OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO ?ICAAAeAIIss ? AAIAOEEE OAA?EI

Aeaieeaanueeee Ieaenaiae? Ieaen?eiae/

OAeE 636.082.433/088.1

AINIIAeA?NUeEI — A?IEIA?*I? INIAEEAINO? OAA?EI OE?A?INUeEI?
*A?AIII-?ssAI? IIEI*II? II?IAeE

I?AI?*IIAI ?AA?IIO OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue — 06.02.01-?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe?y oaa?ei

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — *oaeinueea, 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee -aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

N??aoeueeee Einei Caiiiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/
eaai?aoi??? ?inoeoooo

?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Iiaeiaa Ai?en ?aaaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? ?inoeoooo ?icaaaeaiiy ?

aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI —

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

Einoaiei Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/,

ia/aeueiee a?aeae?eo oaa?eiieoeoaa,
aaoa?eia?ii?

iaaeeoeeie ? ia?a?iaee i?iaeoeoe?? OAAI

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a aaiaoeee, Eaa?iao I?i?no??a

Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 8 ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.27.355.01. i?e ?inoeooo?
?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI.

Cai?ioo?ii acyoe o/anoue a iaaiai?aii? aeena?oaoe?? aai iaae?neaoe Aao
a?aecea ia aaoi?aoa?ao (a aeaio i?ei??ieeao). Aae?ana ?inoeoooo: 256319,
Ee?anueea iaeanoue, Ai?eni?euenueeee ?aeii, n.*oaeinueea, aoe.
Iia??aiyea, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 5 aa?aciy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe TH. A. I?eue/aiei

20

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
ooaeiae ? ae?iaieoeoaa aenieiye?nieo i?iaeoeo?a oaa?eiieoeoaa aaaaoi a
/iio caeaaeeoue a?ae i?aaeeueiino? ? nai?/aniino? aeei?enoaiiy
aeinyaiaiue aaiaoeee ? naeaeoe??.

I?enei?aiiy i?ioeano i?aeaeuaiiy iioaioe?aeo iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
a cia/i?e i??? ca’ycaia c a?eueo aoaeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiyi e?aueo
na?oiaeo aaiaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a. Aeeeth/ii iiceoeaiei i?eeeaaeii
aaiaoe/iiai aieeao ia iiei/io ooaeiao a aaaaoueio e?a?iao ? oe?iea
aeei?enoaiiy aaiioiiaeo aieooeinueei? ii?iaee, yea ia? iaeaeuee a
na?o? iioaioe?ae iiei/iino?. /D. Minkema / 1980/, E. F.Cunninohama
/1974/, O.E. Ildenbrock /1980/, A. I. Ao?eao /1988/, I. A. Coaaoeue oa
?io? /1990/, 0. ?. I?oaeia, ?. I. Aeoi?i /1992/. Neiaioaeuenueeo ooaeiao
ia *a?i?a?auei? c 70-o ?ie?a ii/aee oaeineiiaethaaoe oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy
ie?aeiee?a iiiaaeuey?aenueei? oa aieooeinueei? ii??ae. Iiiaaeuey?aee
ni?eyee iacia/iiio iie?auaiith i?eaeaoiino? ei??a aei iaoeiiiai aei?iiy.
A iiaeaeueoiio i?ioean oaeineiiaeaiiy neiaioaeuenueei? ooaeiae
i?iaiaeeany ca ?aooiie oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a aieooeinueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? ii?iaee eaiaaenueei? ? aia?eeainueei? naeaeoe?? c iaoith
noai?aiiy iiei/ii? ooaeiae, ye?e i?eoaiaii? aeia?? i’yni? yeino?,
aee?iiiiei/i?noue ? aeniea aaeaioaoe?eia caeaoi?noue aei oiia aiae?ae?
iaoa?einueei? ii?iaee. A ca’yceo c oeei i?iaaaeaiiy ii??aiyeueiiai ?
anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy ainiiaea?nueei-a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oaa?ei
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii — ?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee ??cieo aaiioei?a a oiiaao
*a?i?a?anueei? iaeano? ia? iniaeeaa iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey
oni?oiiai aaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoi? naeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe c oeei ianeaii
ooaeiae. Oea ? aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoea neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ieaio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ?inoeoooo ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI:
» Aeaanoe oa oaeineiiaeeoe oe?a?inueeo /a?aiii-?yao iiei/io ii?iaeo
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a iai?yieo i?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a oeio,
no?eeino? aei caoai?thaaiue ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy naeaeoe?eieo oa
a?ieia?/ieo caoiae?a (1991 — 1995 ??., N aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? UA
01001478?) oa oaie » Eiinie?aeaoe?y iiaiioai?aieo oa aeaaaeaiiy iiaeo
ii??ae ? oei?a aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae iiei/iiai iai?yieo
i?iaeoeoeaiino? c a?eueo aenieei ?? iioaioe?aeii ia iniia? no/anieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoee» (1996-2000?., N aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0196 U
016323).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? o aea/aii?
ainiiaea?nueei — a?ieia?/ieo iciae oaa?ei neiaioaeuenueei? oa
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii??ae ??cieo aaiioei?a. Aeey
aea/aiiy aoee aecia/ai? ianooii? ieoaiiy;

— ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeei?enoaiiy iiiaaeuey?aenueei? oa
/a?aiii-?yai? aieooeinueei? ii??ae a iie?ioaii? neiaioaeuenueei?
ooaeiae;

— iiei/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue, aeeaa iana, aenoa?’??ii — eiinoeoooe?ei?
iniaeeaino?, ??no ? ?icaeoie iieiaeiyea;

— ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? aeanoeaino? aei’y ei??a ??cieo aaiioei?a;

— i’yni? yeino? oaa?ei ??cieo aaiioei?a;

— ca’ycie i?ae ainiiaea?nueeeie ? a?ieia?/ieie aeanoeainoyie oaa?ei
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee ??cieo aaiioei?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueia
aea/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iiiaaeuey?aenueei? ? /a?aiii — ?yai?
aieooeinueei? ii??ae aeey noai?aiiy iiai? oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai?
iiei/ii? ii?iaee ia iniia? neiaioaeuenueei? ooaeiae a oiiaao
I?ai?/iiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie oa ainiiaea?nueei-a?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino?
??cieo ii?aeiaiue oeeo ii??ae.

Aia?oa aecia/aii ca’ycie o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo oa ii?oieia?/ieo
iieaciee?a e?ia? c i?iaeoeoeaieie iciaeaie. Aeyaeaia aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy iii?nieo ie?aeiee?a ia an?o aoaiao aeaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee. I?iaaaeaia ioe?iea ie?aeiee?a ca ye?noth
iauaaee?a, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e oeueiio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oa ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeacothoue ia aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
iiiaa-euey?aenueei? oa aieooeinueei? ii??ae a naeaeoe?ei?e ?iaio? c
neiaioaeuenueeith ooaeiaith aeey oi?ioaaiiy noaae c aenieith iiei/iith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth oa caaeia?eueieie i’ynieie yeinoyie.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue noaee iniiaith iaoeiai — i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, naeaeoe?eieo ieai?a ? i?ia?ai ?icaeoeo iiei/iiai
neioa?noaa a ainiiaea?noaao *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano? ia 1991 — 1995 ??. ?
ia ia??iae aei 2000?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaii?
iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo aenia?eiaio?a, eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, cae?aii?
ia?aeiieo aeaieo i?i iiei/io i?iaeoeoeai?noue, aeeao iano ?
a?ae-oai?thaaeueio caeaoi?noue oaa?ei, aea/aiith a?aeaiae?aaeueieo
yeinoae, ?ioii — aaiaoe/ii? no?oeoo?e, noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee iaea?aeaieo
iaoa??ae?a, oi?ioaaii? iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
ae?iaieoeoao, ui aeieeaathoue c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo ?anioae?eainueeeo ? iaeanieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: » Oai?aoe/i? e i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe
ii?iaeiooai?thaaeueiiai i?ioeano o iiei/iiio oa i’yniiio neioa?noa?
«/Ee?a, 1995/, » Iia? iaoiaee naeaeoe?? ? a?aeoai?aiiy
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ii??ae ? oei?a oaa?ei» / Ee?a, 1996/, ‘’
A?ioaoiieia?/i?, naeaeoe?ei? oa i?aai?caoe?ei? iaoiaee a?aeoai?aiiy,
caa??aaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy aaiioiiaeo oaa?ei » /Ee?a, 1997/, «sse?nia
aaeineiiaeaiiy iiei/ii? ooaeiae» / *a?i?a?a, 1989, 1990/, ia
?anioae?eainueeeo, iaeanieo ? ?aeiiieo nai?ia?ao ii aeaaaeaiith
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee / 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995/,
?icoe?aieo can?aeaiiyo a?aeae?eo ?icaaaeaiiy iiei/ii? ooaeiae oa A/aieo
?aaeao ?inoeoooo ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI. Iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeniiioaaeeny ia aenoaaeao «Aa?i-95»,Aa?i-96″,
«Aa?i-97», «Aa?i-98» a n. *oaeinueea, Ai?eni?euenueeiai ?aeiio
Ee?anueei? iaeano?.

