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Гігієно-фізіологічна оптимізація праці операторів ЕОМ з відеотерміналами: Автореф. дис… канд. мед. наук / О.А. Потапов, Ін-т медицини праці АМН Укра

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?INOEOOO IAAeEOeEIE I?AOe? AII OE?A?IE

IIOAIIA IEAENAIAe? AIAOIE?EIAE*

OAeE 613.6:681:323

A?A??II-O?C?IEIA?*IA IIOEI?CAOe?ss I?AOe? IIA?AOI??A AII C
A?AeAIOA?I?IAEAIE

14.02.01 – a?a??ia

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

?i. I.ai?ueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Naooe?i A?eoi?
Na?a?eiae/, Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
I.Ai?ueeiai, IIC Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?.eaoaae?e a?a??ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? aeaaeai?e IAI oa
AII Oe?a?ie, Iaaaeao?eyi Ieaenaiae? Iaaianiae/, ?inoeooo iaaeeoeeie
i?aoe? AII Oe?a?ie caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii o?c?ieia?? i?aoe?

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaea?aiei Ieeiea Aaneeueiae/,
?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiaee a?a??i?/iee oeaio?, IIC Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 22 eenoiiaaea 1999?. i 1600 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.554.01 a ?inoeooo? iaaeeoeeie i?aoe?
AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252033, aoe.Naenaaainueeiai, 75.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo iaaeeoeeie
i?aoe? AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252033, aoe.Naenaaainueeiai, 75.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “14” aa?aniy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

no.i.n., e.i.i.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O oaia??oi?e /an oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iathoue
aiaeaioa?iiiaee (AAeO) caniae aaiaeo-aeaiaeo iioi?iaoei? eiii’thoa?ieo
nenoai, ui caaaeaei oeieiai ?yaeo iaaee/ieo i?iaeai (Aie?ia I.O. e ae?.
1998; Mbaye I. et al., 1998; Thomson W.D., 1998). Iniaeeainoi i?aoei, ui
ae??ciythoue iia?aoi?ia AAeO, iia’ycaii c aiaeiiiiinoyie a /anooei
?icoiiaiai oa ia?aiai-aiioeieiiai eiiiiiaioia, nooiaiy aoyaiaiiy a
aeiyeueiinoue oeo /e iioeo i?aaiia i nenoai. Ooieoe?iiaeuei? c?ooaiiy oa
?iceaaeiaiiy ae?yeueiino? aiae?caoi??a, caoai?thaaiiy iii?ii-?ooiaiai
aia?aoo, ia?aiai?, na?oeaai-noaeeiii? oa ?ioeo nenoai i?aai?cio
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aaaaeaoe ae?iaie/i iaoiiaeaieie (AIC, 1989; Iaaaeaoieyi
I.I. oa ii., 1997; Nakaishi H., Yamada Y., 1999). Iayai?noue o?ce/ieo
oaeoi??a iaoiiaeth? nai???aei?noue oa aeayeo niaoeeo?eo ae?iaie/iai
na?aaeiaeua. O ?acoeueoao? ethaeeia cacia? aieea eiiieaeno o?ce/ieo
oaeoi??a, ui iathoue ?yae iniaeeainoae, iia’ycaieo ye c
?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieie aniaeoaie ae?iaieoeoaa, oae ? iane?aeeaie
aca?iiiai aieeao naieo oaeoi??a ia ie?ai? ?o ia?aiao?e. Aaee/eie
iieaciee?a oeeo oaeoi??a caeaaeaoue a?ae oaoi?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee AII oa
AAeO, a iioaineaiinoue ?o aieeao ia iia?aoi?ia aiae i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?
oa ?iai/eo iinoeue, ieaioaaeueieo caoiaeia (Aeooeiaa A.E. e ae?., 1988;
Eaca?aiei I.A. e ae?., 1991; Aa?aiia A.A. e ae?., 1998; Na?aaoa ?.A. oa
?i., 1998; Sisto R. et al., 1999), oi/a ii?a aieeao iaeiicia/ii ua ia
aecia/aia.

O iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ? /eiaei ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo aea/aiith i?aoe?
iia?aoi??a AII c AAeO. Oei ia iaioa aeneiaeth?oueny ocaaaeueiaia aeoiea
i?i oa, ui iaeaaaeeea?o? aniaeoe oe??? i?iaeaie ciaoiaeyoueny ia
ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao ?ic?iaeaiiy. sse ia?oi/a?aiaa i?aee?aneth?oueny
iaiieaaeeaa iaiao?aei?noue ioe?iee aieeao anueiai eiiieaeno oaeoi??a
ae?iaie/iai na?aaeiaeua e o?oaeiaiai i?ioeano ia ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai
i?aai?cio oa i?aoeacaeaoi?noue iia?aoi?ia AII (AIC, 1989; Iaaaeaoieyi
I.I. oa ii., 1997).

Ca aeaieie ?yaeo aeineiaeaeaiue (Knave B.G. et al., 1985; Eaca?aiei
I.A., 1992; Oa?aniaa E.A. e ae?., 1995; Ae?iaiei A.ss. oa ?i., 1998),
a?aeiiino? i?i aieea i?aoei ca AAeO noia?a/ii. Iaiaeiicia/iinoue aieeao
AAeO ia caei?ia’y iia’yco?oueny ic ?icieie iiaoaeiaii-oaoii/ieie ?o
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie (O?oo A.Ae., 1988; AIC, 1989). *a?ac oea,
aeyaey?oueny, aaaaoi yei iiai iiaeaei AAeO ia aiaeiiaiaeathoue
aiai?ii/iei oa a?aiiiii/iei aeiiaai (Aeooeiaa A.E. e ae?., 1988; AIC,
1989; Oaa/aiei A.E., Iauaiei N.A., 1996; Aeaie?/iaeyi A.A., 1997). Ioaea
aino?i noi?oue ieoaiiy anaai/iiai aea/aiiy oa eiiieaenii? ioeiiee oiia
i?aoei iia?aoi?ia AII c AAeO, ?ic?iaee iniia i?ioieaeoeee i?ioanieieo oa
i?ioanieii iaoiiaeaieo caoai?thaaiue.

Iacaaaeath/e ia noia?a/i?noue aeoiie i?i aieea ?iaioe c AAeO ?
na?aaeiaeua ia i?aai?ci, ca ei?aeiiii i?eeiyoi ?yae caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a
c ioi?iie caei?ia’y. ?iaioo ca aeeniea?i aianaii aei nieneo 40 iaea?eueo
oe?aeeeaeo ? iaaacia/ieo ?ia?o (?iiaiianeee E.I., Neaei?iaa I.A., 1991).
Ia?o? e?iee o aeaeaii? caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a c oeueiai ieoaiiy a aeayeeo
e?a?iao eieeoiueiai N?N? iiee ui ia ae??oeee i?iaeaie. I?i oea aiai?youe
o ioae?eaoe?yo (Eneaiaea?iaa E.A., Naoei I.I., 1998; Eo/ia A.?. e ae?.,
1998), aeneiaethth/e aeoieo i?i a?a??i?/io cia/ou?noue oa oe?aeeeaee
aieea ia i?aai?ci ia?o ca ana aeaeo?iiaai?oieo aei?ii?ithaaiue oa iie?a.
E??i oiai, aaaeeeaei o oeueiio ca’yceo oyaeythoueny a?aeiiino? (Aa?aiia
A.A. e ae?., 1998) i?i a?aei?ie a ?acoeueoaoao ioe?iee oao?aoe?a c
aenieei ??aiai eaae?o?eaoe?? oa oeie ioe?ieaie, ye? i?iaaaeaii c
aeei?enoaiiyi caaaeueieo o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo e?eoa???a, a oaeiae
iiaeeea?noue iani?eyoeeaiai aieeao ia ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai i?aoe? ca
AAeO, ye? iathoue na?oeo?eao yeino?.

