IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?i..?.?.IA*IEEIAA

EOOI??

Ay/aneaa A?eai?iae/

OAeE 903.2/.4(477.74) «-19»

AINIIAeA?NOAI ? IIAOO IANAEAIIss

I?AAeAIII-CAO?AeII? OE?A?IE

A AIIOO ?ICIAAeO IA?A?NIIAI NONI?EUeNOAA

— ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Iaeana-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? iiiia?ao?y

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia ?noi?e/iiio oaeoeueoao? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: Aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Noaiei Aieiaeeie? Ieeeoi?iae/

aeaeai ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaeanueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe , i?ioani?

Eiaaeueiaa ??eia Oaaei??aia

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??ia?ao?? oa

aeaea?aeiciaanoaa Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

*eai-ei?aniiiaeaio, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?

Iaoeei Anaaieiae ?aaiiae/

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii iai’yoie aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e

?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa

aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 14 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 41. 051. 08

i?e Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa ca

aae?anith

270057, i.Iaeana, aoe. Uaie?ia, 12, aoae. 9.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neai 13 na?iiy 1999 ?ieo.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith 270100
i.Iaeana, aoe.I?aia?aaeainueea,24.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
A.E.Eicianueeee

I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeia I?e/i?iiii?’y ? iaeiei c iaeaeaai?oeo oeaio??a
aeieeiaiiy a?aeoai?thth/iai ainiiaea?noaa a Oe?a?i?. Ia aeoieo aeayeeo
aeine?aeiee?a a oeueiio ?aa?ii? aia?oa aoei caii/aoeiaaii i?e?o/aiiy
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, a caiaeii ? noaiiaeaiiy ?aii?o oi?i neioa?noaa,
i?ci?oa ? caiea?ianoaa. Aaea e?ioe? iacie?oo — ia ii/aoeo iaie?oo ooo
aeieeathoue iiiaeeiie? iinaeaiiy iaoa??aee yeeo na?ae/aoue i?i aeaaeeeaa
a?aeiioaiiy ?o iaoeaioe?a aei oaa?eiiiai na?oo. Iaaaeiac? ia noaiiaeo
i?inoi?ao I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie ?icnaeththoueny ?aii? neioa?nuee? ieaiaia,
iinooiiai oi?iothoueny nai???aei? nenoaie nii/aoeo neioa?nueeiai, a o
iiaeaeueoiio ? caiea?ianueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ye? noaee iniiaith
aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy ? iathoue i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aei
nueiaiaeaiiy.

Ca?iaeeaoenue a iaie?o?, ia i?ioyc? aaaaoueio oeny/ie?oue neioa?noai ?
caiea?ianoai ?icaeaaeinue a i?ieeaeo i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiiaao,
aaeaiooth/enue aei yeeo, ianaeaiiy noaiiai? ciie noai?thaaei iioeiaeuei?
nenoaie iaeaoaeoeai?oeo oi?i oaa?eiieoeoaa ? caiea?ianoaa. I?e oeueiio,
o?aaa caoaaaeeoe, ui nenoaie neioa?noaa ? caiea?ianoaa a?ae/ooii
?aaaoaaee ia aoaeue-ye?, iaa?oue iacia/i?, ee?iaoe/i? ci?ie. Iaaiith
i??ith nenoaia a?aeoai?thth/i? aeiiii?ee aecia/aeany nioe?aeueieie
nenoaiaie.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy I?aaeaii-Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia ? noaiiaei
?aa?iiii a iaaeao yeiai a?aeaoaaeinue oi?ioaaiiy
caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueeeo nenoai c iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a. Ca?iaeeaoenue a
iaie?o?, caiea?ianoai ? neioa?noai ?icaeaaeinue a a?aeiia?aeieo
i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiiaao, aaeaiooth/enue aei yeeo noai?thaaei
iioeiaeuei? ae?iaie/? nenoaie ae?iuaiiy ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?,
iaeaoaeoeai?o? oi?ie oaa?eiieoeoaa. Oe? aea? iniiai? aaeoc? noaiiai?
aeiiii?ee iathoue a?oioiaio aeaea?aeueio aaco, yea ?ai?acaioo?
caiea?ianueeee ae?iaie/ee ?aiaiaio, aeaee ceaeiaeo eoeueoo?, ye?
eoeueoeaoaaeenue ianaeaiiyi, inoaieia?/iee iaoa??ae ia iniia? yeiai
a?aeoai?th?oueny neeaae aeiiaoi?o oaa?ei, aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy ?o
naeaeoe?? oiui. I?iaeaie aea/aiiy ?icaeoeo neioa?noaa ? iniaeeai
aeooaeueieie aeey noaiiai? ciie, ine?eueee aiii ?icaeaaeinue a
??ciiiai?oieo oi?iao: a ie?ai? ia??iaee ye aeii?ioth/ee iai?yiie
aeiiii?ee, ?ieiee aoiaeeei aei neeaaeo eiiieaeniiai ainiiaea?noaa ye
neeaaeiaa eiai /anoeia.

Aenoaineaia caiea?ianoai ? neioa?noai ?? oen. aei i.a. a?ae/ooii
?aaaoaaee ia aoaeue ye? iaa?oue iacia/i? ee?iaoe/i? ci?ie, oiio ieoaiiy
aca?iica’yceo ? caeaaeiino? iniiaieo aeae?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
a?ae i?e?iaeiiai oaeoi?a, a oaeiae iaaeinoaoiy aeine?aeaeaii?noue oe???
i?iaeaie aecia/athoue ?? aeooaeuei?noue.

Aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaoe ia i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/i? ? nioe?aeuei? ci?ie caeaoi?
eeoa noi?iiaai? no?ee? nenoaie caiea?ianoaa ? neioa?noaa. C’ynoaaiiy
iaoai?cio ?aaaoaaiiy oa eiai iane?aeee oaeiae iiaeeeaa eeoa i?e
?icoi?ii? no?oeoo?e eiiieaeniiai ainiiaea?noaa ye a oe?eiio, oae ?
ie?aieo eiai iai?yie?a, oiio ieoaiiy iiaeaethaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo
nenoai aecia/a? ne?aeoth/ee aniaeo aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee.

I?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ia niaoeeo?ea I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oei, ui ooo iaee i?noea ye eiiieaenia
caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueea ainiiaea?noai, oae ?
neioa?nueei-caiea?ianueea, a yeiio ?ieue caiea?ianoaa aoea
i?i?iaeueiith. Noiniaii inoaiiueiai, iinoa? ?yae iaiao?aeieo aeey
c’ynoaaiiy iniiaieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c ?icaeoeii neioa?noaa: a yeeo
oi?iao aiii ?icaeaaeinue, /e ?nioaaei ye ie?aiee ? naiino?eiee iai?yiie
noaiiai? aeiiii?ee, /e aoei iaei??th c? neeaaeiaeo eiiieaeniiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Oeaio?aeueiei ooo ? c’ynoaaiiy oi?i oo?eiaiiy oaa?ei.

Aac ae??oaiiy cacia/aieo ieoaiue iaiiaeeeaa oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaooo
ianaeaiiy, eiai aaiethoe??, oi?ioaaiiy o?aaeeoe?e oa
?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy nenoaie aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy
noni?euenoaa, aaeaioaoe?y ethaeeie ? noni?euenoaa aei eiie?aoiiai
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua /a?ac aeiaeaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo oi?i ae?yeueiino?
oa i?aai?caoe??.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?: oa?aeoa?enoeea nenoai caiea?ianoaa ?
neioa?noaa, oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaooo ianaeaiiy noaiiai? ciie
I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie a ?? oen. aei i.a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
?icaeyaeathoueny ne?aeoth/? ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? caiea?ianoaa ?
neioa?noaa, iiaooo:

— iiaeaeththoueny nenoaie ianiaenueie neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa;

— aecia/athoueny oi?ie neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a ?? oen. aei i.a.;

— aecia/a?oueny ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ainiiaea?nueei-eoeueoo?iee oei
neioa??a-ei/?aiee?a;

— aecia/athoueny oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo neioa?noaa;

— iiaeaeth?oueny caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueea nenoaia;

— oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeeoeia? ? ainiiaea?nuee? eiiieaene ianaeaiiy
?aa?iio.

Oa?eoi??y aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue ia ?a/iaeo iaoa??aeao, c?a?aieo ia oa?eoi??? a?ae
I?aaeaiiiai Aoao aei Aeoiath, ienueiiaeo ?noi?e/ieo oa aoiia?ao?/ieo
aeaea?aeao. O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/athoueny ?? oen. aei
i.a.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?eioeei ?noi?ecio c iiceoe?e
yeiai ?icaeyaea?oueny aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee noaiiaiai ianaeaiiy o
aca?iica’yceo c i?e?iaeiei na?aaeiaeuai, nioe?aeueiei noaiii
noni?euenoaa.

Iiaeaethaaiiy oa oa?aeoa?enoeea ainiiaea?noaa ? iiaooo cae?enithaaeenue
c caeo/aiiyi ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiiai, ?ao?iniaeoeaii-?aeiino?oeoe?eiiai
iaoiae?a ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aeei?enoiaothoueny ? aiae?cothoueny aeai?
?noi?e/ieo, i?e?iaeieo iaoe, ui iaaeath ciiao ae??ooaaoe iinoaaeai?
caaaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue iaoa??aee a?oaieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue (cia?yaeaey i?aoe?, i?aaeiaoe iiaooo, caeeoee aeeoeiaeo ?
ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae). Ie?aieie a?oiaie aeaea?ae ? inoaieia?/iee
iaoa??ae c iioiaaiue oa iinaeaiue ?? oen. aei i.a., ?acoeueoaoe
iae?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny aoiia?ao?/i?
iaoa??aee i?e iiaeaethaaii? ainiiaea?nueeeo nenoai. Caeo/athoueny aeai?
ia eeoa I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, a e anueiai noaiiaiai i?inoi?o

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny ne?aeoth/eie iieiaeaiiyie:

a /anoei? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy :

— cai?iiiiiaai? aeiiiaiaiiy aei oa?i?iieia?? uiaei aeao?i?oe?e
neioa?noaa aeiae ???-?? oen. aei i.a.;

— aeiiiaiaia noaia e?eoa???a aecia/aiiy ei/iaiai neioa?noaa a ???-??
oen. aei i.a.

a /anoei? aea/aiiy iiaooo:

— aecia/aii ? noa?aeoa?eciaaii ainiiaea?nueei-iiaooia? eiiieaene oa ?o
?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?.

a /anoei? aea/aiiy ainiiaea?noaa:

— aecia/athoueny iniiai? oi?ie neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa,
iiaeaeth?oueny nenoaia oo?eiaiiy aeiiaoi?o oaa?ei;

— oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeeiai?ea ? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo neioa?noaa a ??
oen. aei i.a.;

— iiaeaeth?oueny in?eee caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueeee eiiieaen ae?oai?
iieiaeie ?? oen. aei i.a.;

— oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeiiii?aei? aeaee ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

a /anoei? aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa:

— cao?eniaai? ci?ie a no?oeoo?? noni?euenoaa ? ?oi?e aieea ia
ainiiaea?noai ? iiaoo.

Iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy: Aeniiaee
aeine?aeaeaii? oaie eiie?aoecothoue ie?ai? ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe??
ainiiaea?noaa oa iiaooo ianaeaiiy I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie o ?? oen.
aei i.a. ?icoe?th?oueny aeaea?aeueia aaca, aeiiiaiththoueny ?
eiie?aoecothoueny oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue i?e neeaaeaii?
iniiaieo ? niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a, iaienaii? iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a oa
i?ae?o/iee?a.

Iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1.A ?? oen. aei i.a. a noaiia?e /anoei?
I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie ?icaeaaeinue eiiieaenia ainiiaea?noai
iniiaith yeiai aoei caiea?ianoai ? neioa?noai.

2.A ia?o?e iieiaei? ?? oen. aei i.a. a ?aa?ii?
aeii?ioaaei ?ooeeaa neioa?noai, o ae?oa?e iieiaei? oeny/ie?ooy — in?ea
caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueea ainiiaea?noai.

3.Aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo neioa?noaa ia iaea no?eei?
oaiaeaioe?? eiai a?aeie?aieaiiy ? aeoiaeo c caiea?ianueeiai na?aaeiaeua
oa aoiaeaeaiiy a noaae?th oi?ioaaiiy ei/iai? nenoaie. Aiii ?icaeaaeinue
?eoi?/ii a?aeiia?aeii aei i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo ci?i.

4.Ainiaea?nuee? ? aeeoeia? i?ei?uaiiy iaeneiaeueii
i?enoiniaai? aei i?noeaaeo oiia ? iathoue ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?. Ia
cacia/ai?e oa?eoi??? a?aeii? iinaeaiiy iia’ycothoueny eeoa c
caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueeei ianaeaiiyi, c aeiiii?eith ? iiaooii in?eiai
oa?aeoa?o.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y «Ainiiaea?noai ? iiaoo ianaeaiiy
I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie a aiioo ?iciaaeo ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa»
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ?ethno?aoeaiiai
iaoa??aeo, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe neeaaea? 200
noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeINE?AeAEAIIss

O anooii?e /anoei? aiae?co?oueny noai aea/aiiy
caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, iiaooo ianaeaiiy a ?aa?ii? a
?? oen. aei i.a. Aecia/athoueny iniiai? i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oith i?iaeaiith a aea/aii? neioa?noaa noaiiai? Oe?a?ie ?, aecia/aiiy
/ano ? i?noey oi?ioaaiiy ei/?aieoeoaa. Aiae?co?oueny ?noi??ia?ao?y oa
?icaeoie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie.

Cie?aia cacia/a?oueny, ui a 30-o? ?iee a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a
aaaaeaee, ui neioa?noai, ye naiino?eia nenoaia ainiiaea?noaa, neeaeinue
ia ?ai?oa ii/aoeo ?? oen. aei i.a. Ia?oith aoea ianooo?anueea oi?ia
neioa?noaa c? no?eeiaei oo?eiaiiyi aeiiaoi?o oaa?ei aceieo. ? eeoa a
?aiiueicae?ciiio a?oe? cae?enith?oueny ia?ao?ae aei ei/iaiai neioa?noaa
(Aieueinoai, 1933). A 1943 ?ioe? I.O.Eaaiaeianueea aia?oa aeneiaeea
aeoieo, ui neioa?noai onao?anueeiai ianaeaiiy aoei ia o?eueee
i?enaeeuiei, aea e naciiii-ei/iaei (Eaaiaeianueea, 1943) ? caii/aoeoaaea
aeeneon?th i?i oa?aeoa? ? aoaie ?icaeoeo neioa?noaa a I?ai?/iiio
I?e/i?iiii?’?, /an eiai no?oeoo?ecaoe??.

C iinooiiaei iaeiie/aiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo aeaea?ae a 50-60 ??.
oae?aaith?oueny aeaoa aeieeiaiiy ?ooeeaiai neioa?noaa aei ae?oai?
iieiaeie ??? oen. aei i.a. (Oa?aiiaeeei, 1956). I.O.Eaaiaeianueea
aeiaiaeeoue, ui aeii?ioth/a ?ieue neioa?noaa a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’?
i?inoaaeo?oueny aaea ia ii/aoeo ??? oen. aei i.a. a yiii-eaoaeiiaiee
/an, neioa?noai, ia ?? aeoieo, noa? ei/iaei. (Eaaiaeianueea, 1961).

A 70-80 -o? ?iee a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a inoaoi/ii aecia? neioa?noai
aeii?ioth/ei iai?yiii noaiiai? aeiiii?ee. Aea oyaeaiiy i?i /an eiai
oi?ioaaiiy caeeoaeenue ??cieie.

C’yaeythoueny ?iaioe, niaoe?aeueii i?enay/ai? oai? noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo neioa?noaa. C aiaie?oe/iith aeiaith aeieeiaiiy ?ooeeaiai
neioa?noaa iia’ycothoue A.I.Aeaieeaiei oa I.I.Oiaae?e (Aeaieeaiei,
Oiaae?e, 1972), eiai niaoe?ae?caoe??th. (Oeeia, 1975), oa aaiethoe??th
(Eiaaeaaa, 1981, 1983 oa ?io?).

Oaeineiiaeth?oueny iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy neioa?noaa. ?ic?iaeythoueny
e?eoa??? aecia/aiiy oi?i neioa?noaa, iaoiaee ei?aeyoe?? a?oaieia?/ieo
a?oaoaeo?a. A ?acoeueoao? iiyao ?ooeeaiai neioa?noaa iia’ycothoue c
/eiieeaie, ye? ciaoiaeyoue na?e a?aeaeoie o ianooiieo aeaiaioao
eoeueoo?e:

1. Ci?i? iaeaiaaia?ao?/iiai na?aaeiaeua ia oaea, a yeiio iaiiaeeeaa aai
iaeiaoaeoeaia caiyooy caiea?ianoaii ? iaa?oue eiiieaeniei
ainiiaea?noaii.

2. Neeaae inoaieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo iinaeaiue ? iiaeeueiee?a cana?ae/o?
/enaeueio ia?aaaao ae??aii? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, eiiae iaae ?ioeie
aeiiaoi?ie oaa?eiaie.

3. Neeaae cia?yaeue i?aoe?, i?aaeiao?a aeiiaoiueiai aaeeoeo, iiaooo,
oa?aeoa? iinaeaiue ? iioiaaiue, iia’ycaieo ia?aaaaeii c? neioa?noaii.

4. Iayai?noue iioiaaiue c eie?niei o?ainii?oii.

5. I?enooi?noue a eo?aaiieo iioiaaiiyo ae?oae, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
?ooeea?noue ia eeoa ianooo?a, aea ? ?oi?o n?iae.

Oaaaa aeine?aeiee?a cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia nenoai? aeao?i?oe?e neioa?noaa.
(Ia?eia, 1981; Aiae?eaiia,1982; Neiaeia, 1982; Naiaiia, 1982;
Oaieeaaeca, 1982). Nooue i?iaeaie iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeineoue /anoi
??ci? oeie neioa?noaa iicia/athoueny iaeiei oa?i?iii ? iaaiaee
(Ie?ooiyi, 1972). Aei oiai ae aoiia?aoaie oe?eeii i?aaii??ii ?yae oei?a
neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?iciiae?eaii ia i?aeoeie, a?eueo?noue c yeeo
a?oaieia?/ii, iiee ui, iai?inoaaeothoueny. I?iiiiothoueny iaai?
iaoiaeeee ei?aaoaaiiy aoiia?ao?/ieo noai c o?aooaaiiyi a?oaieia?/ieo
aeaea?ae (Eooie?, 1990).

Ia iaioa i?iaeai o aea/aii? in?eiai caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ae?oai? iieiaeie ?? oen. aei i.a. A?eueo?noue
aeine?aeiee?a aecia? eiai ye caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueeei, i???ioiaaiei,
ia?aaaaeii, ia caiea?ianoai. (E?eaoeiaa-A?aeiaa, 1955; *a?aaeie/aiei,
1986; Oa?aoooaeeiiaa, 1986; Io?iuaiei, 1986; 1991; *a?iyeia, 1985).

Oaeei /eiii, aeiiii?ea ianaeaiiy noaiiai? ciie I?ai?/ii — Cao?aeiiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y aeiae aiaie?oo — a?iice a niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo??
ioe?ith?oueny iaiaeiicia/ii. Iaea?eueo aeeneon?eieie ? ieoaiiy
aecia/aiiy oi?i ? oei?a neioa?noaa oa c’ynoaaiiy iiaeaeae ?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, a oaeiae i?e/eie ? iaoai?cie o?ainoi?iaoe??
ainiiaea?nueeeo oeeaae?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? « Aoii — ?noi?e/ia neooaoe?y a ?aa?ii?»
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aoi?/ia neooaoe?y a oiiaao yei? oi?ioaaeeny
a?aeiia?aei? ainiiaea?nuee? nenoaie oa iniaeeaino? iiaooo.

Oi?ioaaiiy aoiin?a a noaiia?e cii? ?, cie?aia, a I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio
I?e/i?iiii?’?, o?eaaei aeiaaee /an. Nai?ie aeoieaie aiii nyaa? a /ane
i?ciueiai iaeaie?oo, aea /?oei i?ine?aeaeothoue oi?ioaaiiy ie?aieo
aoii?noi?e/ieo ni?eueiio. (Noaiei, 1982). O iiaeaeueoiio, i?ioean
aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo noa? aeeiai?/iei, iaoiiaeth?oueny ci?iaie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ye? ni?eyee i?a?aoe?eiei oa
o?ainoi?iaoe?eiei i?ioeanai (Noaiei, 1992).

Iineeaiiy i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a o iiaeaeueoiio ni?eyei aeineoue
oaeaee?e ci?i? aoi?/ii? neooaoe?? a ?aa?ii?. A ??? oen. aei i.a. a
noaie I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y i?iieeathoue c i?aii/?
caiea?ianuee? ieaiaia o?ei?eueoe?a, ye? a iiaeo ee?iaoe/ieo oiiaao
?acii c i?noeaaei neioa?nueeei ianaeaiiyi ooai?ththoue iiao aoi?/io
ni?euei?noue — onao?anueeo. Caiaeii onao?anueea ianaeaiiy noa?
iani?iiiaeiei no?eioaaoe i?iieeiaiiy a eiai na?aaeiaeua neioa??a. Naia
ia oe?e ci?oai?e iniia? caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueei? onao?anueei? c
eoeueoo?ith noaiiaiai neioa?nueeiai ianaeaiiy oi?io?oueny iiaa aoi?/ia
ia’?aeiaiiy i?ae iacaith “aoaeaeaoeueea eoeueoo?a” c niaoeeo?/ieie
aeaiaioaie iaoa??aeueii? ? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e.