Ioae?eaoe?? Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? a aeo?iaeao,
aoeeaoao, iaoa??aeao ?anioae?eainueeeo oa iaeanieo iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo
eiioa?aioe?e. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 180 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ?ethno?iaaia 41 oaaeeoeath, 10 ?enoieaie. Aiia
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iaoiaeeee ? iaoa??ae?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?acoeueoao?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?co ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiae?a, i?iiiceoe?e
ae?iaieoeoao, nienea e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae. Nienie e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
aeeth/a?300 aeaea?ae, c yeeo 47 ia ?iicaiieo iiaao.

Iaoiaeeea ? iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiue

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue a ieaicaaiaeao «O?inoyiaoeue» ?/iyinueeiai,
«Ie?», » A?ei??/eoeueeee» oa «10-??//y AEiaoiy» I?eeooeueeiai, IC ?i.
O?oica I?aeeinueeiai ?aeii?a ia i?ioyc? 1990 — 1996 ?ie?a. Ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiue aoee oaa?eie neiaioaeuenueei? oa oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii
-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee ??cieo aaiioei?a. Aeo?aoe ei?i?a a IC
«O?inoyiaoeue» oa «10-??//y AEiaoiy» ioaiiaeaee a na?aaeiueiio 55-58
oei. e. iae. ia ei?iao a ??e ? aoee noaa?eueieie ia i?ioyc? ia??iaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a IC «A?ei??/eoeueeee» oa ?i. O?oica aeo?aoe ei?i?a ia
ei?iao a ??e aoee ia??aiii??ieie ? a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaeee 40-50
oei.e.iae.

?aae?caoe?th naeaeoe?eieo iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a i?iaiaeeee ca?aeii
i?ia?aie ? eiioeaioe?? noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii — ?yai? iiei/ii?
ii?iaee. Noaia aeine?aeaeaiue iaaaaeaia ia ?enoieo 1.

??no ? ?icaeoie iieiaeiyea aea/aee oeyoii uii?ny/ieo caaaeoaaiue.
??aaiue iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? aecia/aee uii?ny/ieie eiio?ieueieie
aei?iiyie c iiaeaeueoei ia?a?aooaaiiyi ia 305 aei?a eaeoaoe??. Aei
oaaae a?aeenue oaa?eie, ye? eaeooaaee ia iaioa 240 aei?a. AEeao iano
ei??a anoaiiaethaaee ca ?acoeueoaoaie eiio?ieueiiai caaaeoaaiiy ?ac ia
??e ia i?ci?oa o?aoueiai i?nyoey eaeoaoe??. I?i a?aeoai?thaaeueio
caeaoi?noue ei??a noaeeee ca a?eii ia?oiai ioaeaiiy, i?aeioaeueiiio,
nooino?eiiio oa na?a?n — ia??iaeao ?c canoinoaaiiyi caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo
iaoiae?a. Aenoa?’??i? oa eiinoeoooe?ei? iniaeeaino? oaa?ei aea/aeenue
oeyoii ii??aiyiiy i?ii???a, ?iaeaen?a aoaeiae o?ea ? ieii??ii?
ioe?iee.

Ii?oieia?/i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? aei’y aeine?aeaeoaaee ia
ia?a?noeao ia 2-4 i?nyoeyo eaeoaoe?? a ieaicaaiae? «Ie?» ca iaoiaeeeith,
?ic?iaeaiith Eaoa?enueeith n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeith aeaaeai??th
(1970). Ioe?iea ie?aeiee?a cae?enithaaeanue a ieai?iieo ? aaciaeo
ainiiaea?noaao ca ?ino?oeoe??th aoaoiai INA N?N? («Eiein», 1980).

Aecia/aiiy yeino? iieiea ei??a i?iaiaeeee ca?aeii AINO 13928 -84. Ai?no
aee?o ? a?eea a iieioe? aecia/aee ia i?eeaaeao «I?eei-Oanoa?» oa
«I?eei-Neai». I’ynio i?iaeoeoeai?noue ioe?ithaaee oa eiio?ieuei? caai?
i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith eieeoiueiai A?Oo (1968). O?i?/iee neeaae i’yna
anoaiiaethaaee ca aaaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeeeaie.

E?ia aeey aeine?aeaeaiue a?aee c y?aiii? aaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiioaaeenue o iaeani?e aaoeaai?aoi??? i. *a?i?aiaa ? A?iaa?nuee?e
iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e eaai?aoi??? ?ioiiaaiaoeee ca?aeii caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo
iaoiaeee.

Ia?iaeo iaoa??ae?a i?iaiaeeee ia IAII oa i?e?ieaeueeoeyoi?? IE — 61
a?aeiia?aeii c iaoiaee/ieie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie, ?ic?iaeaieie a ?inoeooo?
?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI.

?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue

??no ? ?icaeoie ?aiiioieo oaeeoeue ??cieo aaiioei?a

Aaaaoi a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo aea/eaoe ?acoeueoaoe
no?auoaaiiy neiaioaeuenueeeo ei??a c aeeaie /a?aiii-?yai? aieooeinueei?
ii?iaee a ??cieo ?aa?iiao, a?aei?/aee, ui iii?niee iieiaeiye
ia?iaeaeo?oueny iaioei ia 2 — 3ea, i?ae neiaioaeuenuee? ?iaanieee, aea
?inoa ?ioaineai?oa, iniaeeai aei ??/iiai a?eo. I?ney 18 i?nyoe?a
oaeaee?noue ?inoo iii?nieo oaa?ei cieaeo?oueny ? a oeueiio a?oe?
??cieoey i?ae iii?nieie ? neiaioaeuenueeeie oaa?eiaie ca aeeaith ianith
caeaaeaeo?oueny. ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
oea iieiaeaiiy (oaaeeoey 1).

1. Aeeiai?ea aeeai? iane oaeeoeue ??cieo aaiioei?a, ea

E?euee?noueA?eAaiioeioaa?ei, I?e
ia?iae-61218aie.aeaii?i?nyoe?ai?nyoe?ai?nyoe?a
Ieaicaaiae “10-??//y
AEiaoiy”N10633,9+-0,86182,0+-1,26278,0+-5,36354,0+-5,801/2N
1/2I3235,0+-1,11198,5+-4,88288,0+-6,75358,3+-5,341/2N
1/2A4930,0+-0,84188,0+-3,67339,5+-5,39381,0+-2,351/4N
3/4A3627,6+-0,42163,0+-2,51243,9+-3,30317,0+-4,971/4N 1/4I
1/2A3730,7+-0,24187,3+-3,29342,8+-4,59414,3+-6,07Ieaicaaiae
“Ie?”N10632,3+-0,26133,4+-1,64179,1+-2,56234,9+-3,591/2N
1/2I9531,6+-0,49134,8+-2,16173,5+-2,54230,2+-3,851/2N
1/2A3533,3+-0,92124,0+-3,30177,7+-5,50217,7+-6,901/4N
3/4A4228,8+-0,23164,7+-2,77247,3+-5,09318,1+-6,473/4N
1/4A3327,5+-0,40131,0+-4,80167,0+-5,10212,0+-4,20Ieaicaaiae
“O?inoyiaoeue”1/4N 3/4I3729,5+-1,06155,8+-5,23278,0+-17,7335,0+-17,71/4N
1/4* 1/2A9930,4+-0,29162,7+-1,57282,6+-1,40376,0+-2,761/8N 1/4I
5/8A8728,6+-0,41160,6+-1,79277,0+-2,83369,0+-3,261/8N 1/8I
3/4A5726,9+-0,51162,5+-2,53278,5+-2,98357,8+-4,761/8N 1/16I
13/16A4828,7+-0,83164,1+-4,82280,5+-6,73370,2+-8,96

Aeai? oaaeeoe? 1 iieacothoue, ui a noaae? ieaicaaiaeo »10-??//y
AEiaoiy» e?aua ?icaeaaeenue iai?ae?iai? ca iiiaaeuey?aeii ? aieooeiii
oaeeoe?. A oiiaao ieaicaaiaeo »Ie?» iieacieee ae?iuoaaiiy oaeeoeue
aoee naieie iecueeeie ia i?ioyc? on?o a?eiaeo ia??iae?a.

