inueea ?ae?a??ciaanoai. —
1999. — N 10. — C. 43-52.

4. Iaaeaaiy I.A. Oe?a?ia i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii: i?e/eie, iane?aeee,
ia?niaeoeae // ?noi??y ?ae?a?e a Oe?a?i?. — 1998. — N. 163-164.

5. Iaaeaaiy I.A. Aei ieoaiiy «iao??a?oaeueii?» i?iaeaie OAEOe // Aoiin ?
?ae?a?y (oai??y ? eiioaeno nueiaiaeaiiy). — E., 1998. — N. 16-17.

Aiioaoe?y

Iaaeaaiy I.A. A?aei-eaoieeoeeci a eiioaeno? aeooiaiiai naiiaecia/aiiy
oe?a?ioe?a i?ae o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.11 — ?ae?a??ciaanoai. — ?inoeooo
o?einio?? ?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (A?aeae?eaiiy
?ae?a??ciaanoaa), Ee?a, 1999.

A i?aoe? cae?eniaii ?noi??inionueea ?ae?a??ciaa/a aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeooiaii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a a eoeueoo?ii-oeea?e?caoe?eiiio
ioi/aii? — i?ae ni?eueiioaie no?aeii- oa cao?aeiio?enoeyinueeeo
o?aaeeoe?e, ia iniia? aiae?co ia?aaeoiia aeieeiaiiy e oaiaeaioe?e
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecio. Aeiaaaeaii, ui oaiiiai
oe?a?inueeiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecia aoa ii?iaeaeaiee i?iaeaiith
iaiine?aeiaiiai, c iaeyaeo ia i?e?iaei? aeooiai? ca’ycee oa i??i?eoaoe
eoeueoo?iiai ni?eeoaaiiy, naiiaecia/aiiy oe?a?inueeeo o?enoeyi i?ae
o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii. C’yniaaii: iiooee aeanii?
?aeaioe/iino? a a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiio na?aaeiaeu?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
ianooiii «cao?aeiee?a» oa aeaia?oaie «ainoi/iee?a», ? aaaiaa?aeiei
i?iyaii aiaeia?/ieo i?ioean?a a ?aieao an??? Oe?a?ie. Aeyaeaii, ui
oe?a?inueeei no?aoaa?/iei iaoe?iaea?aeaaiei ?ioa?anai a?aeiia?aea? ia
iina?aaeieoeoai i?ae naiioe?iieie na?oaie, o?enoeyinueeei Noiaeii ?
Caoiaeii, oiniaeaieie aeey oe?a?ioe?a ianaiia?aae non?aei?ie ia?iaeaie
— ?in?enueeei oa ?a?iiaenueeeie, a ne??ieaiiy noaa?aiiiai iinooio
Oe?a?ie — /eaia ?a?iiaenueei? ni?eueiioe aaeaeaaoiith aeooiaiith
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??th oe?a?ioe?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oe?a?inueeee a?aei-eaoieeoeeci, o?enoeyinueeee No?ae,
o?enoeyinueeee Cao?ae, aeooiaia naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?y.

Aiiioaoeey

Iaaeaaiy I.A. A?aei-eaoieeoeeci a eiioaenoa aeooiaiiai naiiii?aaeaeaiey
oe?aeioeaa iaaeaeo o?enoeaineei Ainoieii e Caiaaeii. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.11. — ?aeeaeiaaaeaiea. — Einoeooo oeeinioee ei.
A.N. Neiai?iaeu IAI Oe?aeiu (Ioaeaeaiea ?aeeaeiaaaeaiey), Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aaioa inouanoaeaii enoi?einioneia ?aeeaeiaaae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea
aeooiaiie naiieaeaioeoeeaoeee oe?aeioeaa a eoeueoo?ii-oeeaeeecaoeeiiiii
ie?oaeaiee — iaaeaeo ainoi/ii- e caiaaeiio?enoeaineeie ia?iaeaie, ia
iniiaa aiaeeca i?aaeiinueie aicieeiiaaiey e oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey
oe?aeineiai a?aei-eaoieeoeecia. Aeieacaii, /oi oaiiiai oe?aeineiai
a?aei-eaoieeoeecia aue ii?iaeaeai i?iaeaiie iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiiai,
i?eieiay ai aieiaiea anoanoaaiiua aeooiaiua nayce e i?ei?eoaou
eoeueoo?iiai iauaiey, naiiii?aaeaeaiey oe?aeineeo o?enoeai a
o?enoeaineii ie?a.