A ?? oen. aei i.a. a?oaieia?/ii o?eno?oueny i?iieeiaiiy a na?aaeiaeua
aoaeaeaoeueeiai ianaeaiiy noi?iii?o aoi?/ieo aeaiaio?a oaeiae neioa??a —
iin??a eaoaeiiaii? eoeueoo?e. Eaoaeiiaieee ia ni?e/eieee a eoeueoo?? ?
ainiiaea?noa? ianaeaiiy ?aa?iio ia oa ui ea?aeeiaeueieo, a iaa?oue
iii?oieo ci?i. A?eueo oiai, eaoaeiiaia ianaeaiiy i?iieea? ia o an?
?aeiie I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y. Aea naia a oaeiio eoeueoo?iiio
? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio na?aaeiaeu? iinooiiai oi?io?oueny ianooiia
eoeueoo?a aaaaoii?oaeeiai? ea?ai?ee, iin?? yei? ? iauaaeeaie
aoaeaeae?aoe?a.

Ianaeaiiy eoeueoo?e aaaaoii?oaeeiai? ea?ai?ee i?iaeiaaeoaaei caeiaoenue
o?aaeeoe?eiei aeey ?aa?iio neioa?noaii. Oeae ia??iae ? ia?aeaiiei a
?icaeoeo ia?a?nii? aeiiii?ee; a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ai???ioaoe?y ianaeaiiy
a?ae ?ooeeaiai neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aei in?eiai caiea?ianueei —
neioa?nueeiai.

Ci?ia oeeaaeo aeeooy i?eaaea aei ??ceiai ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino?
iinaeaiue ? ni?aiaea c iiyaith iin??a iiai? naaaoei?anueei? eoeueoo?e.

A o?aaeeoe?yo naaaoei?anueei? eoeueoo?e a?ae ?? iiia?aaeieoe?
caeeoeeenue oiiia?ao?y iinaeaiue, aeei?enoaiiy oaoiieia?? nii?oaeaeaiiy
aeeoae ? ainiiaea?nueeeo i?ei?uaiue (eai’yi? ? aeeiiaeoi?), ni?euei?
?ene a iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae?, oniaaeeoaaiiy i?oaeeiai? i?iaiaioaoe??
iinoaeo oa aeayeeo eiai oi?i (Oa?aoooaeeiiaa, 1986). Aanue /an naiai
?nioaaiiy ? iniaeeai a O???-O?? no. aei i.a., naaaoei?aoe? ciaoiaeeeenue
a noai? aeeiai?/ieo eiioaeo?a c non?aei?ie ieaiaiaie. Aca?iia?aeiineie,
ia?aaaaeii /a?ac aeiiii?/i? oa eoeueoo?ii — iiaooia? ca’ycee, aoee
iano?eueee aeoeaieie ? noaa?eueieie, ui a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao i?eaiaeeee
aei noe?aiiy aoi?/ieo iciae, cie?aia o naaaoei?aoe?a ? iin??a eoeueoo?e
Iioa.

A O?? no. aei i.a. naaaoei?anueea eoeueoo?a iinooiiai ia?a?inoa? a
a?eica?nueeo, oi/a ia oi?ioaaii? inoaiiuei? iicia/eany aieea ?, cie?aia,
o?ae?enueeiai ianaeaiiy (Iiaeeiaa, 1976, Iaetheiaa, 1979).

Ioaea, aoii?noi?e/ia neooaoe?y a ?? oen. aei i.a. i?aaenoaaey?oueny
aeineoue aeeiai?/iith. Ci?ie a?aeaoaathoueny ia iniia? ?icaeoeo
i?noeaaeo eoeueoo? ? aca?iiae?? c eoeueoo?aie ianaeaiiy i?eeaaeeo
iaeanoae. O?ainoi?iaoe?y iaeieo eoeueoo? a ?io? a?aeaoaaeanue ia oii?
oniaaeeoaaiiy i?noeaaeo o?aaeeoe?e, cie?aia a aeeoeiaoae?aieoeoa?,
ainiiaea?noa?, aeooiai?e eoeueoo??. Aiie caa??aaeenue, caaaa/oaaeenue ?
ci?ithaaeenue, caaacia/oth/e iinooiaeueiee ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa.

?ICAe?E ??. AINIIAeA?NUeEI-IIAOOIA?

EIIIEAENE.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ainiiaea?nueei-iiaooia? eiiieaene,
c’yniaothoueny oaoiieia?y aoae?aieoeoaa, ieaioaaiiy iinaeaiue, aeeoeiaeo
oa ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae, ieoaiiy ?iciiae?eo i?inoi?o aeeoae,
aeyaeythoueny ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ainiiaea?nueei-iiaooiaeo
eiiieaen?a.

Aeaea?aeueio iniiao aeey aea/aiiy aeeoeiaeo ? ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae
ia??iaeo ?iciaaeo ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa noaiiaeyoue
ainiiaea?nueei-iiaooia? eiiieaene iinaeaiue ??cieo eoeueoo?, ui ?nioaaee
ia oa?aiao I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie. Iinaeaiue ia?oi? iieiaeie ?? oen
aei i.a. a noaiiaiio aoai-aei?no?ianueeiio iaaee??//? a?aeiii aeecueei
30. Caeeoai? aiie ianaeaiiyi eoeueoo?e aaaaoii?oaeeiai? ea?ai?ee oa
eiioeaio?othoueny ia?aaaaeii a Iiaoaeae?. Ia aeayeeo c ieo i?iaiaeeeenue
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeieeaie i?aee?aneth?oueny i?iaeiaaeaiiy
ianaeaiiyi o?aaeeoe?e eai’yiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a noaio, oniaaeeiaaii?,
cie?aia, a?ae yiieo ieaiai Iiaei?i?ia’y (Ieoaee?anueea iinaeaiiy).

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? ?? oen. aei i.a., eiee caiea?ianoai aac?icae?eueii
aeii?io? a iaaee??//? I?aaeaiiiai Aoao ? Aei?no?a oa a
Aei?no?i-Aeoiaenueeeo noaiao, noai?th?oueny aonoa ia?aaea iino?eieo,
aeiaaio?eaaeeo iinaeaiue.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea aeeoae.

Ia naaaoei?anueeeo iinaeaiiyo a?aeii? aeae?eueea oei?a i?ei?uaiue.
Iai?eeeaae, a I?aaeaiiioe?a?inuee?e a?oi? ?o o?e: iacaiiee caaeeaeaiee,
iai?acaieyii/iee.

Nii?oaeaeoaaeenue aiie ooo ia?aaaaeii c eaiaith, ui ? o?aaeeoe?eiei aeey
oe??? i?noeaaino?, aaeaea a ?iaoeaoeueei — Oee?aoeuenueeiio ?aa?ii?
eai’yia aeeoeiaoae?aieoeoai neeaaea? 70% (Eethoeioeaa, 1995).

I?eii?nueea ciia aoai-aei?no?ianueeiai iaaee??//y i?aaenoaaeaia ?yaeii
aeine?aeaeaieo iinaeaiue, na?aae yeeo aeae?ey?oueny iinaeaiiy Ai?ii?aea
??. Ai?ii?anueeee eiiieaen neeaaeaany c iai?acaieyiie oa iacaiieo
nii?oae aeaio a?oi — iai?acaieyiie ? iacaiieo i?ei?uaiue.

AEeoea oa ainiiaea?nuee? nii?oaee a?eica?nueeiai ianaeaiiy (ia?aaaaeii
iai?acaieyiee) nii?oaeaeoaaeenue c ??cieo iaoa??ae?a: eaiaith, aeeie c
aeei?enoaiiyi aea?aaa.

AEeoeia? nii?oaee.

Iacaii? nii?oaee. Eai’yi? nii?oaee. Aoae?aieoeoai oaeeo i?ei?uaiue
?icii/eiaeinue c ae??aithaaiiy iaeaeai/eea i?ae nii?oaeo. iniaeeai, eiee
iinaeaiiy ?ici?uoaaeinue ia noee?. Nii/aoeo ?ici?/aeenue eiioo?e
iaeaooiuei? nii?oaee (Aiea?aae) ? caeeaaeaany, a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao,
ooiaeaiaio ?c cae/aeiiai eaiaith aai c aaeeeeo, aa?oeeaeueii iinoaaeaieo
aaiiyeiaeo ieeo (*a?aae/ia) (*a?iyeia, 1985). Ia iinaeaii? Eaii?ae?aea,
iai?eeeaae, no?ia neeaaeaeany c aeaio ?yae?a, a na?aaeeia i?ae ieie
caaooiaoaaeanue ae??aiei eai?iiyi (Iia?aaiaa, 1960). Eai?iue a no?iao
eeaany “a ia?aa’ycue”, “a noee”, “???aaoey?ii”. Ca’ycoth/ei iaoa??aeii
aoea aeeia /e /i?iicai. ?ieiee u?eeie i?ae eai?iiyi caaooiaoaaeenue
uaaiai, a ciai? no?ie e??ieeenue aaeeeeie ieeoaie /e eiio?aoi?naie
(*a?iyeia, 1985). No?ie aoee eai’yieie ia anth aenioo, aai caiaeeeenue
ia 0,7 — 1,5 i. Aa?oiy /anoeia a oaeeo nii?oaeao neeaaeaeany c
aea?aa’yiiai ea?eano ? iaiacoaaeany aeeiith aai caieath (Ao?aeia, 1961).
Aeao aoa ye iaeiineaoiei, oae ? aeaioneaoiei.

I?aeeiaa aoea caieyiith, aeia?a ao?aiaiaaiith, ?iiae? iineiaeanue
i?neii, ye ia iinaeaii? *a?aae/ia (*a?iyeia, 1985).

Iacaii? eai‘yi? nii?oaee ?nioaaee ia iinaeaiiyo aeiae na?aaeiuei? oa
i?ciuei? a?iice, ?icii/eiath/e a?ae XV aei e?ioey O?? no. aei i.a.

Iaeaeuiai naiai ?icaeoeo o naaaoei?aoe?a a O??? no. aei i.a. c?inoath/e
ia o?aaeeoe?yo, caniiaaieo noaiiaei ianaeaiiyi, cie?aia yiii? eoeueoo?e.

Ea?eanii — noiaiia? nii?oaee. Oeae oei nii?oae ia ? oa?aeoa?iei aeey
anueiai ?aa?iio noaiiaiai I?ai?/ii — Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y.
Iaea?eueoa ?iciianthaeaeaiee a?i na?aae ianaeaiiy naaaoei?anueei? oa
a?eica?nueei-ooaei?ianueei? (aaeonueeee aa??aio) eoeueoo? i?ai?/ieo
?aeii?a noaiiai? ciie oa e?ninoaio.

Naaaoei?anuee? aeeoea iaee i?yiieooio oi?io, aeeiiaeoi? no?ie a iniia?
yeeo aoa ieaoaiee ea?ean /e aaeueee. Aeao oaeeo nii?oae neeaaeaany c
aea?aa’yieo eiino?oeoe?e ? iie?eaaany caa?oo o?aaith.

I?aeeiaa aeeoea aoea caieyiith, i?noeyie iaiaeaiith.

Caaeeaeai? nii?oaee. Aei oeio caaeeaeaieo nii?oae a?aeiinyoueny caieyiee
oa iai?acaieyiee. sse oei aeeoea aiie ?nioaaee ia?aaaaeii c O?? no. aei
i.a. o ianaeaiiy a?eica?nueei — ooaei??anueei? eoeueoo?e. An?
a?aeii? caaeeaeai? nii?oaee ?iciiae?eythoueny ia e?eueea oei?a.