Oaeei /eiii, oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy AAeO noaaeoue ?yae a?a??i?/ieo oa
a?aiiii?/ieo caieoaiue uiaei ?ic?iaeaiiy i?eioeei?a oa i?aai?caoe??
aacia/ii? aenieoaoaoe?? oeeo iiaeo oaoi?/ieo cania?a. ?o
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia ??oaiiy iniaeeai aeooaeueii ca?ac, eiee aeei?enoaiiy
eiii’thoa?ii? oaoi?ee oa oaoiieia?? oaeaeei iioe?th?oueny a a?eueoino?
e?a?i na?oo oa ? aaeueie ia?niaeoeaiei o iaeaooiueiio. A?aoiaoth/e
ia?niaeoeao iiaeaeueoiai oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy AII c AAeO, aino?i
noi?oue ieoaiiy anaai/iiai aea/aiiy oa eiiieaenii? ioeiiee oiia i?aoei
iia?aoi?ia AII c AAeO, ?ic?iaee iniia i?ioieaeoeee i?ioanieieo oa
i?ioanieii iaoiiaeaieo caoai?thaaiue.

?iaioo caeieniaii aiaeiiaiaeii c oaiaoeeith IAe?: “Iaa?oiooaaoe oa
?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoei? c iioeiicaoei? oiia i?aoei
iia?aoi?ia AII.” (? aea?ae?a?no?aoei? 0195V000654). Oaio
aeena?oaoe?? caoaa?aeaeaii ia can?aeaii? A/aii? ?aaee Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo ?i. I Ai?ueeiai 28 eaioiy 1994 ?.
i?ioieie ?4).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: Aeaoe aiai?ii/io,
a?aiiiii/io oa oiciieiai/io ioeiieo i?aoei iia?aoi?ia, yei aeeiiothoue
i?ioanieio ?iaioo i?e aeei?enoaiii AII c AAeO, iaa?oiooaaoe oa ?ic?iaeoe
eiiieaen ?aeiiaiaeaoeie c icaei?iaeaiiy oiia i?aoei oa ei?aeoei?
i?aoeacaeaoiinoi.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ae?iooaaeenue oaei caaea/i:

1. Aea/eoe iniaeeainoi i?aaiicaoei?, ciinoo, oa?aeoa?o oa oiia o?oaeiai?
aeiyeueiinoi iia?aoi?ia;

2. Aeaoe a?aiiiii/io ioeiieo ?iai/eo i?noeue (iaaeia oa iaeaaeiaiiy);

3. Onoaiiaeoe i?e/eie oi?ioaaiiy, ?iaaiue oa iioaineaiinoue oaeoi?ia
ae?iaie/iai na?aaeiaeua a eiii’thoa?ieo caeao;

4. Aeyaeoe caeiiiii?iinoi ciiiii? (1 ciiia) aeeiaiiee oiciieiai/ieo
ooieoeie oa i?aoeacaeaoiinoi;

5. Iaa?oiooaaoe oa ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaen ?aeiiaiaeaoeie c icaei?iaeaiiy
oiia i?aoei iia?aoi?ia oa ei?aeoei? i?aoeacaeaoiinoi.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiaii iia? aeai? i?i
ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai i?aai?cio iia?aoi??a AII i?e ?iaio? c
a?aeaioa?i?iaeaie. Anoaiiaeaii ae?acio aeeiai?/i?noue i?ioan?eii cia/ieo
ooieoe?e, ianoae?noue ? aneiao??th iieaciee?a aaiiaeeiai?ee oa ?o
caeaaei?noue a?ae aeaeo i?ioan?eii? i?aoe?, ianyao ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy oa o?eaaeino? aacia?a?aiiai ia?aaoaaiiy ca AII. Aeyaeai?
iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio iia’ycai? c eiioeaio?aoe??th o OeIN
ii /a?c? caoaeaeaiiy oa aaeueioaaiiy aiane?aeie iai?oaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a
oeaio?aeueiiai oa aaaaoaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, eoioeyoe?? aoiie oa
?icaeoeo ia?aaoiie.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui a?a??i?/ia cia/ou?noue oiia ci?iai? i?aoe? ca AII
o ia?oo /a?ao aecia/a?oueny ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ina?oeaiiy
(cie?aia eiai ia??aiii??iino?) a ??cieo ciiao ci?iaiai eiio?ieth.