Iieacaia iaaoaiinoue aeey oea?eiaiiai e iaoeeiiaeueiiai auoey oe?aeioeaa
eo i?iiaaeooi/iiai iieiaeaiey iaaeaeo o?enoeaineei Ainoieii e Caiaaeii —
niiauanoaaie ?acee/iuo aeooiaiuo e eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeee, ?aciuo
eaeaieiae/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai.
Aeieacaia caeiiiia?iinoue e?eceniiai ?acaeoey oe?aeineie oea?eae iaaeaeo
o?enoeaineei Ainoieii e Caiaaeii. Auyaeaii, /oi oe?aeineea a?oaoeiu
?aeeaeiciie, iauanoaaiiie aeecie e nouanoaothuaa aaiiieeoe/aneia
ie?oaeaiea ia niinianoaotho yooaeoeaiiio ooieoeeiie?iaaieth oe?aeineie
oea?eae eae ninoaaeythuae ainoi/iio?enoeaineie oea?eiaiie nenoaiu.
Aianoa n oai, iinea onoaiiaeaiey Eiinoaioeiiiieueneie th?enaeeeoeee,
iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe naiinoiyoaeueiiai ?acaeoey oe?aeineie
oea?eae e ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aa ?acaeoey a ?aieao
caiaaeiio?enoeaineie oea?eiaiie no?oeoo?u ia auee caaeaenoaiaaiu.
Auyniaii, /oi, oaeei ia?acii, oe?aeineay oea?eiaue ieacaeanue
neaaieiieo?aioiiniiniaiie eae ?yaeii n eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth, oae e
?yaeii n iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ainoi/iio?enoeaineie, iineianeie
oea?eiaueth.

Iieacaii, /oi aeoaieee e?ecen oe?aeineie oea?eae a XVI noieaoee
aeoeaece?iaae ?aoeaeneth oe?aeineeo o?enoeai iaae eo iaaeeaaeauei ianoii
a o?enoeaineii ie?a. Iia?aaeaeaiu aeaa ?aaeueiuo aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
iai?aaeaiey aeaeueiaeoaai i?eaioaoeeiiiiai auai?a oe?aeineie oea?eae:
i?i?eineee e i?iiineianeee. Auyaeaii, /oi aaoiiiiiia naeeaeaiea n ?eiii
ninoaaeyei iniaue eioa?an oe?aeioeaa, o/anoaothueo a oieeiuo i?iaeoao.
Naeeaeaiea n ?oeiaiaeyuei oeaio?ii iaeaieueoae i?aaieciaaiie aa?iiaeneie
neeu ioe?uaaei oe?aeioeai iooue e ?aaaeeeoaoeee a aa?iiaeneoth
(i?aeiouanoaaiii caiaaeiio?enoeaineoth) iauiinoue, aaea e anoue eo
anoanoaaiiia ianoi. Oaeie eaeaeiue iioaioeeae Aa?anoaeneie oiee,
?aeueaoii auyaeaiue a n?aaiaiee n eaeaeiui e?oaii ianinoiyaoeony a
Oe?aeia oieeiuo i?iaeoia XVI-XVII noieaoee, ni a?aiaiai ?aaeeciauaaeny a
aeayoaeueiinoe Oe?aeineie A?aei-Eaoiee/aneie Oea?eae.