Aei ia?oiai a?aeiinyoueny iai?acaieyiee, nii?oaeaeai? aac aeei?enoaiiy
eaiaith. Oea aoa eioeiaai i?yiieooii? oi?ie aeeaeiith a?ae 30 aei 135
ni. Iacaiia /anoeia iiaea iaoe no?ie aai eeoa ia?ae?eaaeanue aeaoii.

An? iai?acaieyiee iaeiie?iiaoi?, ia iaee aioo??oi?o ia?aai?iaeie, oi/a
oiiaii ?iciiae?eyeenue ca?aeii c ainiiaea?nueei-iiaooiaei aeei?enoaiiyi.
A oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei?, ye i?aaeei, ciaoiaeeeinue aiaieua e?oaei?
oi?ie, ooai?aia c ae??aieo eai?ioe?a, iaiacaieo caa?oo aeeiith, ?
iaiaeaia. I?ae no?iaie ii ia?eiao?o aeeoea ciaoiaeeeenue iaaaee/e?
ainiiaea?nuee? yie aeey caa??aaiiy i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy oa yie aeey
onoaiiaee ai?uee?a. Iaee i?noea ? caieyi? onooie, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
ye e?aeei.

Ae?oaee oei iai?acaieyiee — oea aeeoea, eioeiaaie yeeo iaeeaaeaeenue
eaiaiai. Ia iinaeaii? Ai?ii?aea ??. aiie iaee i?yiieooio oi?io, ieiuo
a?ae 14,5 aei 59 ea.i., aeeaeio aei 1 i. No?ie oaeeo i?ei?uaiue
iaeeaaeaeeny eai?iiyi na?aaei?o ?ici???a ? ieeoaie.

Ainiiaea?nuee? nii?oaee

Aea/aiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae iinaeaiue I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y ae?oai? iieiaeie ?? oen. aei i.a. ca a?aeii aeaea?ae
?icii/aeinue ii??aiyii iaaeaaii. Oiio ua ia aecia/ai? /?oe? e?eoa???
uiaei ?iciiae?eo i?ei?uaiue, ia iinaeaiiyo.

Ainiiaea?nuee? nii?oaee ia iinaeaii? Ai?ii?aea ?? — iacaiiiai oeio,
iaaaeee? ca ieiuath, caoaeiaai? c eaiaith a iaeei-aeaa ?yaee. Aiie
ieae/? a?ae aeeoea, iaei??th /e aeaiia no?iaie i?e?aeioaaeanue aei
iai?acaieyiee, iaee ao?ae /e oi cciai?, /e c aeeoea. Aeao aoa
iaeiineaoiei. I?aeeiaa — caieyiith. Aioo??oiy ieiua i?ei?uaiiy ia
?iciiae?eyeanue.

Aei eaoaai??? ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae a?aeiinyoueny ? yie. Ca
i?ecia/aiiyi aiie ?iciiae?eyeenue ia noiaeua ca?ia oa ?ioeo i?iaeoeo?a,
neeaaeoaaiiy iiiaeo, iiaooiaeo a?aeoiae?a, ?ici?uaiiy aaeeeiai ?ici??o
ai?uee?a. Ca oi?iith yie aoee oeee?iae?e/ieie, aecaiiiiiae?aieie oa
iaaeueieie. An? aiie aeeiioaaeenuea noaeeieo. ssie — noiaeua iaee
aocueea ai?ei (aeecueei 0,5 i.) oa i?inoi?? aioo??oi? aiee (aei 4 i.
caaoe?oee), aeeaeiith nyaaee aei 1,5 i. ssie aeey neeaaeoaaiiy iiiaeo oa
iiaooiaeo a?aeoiae?a iaee iaio? ?ici??e. ?ieiee aeey oeeo iio?aa
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a?aeneoaeeao? na?e oa?i?i ca?iia? yie.

?ici?uaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo yi aecia/aeinue ?o ooieoe?iiaeueiei
i?ecia/aiiyi. Ca?iia? yie ciaoiaeeeenue aaciina?aaeiuei a?ey aeeoae,
iaiiaeae?e aoee ? iiaooia?. Iii?euei? ?ici?uoaaeenue ye a aeeoe?, oae ?
ca eiai iaaeaie. I?ae no?iaie aeeiioaaeenue iaaaee/e? yie (aeeiiai? ia
iieiaeio aenioe ai?ueea — ei?/aae) aeey o?enaoe?? iinoaeo.

Ainiiaea?nueei-iiaooia? eiiieaene

AEeoeia? oa ainiiaea?nuee? nii?oaee ?acii ooai?thaaee ainiiaea?nueei —
iiaooia? eiiieaene. A I?ai?/ii — Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’? a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? ?? oen. aei i.a. ?nioaaei i?eiaeii? o?e oeie oaeeo eiiieaen?a.

Ia?oee aeaoo?oueny na?aaeeiith ?? oen aei i.a. Aei iueiai a?aeiinyoueny
eai’yi? aeeoea iacaiiiai oeio, ye? neeaaeaeeny c iaeiiai aai aeae?eueeio
i?ei?uaiue, ?iciiae?e yeeo ia aeeoeia? ? ainiiaea?nuee? ia iniia?
iayaieo iaoa??ae?a iiee ui c?iaeoe ia aaeaeiny. Ie?aieo ainiiaea?nueeeo
i?ei?uaiue, ye? iiaeia aoei a iia’ycaoe c eiie?aoiei aeeoeii, ia
cao?eniaaii.

Ae?oaee ? o?ao?e oeie cao?eniaaii ia iai’yoeao caeeth/iiai aoaio aeiae
a?iice. Ainiiaea?nueei — iiaooiaee eiiieaen c iinaeaiiy Ai?ii?aea ??
neeaaeaanyc aeeoea oa iaeiiai /e aeae?eueeio ainiiaea?nueeeo i?ei?uaiue.
AEeoei neeaaeaeiny c ao?aeiiai i?ei?uaiiy iacaiiiai oeio, yea aeeiioaaei
ooieoe?th n?iae. N?ie ? i?ei?uaiiy aeey iiiaoeaiiy c’?aeioaaa ei?eaei?.
A?i aoa ia caaaeaee i?yiee, aea aocueeee ? aeiaaee, ui ni?eyei
caa?aaeaiith oaiea. E?iiaoa aeey iiiaoeaiiy i?inoi?a, aac aoaeue — yeeo
aioo??oi?o ia?aai?iaeie. A no?iao iiaee aeaooiaoaaoenue eai’yi? yueee
aeey ainiiaea?nueeeo iio?aa. Ainiiaea?nuee? nii?oaee iacaiiiai oeio
aoee cia/ii iaioeie ca ?ici??aie ? i?eaoaeiaoaaeenue aei iiiaoeaiiy c
aie?a.

O?ao?i ? oei ainiiaea?nueei — iiaooiaiai eiiieaeno iinaeaiue
Aoaeaeaoeueeiai noaio. Ia iinaeaii? I?eica?ia ? a?i neeaaeaany c aeeoea
oa ca?iiaeo yi. AEeoei a aeaeyae? iai?acaieyiee niieo/oaaeinue c
ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai oaeiae /a?ac caaeeaeaiee ei?eaei?, ?iiae? aac
iueiai. Ao?aeiiai i?ei?uaiiy ia ?nioaaei. Aoaeue-yeeo ainiiaea?nueeeo
nii?oae a?ey aeeoea /e ia a?aenoai? a?ae iueiai, e??i ainiiaea?nueeeo yi
ia ciaeaeaii. Eiioeaio?aoe?y ?o aaciina?aaeiuei iiaeeco i?ei?uaiiy
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui yie a?aeiineeenue aei eiie?aoiiai aeeoea,
noai?thth/e, oaeei /eiii ainiiaea?nueei-iiaooiaee eiiieaen (Eooie?,
1994).

Aeai?e. I?ae iiaooiai-ainiiaea?nueeeie eiiieaenaie Ai?ii?aee ?? ?nioaaea
a?eueia a?ae caaoaeiae ieiua, yea iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey
ainiiaea?nueeeo iio?aa ?, oaeei /eiii, oaae aoiaeeea aei
iiaooiai-ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Ieiua iaiaaeoaaeanue c aeaio —
o?ueio aie?a nii?oaeaie, iaea aeaeyae iiaea??’y ? aoea c?o/iei i?noeai
aeey oo?eiaiiy ooaeiae. Oaeeo aeai??a aeine?aeaeaii /ioe?e.

Ae?iaie/? i?ei?uaiiy. Ae?iaie/? i?ei?uaiiy a?aeii? eeoa ia ie?aieo
iinaeaiiyo naaaoei?aoe?a oa o ianaeaiiy eoeueoo?e Iioa (*a?iyeia, 1975).
Iaeia c ieo ciaeaeaia ia iinaeaii? Noaiiaa a Iiaoaeae?. A i?ei?uaii?
ieiuath a?ey 100 ea.i. c i?eno?ieeith ieiuath aeecueei 40 ea.i.
ia?iaeyee oe??o oa aeaioiaeyee e?noyi? cia?yaeaey aeey oe??yiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa (Oa?aoooaeeiiaa, 1979). E??i ie?aieo iaenoa?aiue,
ciaeaeaieo ia iinaeaiiyo Oaoeee ?, Noaiiaa, aeine?aeieeaie
aeae?eythoueny oe?e? ae?iaie/? eaa?oaee (Aeiia?aaeiee Naae) c oe??yieie,
einoa??cieie, a?iicieeaa?ieie iaenoa?iyie (Oa?aoooaeeiiaa, 1989).

Iinaeaiiy oeueiai ia??iaeo ?icaeyaeathoueny ye ?iaeia? iiiaoeaiiy
(Aa?acaineay, 1974). Iaoa??aee Ai?ii?aee ?? aeacothoue ia no?oeoo?o
?iaeiai? i?aai?caoe??, ?ieue ?iaeeie, cie?aia ia ?? aeiiii?/iee noai,
iieacothoue aeiiii?/io a?aeie?aieai?noue eiaeii? n?i’?, ui iaoeaea a
nai?io aeeoe?. Aeaooiaai? a aeeoeao eai’yi? yueee oa ei?eoa aeey
caa??aaiiy i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy eiaeii? ?iaeeie oaeiae
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iaaio ?? aeiiii?/io naiino?ei?noue.

?ICAe?E ???. AINIIAeA?NUeE? NENOAIE

Iaeaiaeieia?/ia neooaoe?y.

Ainiiaea?nuee? nenoaie ianaeaiiy I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie
?icaeyaeathoueny ia oii? ?aeiino?oeiaaii? iaeaiaeieia?/ii? neooaoe??.

Aiae?c i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia noaio c oi/ee ci?o aoaeoeaiino?
?icaeoeo ainiiaea?noaa a a?eueo?e i??? ni?eyee neioa?noao. Iaaeinoaoiy
e?euee?noue aieiae ? iiaae?a — aea? caiaaeoi na?eici? iaaaoeai? ?ene
ee?iaoo iani?eyoeeaeo aeey caiea?ianoaa noai?a (Ieeueeia, 1964). Oa ana
ae ianaeaiiy aiioe a?iice ae?iuoaaei ca?iia? eoeueoo?e.