Ae?iuoaaiiy iii?niiai iieiaeiyea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ??cieo
aaiioei?a ca iiiaaeuey?aeii ? aieooeiii a ieaicaaiae? «O?inoyiaoeue»
aeaei ca a?eiaith ci?iith eiai aeeai? iane a?aeiinii noae? ?acoeueoaoe.
Oae, i?e ia?iaeaeaii? iaea?eueoa ??cieoey a aeea?e ian? ( 3,5 ea) aoea
anoaiiaeaia i?e ii??aiyii? aaiioei?a 1/4N 1/4I 1/2A ? 1/8N 1/8I 3/4A
ia ei?enoue ia?oiai. Iio?i, a 6-, 12-i?ny/iiio a?oe?, aeeaa iana oeeo
oaa?ei aoea i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaith i?e iacia/i?e iaaeinoia??i?e ia?aaac?
aaiioeio 1/4N 1/4I 1/2A.O 18 — i?ny/iiio a?oe? oey ia?aaaaa ia?aeoea o
aeinoia??io ??cieoeth (18,2 ea). Iaeieae/a aeeaa iana (335,0 ea) aoea o
oaeeoeue aaiioeio 1/4N 3/4I. Aiia ia 41ea aoea ieae/a e?auiai iieacieea
ii 1/4N 1/4I 1/2A. Oe? oaa?eie iaee naio iaioo aeeao iano a 8-i?ny/iiio
a?oe?. Na?aaeiueith aeeaith ianith a?ae??ciyeenue oaeeoe? aaiioeio 1/8N
1/4I 5/8A. Caaeia?eueia aeeaa iana a on? a?eia? ia??iaee a?aei?/aia o
oaa?ei c 13/16 e?ia? aieooeinueei? ii?iaee.

Ocaaaeueithth/e iaoa??ae, i?eaaaeaiee a oaaeeoe? 1, ne?ae aeae?eeoe
oaeo ia?aaaae ca aeeaith ianith a aeaio ainiiaea?noaao aaiioeio 1/4N
1/4I 1/2A. Iaaii oaea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy niaaeeiaino? neiaioaeuenueeeo,
iiiaaeuey?aenueeeo ? aieooeinueeeo oaa?ei, ui iathoue aaeeeo aeeao iano
a aei?ineiio a?oe?, caaaaia/o? iaaiee noia?iee aoaeo ca oe??th
ainiiaea?nueei — ei?eniith iciaeith. Iaea?aeai? oaa?eie ia caaaeaee
iaee ia?aaaao ia?aae /enoiii?iaeieie neiaioaeaie. Iniaeeai oea
i?iyaeeinue o ieaicaaiae? «Ie?», ui iiaeia iiynieoe iaaeie?eaie a
aiae?ae? oa aeiaeyae?.

Ine?eueee aeeaa iana ? ?ioaa?oth/ith iciaeith ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo
oaa?ei, oi iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i a?eueo ?aii?e i?iaeoeoeaiee ?icaeoie
oaeeoeue, iaea?aeaieo a ?acoeueoao? no?auoaaiiy. Oea iieiaeaiiy
aoaea a?eueo a??ia i?e iioeiaeueieo oiiaao iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua.

A?aeiini? oaiie ?inoo naieie aenieeie aoee o oaeeoeue /enoiii?iaeieo
neiaioae?a oa aaiioeio 1/4N 3/4A. Aaniethoia oaeaee?noue ?inoo aoea
aeuith o iai?ae?iaieo ca iiiaaeuey?aeii. A ieo aea aoa a?eueoee ?
caaaeueiee i?e??no. O a?eiaiio aniaeo? ??cieoey i?ae aaiioeiaie ca
?ioaineaiinoth ?inoo aeeai? iane i?iyaey?oueny a?eueo iii?oii. Oae,
cia/i?oeie ioaee ia?aaaae oaeeoeue aaiioeio 1/4N 3/4A ca a?aeiiniei
i?e?inoii, a aaiioeio 1/2N 1/2A ca na?aaeiueiaeiaiaei i?e?inoii
(??cieoey eieeaaeanue a?ae 3 aei 22 a.) o a?oe? 0-6 i?nyoe?a. A ia??iae
c 6 aei 12 i?nyoe?a yaio ia?aaaao ca aaniethoiith ? a?aeiiniith
oaeaee?noth ?inoo iaee oaa?eie c 1/2 /anoeith e?ia? iiiaaeuey?ae?a.

Eiinoeoooe?y ? aenoa?’??

Ca a?coaeueiith ioe?ieith, i?ii??aie oa ?iaeaenaie aoaeiae o?ea iii?n?
iaee a?eueo aeoyaiooee ooeoa, o ieo a?eueo aoae/? a?oaee ? oiioee
e?noye, ui oa?aeoa?ii aeey oaa?ei c a?eueo i?aeiith eiinoeoooe??th. Aea
i?ae i?ii??aie, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue e?i?eiee ??no i?aeaeine?aeieo
oaa?ei, ??cieoey aeineoue ia ?noioia ?, ye i?aaeei, ia aeinoia??ia. I?e
oeueiio yaii? ia?aaaae oaa?ei yeiai-iaaoaeue ?a aea/aieo aaiioei?a ia
anoaiiaeaii. I?ioa ne?ae aeae?eeoe ia?aaaao neiaioae?a iaae 1/2- ? 3/4
— e?iaieie oaa?eiaie ca aieooeiii ca aeiaaeeiith ooeoaa, aeeaeiith ?
oe?eiith a?oaeae. Ca ?iaeaenaie oi?iaoo, oacia?oaeiiio, einoenoino?,
a?oaeiiio, oe?ieia?oaeiio? oa aeeaieia?oaeiio? ia?a?noee iaio aaiioei?a
aeinoia??ii iinooiaeenue neiaioaeuenueeei aiaeiaai.

O ei??a ??cieo ii?iaeieo ii?aeiaiue i?ae i?ii??aie ooeoaa ? iaaei?i oa
aeeaith ianith anoaiiaeaii ??ciee ??aaiue aca?iica’yceo. Iaea?eueo
aenieee a?i i?ae aenioith a oieoe? ? aeeaith ianith o oaa?ei aaiioeio
1/2N 1/2A, 1/4N 3/4A (0,84 ± 0,04 ? 0,79 ± 0,09), a oaeiae oe?eiith
a?oaeae ? iaaei?i o oaa?ei oeueiai ae aaiioeio (0,78 ± 0,03 ? 0,81 ±
0,05).

Iiei/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue

Na?aaei? iieacieee iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? iii?nieo ? /enoiii?iaeieo
ei??a i?eaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 2. sse aeaeii, an? iii?n? ca iaaei?i

2. Iiei/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a ??cieo aaiioei?a a ainiiaea?noaao
*a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?

??aaiue iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?Ia?aaaae ca i?i-aeoeoeai?noth,
%Ea-AaiioeinIaae?e, eaAi?no aee?oE?euee?nouecaca ii-eoa-a
iieioe?,%Iiei/iiaiiaaei-ei/ieioe?yaee?o,
ea?iaee?ii1Neiaioae//i8582365+-183,75+-0,0188,7+-0,301001001/2N
1/2I5022617+-223,77+-0,0198,7+-0,80110,6111,31/2N
1/2A3774172+-633,79+-0,01158,1+-0,11176,4178,21/4N
3/4A5794536+-533,89+-0,01173,9+-0,15194,3196,02Neiaioae//i12922849+-133,
77+-0,01107,4+-0,501001001/2N
1/2I3413035+-333,77+-0,01114,4+-1,20106,5106,51/2N
1/2A4414327+-173,83+-0,01165,7+-1,40151,8154,31/4N
3/4A3814759+-563,88+-0,01184,6+-0,90167,0171,83Neiaioae//i6113309+-163,7
8+-0,01125,1+-0,201001001/2N
1/2I3213567+-363,77+-0,01134,5+-0,80107,7107,61/2N
1/2A5334512+-343,83+-0,01172,8+-0,90146,0138,11/4N
3/4A3254968+-503,85+-0,01191,2+-0,80150,1152,8ai?iaeiaae 305 aei?a
eaeoaoe?? ia?aaeuothoue i?aaenoaaiee?a neiaioaeuenueei? ii?iaee ca 1-o
eaeoaoe?th ia 10,6-94,3%, a ca e?euee?noth iiei/iiai aee?o ia 11,3 —
96,I %. C i?aeaeuaiiyi e?iaiino? ca aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith
ca?eueoo?oueny iiei/ia i?iaeoeoeai?ioue ? aee?i?noue iieiea. Oae,
3/4-e?iai? ca aieooeiii oaa?eie ia?aaeuothoue iai?ae?iaieo ca
aaee/eiith iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ia 364 ea iieiea, aee?iiiiei/iino? —
ia 0,10% ? ca e?euee?noth iiei/iiai aee?o — ia 15,8 ea.

Niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia aa??aoe?y ca ai?noii aee?o a?ae 3,92% aei 4,3%,
oa a?eea a?ae 3,38% aei 3,50%. Aeua i?ieea?noue aoea anoaiiaeaia ca
ai?noii aee?o (6,1- 8,2%). Eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? ai?noo a?eea a iieioe?
ia ia?aaeuoaaa 5,9%. A iieioe? ei??a aaiioeio 1/2N 1/2A ia 100 a aee?o
i?eiaaea? 88,3 a a?eea, ui ia?aaeuo? o 3/4 — e?iaieo ia 4,5 a 1 ia 1,6
a o /enoiii?iaeieo neiaioae?a.

Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe aenieo ? iiceoeaio ei?aeyoe?th i?ae ai?noii aee?o ?
a?eea a iieioe? ei??a (a = 0,544 — 0,880). Io?eiaia iiceoeaia
caeaaei?noue i?ae iaaei?i, aee?ii ? a?eeii a iieioe? ei??a
neiaioaeuenueei? ii?iaee (a = 0,246; 0,326 ? 0,656). Iaea?eueoee
eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? (0,673-0,796) ii on?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo iciae
anoaiiaeaii o oaa?ei aaiioeio 1/2N 1/2A. A?i iaaaoeaiee a ia?ao «iaae?e
— aee?», «iaae?e — a?eie» ? iiceoeaiee — «a?eie — aee?». Iaeieae/a
ei?aeyoe?y a?aei?/aia i?ae iaaei?i ? a?eeii o 1/4 — e?iaieo ca aieooeiii
oaa?ei. E?aua anueiai ii?aeiothoueny a?eie ? aee? (a = 0,88) o ei??a
aaiioeio 1/4N 3/4A, Iaea?eueoee aioaaii?ci iaaeith ? aee?o a iieioe?
ei??a i?iyaey?oueny o iai?ae?iaieo ca aieooeiii (a = -0,673).

Anoaiiaeai? ia?aiao?e niaaeeiai? iaoiiaeaiino? aaee/eie iaaeath ( h2
= 0,18- 0,37) ai?noo aee?o a iieioe? (h2 = 0,33 — 0,69) aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui a?aea?? caaacia/ea oaiioeiiao
eiinie?aeaoe?th iiaie?a’y ei??a ca iciaeaie aaee/eie iaaeith ?
aee?iino?. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeai? a oeueiio a?aeiioaii? ? oaa?eie
aaiioei?a 1/2N 1/2A ? 1/4N 3/4A.

Aieea na?a?n- oa nooino?eiiai ia??iae?a ia

iiei/io i?iaeoeoeai?noue

A noaae? ieaicaaiaeo » Ie? » aoee i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii
aea/aiith aieeao o?eaaeino? na?a?n-ia??iaeo ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?
ye?noue iieiea iii?nieo ca aieooeiii neiaioaeuenueeeo ei??a. Ci?ia
iaaei?a o ei??a iia’ycaia i?yiii?iii?oe?eii c o?eaae?noth
na?a?n-ia??iaeo o?eueee a iaaeao a?ae 50 aei 100 aei?a. Iio?i oeae
ca’ycie ii?ooo?oueny c? caa?aaeaiiyi oaiaeaioe?? aei i?aeaeuaiiy
iaaei?a. Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui /ei a?eueoee i?ii?aeie /ano i?ae
ioaeaiiyie, oei ieae/a iiaeeoo?aa i?iaeoeoeai?noue oaa?eie ? iaioee
na?aaei?e iaae?e ia ei?iao a ainiiaea?noa?. E??i oiai, a?ae’?iiee
ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie na?ae/eoue i?i cai?ioith iai?aaeai?noue o?eaaeino?
na?a?n -ia??iaeo ? aaee/eie iaaeith (a =0,48±0,19).

Noiniaii ai?noo aee?o a iieioe? oi iaaii? caeiiii??iino? ia aeyaeaii.
Iieacieee aa??aoe?? iaaeith a ii??aiyii? c oaeeie ae iieacieeaie ai?noo
aee?o a iieioe? cia/ii aeu? ? ia iaoiiaeai? yeith-iaaoaeue
caeiiii??i?noth. Aiae?c aeaieo ca o?eaae?noth na?a?n — ia??iaeo oaa?ei
??cieo aaiioei?a a ?yae? ainiiaea?noa *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano? iieacaa,
ui na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue oeueiai iieacieea a caeaaeiino? a?ae
i?iaeoeoeaiino?, eaeoaoe?? ? aaiioeio ei??a, ianooiia; /enoiii?iaeiee
neiaioae -74 — 86 aei?a, iii?n? neiaioae o iiiaaeuey?aee (1/2N 1/2I) —
78 aei?a, iai?ae?iai? aa aieooeiii neiaioaee -83-110 aei?a, 3/4-e?iai?
ca aieooeiii ? 1/4-e?iai? ca neiaioaeii — 65-102 aei?a. Aeey ??aiy
iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? nooino?eiee ia??iae
(oaaeeoey 3).

3. Ci?ia aaee/eie iaaeith ? aee?iino? iieiea a caeaaeiino? a?ae
o?eaaeino? nooino?eiiai ia??iaeo

O?eaae?noue nooino?eiiaiIaae?e ca eaeoaoe?th,Ai?no aee?o a ia??iaeo,
aei?aneaiieioe?, %Aei
60434657+-2583,71+-0,0561-804185086+-783,68+-0,0381-140574449+-1183,69+-
0,02A?eueoa 140234402+-2683,61+-0,14

Ca?aeii aeaieo oaaeeoe? 3 iaea?eueo aenieee iaae?e iieiea iaea a?oia
ei??a c nooino?eiei ia??iaeii 61 — 80 aei?a, aee?i?noue iieiea c
o?eaae?noth nooino?eiiai ia??iaeo aei 60 aei?a. ?noioia ??cieoey c
iaaei? aoea eeoa i?ae iieacieeaie ae?oai? ? o?aouei? a?oie, a ca ai?noii
aee?o a iieioe? ?noioii? ??cieoe? i?ae a?oiaie iaia?.

Ii?oieia?/i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeanoeaino? aei’y

iii?nieo ei??a

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaii? a?coaeueii? ioe?iee ? acyooy i?ii???a aei’y o
ia?a?noie ?yaeo ieai?iieo caaiae?a oa oiaa?ieo ainiiaea?noa
*a?i?a?anueei? iaeano? anoaiiaeaii cia/i? ia?aaaae iii?nieo ei??a iaae
neiaioaeuenueeeie ?iaanieoeyie ca oi?iith aei’y ? oaeaee?noth
iieieia?aeaea/? (oaae. 4).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a c /aoaaeaeiith oi?iith aeiai? ia
10- 15% aeua, i?ae ?c e?oaeith. Ia i?aenoaa? iaea?aeaieo aeaieo ne?ae
a?aei?oeoe iiceoeaiee aieea ia oi?io aei’y no?auoaaiiy neiaioaeuenueeeo
ei??a c ie?aeieeaie aieooeiiueei? ii?iaee. Ca?eueoaiiy e?iaiino? ca
aieooeiii aea? ??cea c?inoaiiy ieoiii? aaae oaa?ei (a?eueoa i?ae o 4
?ace) c aaiiiiiae?aiith oi?iith aeiai? ? ciaioaiiy c ie?oaeith (a?eueoa
i?ae o 3 ?ace). No?auoaaiiy neiaioae?a c aieooeiaie i?aeaeueei
oaeaee?noue iieieia?aeaea/? o ei??a 1/2N 1/2A ? 1/4N 3/4A a ii??aiyii?
c oaa?eiaie neiaioaeuenueei? ii?iaee ia 27,1% ? ia 66,4% a?aeiia?aeii.
Aeyaeaii cia/iee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie c iaoaaoii (a = 0,573),
aeiaaeeiith (a = 0,434) i oe?eiith aeiai? (a = 0,534) oa aeiaiaei
iaaei?i. I?i?iaeueia caeaaei?noue niinoa??aaeanue i?ae aeiaaeeiith
ia?aaei?o ? caaei?o ae?eie oa aaee/eiith iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?