Ii?aaeaeaii, /oi eneaiey nianoaaiiie eaeaioe/iinoe a a?aei-eaoiee/aneie
n?aaea oa?aeoa?ecothony ianooieaiei “caiaaeieeia” e aeaia?oaie
“ainoi/ieeia”. Ia iauaeoeaioth aeiieie?othuoth iai?aaeaiiinoue yoeo
eneaiee oeacuaaao aeooaeecaoeey o a?aei-eaoieeeia aa?iiaeneie, caiaaeiie
aeooiaiinoe e eoeueoo?ii-oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai naiiii?aaeaeaiey, i?enouaai
aa?iiaeneei ia?iaeai i?aeiouanoaaiii caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie iaioaeueiinoe.
Auyniaii, /oi, a oeaeii, i?icaiaaeiua i?aia?aciaaiey a Oe?aeineie
A?aei-Eaoieeoeeie Oea?eae noaee iieaciuie aeey oe?aeioeaa, a ioee/ea io
iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ia?aiai a Oe?aeineie
I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae a ninoaaa Iineianeie iao?ea?oee.

Oaeei ia?acii, onoaiiaeaii: n?aaee ?aciuo iai?aaeaiee aeooiaiie
aaiethoeee (neaaeiaaoaeueii, e o?enoeaineie i?eaioaoeee) iai?aaeaiea,
i?iaeaeea?e?iaaiiia a Aa?anoaeneie oiee 1596 aiaea, caeiiiia?ii
ieacaeinue ia?niaeoeaiui aeey oe?aeioeaa, aa?iiaeneiai ia?iaea.
Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi ioa?aeoa?eciaaiiua naiieaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiua eneaiey
oe?aeioeaa a?aei-eaoieeeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaaiaa?aeiua aeeiaie/iua
i?iyaeaiey aiaeiae/iuo i?ioeannia a ?aieao anae iaoeee. Auyaeaii, /oi
oe?aeineei no?aoaae/aneei iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiui eioa?anai
niioaaonaoao ia iin?aaeie/anoai iaaeaeo naiioeaiiuie niiauanoaaie,
o?enoeaineei Ainoieii e Caiaaeii, i?aaenoaaeaiiuie aeey oe?aeioeaa a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ninaaeieie ?inneeneei oa aa?iiaeneeie ia?iaeaie, a
ne?aieaiea noaa?aiiiai ?acaeoey Oe?aeiu — /eaia aa?iiaeneiai
oiaa?euanoaa aaeaeaaoiie aeooiaiie naiieaeaioeoeeaoeeae a? a?aaeaeai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oe?aeineee a?aei-eaoieeoeeci, o?enoeaineee Ainoie,
o?enoeaineee Caiaae, aeooiaiay naiieaeaioeoeeaoeey.

SUMMARY

Nedavnya O.V. Greek-Catholicism in a Context of spiritual
self-determination of Ukrainians between East and West.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate of philosophical sciences degree by speciality
09.00.11 — religious studies. — The G.S.Scovoroda Philosophy Institute
of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Department of Religious
Studies), Kyiv, 1999.

In the thesis there is carried out historiosophic religious studies
research of the spiritual self-identification of the Ukrainians in the
cultural and civilizational environment — between the communities of the
eastern- and western-Christian traditions — on the basis of the analysis
of the premises for occurrence and tendencies of the development the
Ukrainian Greek Catholisism. It is proved that the phenomenon of the
Ukrainian Greek-Catholicism was caused by a problem of the inconsistent,
when taking into consideration the natural spiritual connections and
priorities of the cultural dialogue, self-determination of the Ukrainian
Christians between East and West. It is established: the search of the
personal identity in the Greek-Catholic environment, which are
characterized by the attacks of the “westerners” and demarches of the
“easterners” is a vanguard manifestation of the similar processes within
the limits of the entire Ukraine. It is revealed, that Ukrainian
strategic national and state interests are not satisfied by an mediation
between the self-valuable worlds, Christian East and West, embodied for
the Ukrainians first of all by the neighbouring peoples — Russian and
Europenian, but strengthening the sovereign movement of Ukraine as
member of the Europenian community through an adequate spiritual
self-identification of the Ukrainians.

Key words: Ukrainian Greek-Catholicism, Christian East, Christian West,
spiritual self-identification.

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