Neioa?nueea ainiiaea?nueea nenoaia.

Aeaea?aeiciaa/a aaca. Aeaea?aeaie aeey a?aeoai?aiiy neioa?nueei? nenoaie
ainiiaea?noaa a I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’? ? iaoa??aee o?ueio
a?oi.

Aei ia?oi? a?aeiinyoueny inoaieia?/i? iaoa??aee a?oaieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iinaeaiue oa eo?aaiieo iioiaaiue.

Ae?oao a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue cia?yaeaey i?aoe?, i?aaeiaoe iiaooo ?
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e, ye? iathoue i?yia /e iia?aeia a?aeiioaiiy aei
neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ia?o ca ana ?ooeeaiai. A oeth a?oio
aeaea?ae aoiaeoue oa?aeoa? caaoaeiae iinaeaiue oa no?oeoo?o, neeaae
iioiaaeueieo eiiieaen?a.

O?aoth a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue aoiia?ao?/i? aeai?, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? a?oaieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo,
iiaeaethaaiiy nenoai ia?a?niiai neioa?noaa oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oi?i eiai
?icaeoeo (Eooie?, 1991).

Nenoaia neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. A aea/aii? neioa?nueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa iaeiei c aieiaieo ? ieoaiiy eiai noaiiaeaiiy ye nenoaie. A
ia?o?e iieiaei? ?? oen. aei i.a. o ianaeaiiy aoaeaeaoeueei?, eaoaeiiaii?
eoeueoo?e oa eoeueoo?e aaaaoii?oaeeiai? ea?ai?ee neioa?noai aoei
iniiaith aeiiii?ee. Ia oeae /an aiii ?nio? aaea ye noi?iiaaiee,
?icaeiooee ainiiaea?nueeee eiiieaen c i?eoaiaiiith aeey iueiai nenoaiith
oo?eiaiiy oa a?aeoai?aiiy iiaie?a’y ooaeiae, ?ioeie niaoeeo?/ieie
iciaeaie, oa?aeoa?ieie aeey ainiiaea?nueei-eoeueoo?iiai oeio (AEO)
neioa??a-ei/iaee?a.

Aecia/aiiy AEO ei/?aiee?a aeey aeiae aiaie?oo — a?iice
I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y cae?enith?oueny ca ne?aeoth/ith
noaiith:

— ?ooeeaee niin?a aeeooy c a?aeiia?aeieie niaoeeo?/ieie iciaeaie
iaoa??aeueii? ? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e;

— nenoaia ianiaenueie, ui neeaaea?oueny c aenoaineaieo oi?i oo?eiaiiy
oaa?ei ai?iaeiaae ?ieo aai a?eueoi? eiai /anoeie;

— niaoe?ae?ciaaia neioa?noai, yea ? iniiaith ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? ? aieiaiei iinoa/aeueieeii i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy.

?ooeeaee niin?a aeeooy. Iaeiei c eiai iciae ne?ae aaaaeaoe eo?aaiiee
ia?yae iioiaaiiy. Naia eo?aaie c’yaeythoueny ye ?ae?a?eii-?aeaieia?/ia
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ianooo?anueeiai neioa?noaa (Aeaieeaiei, 1974). ?o iiyaa
neio?ii?co?oueny c ca?iaeaeaiiyi ?ooeeaiai neioa?noaa, iia’ycaiiai
c?icaeoeii eiiy?noaa o ianaeaiiy na?aaeiueinoia?anueei? eoeueoo?e. Ia
aeiaaeeiai a Aoaeaeaoeueeiio noaio iaeia c iaeaeaai?oeo iioiaaiue c?
ne?iao?ii, o aeaeyae? cia?aaeaiiy aieiae eiiy, aeaoo?oueny IV oen. aei
i.a. ? na?ae/aiiyi ii/aoeo ia?aeiiiiai iiiaioo a ?noi??? noaiiaiai
ianaeaiiy, oiaoi aeae?eaiiyi ?ooeeaiai neioa?noaa a ie?aio aaeocue
(Aeaieeaiei, Oiaae?e, 1972).

?ioith iciaeith ?ooeeaiai niiniao aeeooy ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iinaeaiue oa
eo?aai?a. Aeey ae?oai? iieiaeie ??? oen. aei i.a. ? ia?oi? iieiaeie ??
oen. aei i.a. a Aoaeaeaoeueeeo noaiao, a iaaee??//? I?aaeaiiiai Aoao ?
Aei?no?a a?aeii? eeoa aeaa iinaeaiiy — Iayee oa Onaoiaa. ?io?
onao?anuee? iai’yoee — eo?aaie. A?aenoaiue a aeanyoee e?eiiao??a i?ae
a?aeiieie iinaeaiiyie ? eo?aaiaie ia aea? i?aenoaa noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
inoaii? nii?oaeaeoaaeenue in?eei ianaeaiiyi. Oa?aeoa?iei a oeueiio
a?aeiioaii? ? iai’yoee iin??a aoaeaeaoeueei? eoeueoo?e. Ia nueiaiaei?
oea aeeeth/ii eo?aaie, a yeeo ciaeaeaii /eiaei na?ae/aiue i?i
?ooeea?noue ianaeaiiy, yea ?o nii?oaeaeoaaei ?, cie?aia, oea caeeoee a
ieo aic?a aai ?o /anoei.

Iayai?noue eo?aaiiiai ia?yaeo i?e a?aenooiino? iinaeaiue — oeiiaa
ea?oeia aeey ia?oi? iieiaeie ?? oen. aei i.a. A aiioo i?ciuei? a?iice
iineeth?oueny ?ieue caiea?ianoaa. Ainiiaea?noai ? iiaoo noathoue
in?eeie. Oaeoe aeacothoue ia a?aeiia?aeio no?ee?noue a ?? oen. aei i.a.
iaaiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae /enaeuei?noth iinaeaiue ? eo?aai?a: a?eueoa
eo?aai?a — iaioa, aai iiaia a?aenooi?noue iinaeaiue, iaioa e?euee?noue
eo?aai?a — aaaaoi iinaeaiue.

Iiae?ai? “eo?aaii? ?aa?iie” iiaee aeieeaoe ye ?acoeueoao
ainiiaea?nueei? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, eiee ianaeaiiy, a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo c
?ooeeaei neioa?nueeei ainiiaea?noaii, eieae?co?oueny a ie?aieo ?aeiiao
noaio. Iaeiei c ieo iiaei aooe Aei?no?i-Aeoiaenueea iaaee??//y ca /an?a
?nioaaiiy ooo Aoaeaeaoeueei? eoeueoo?e.

Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae iaoa??ae?a, iia’ycaieo c ?ooeea?noth, caeiathoue
iioiaaiiy c aicaie, aai ?o /anoeiaie. Oeae aeae o?ainii?oo aeiee
aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? ?ooeeaiai niiniao
aeeooy. Aice aeey ?ooeeaeo neioa??a aoee aeeoeii ia noiyieao ? i?ae /an
ei/oaaiiy, ? caniaii aeey ia?aaacaiiy iaeia, ??cieo aaioaae?a. A oiiaao
noi?iiaaiiai ?ooeeaiai ainiiaea?noaa aice a?ae?a?athoue ia o?eueee
cia/eio ?ieue a ae?iaieoeoa?, aea e noathoue iaaiei aeooiaiei neiaieii a
iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae?. Ia aeiaaeeiai a?eueo?noue iioiaaiue c o?ainii?oii
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny eeoa eieanaie, ??aeoa /anoeiaie aic?a ? cian?i
??aeei oe?eeie aicaie. Aeei?enoaiiy eie?niiai o?ainii?oo a ia?yaeiae?yo
? iane?aeeii o?eaaeiai ?nioaaiiy ae?iaie/i-iiaooiai? i?aeoeee.

Nenoaia ianiaenueie. Nenoaia ianiaenueie — oe?iea iiiyooy. Aiia
ianeoaiao? an? oi?ie neioa?noaa a?ae i?enaeeuiiai aei ei/iaiai.
Oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ianiaenueie caeaaeeoue a?ae ??cieo /eiiee?a ?, ia?o
ca ana a?ae ee?iaoe/ieo oiia ?, ianaiia?aae, a?ae ?ai?iaeoeoeaiino?
noaio. Aea, c?aooith, nenoaia ianiaenueie caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio
neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? nioe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? neioa??a, oi/a
inoaii? oaeoi?e ?, a naith /a?ao, iaoiiaeaieie, cia/iith i??ith, oi?iaie
aeiiii?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? ianaeaiiy aei i?noeaaiai i?e?iaeiiai ioi/aiiy.

A I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’? oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ianiaenueie ii/eia?oueny,
iaiaaia, c /an?a iaie?oo (Aeaieeaiei, 1969). O iiaeaeueoiio a aiioo
i?ae? aiia aaeineiiaeth?oueny..

Iiaeaethaaiiy nenoaie ianiaenueie ia?oi? iieiaeie ?? oen. aei i.a.
aaco?oueny ia iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo N.?.?oaeaiei, yeee ?icae?ey?
neioa?noai ia in?ea, a?aea?iia, aai ianiaeuia, iai?aei/iaa oa ei/iaa
(?oaeaiei, 1961).

Ia an? oi?ie neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa iiaeeeai i?ine?aeeoaaoe ia
a?oaieia?/iiio iaoa??ae?, oiio i?iiiio?oueny in?eo ? a?aea?iio oi?io
neioa?noaa, yeui ia aaea?oueny ?o ?iciiae?eeoe, ?icaeyaeaoe i?ae
iacaith “in?ea”. O?eueee c ia?aoiaeii aei iai?aei/iaiai ? ei/iaiai
neioa?noaa a?aeaoaathoueny ci?ie a iaoa??aeuei?e eoeueoo??, ye?
o?enothoueny a?oaieia?/ii. A oaeiio aeiaaeeo, i?e iaiiaeeeaino? ?o
?iciiae?eo, oaea ainiiaea?noai iiaea iaceaaoenue “?ooeeaa” (Eooie?,
1990).

A I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’? nenoaia ianiaenueie ?aeiino?oth?oueny,
cie?aia, ii ?ici?uaiith eo?aai?a. C’yniao?oueny ia??aiii??i?noue ?o
?iciiae?eo ii noaiia?e oa?eoi???.

sse iieaco? ea?oia?aooaaiiy eo?aai?a a iaeiiio c ?aeii?a Aoaeaeaeo
(Oa?ooeinueeee ?aeii), c 234 eo?aai?a 124 ciaoiaeyoueny ia aa?aaao ??/ie
Eiaeeueiee ? *aaa (Eooie?, 1990), ye? iathoue oe?ie? iieie ? ??cio
aenioo aa?aaiaeo noee?a: e?aee — iieiaee, i?aaee aenieee oa e?ooee, c
yeiai ia aeae?eueea e?eiiao??a i?iaeyaea?oueny aeieeia. Naia ooo, ca
aoiia?ao?/ieie aeaieie neioa?? aeaooiaoaaee oei/ania? no?eaeua.
Iaaeiaaeeiai ia aenieiio aa?ac? ciaoiaeeoueny ? a?eueoa eo?aai?a, i?ae
ia i?ioeeaaeiiio iieiaiio. A aeieeiao ??/ie a?eueoa ye?ni?oiai ei?io
aeey oaa?ei. ??/ee aoee iaae?eiei aeaea?aeii ieoii? aiaee ? aiaeiii?a
oaa?ei, i?noeai aeey ?eaieo i?iiene?a (?oaeaiei, 1955; Ieaoiaaa, 1967).
A iieiao ?nioaaee e?au? oiiae aeey caa?aaeaiiy oaa?ei aceieo.