4. Iniaeeaino? oi?ie aeiai? oa ?ioaineaiino? iieieia?aeaea/? o ia?a?noie
??cieo aaiioei?a

AaiioeiIieacieeeNeiaioae //i1/2N 1/2A1/4N 3/4AAie?a528530Ieoiia aaaa
ei??a c??ciith oi?iith
aeiai?,%:Aaiiiiiae?aiith9,641,243,3/aoaaeaeiith51,947,046,7ie?oaeith31,5
11,810,0Aeiaiaee iaae?e, ea13,314,315,7Na?aaeiy
?ioaineai?noueIieieia?aeaea/?, ea/oa.1,07+-0,051,36+-0,031,78+-0,04

ca aeiao (a = 0,106 — 0,266). Iaaenieee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie
anoaiiaeaii i?ae ?iaeaenii aeiai? ? eiai i?ii??aie. Caa?oa? ia naaa
oaaao o?niee aca?iica’ycie ?ioaineaiino? iieieia?aeaea/? ? aaee/eie
iaaeith (a = 0,695). A?aea?? ei??a ca o?ueiia i?ii??aie aeiai?-iaoaao,
aeiaaeeia ? oe?eia, — ui i?iaiaeeoueny a oiiaao iaoeiiiai aei?iiy,
ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? oi?ioaaiith
a?aeiia?aeieo yeinoae aeiai?. I?ioean aaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeia cia/ii
i?enei?eoe oeyoii ioe?iee aoaa?a ca oi?iith ? ye?noth aeiai? ?o aei/ie ?
iaeneiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a-iie?auoaa/?a ca oeeie iciaeaie,

I’ynia i?iaeoeoeai?noue

AEeaa iana iii?niiai iieiaeiyea, iaea?aeaiiai a?ae no?auoaaiiy,
a?ae??ciyeanue a?ae oeueiai iieacieea o neiaioaeuenueeeo oaa?ei (oaae.
5). Ia?o? a eiaeiiio a?aoiaaiiio a?oe? ia?aaeuoaaee nai?o

5. Aeeiai?ea aeeai? iane aoaaeoe?a ca ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue, ea

A?e1/2N 1/2ANeiaioaee //iAie?a202020 aei?a52,0+-2,150,0+-2,22
i?nyoe?65,3+-2,263,4+-3,13 i?nyoe?87,0+-3,384,1+-4,26
i?nyoe?a161,5+-5,3153,3+-4,19 i?nyoe?a227,3+-7,4209,8+-6,212
i?nyoe?a291,1+-7,2272,3+-6,115 i?nyoe?a365,0+-5,3346,1+-6,218
i?nyoe?a436,0+-6,1415,9+-5,4

aiaeia?a. A oie aea /an ia?aaaaa iineea iacia/iee oa?aeoa? ? ??cieoey c
9 — i?ny/iiai a?eo noaaaea aeinoia??iith, i?aaaea, c i?i?iaeueiith
iaaeath a??ia?aeiino?.

Ca?eueoaiiy aeeai? iane ae/e?a iai?ae?iaieo ca aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue a?eueo aeiiiiiei aeei?enoaiiyi ei?i?a: 7,3 i?ioe 8,1
oei. e. iae.

I?iaaaeaiee eiio?ieueiee caa?e 18-i?ny/ieo oaa?ei (oaae. 6) iieacaa,
ui ca iieacieeaie, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue i’ynio i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?ney
caaith, /enoiii?iaei? neiaioaee ia?aaaaeathoue neiaioae o aieooeinueeeo
iii?nae (1/2N 1/2A). Aea oey ia?aaaaa ia cia/ia, ia a??ia?aeia. O
ae/e?a neiaioaeuenueei? ii?iaee aoee aeu? — ia 2,6% caa?eiee aeo?ae ?
ia 2,9 ea caa?eia iana ? o?eueee ia 0,3 ea — iana aioo??oiueiai aee?o,
ia 3,1 ea naia iana ooo? ? ia 2,5% aeo?ae ooo?.

6. ?acoeueoaoe eiio?ieueiiai caaith

Iieacieee1/2N 1/2ANeiaioae //iE?euee?noue aie?a2020Na?aaeiy aeeaa iana1
aieiae, ea:i?e a?aei?aaoe? ia caa?e432,0+-8,0415,0+-3,8i?e aeinoaaoe? ia
caa?e412,0+-7,1399,4+-4,4i?ney aieiaeii?
aeo?eiee410,8+-7,0397,8+-4,3Na?aaeiy iana ooo?,
ea219,6+-5,3222,7+-3,3Aeo?ae ooo?, %53,5+-0,556,0+-0,7Na?aaeiy iana
aioo??oiueiaiaee?o, ea10,5+-0,110,2+-0,2Caa?eia iana,
ea230,1+-6,6232,9+-3,3Caa?eiee aeo?ae, %56,0+-0,558,6+-0,7

Aeo?ae i’yeio? ia 100 ea aeeai? iane o /enoiii?iaeieo neiaioae?a aoa ia
4,7 ea a?eueoei (? > 0,01), i?ae o ?o aiaeia?a aaiioeio 1/2N 1/2A. Oe?
oaa?eie ia?aaaaeaee inoaii?o ca caaaeueiith e?euee?noth i’yeio? a ooo?
ia 4,1 ea, ianith i’yna 1 ni?oo ia 13,4 ea ? ?iaeaenii i’yniino?. ?acii
c oei a ?o ooo? aeyaeeinue iaioa ia 0,2 ea i’yna aeuiai ni?oo, ia 9,2 ea
i’yna 2 ni?oo, ia 1,7 ea nooiaeeeue ? ia 3,7 ea e?noie.

?ieue aoaa?a — ie?aeiee?a o aaiaoe/iiio iie?ioaii? iiioeyoe??
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii — ?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee

Aiae?c iaoa??ae?a ioe?iee aoaa?a ca ye?noth iauaaee?a iieacaa, ui a
oe?eiio an? aieooeiiuee? ie?aeieee, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ia
ieaii?aei?e?inoaao, aeaee i?aeaeuaiiy iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? aei/ie o
ii??aiyii? ?c neiaioaeuenueeeie ?iaanieoeyie. i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueio
ioe?ieo ieai?iieo ? i?iaeoeoeaieo yeinoae aieooeinueeeo aoaa?a, ye?
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a ainiiaea?noaao *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?. I?ioyaii
inoaii?o 10 ?ie?a ia iniia? ?aae?caoe?? ieai?a ia?oaaiue «ia caiiaeaiiy»
noai?aii oe?eee ?yae aenieioe?iieo i?iaeiaaeoaa/?a nei?a aoaa?a ?aaea,
Aeeca, ?aaona oa ?ii?oaa?a. Aeuith ieai?iiith oe?ii?noth
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue neie ?aaea 916. Ca ia??iae aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a
-ie?aeiee?a iacaaieo a?oi iaea?eueoa aoei caaioiaeaii nia?ie a?ae
a?oie ?aaea 916 — 944,5 oen. aeic. Nia?iith oeueiai ie?aeieea oa eiai
nei?a a ainiiaea?noaao iaeano? aoei in?iaiaii 98 oeny/ aie?a iaoie.
?acoeueoaoii aeei?enoaiiy iacaaieo a?oi ie?aeiee?a ? oa, u? ?o iauaaeee
neaeaaeathoue iaeaea 22% a?ae caaaeueiiai iiaie?a’y iaea?aeaiiai i?e
aeei?enoaii? ie?aeiee?a aieooeinueei? ii?iaee.

Ii?oieia?/i? ? a?io?i?/i? iieacieee e?ia?

Iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui ii?iaea ? ii?iaei?noue ?noioii
aieeaathoue ia e?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a o e?ia? oaa?eie. Ca e?euee?noth
a?eo?ioeeo?a a e?ia? iii?ni? oaeeoe? ? ae/ee a aeine?aei?e a?oi?
ia?aaaaeaee nai?o neiaioaeuenueeeo ?iaaniee?a a na?aaeiueiio ia 8,4 —
9,5%, ui na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueo ?ioaineaia i?io?eaiiy iaoaaie?/ieo
i?ioean?a a i?aai?ci? oaa?ei.

Aei 18 — i?ny/iiai a?eo e?euee?noue eaeeioeeo?a o e?ia? oaeeoeue iaio
a?oi ca?eueoeeinue a na?aaeiueiio ia 24,6 — 35%, a o ae/e?a ia 3,6 —
5,2%. Ne?ae oaeiae a?aecia/eoe, yeui a 3 — i?ny/iiio a?oe? ca
e?euee?noth eaeeioeeo?a a e?ia? ae/ee iaio a?oi ?noioiuei ia?aaaaeaee
oaee/ie (21,0 ? 24,0%), oi a 18-i?ny/iiio oey ??cieoey ci?aaethaaeanue.
Ca ai?noii aaiiaeia?io a e?ia? oaeeoe? ? aoaaeoe? iai?ae?iai? ca
aieooeiii a on? a?eia? ia??iaee ia?aaaaeaee neiaioaeuenueeeo ?iaaniee?a
a na?aaeiueiio ia 5,7-9,5%. Ai?no aaiiaeia?io a e?ia? iii?niiai
iieiaeiyea i?aeaeaaaany iaioei a?eiaei eieeaaiiyi, i?ae o e?ia?
neiaioae?a. Ca ai?noii caaaeueiiai a?eea a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? oaee/ee ?
aoaaeoe? 1/2 — e?iai? ca aieooeiii ca ia??iae ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo c
3-aei 18- i?ny/iiai a?eo ia?aaaaeaee neiaioaeuenueeeo ?iaaniee?a a
na?aaeiueiio ia 4,4 ? 5,5 %.

Aaiaoe/i? ia?ea?e i?e aiae?c? aaiioiiaeo aaeeei?

?iaaoi? ooaeiae

I?e aiae?c? aaiioei?a ei??a o ieaicaaiaeao » O?inoyiaoeue», «Ie?»,
» 10-??//y AEiaoiy» *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano? aeei?enoaia iaoiaeeea
eaae?o?eaoe?? ia?ea?ieo aeae?a nenoaie a a?oie e?ia? o a?aeiia?aeiino?
?o iaeaaeiino? aei iie?iooth/eo (aieooeinuee?e oa iiiaaeuey?aenuee?e) ?
iie?iooaai?e (neiaioaeuenuee?e) ii??ae. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai
aaiioei oaa?ei aoei ?iciiae?eaii ia oae? ii?aeiaiiy: neiaioaeuenueea o
neiaioaeuenueea (NoN), neiaioaeuenueea o iiiaaeuey?aenueea (NoI),
neiaioaeuenueea o aieooeinueea (NoA), iiiaaeuey?aenueea o
iiiaaeuey?aenueea (I o I), iiiaaeuey?aenueea o aieooeinueea (I o A),
aieooeinueea o aieooeiiueea (A o A). Iaea?eueo /anoi cono??/a?oueny
ii?aeiaiiy aaiioei?a neiaioaeuenueei? oa aieooeiiueei? ii??ae a
aaoa?iceaioiiio noai? (g = 0,432), a aaiioeie iiiaaeuey?ae?a ?
neiaioae?a a aiiiceaioiiio noai? cono??/athoueny cia/ii iaioa (0,034 ?
0,068).

A ieaicaaiae? «Ie?» aiae?c aaiioei?a ieai?iieo aee?a iieacaa, ui aiie
iia’ycai? c aeayeeie ia?ea?aie niaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo aoaa?a
aieooeicueei? ? iiiaaeuey?aenueei? ii??ae. Aea/aiiy aaiaoe/ii?
no?oeoo?e ieaiyae?a ei??a a noaae? ieaicaaiaeo iieaco? aeineoue aenieo
/anoioo a oe?e a?oi? aeaeth GYE’Q’ (0,225). Oea iaoiiaeaii ?ioaineaiei
aeei?enoaiiyi a noaae? aiaeooeinueeiai ie?aeieea Aeeca 327, yeee aoa
aiiiceaioiei ca aeaeai GYE’Q’ , a ca’yceo c oeei an? eiai aei/ee
oniaaeeoaaee oeae aeaeue. O ianooiiiio iieie?ii? a?ae ei??a-iin??a
aaeaeth GYE’Q’ eiai oniaaeeoaaea a?eueo?noue iioiie?a: c 42 iioe?a
Aeeca 28 iaea?aeaee a?ae nai?o iaoa??a oeae ia?ea?. A aaiioeiao oeeo
aoaa?a niaaeeiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y Aeeca ii?aeio?oueny c ia?ea?aie e?i?e
Eaaae?a, ?ii?oaa?a, a oaeiae c aeaeyie I?eaey 90 — Ae’G’0′, ? G’Ae’G».

A e n i i a e e

1. A oiiaao *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano? no?auoaaiiy neiaioaeuenueeeo ei??a c
ie?aeieeaie /a?aiii-?yai? aieooeinueei? ii?iaee aia?eeainueei? ?
eaiaaenueei? naeaeoe?? iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia ainiiaea?iueei-a?ieia?/i?
yeino? iaea?aeaieo i?e oeueiio oaa?ei. Aoaeo ?ioaa?aoe?? caeaaeeoue a?ae
yeino? iie?auoth/i? iiioeyoe?? ? oiia oo?eiaiiy iii?nieo oaa?ei.
Eiaeia aeeth/aiiy a?eueo aaeineiiaeaieo aaiioei?a a iiioeyoe?th aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae iiaeiii noi?iaiaeaeoaaoenue i?ia?aneaieie ia?aoai?aiiyie
a oiiaao ?o oo?eiaiiy.

2. Iieiaeiye oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee ??cieo
aaiioei?a ia i?ioyc? 18 i?nyoe?a aeeooy ?inoa c ??ciith, oi/a ? c
iacia/iith ??cieoeath, ?ioaineai?noth. O a?eiaiio aniaeo? ??cieoey i?ae
aaiioeiaie ca ?ioaineai?noth ?inoo aeeai? iane i?iyaey?oueny a?eueo
iii?oii. Oae, a?eueoo ia?aaaao iaee oaeeoe? aaiioeio 1/4 N 3/4A ca
a?aeiiniei i?e?inoii (??cieoey eieeaaeanue a iaaeao 7%), a aaiioeio
1/2N 1/2A ca na?aaeiueiaeiaiaei (3 — 22a?) o a?oe? 0 — 6 i?nyoe?a.
Ca aeeaith ianith o 18- i?ny/iiio a?oe? anoaiiaeaii ia?aaaao aaiioeia
1/4N 1/4I 1/2A. Ae?iuoaaaiy iii?niiai iieiaeiyea ??cieo aaiioei?a ca
iiiaaeuey?aeii a ieaicaaiae? «O?inoyiaoeue» aeaei ca a?eiaeie ci?iaie
eiai aeeai? iane a?aeiinii no?ee? ?acoeueoaoe. Iaea?aeai? iii?ni?
oaa?eie ia caaaeaee ia?aaaaeaee ca aeeaith ianith /enoiii?iaeieo
neiaioae?a. Iniaeeai oea i?iyaeeinue o ieaicaaiae? » Ie?».

3. Iii?ni? ei?iae, iaea?aeai? a?ae no?auoaaiiy neiaioaeuenueeeo iaoie
? /a?aiii-?yaeo aieooeinueeeo aoaa?a, iathoue aeineoue aenieo iiei/io
i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ? ye i?aaeei, ia?aaaaeathoue oaa?ei iaoa?einueei?
ii?iaee. Niaoeeo?ea oiia ainiiaea?noa aieeioea ia oaiioeiiaee i?iya
aaiioeio ca iiei/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth. A?eueo aenie? iaaei? ca an?ia
a?aoiaaieie eaeoaoe?yie o ieaicaaiae? »O?inoyiaoeue» aoea o ei??a
aaiioeio 1/2I 1/2A, o ieaicaaiae? ?i. O?oica — aaiioeio 1/4N 1/4I 1/2A,
a na?aae iiaie?a’y ei??a ieaicaaiaeo ‘’Ie?» ca aaee/eiith iaaeith
iiceoeaii aeae?eyeenue oaa?eie aaiioeia 3/4N 1/4A. No?auoaaiiy aieeioei
ia ye?noue iieiea, ui ae?aceeinue a i?aeaeuaii? eiao?oe??ioa i?ieeaino?
ca ai?noii aee?o aei 6.1- 8,2%, a ca ai?noii a?eea aei 5,9%.