Oiiia?ao?y eo?aai?a ni?aiaaea? c ia?o?ooaie ei/?aie ?ooeeaiai
neioa?nueeiai ianaeaiiy. I?eiaeii? ca oeeie ia?o?ooaie ei/oaaee iiaaeoe?
Aoaeaeaoeueei? i?aee, o iaaee??//? Aeoiath ? Aei?no?a ia ieiu? 150 o 200
aa?no. Ia?o?ooe naciiieo ia?aoiae?a neioa??a i?ieyaaee acaeiaae ??/ie.
Ca e?oi aiie ia?aei/iaoaaee 3-4 ?ace. A?aenoaiue i?ae noiyieaie
neeaaeaea 10-12 aa?no, a i?ae aoeaie — 8-10 aa?no (Gourof, 1916, Eooie?,
1991). Iiae?aiith aei oe??? iiaea aooe nenoaia ianiaenueie ? ia?a?nieo
neioa??a, aaeaea oi?ie oo?eiaiiy oaa?ei i?e aenoaineaiiio neioa?noa?
aecia/aeenue noaiii i?e?iaeieo oiia ? ?nioaaee i?aeoe/ii aac ci?i
o?eaaeee /an.

Niaoe?ae?caoe?y neioa?noaa. Niaoe?ae?ciaaia neioa?noai — iaeia c oiia
?nioaaiiy ?ooeeaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Ia oi?ioaaiiy niaoe?ae?ciaaiiai neioa?noaa aeaco? ?nioth/a
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeae?a oaa?ei a aeiiaoiueiio noaae?. A in?eiio
ainiiaea?noa? iaiaaeai? iiaeeeaino? ca?eueoaiiy iiaie?a’y an?o aeae?a,
oiio ia?aaaaa iaaea?oueny oaa?eiai iaea?eueo i?aeoe/iei — ei?iaai oa
aieai, ye? iiaaii ia?aiinyoue o?eaae? ei/?aee, a a ceiiaee ia??iae ia
caeaoi? aeiaoaaoe ei?i c-i?ae ni?ao. Caoa c oeei aeia?a ni?aaeythoueny
eii?, ye?, aei oiai ae, eaaei aeieathoue cia/i? a?aenoai?. Cia/i?
a?aenoai? caeaoi? aeieaoe ? a?aoe?. A ?acoeueoao?, a in?eiio
eiiieaeniiio ainiiaea?noa? ca /enaeuei?noth ia?aaaaea? aaeeea ?iaaoa
ooaeiaa ? i?aeoeeo?oueny ?icaaaeaiiy naeiae. ?ooeea? neioa??
iaaeathoue ia?aaaao a?aoeyi oa eiiyi. Oaea iniaeea?noue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aeae?a oaa?ei a aeiiaoiueiio noaae? i?ine?aeaeo?oueny ye ca aeaieie
aoiia?ao??, oae ? ca aeaieie a?oaieia??, cie?aia inoaieia?/iiai
iaoa??aeo (Oeeia, 1975). Aeey aiioe aiaie?oo-a?iice oea iaeei c iniiaieo
e?eoa???a aecia/aiiy oeio ainiiaea?noaa. Oae a?aenioie aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae ia aeiaaio?eaaeeo iinaeaiiyo cia/iee. A oie aea /an o ianaeaiiy
“a?aee?eoiai noaio” iaiaeue iinaeaiue, a a neeaae? noaaea ia?aaaaeathoue
a?aoe?, aai eice. Aaea a aiaie?o? ?nio? ?aa?iiaeueia niaoe?ae?caoe?y
ianaeaiiy. A no?aeieo ?aeiiao i?ai?/iii?e/i?iiii?nueeeo noai?a aeii?io?
e?iue, a cao?aeieo — aaeeea ? iaea ?iaaoa ooaeiaa.

AEa?oiaia no?aaa neioa??a a eo?aaiieo iioiaaiiyo oaeiae caeaa?eueoiai
neeaaeaeany c eiiae, aai ae??aii? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae. Aaaaea?oueny, ui
aea?? aea?oiaii? oaa?eie, iiaeeeai, iia’yco?oueny c eoeueoiaeie
o?aaeeoe?yie, a ?eooaeueieie noathoue oaa?eie, ui neeaaeathoue iniiao
neioa?nueeiai ainiiaea?nueeiai oeeaaeo (Aeoo, Oie?aeueiai).

Ia iai’yoeao ae?oai? iieiaeie ?? oen. aei i.a. i?inoaaeothoueny
a?ae/ooi? ci?ie a ni?aa?aeiioaii? oaa?ei a noaae?. A aiioo i?ciuei?
a?iice ianaeaiiy noaiiai? ciie a?aeaea? ia?aaaao aaeee?e ?iaao?e
ooaeia?. A oeae /an ianaeaiiy niaoe?ae?co?oueny ia ?icaaaeaii?
iaei/iaeo aeiiaoi?o oaa?ei.

Caiea?ianueea ainiiaea?nueea nenoaia.

Cia?yaeaey ia?iaee a?oioo.

A?oioiia?iai? cia?yaeaey (iioeee) i?ae?icae?eythoueny ia aeaa oeie: aei
ia?oiai a?aeiinyoueny iioeee c iiia?a/iith iinoaiiaeith ?iai/i? /anoeie
a?aeiinii ioai?o aeey ?oeiyo?. Aei ae?oaiai oeio a?aeiinyoueny iioeee c
i?iaeiaaei?i e??ieaiiyi ?iai/i? /anoe ie aei ?oeiyo?.

E??i iioeee, ianaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaei ? caieaeiiaeee. Oea aoee iaeeoe?
caaoiaoee a?ae 2 aei 4 ni. c caaino?aiith ?iai/ith /anoeiith iaaeueii?
aai e?oaei? oi?ie.

Iioeee ? caieaeiiaeee ni?a?nioaaee aeineoue o?eaaeee /an ye o in?eiai,
oae ? o ?ooeeaiai ianaeaiiy IV-III oen. aei i.a., ui na?ae/eoue i?i
ia?iaeo ianaeaiiyi a?oioo, a, cia/eoue, ? iayai?noue caiea?ianoaa.

*eneaii? oaeoe na?ae/aoue, ui aei ?? oen. aei i.a. a noaio ?nioaaa
aeina?ae ia?iaee caie? ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie, oae ? oyaeiaeie
cia?yaeaeyie caiea?ianoaa.

Cia?yaeaey cai?o ? ia?a?iaee o?iaeath.A?aeiii aeae?eueea oei?a oeeo
cia?yaeue: i?yiieooii? oi?ie c ??aiith ?iai/ith ieiueiith; ??aiith
?iai/o iiaa?oith aea cae?oaeaiith ieaeiueith ieiueiith; /iaiiiiae?aii?
oi?ie.

Ei?enooaaeeny aeaai? caiea?iae nooiaie. Aiie i?ecia/aeenue aeey
?icoe?aiiy ca?ia; aeey a?aeie?aieaiiy ca?ia a?ae iieiae.

A aaeee?e e?eueeino? i?aaenoaaeai? eoeaiiae?ai? ?icoe?aeueieee c eaiaith
oaa?aeeo ii??ae.

Iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieie cia?yaeaeyie i?aoe? aoee na?ie: a?iicia? oa
e?ai’yi?.

Caiea?ianueeee oeeee. Aaniyi? ?iaioe a noaiia?e cii? ?, cie?aia, a
I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’? ii/eiaeeny a aa?aci?. I?ae iin?a
aiooaaeanue oe?eeia aai oi??oiy i?aiea. A?eueo aenieith ?iaeth/?noth
a?aecia/a?oueny oe?eeia, aea ?? i?aeiyooy iio?aaoaaei cia/ieo coneeue ?
/ano, ine?eueee i?aeaioiaea iiey i?ae iin?a iiaeiia aoea caaa?oeoenue
aei ea?oiy. Ae?eyiee, ui oi/a a iaeei ?ac can?aaeenue, oaeia?thaaeenue
??cieie niiniaaie: aeaooiaoaaee no?eea aeiiaoi?e ooaeia? c iiaeaeueoei
?ici?thaaiiyi caie? (Oaaoeia, 1897), oaeia?thaaee ae?eyiee a?eeyi,
??ciiiai?oieie iaoa??aeaie, ui ooai?thaaee ia?aai?e.

Ia i?aeaioiaeaia iiea n?yee ca?ii, cae?eaath/e eiai a?eeyi.
Aenaaeaeoaaee a caieth oaeiae eieinee.

O?iaeae ia ae?eyioe? cae?aee 3-4 ?iee, i?ney /iai ?? caeeoaee.
Iai?aei/ia? iiaaeoe? I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y caeeoaee ?o iacaaaeaee (
Gourof, 1916), in?ea ianaeaiiy — ia 5 ?ie?a (Oaaoeia, 189), aai i?ney
o?ueio ?ie?a n?ao ioaieoe? n?yee y/i?iue, iio?i iiea “a?aeii/eaaei”
(Eaoaiaaa, 1893). Ca?? o?iaeath ca?iiaeo cae?enithaaany na?iaie,
iiaeaie. Ceaioaaee eieinee ? ?oeaie (Eaoii e ae?. 1970; Oaaoeia, 1897),
ine?eueee eieinny ie?a/anoeo ioaieoeue aoei aei?noeei ? eiieei. Eiai
iaiiaeeeai aoei aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye ei?i (ssiooaae/, 1983).

Iiaeaeue ainiiaea?noaa ianaeaiiy aeiae i?ciuei? a?iice. Ia i?ioyc?
aiaie?oo — a?iice a noaiia?e cii? iaee i?noea aeae?eueea nenoai
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy, iniiaieie c yeeo aoee
neioa?nueei — caiea?ianueea ? caiea?ianueei — neioa?nueea.

I?enaeeuieo caiea?ianueeeo ieiu aoei aeinoaoiuei aeey ae?iuoaaiiy
iaiao?aeii? e?eueeino? ca?ia. Iai?eeeaae, 12-13 ?iaeei Ai?ii?aee ??,
Ai?ii?aee ??a i?e oiiaao ia?aeiaiai? nenoaie iiaee can?aaoe ca?iiaeie ia
a?eueoa 50 % ieiu?. Oiaoi, eiaeia ?iaeeia ia?iaeyea aeecueei 1,7 — 1,9
aa. Oaea ii?ia, ca aoiia?ao?/ieie na?ae/aiiyie, ? na?aaeiueith. In?e?
eaeieee Aeoaenueeiai e?ath ia?iaeyee ii 4 aeanyoeie (Oaaoeia,1897),
ee?aece aanaeio ?.*o — 3 aeanyoeie (*a?iae, 1897). Ae?eyiee ?ici??ii a 2
aa aoee na?aaei?ie aeey caiea?ia?a Aooeee (Aiae?aaa, 1959).

Iaoeaioe? Ai?ii?aee, ye ? ianaeaiiy ?ioeo iinaeaiue, ae?iuoaaee ??ci?
aeaee ca?iiaeo, cie?aia. I?e ?? a?iaeaeiino? ioaieoe? — iaeiica?iyiee a
10 oe/aa. (Noieaoia, 1925), c ieiu? a 22 -23 aa. iiaeia aoei cae?aoe 220
— 230 oe. ?ioei aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii oa?/oaaiiy aoei oaa?eiieoeoai.
E?euee?noue ooaeiae a ainiiaea?noa? aecia/aeanue iaiao?aei?noth
caaacia/aiiy i?iaeiaieue/eo ? ae?iaie/eo iio?aa, ? caaaeaee
a?aeiia?aeaea iiaeeeainoyi ei?iiai? aace ?aa?iio. Ianiaeua o??? ae
Ai?ii?aee ?? iiaee ciaoiaeeoenue ia ieiu? 1200 aa. ye? ?iciiae?eyeenue
ia 3-4 ae?eyiee. Aeian oaa?ei ia ieo cae?enithaaany ii /a?c? c iaoith
iaaeaiiy iiaeeeaino? a?aeiiaeaiith ?ineeiiino?.

Ioaea, ia 1200 aa. ai?ii?anueeeo ianiaeu aeei?enoiaoaaeenue eeoa 300 —
400 aa. Ia ieo iiaeia aoei oo?eioaaoe 100-130 aie?a aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae oa eiiae oa aeecueei 200-260 aie?a ae??aii? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeae?a a noaae? iiaei ci?ithaaoenue ? ci?ithaaeinue
caeaaeii a?ae iio?aa ? oiia. Iieiei io?eioaaee a?ae ia iaioa aeaio
o?aoei /enaeueiino? noaaea ei??a, oa eiiae, iaaoeue. Ca aeaieie
aoiia?ao?? noaiia? neioa?? ca ia??iae eaeoaoe?? ooaeiae io?eioaaee: a?ae
ei?iae (7 i?nyoe?a eaeoaoe??) 105 a?aea? iieiea, eiaeee (6 i?nyoe?a) —
54 a?ae?a, a?aoe? — 6 a?aea?.(A?ae?i aei??aith? 30 ooioai, aai 12 ea.
(Eaiaioeaaa, Onothaia, 1975, n.220, 254).

*anoeia iiaie?a’y a in?iiuei — ceiiaee ia??iae caaeaaeanue ia i’yni.
E?euee?noue oaa?ei, i?ecia/aieo aeey oaith aoea iaeneiaeueiith, aea
neeaaeaea ia a?eueoa o?aoeie iiaie?a’y aeey aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ? 50
% aeey ae??aii? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae. Eeoa ca oaeeo oiia aoei iiaeeeaa
iioeiaeueia a?aeoai?aiiy iiaie?a’y. Ioaea, neioa?noai ?nioaaei ye
aaaeeeaa neeaaeiaa eiiieaeniiai ainiiaea?noaa. Noaaea oaa?ei
oo?eioaaeenue iiaeeco iinaeaiue. Aaeeea ? ae??aia ?iaaoa ooaeiaa
caaacia/oaaea iio?aae ianaeaiiy a iieieii?iaeoeoao, oyaeia?e nee?.

Ni?anoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a c ?ioeie, ui
i?iaiaeeeenue aeey noi?aeieo a?oaieia?/ieo eoeueoo?, aoiia?ao?/ieie
niinoa?aaeaiiyie aeyaeythoue ye ni?aiaaeaiiy, oae ? ?ica?aeiino?.
I?e/eie ?ica?aeiinoae iiyniththoueny iniaeeainoyie ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueei? nenoaie, ia yeo aieeaaee ??ci? oaeoi?e. Cie?aia, a
in?eiio ainiiaea?noa? neioa?noai ? caiea?ianoai c ??cieo i?e/ei iiaee
aooe ??aiicia/ieie aai iaeia c ieo iiaei aooe aeii?ioth/ei, ia
ii?oooth/e i?e oeueiio no?oeoo?e ae?iaie/i? nenoaie, oi/a aeaye? ci?ie a
?aoe?ii? oa?/oaaiiy a?aeaoaaeeny: ianoa/a i?iaeoeo?a caiea?ianoaa
eiiiainoaaeanue i?iaeoeoe??th neioa?noaa (oaae. 9) ? iaaiaee. Ia
aeeeth/aii, ui a I?aaeaiii-Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?, a ia??iae, ui
?icaeyaea?oueny, a?aeaoaaeeny oae? i?ioeane. I?eiaeii?, aeaye?
?ica?aeiino? a ni?aa?aeiioaii? inoaieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a c ??cieo
iinaeaiue iathoue i?noea.

Ioaea, in?ea ainiiaea?noai ianaeaiiy I?ai?/ii — Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y
a ae?oa?e iieiaei? ?? oen. aei i.a. i?aaenoaaey?oueny aeinoaoiuei
?icaeiooei. Aiii aoei eiiieaeniei, aacoaaeinue ia neioa?noa? oa
caiea?ianoa?, ye? aei oeueiai /ano i?ieoee iaaiee oeyo ?icaeoeo a
iniaeeaeo oiiaao noaio ? caaacia/oaaee ianaeaiiy iaiao?aeiith
i?iaeoeoe??th.

Aeiiii?aei? aeaee ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

A ?? oen. aei i.a. neioa?noai oa caiea?ianoai a I?aaeaiii-Cao?aei?e
Oe?a?i? neeaaeaee iniiao aeiiii?ee ianaeaiiy ?aa?iio, iicaye ?io? aeaee
ae?yeueiino?, ye? i?iaeiaaeoaaee a?ae?a?aaaoe, oi/a ? ae?oai?yaeio, oa
ana ae aaaeeeao ?ieue, ?icaeyaeathoueny ye aeiiii?aei?. Ca oa?aeoa?ii ?
niaoeeo?eith aeiiii?aei? aeaee ae?yeueiino? ?iciiae?eythoueny ia aea?
a?oie. Aei ia?oi? a?aeiinyoueny o?, ye? aeiiiaithaaee ?
o??ciiiai?oithaaee oa?/iaee ?aoe?ii. Oea ieneeanoai, ?eaaeuenoai,
cae?aeueieoeoai. Ae?oaa a?oia neeaaeaeanue c aeae?a ae?yeueiino?
ae?iaie/i — ?ai?nie/iai oa?aeoa?o. Oea, ianaiia?aae, ae?iaieoeoai
ea?ai?/iiai iinoaeo, oeaoeoai, eeaa?ieoeoai, eai’yia oa e?noyia
ae?iaieoeoai, ia?iaea aea?aaa, oe??e, oeooy iaeyao oa acoooy.

AENIIAEE.

Aea/aiiy ainiiaea?noaa oa iiaooo ianaeaiiy aeiae a?iice, na?ae/eoue, ui
noai I?aaeaiii — Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie a ?? oen. aei i.a, aoa ciiith
aeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo neioa?noaa ? caiea?ianoaa. Caiea?ianueei-neioa?nuee?
o?aaeeoe??, caii/aoeiaai? a iaie?o?, ?icaeaaeenue ? caaaa/oaaeenue a
IV-III oen. aei i.a. Ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie neioa?noaa, yea aaea ia oie /an
noi?ioaaeinue a ainiiaea?nueei-eoeueoo?iee oei ei/?aiee?a, iaeiae, ia
aeo?nieei caiea?ianoai a noaiia?e cii?. Aiii caa?aaeinue a aeieeiao
??/ie Aei?i?a, I?aaeaiiiai Aoao, Aei?no?a oa Aeoiath. A e?ninoaio ae
caiea?ianoai caeeoaeinue iniiaith eiiieaeniiai ainiiaea?noaa. A oaeeo
oiiaao a ?? oen. aei i.a. caoeoathoue i?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane, oi?io?oueny
ia iniia? ye i?noeaaiai, oae ? i?eeoeiai ianaeaiiy, aeineoue i?oeiee
aoi?/iee ianea iin??a Aoaeaeaoeueei? eoeueoo?e, ye? ia eeoa aeo?eiaee ?
i?eieieee ?io?eueo?aoe?th ianaeaiiy eaoaeiiaii? eoeueoo?e, aea e
cae?enithaaee na?e aieea ia non?aei? ianaeaiiy. Noaa?euei?noue a ?aa?ii?
ni?eyea oni?oiiio ?icaeoeia? aeiiii?ee, yea iiaie? iaae?aea ana a?eueoa
iciae ia oa?aeoa?ieo aeey neioa?nueeiai oeeaaeo.

A oiiaao a?eaeecaoe?? noaio neioa?noai, a ?acii c iei ? iiaoo ianaeaiiy,
noathoue ?ooeeaeie, oi/a caiea?ianoai ? a oeae ia??iae ia cieea?.

C na?aaeeie ?? oen. aei i.a. c iinooiiaei caieiaeaiiyi ee?iaoo c?inoa?
?ieue caiea?ianoaa, yea c ae?oai? iieiaeie oeny/ie?ooy ia aoai? ?icaeoeo
naaaoei?anueei? eoeueoo?e noa? aeii?ioth/ei. Cieeathoue ?ooeea? oi?ie
ainiiaea?noaa, a ?ieue neioa?noaa noa? yeui ? ia ae?oai?yaeiith, oi ?
ia aeii?ioth/ith. Ooai?th?oueny aeiiii?/iee eiiieaen, a yeiio
caiea?ianoai ? neioa?noai i?aai?/ii aeiiiaiththoue iaeei iaeiiai,
caaacia/oth/e aeeoo?caeaoi?noue noni?euenoaa.

Ci?ith?oueny iiaoo, cieea? ?ooeeaee niin?a aeeooy, cae??ieth?oueny
in?e?noue, yea ni?eyea ao?oeeaiio ?icaeoeia? aoae?aieoeoaa aeeoeiaeo ?
ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae. C’yaeythoueny iiaaoe?? a ieaioaaii? aeeoae,
iinaeaiue, aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ciiiai?oi? aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee:
eai?iue, aea?aai, aeeia oiui.

A inoaii?e /aa?o? oeny/ie?ooy eiiieaenia in?ea ainiiaea?noai aeinyaa?
naiai iaeaeuiai ?icaeoeo. A ?aa?ii? eiioeaio?o?oueny iaaecae/aeii aaeeea
aeey oiai /ano e?euee?noue ianaeaiiy. ?acii c caiea?ianoaii ?
neioa?noaii ?icaeaa?oueny ?aianei, oi?a?aey. Oi?io?oueny nai???aeia
nenoaia i?aai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa o aeaeyae? aeanyoe?a oa?eoi??aeueieo ?
ae??aieo eieaeueieo a?oi. Iaeiae, a e?ioe? oeny/ie?ooy aiii ?oeio?oueny.
Ianoa? nioe?aeueia ? aeiiii?/ia e?eca, a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?aiaa
o?ainoi?iaoe?y eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? o ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

Ainiiaea?noai ? iiaoo ianaeaiiy I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie a aiioo
?iciaaeo ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa.- Iaeana, 1999.