4. Ca aaaeee/eiith i?ii???a a 6-, 12-oa 18- i?ny/iiio a?oe? i?ae
iieiaeiyeii neiaioaeuenueei? oa iii?nieie c aieooeinueeith ii?iaeith
cia/ieo ??cieoeue ia anoaiiaeaii. Iaea?eueoo iiae?ai?noue oaa?eie iaee
ca aeeaeiith a?oaeae, iaeiaioo — ca einith aeiaaeeiith ooeoaa. Oey
??cieoey a caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eo eieeaaeany a iaaeao 3,5 — 8,6 ni.
Iii?n? ca aeioa?’??ii — eiinoeoooe?eieie iniaeeainoyie noeeythoueny aei
aaouee?anueei? ii?iaee. Aaee/eia i?ii???a, oei, aoaeiaa o?ea
/enoiii?iaeieo neiaioae?a aeaoa?i?io?oueny niaaeeiaeie oaeoi?aie o
a?eueo?e i???, i?ae o iii?nae ia?oiai iieie?iiy.

5. Anoaiiaeaiee iacia/iee ? iaa??ia?aeiee aieea no?auoaaiiy c aieooeiaie
ia iieacieee i’ynii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? neiaioae?a. Niinoa??aa?oueny
cieaeaiiy oeeo iieaciee?a i?e ciaioaii? aeie? e?ia? neiaioaeuenueei?
ii?iaee. O oaa?ei c 75% aieooeinueei? e?ia? anoaiiaeai? iaeiaio?
iana ooo? (ia 1C- 20,9ea) oa caa?eiee aeo?ae (ia 1,1 — 1,5%). Ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe aenieo aia?a?th ?inoo o aoaa?a aaiioeia 1/4N 3/4A o 12-15
i?ny/iiio a?oe?. *enoiii?iaei? neiaioaee ia?aaaaeathoue
neiaioae-aieooeinueeeo iii?nae ca: caa?eiei aeoiaeii (ia 2,6%),
caa?eiith ianith (ia 2,9 ea) oa ianith aioo??oiueiai aee?o (ia 0,3 ea).
I?e i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeia?e ian? ia?ii? oa ioieiaeaeaii? ooo aeo?ae
i’yeio? ia 100 ea aeeai? iane o /enoiii?iaeieo neiaioae?a aoa ia 4,7 ea
aeua.

6. Iii?ni? ei?iae iathoue aei’y a?eueo ia’?iia, i?oei?oa i?ee??ieaia
aei o?ea, aeaui aeiaoa oa iiaeiaaeaia aia?aae, i?ae /enoiii?iaei?
neiaioaeuenuee? aiaeiae. A ieo aoea a?eueoa aaee/eia an?o a?aoiaaieo
ia?aiao??a aei’y, aea oey ia?aaaaa ia iineoue i?eioeeiiaiai oa?aeoa?a,
ine?eueee ??cieoey i?ae i?ii??aie iaa??ia?aeia. Ca?eueoaiiy e?iaiino? ca
aieooeiii aea? ??cea i?aeaeuaiiy ieoiii? aaae oaa?ei a?eueoa i?ae o 4
?ace c aaiiiiiae?aiith oi?iith aeiai? ? ciaioaiiy c ie?oaeith a?eueo
i?ae a 3 ?ace. Ia oi?io aeiai? o ei??a aieeaa? niaaeeia?noue
aoaa?a-aaouee?a, a ia ?ici??e aeiai? (eiai i?ii??e) aiia i?aeoe/ii ia
aieeaa?. No?auoaaiiy neiaioaeuenueeeo iaoie c aieooeinueeeie aoaayie
caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino? iieieia?aeaea/? o ei??a aaiioei?a
1/2N 1/2A oa 1/4N 3/4A a?aeiia?aeii ia 27,1 oa 66,4%. I?ae iaoaaoii,
aeiaaeeiith, oe?eiith aeiai? oa aeiaiaei iaaei?i ?nio? cia/ia
ei?aeyoe?y. Iaaenieee ca’ycie anoaiiaeaiee i?ae ?iaeaenii aeiai? oa eiai
i?ii??aie. Na?aaeiuei? aaee/eie caeaaei?noue aeyaeaia i?ae i?ii??aie
aeiai? oa oaeaee?noth iieieia?aeaea/?. A?aea?? ei??a ca aaee/eiith
iaoaaoo, aeiaaeeiith oa oe?eiith aeiai? ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith iiei/ii?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa oi?ioaaiith a?aeiia?aeieo yeinoae aeiai?.

7. Aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a /a?aiii-?yai? aieooeinueei? ii?iaee aeey
iie?auaiiy neiaioae?a ni?ey? io?eiaiith oaa?ei c aeia?eie a?aeoai?ieie
caeaoiinoyie. Oae, na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue na?a?n-ia??iaeo a caeaaeiino?
a?ae eaeoaoe?? ? aaiioeia ei??a neeaaeaea aeey: /enoiii?iaeieo
neiaioae?a 47 — 86 aei?a, aaiioeia 1/4N 3/4A -65-102 aei?.

Ci?ie iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a i?yiii?iii?oe?eii caeaaeaoue a?ae
o?eaaeino? na?a?n-ia??iaea; o?eueee i?e eiai iaaeao a?ae 50 aei 100
aei?a. O oe?eiio anoaiiaeaia cai?ioia ei?aeyoe?y i?ae o?eaae?noth
na?a?n-ia??iaeo oa aaee/eiith iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? (a = 0,48 ±
0,19).

8. Aei/ee ??cieo aoaa?a — ie?aeiee?a ?ic??ciythoueny ca aaee/eiith
iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?. A?eueo aenie? iaaei? niinoa??aathoueny o
iauaaee?a ?aae 916 ? ?ii?oaa?a 471 (5056 ea iieiea i?e aee?iino? 3,82%
? 4278 ea, 3,58%). Neie aoaa?a ?aaea 916 ? Aeeca 327 a?ae??ciythoueny
a?aeiinii i?aeaeuaiith ieai?iiith oe?ii?noth.

9. Ianoiae?noue i?iaeoeoeaieo ? a?aeoai?thaaeueieo caeaoiinoae iii?nieo
oa /enoiii?iaeieo oaa?ei i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ii?oieia?/ieie iieacieeaie
e?ia?. Oae, ca e?euee?noth a?eo?ioeeo?a iii?ni? oaeeoe? ia?aaaaeaee
nai?o neiaioaeuenueeeo aiaeia?a ia 8,4-9,5%, ca ai?noii aaiiaeia?io — a
na?aaeiueiio ia 5,7- 9,5%, a ca ai?noii caaaeueiiai a?eea a ne?iaaooe?
e?ia? ia 4,4 — 5,5%.

10. O oaa?ei c ??cieie iiiieia?/ieie ? a?io?i?/ieie iieacieeaie e?ia?
niinoa??aaeanue iaiaeiaeiaa iiei/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ui coiiaeaii
??ciith ?ieeth iaoaaie?o?a e?ia? a i?ioeanao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?cio.

11. Noai?aiee oei /a?aiii-?yai? ooaeiae ia *a?i?a?auei? ia? ??cio
aaiaoe/io no?oeoo?o ca a?oiaie e?ia?, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue i?enei?eoe
naeaeoe?eiee i?ioean.

I?iiiceoe?? ae?iaieoeoao

1. Iiaeaeueoa oaeineiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee
a oiiaao I?ai?/iiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie cae?enithaaoe a iai?yieo i?aeaeuaiiy
aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?e noaa?eueiino?
i’yniino?, eiinie?aeaoe?? ca oeiii c aeei?enoaiiyi ye aeanieo,
e?aueo aa ye?noth iauaaee?a aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a, oae ? aaiioiiaeo c ?iioeo
i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo cii e?a?ie.