?acaaaeee iaiyoieeia yiioe a?iicu a naaa?iuo ?aeiiao Iaeanneie iaeanoe
// A?oaieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey Naaa?i — Caiaaeiiai I?e/a?iiii?uey.-
E.,1978.

Oi?iu neioiaiae/aneiai oicyenoaa ianaeaiey Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai
I?e/a?iiii?uey a iicaeiai a?iiciaii aaea.- Aeai. a EIEII AI NNN?
14.01.85 a., ? 19261.

Aeiiino?ieoaeueiua eiiieaenu iinaeaiey Ai?iiiaea II // Oac. aeieeaae.
ia?aie iaeanoiie e?aaaaae. eiioa?. “Ainieoaiea enoi?eae”.- Iaeanna,
1989.

I noaiiaeaiee ei/aaie/anoaa a Naaa?i — Caiaaeiii I?e/a?iiii?uea //
Enoi?ey e a?oaieiaey Ieaeiaai Iiaeoiaauey.- ?aie, 1989.

I?iaeaiu eieaeecaoeee naaaoeiianeeo iinaeaiee a Naaa?i — Caiaaeiii
I?e/a?iiii?uea.- // I?iaeaie ?noi??? oa a?oaieia?? aeaaiueiai ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?inueei? ?N?.- E., 1989.

. Eniieueciaaiea a?oaieiae/aneeo iaoa?eaeia i?e eco/aiee ia?aiauoiiai
neioiaiaenoaa noaiiie ciiu // I?iaeaiu ia?aiauoiie a?oaieiaee.- Oa?nii,
1990.

Oi?ie?iaaiea oicyenoaa neioiaiaeia — ei/aaieeia a Aeiano?i — Aeoiaeneeo
noaiyo // I?iaeaiu enoi?ee e a?oaieiaee Ieaeiaai Iiaeiano?iauey.-
Aaeai?iae — Aeiano?ianeee, 1990.

Oi?iu neioiaiae/aneiai oicyenoaa ?aieeneie a?oiiu iinaeaiee
naaaoeiianeie eoeueoo?u // Enoi?ey e a?oaieiaey Ieaeiaai Iiaeoiaauey.-
?aie, 1991.

Ienueiaiiua naaaeaiey i neioiaiae/aneii oicyenoaa iiaaeoeaa Naaa?iiai
I?e/a?iiii?uey // Oac. aeiee. aoi?ie iaeanoiie e?aaaaae/. eiioa?ai.,
iina. 200-eaoeth iniiaaiey Iaeannu.- Iaeanna, 1991.

. Iooe ?acaeoey neioiaiaenoaa a Naaa?iii I?e/a?iiii?uea // Ae?aaiaeoea
iauiinoe caieaaeaeueoeaa e neioiaiaeia Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey. V a.
aei i.y. — V oun.i.y. — E.,1991.

Oicyenoaaiiay niaoeeoeea e ?eoiu eoeueoo?iaaiaca // ?eoiu
eoeueoo?iaaiaca.- Iaeanna, 1992.

Oicyenoaaiii — auoiaua eiiieaenu a Naaa?i — Caiaaeiii I?e/a?iiii?uea a
yiioo iicaeiae a?iicu // Ae?aaiaa I?e/a?iiii?uea.- 1994.

I iaoaiecia ia?aoiaea ianaeaiey Naaa?i — Caiaaeiiai I?e/a?iiii?uey io
inaaeeiai oicyenoaa e iiaeaeaeiiio // Ae?aaiaeoea iauiinoe
caieaaeaeueoeaa e neioiaiaeia Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey ( V oun. aei i.y
— V a.i.y.).-Oe?aniieue, 1994.

. Ai?ii?anueeee eiiieaen ? i?iaeaia eieae?caoe?? naaaoei?anueeeo
iinaeaiue // Noa?iaeeoiino? I?e/i?iiii?’y.- Iaeana, 1995.- Aei.1.

Iiaua iaiyoieee yiioe a?iicu e ?aiiaai aeaeaca a iaaeaeo?a/uea THaeiiai
Aoaa e Aeiano?a // Naaa?i-Caiaaeiia I?e/a?iiii?uea a yiioo
ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy.- E.,1980 (A ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.I.Aai/oaiaei).

. Ai?iiiaea II. Iinaeaiea iicaeiaai a?iiciaiai aaea a Naaa?i — Caiaaeiii
I?e/a?iiii?uea.- E.,1991 (A ni?aaaoi?noa? c Aai/oaiaei A.I., Caaeiaeei
A.A., Iao?aieii A.A).

AIIOAOe??

Eooi?? A.A. Ainiiaea?noai ? iiaoo ianaeaiiy I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie
a aiioo ?iciaaeo ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa.- Iiiia?ao?y. Aeena?oaoe?y ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01.- ?noi??y Oe?a?ie.- Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeana, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aea/a?oueny iaeia c iaeiaio aeine?aeaeaieo i?iaeai a
?noi??? I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie — ainiiaea?noai ? iiaoo noaiiaiai ianaeaiiy a
aiioo ?iciaaeo ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa. Ia iniia? ?a/iaeo a?oaoaeo?a,
inoaieia?/ieo, iae?iieia?/ieo aeaea?ae, ?noi?eei — aoiia?ao?/ieo
iaoa??ae?a a?aeoai?ththoueny ainiiaea?nuee? nenoaie, aiae?co?oueny
aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo neioa?noaa ? caiea?ianoaa oa ?o aieea ia
i?aai?caoe?th iiaooo. Aecia/athoueny ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
ainiiaea?noaa oa aeeoeiaoaeoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ainiiaea?nueei-iiaooiaee eiiieaen, ainiiaea?nueea
nenoaia, iiaeaethaaiiy, iaeaiaeieia?y, iiaoo, ?aeiino?oeoe?y, ?ooeeaa
neioa?noai.

Eooie? A.A. Oicyenoai e auo ianaeaiey THai-Caiaaeiie Oe?aeiu a yiioo
?aniaaea ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa. — Iiiia?aoey. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea
iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe
07.00.01. — enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. — Iaeanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao
ei. E.E.Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeanna, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee eco/aaony iaeia ec iaeiaiaa enneaaeiaaiiuo i?iaeai a
enoi?ee THaa Oe?aeiu — oicyenoai e auo noaiiiai ianaeaiey a yiioo
?aniaaea ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa. Ia iniiaa aauaauo a?oaoaeoia,
inoaieiae/aneeo, iaeeiieiae/aneeo enoi/ieeia, enoi?eei — yoiia?aoe/aneeo
iaoa?eaeia ?aeiino?oe?othony oicyenoaaiiua nenoaiu, aiaeece?oaony
aeeiaieea ?acaeoey neioiaiaenoaa e caieaaeaeey e eo aeeyiea ia
i?aaiecaoeeth auoa. Ioia/athony ?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe oicyenoaa e
no?ieoaeuenoaa aeeeeu.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea «Yoii-enoi?e/aneay neooaoeey a ?aaeiia»
?anniao?eaathony aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey yoie/aneeo iauiinoae a
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii I?e/a?iiii?uea, ?iee ianoiuo o?aaeeoeee e aiaoieo
eoeueoo?ii-oicyenoaaiiuo caeinoaiaaiee a yoii i?ioeanna.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea «Oicyenoaaiii-auoiaua eiiieaenu» eco/athony aeeeua e
oicyenoaaiiua nii?oaeaiey. Ioia/athony iniaaiiinoe o?iiieiae/aneiai e
?aaeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, i?ineaaeeaaaony i?aainoaaiiinoue o?aaeeoeee.
Iienuaathony ?acee/iua oeiu aeeeeu e eo ?aeiie?iaaiea. E?iia
oicyenoaaiiuo nii?oaeaiee, oa?aeoa?ecothony i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eiiieaenu,
oicyenoaaiiua i?eno?ieee a aeeeeuao, aeai?u e o.i.

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea «Oicyenoaaiiua nenoaiu» ?aeiino?oe?othony
oicyenoaaiiua iiaeaee. Aiaeece?othony i?iaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiey oi?i
neioiaiae/aneiai oicyenoaa, iiaeaee?oaony
caieaaeaeue/anei-neioiaiae/aneay nenoaia. Ioia/aaony, /oi ia i?ioyaeaiee
II oun. aei i.y. a Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii I?e/a?iiii?uea a ioaeaeueiua aai
ia?eiaeu aeiieie?iaaea neioiaiae/anei-caieaaeaeue/aneay eeai
caieaaeaeue/anei-neioiaiae/aneay nenoaiu. A ia?aie iieiaeia ouny/aeaoey
i?aiaeaaeaei iiaeaeaeiia neioiaiae/aneia oicyenoai, eioi?ia a yoio
ia?eiae auei niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui, aaeaioe?iaaiiui e i?e?iaeiui oneiaeyi
noaie. ?anniao?eaathony iiaeaee ianoaeuiie nenoaiu. A ?aaeiia ia
nouanoaiaaei aeieaia?aiaiiuo iinaeaiee, ?ieue caieaaeaeey auea
iacia/eoaeueiie.

N XIV a. aei i.y. aic?anoaao ?ieue caieaaeaeey. Naaa?i-Caiaaeiia
I?e/a?iiii?uea iie?uaaaony aonoie naoueth aeieaia?aiaiiuo iinaeaiee.
En/acatho aiciiaeiinoe aeey iiaeaeaeiiai neioiaiaenoaa e iii noaiiaeony
inaaeeui. A oneiaeyo inaaeeinoe caieaaeaeea auei iniiaiui aeaeii
eiiieaeniiai oicyenoaa. Ianaeaiea au?aueaaei ianeieueei ni?oia ceaeiauo
eoeueoo?. Aeey ia?aaioee caiee, au?aueaaiey, oai?ee e ia?a?aaioee
o?iaeay iii i?eiaiyei ?aciiia?aciua i?oaeey i?iecaiaenoaa. Oai ia
iaiaa, i?iaeoeou aeeaioiiaiaenoaa a ieuaaii ?aoeeiia ninoaaeyee
cia/eoaeueioth aeieth. A eiioea II oun. aei i.y. aiiaue aic?anoaao ?ieue
neioiaiaenoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oicyenoaaiii-auoiaie eiiieaen, oicyenoaaiiay nenoaia,
iiaeaee?iaaiea, iaeaiyeieiaey, auo, ?aeiino?oeoeey, iiaeaeaeiia
neioiaiaenoai.

Kushnir V.G. Economy and Everyday Life of South-Western Ukraine
Population at the Latest Periods of Prehistory. — Monography.
Dissertation for scientific grade of Candidate of Historical Sciences.
Speciality 07.00.01. — History of Ukraine. — Odessa I.I. Mechnikov State
Univarsity. Odessa, 1999.

One of the most unlighted problems of Southern Ukraine
history — economy and everyday life of steppe population at the latest
periods of prehistory — is discussed in current dissertation. On the
ground of material artifacts, palynological sources, historical and
ethnographic materials reconstruction of economic systems was done,
dynamic of agriculture and cattle-farming was analyzed, their influence
on everyday life organization was discussed. Regional specific of
economy and dwellings construction were marked.

Key words: complexes of economy and everyday life, economic
systems, modelling, paleoecology, everyday life, reconstruction, mobile
cattle-farming.

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