2. Aeey oni?oiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy iiioeyoe?? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee a oiiaao I?ai?/iiai ?aa?iio
Oe?a?ie ne?ae caaacia/eoe aeei?enoaiiy ei?i?a ia ei?iao a ??e a iaaeao
45-55 oei.e. i. ? na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no oaeeoeue ia ae?iuoaaii? ia
??ai? 650-750 a.

3. I?enei?eoe ?iaioo ii eiinoeoooe?iiaeuei?e oei?caoe?? iiaie?a’y
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee a oiiaao *a?i?a?aueie.

4. Aaeineiiaeaiiy aaiaaeia?/ii? no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?? aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee a oiiaao
*a?i?a?anueei? iaeano? ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe i?ae iaia’yceiaei
?ioiiaaiaoe/iei eiio?ieai c a?aooaaiiyi oniaaeeiaoaaiiy ia?ea??a ii
aoaayo a e?i?yo ? ia ei?iaao — a ?iaeeiao.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1.Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii au?aueaaieth oaeie aeey
aini?iecaiaenoaa noaaea a oicyenoaao *a?ieaianeie iaeanoe (A. I.
Ooiee, A.A. Aeaieeue/aiei, A.A. Aeaieeaaneee, E.E. Aeaieeue/aiei, I.N.
Aea?eoo, A.O. Coa, I. E. Aaeoi) *a?ieaia, Iaeiieea?aoecaeao, 1990- 17n.

2. Ooiee A. I., Aeaieeaaneee A. A. Eiaeiueei A. I. Nicaeaiea iiaie
iiei/iie ii?iaeu neioa (Ec iiuoa ?aaiou oicyenoa *a?ieaianeie iaeanoe),
*a?ieaia, Iaeiieea?aoecaeao, 1989 — 5 n.

3. Aeai?eue/aieiA.A., Aeaieeaanueeee 0.0., Aeai?eue/aiei E. ?.
Noai?th?ii iiei/iee oei /a?aiii-?yai? ooaeiae, *a?i?a?a,
Iaeiie?a?aoaeaeaa, 1990 — 4 n.

4. Aeai?eue/aiei A., Aeaieeaaiueeee 0., Aeai?eue/aiei E. Iiaee oei
iiei/ii? ooaeiae //Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.- 1991.- N 11.- N.18-20.

5. Aeaieeue/aiei A. A., Aeaieeaaneee A. A., Aeaieeue/aiei E. E.. Coa
A.O. Ieaiaiiay ?aaioa a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa *a?ieaiaieie iaeanoe
//Ciioaoiey.- 1992.- N 7-8 .- N. 11.

6. Aeaieeaanueeee I.I. I’ynia i?iaeoeoeai?noue aoaaeoe?a oe?a?inueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee ??cieo aaiioei?a a oiiaao *a?i?a?aueie //
A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee. — 1998.- N 12.- N. 74.

7. Aeai?eue/aiei A.A., Aeaieeaanueeee 0.0., Nai?aiiy /a?aiii-?yai?
iiei/ii? ooaeiae ia *a?i?a?auei? //Oai?aoe/i? e i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe
ii?iaeiooai?thaaeueiiai i?ioeano o iiei/iiio oa i’yniiio neioa?noa?,
Ee?a, 1995. -N. 42-43.

8. Eaiue A. N., Aeai?eue/aiei A.A., Aeaieeaanueeee 0.0. I?ia?aia
aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a aeey i?ia?aiiaaieo
i?e?ieaeueeoeyoi??a oeio IE — 61. //36. Iaoeia? iaoiaee naeaeoe?? ?
a?aeoai?aiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ii??ae ? oei?a oaa?ei. Iao. iaoe. —
ae?ia. eiio. 29-30 o?aaiy 1996?.- E.,Anioe. Oe?a?ia, 1996. -N. 98-99.

9. Aeai?eue/aiei A.A., Aeaieeaaiueeee 0.0. Aeei?enoaiiy iiiaaeue-y?ae?a
? aieooei?a aeey iie?auaiiy neiaioae?a ia *a?i?a?auei? //Na.
«A?ioaoiieia?/i?, naeaeoe?ei? oa i?aai?caoe?ei? iaoiaee a?aeoai?aiiy,
caa?aaeaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy aaiioiiaeo oaa?ei». Ee?a, 1997.-N.
180-184.

Aeaieeaanueeee 0.0. Ainiiaea?nueei — a?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? oaa?ei
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee a oiiaao I?ai?/iiai ?aa?iio
Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.02.01 —
?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe?y oaa?ei, ?inoeooo ?icaaaeaiiy oa aaiaoeee
oaa?ei, Ee?a, *oaeinueea, 1998.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai?
iiei/ii? ii?iaee c eiinoaoaoe?ath i?ii?aeieo ? e?ioeaaeo oa?aeoa?enoee
oaa?ei oe??? ii?iaee a oiiaao I?ai?/iiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieeie
naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/ieie ia?aiao?aie oa a?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie.
Aaiaoe/ia no?oeoo?a oeueiai ianeaa ooaeiae caaacia/o? i?aaeeuei?noue
iiaeaeueoiai ia?aa?ao naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano, iai?aaeaiiai ia
eiinie?aeaoe?th ? ia?niaeoeae oaeineiiaeaiiy iiioeyoe?? ca iniiaieie
ainiiaea?nueei-a?ieia?/ieie iciaeaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii?iaea, aaiioei, oei, i?ii??e, ?iaeaene, aenoa?’??,
??no ? ?icaeoie, aei’y, a?oie e?ia?.

Aeaieeaaneee A. A. Oicyenoaaiii-aeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe aeeaioiuo
oe?aeineie e?anii-iano?ie iiei/iie ii?iaee a oneiaeyo Naaa?iiai ?aaeiia
Oe?aeie. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.02.01-?acaaaeaiea e
naeaeoeey aeeaioiuo. Einoeooo ?acaaaeaiey e aaiaoeee aeeaioiuo, Eeaa,
*oaeineia, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee eceiaeai i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey oe?aeineie e?anii-iano?ie
iiei/iie ii?iaeu n eiinoaoaoeeae i?iiaaeooi/ieo e eiia/iuo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeeaioiuo yoie ii?iaee a oneiaeyo Naaa?iiai ?aaeiia Oe?aeiu.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iie oa?aeoa?ecothony aenieeie
naeaeoeeiiii-aaiaoe/aneeie ia?aiao?aie e aeieiae/aneeie naienoaaie.
Aaiaoe/aneay no?oeoo?a yoiai ianneaa neioa iaania/eaaao i?aaeeueiinoue
aeaeueiaeoaai i?ioaeaiey naeaeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna iai?aaeaiiiai ia
eiinieeaeaoeeth e ia?niaeoeau niaa?oainoaiaaiey iiioeyoeee ii iniiaiui
oicyenoaaiii-aeieiae/aneeie i?eciaeaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ii?iaea, aaiioei, oei, i?iia?u, eiaeaenu, aenoa?uea?,
?ino e ?acaeoea, auiy, a?oiiu e?iae.

Danilevsky A.A. Anim?n-b?i?ig?na? ?art?nular?t?as if an?mals if
Ukra?n?an rad — and-whita braad ?n ninditions if North region of
Ukaa?ia. Ianusa??t.

Ohesis in th? scientif?n nom?at?t?in if cand?ata if agr?culture
sn?annas ?n the s?en?al?to 06.02.01. — an?mals braad?ng and salant?in.
Institute if an?mal braad?ng and ganat?ns, E?ao, Nhub?nsko, 1998.

?n thes?s ?s summaa?sed the ?rinass if firm?ng if Ukra?n?an
red-and-white milk baaad with statamant if ?taamed?ate and f?nal
features if an?mals if th?s braed in nind?tiins if North aag?in if
Ukra?na. ?t had baan astabl?shed that thao aaa nhaaactaa?zad bo tha
nigh selact?in-ganat?n ?aaamatas and b?ilig?nal chaaantea?st?cs.
Ganat?c structura if th?s trants if natla ansuras tha cirractnass if
furthaa r?nn?ng if salect?in ?rinass fir tha ninsol?dat?in and furter
?m?rivamant if ?i?ulat?in ?n annid?ng ti tha ma?n acinomic — b?ilig?cal
tra?ts.

Eaowirds: baaad, ganito?a, to?a, maasuramant, ?ndaoas, aotaaa?aa,
uddaa, griw?ng and davalipmant, bliid to?as.

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