Nooo?ai aeiiiaiaii iiaeie a?aeiiinoyie i?ioan?ia?aio iia?aoi??a AII c
AAeO, ui aeicaieeei io?eiaoe iiaio i?ioan?ia?ao?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?o
i?aoe? oa a?eueo oi/io a?a??i?/io oa a?aiiii?/io ioe?ieo.

Ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai iia?aoi??a aecia/a?oueny eiiieaeniei aieeaii
oaeoi??a o?oaeiaiai i?ioeano e na?aaeiaeua, cia/i?noue yeeo iaiaeiaeiaa.
Oia?oa cacia/aii, ui ia iaeinoaaee?iaaieo iia?aoi??a aeii?ioth/ee aieea
/eiyoue oaeoi?e na?aaeiaeua, a ia iia?aoi??a ?c noaaeai a?eueo 5 ?ie?a –
oaeoi?e o?oaeiaiai i?ioeano.

Iniiaith aeey ?icoi?iiy i?e/ei oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii iaoiiaeaii?
iaoieia?? ? i?ei?eoaoia ?ieue i?aai?caoe?eieo iniaeeainoae i?aoe? oa
oaeoi??a o?oaeiaiai i?ioeano a eiiieaen? oiia i?aoe?, ui aieeaathoue ia
iia?aoi??a. ?i iaeaaeeoue i?ia?aeia ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ia?aiai?oaeaiue ? i?aaeiaoieia??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo
ae?iaie/eo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaaaeaeaii eiiieaen caoiae?a
c iioei?caoe?? oiia i?aoe? iia?aoi??a AII c AAeO. ?o i?aeoe/ia
?aae?caoe?y aeicaieeea iie?auaoe ye?noue caiia?aeiiai oa iioi/iiai
nai?oa?iiai iaaeyaeo, aoaeoeai?noue iiia?aaei?o oa ia??iaee/ieo
iaaee/ieo iaeyae?a, noaea iniiaith aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy eiiieaenieo
ieai?a icaei?iaeaiiy oiia i?aoe?, ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? ?aaeei?a i?aoe? oa
a?aeii/eieo, i?aeaeuaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino?.

Cie?aia ?ic?iaeaii:

– i?ioaniia?aoi/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeey i?iaaaeaiiy caiiaiaeiiai oa
iioi/iiai naiioa?iiai iaaeyaeo, a oaeiae ia?iiaee/ieo i?ioieaeoe/ieo
iaaee/ieo iaeyaeia;

– iciaee ?aiiuei? aeiaaiinoeee i?ioanieii iaoiiaeaieo caoai?thaaiue;

– iaoiaeeeo ei?aeoei? ooieoeiiiaeueiiai noaio;

– ?aaeei i?aoei oa aiaeii/eieo;

– eiiieaen ai?aa ae?iaie/i? aiiianoeee aeey i?aaiicaoei? aeoeaiiai
aiaeii/eieo iia?aoi?ia oa i?ioieaeoeee ia?aaoiie.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo eiea?ia
naiioa?ii-aiiaeaiiieiai/ieo noaioeie, a oaeiae aeei?enoiaothoueny
iia?aoi?aie AAeO. Aeoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?2194/03-1, ?2195/03-1 aiae
20.04.1998 ?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o oi?ioaaiii iaoe e iniiaieo
caaaeaiue ?iaioe, e?eoe/iiai aiae?co no/anieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo c
ieoaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioe?iee oa iioei?caoe?? oiia i?aoe?, i?iaaaeaiii
ae?iaie/eo aeineiaeaeaiue, ia?iaoei, aiaeici oa ocaaaeueiaiii
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. O aeena?oaoe?? ia aeei?enoai? ?aea? oa
?ic?iaee, ui iaeaaeaoue ni?aaaoi?ai iioae?eiaaieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue
ii?eethaeiaii ia iaoeiaie eiioa?aioei? “Aaeaioaoeiy o/iianueei? iieiaei
aei iaa/aeueieo caiyoue oa oice/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue” (*a?eane, 1993); 1
Iiaeia?iaeiiio neiiicioii “Aeaeaia oece/aneeo oaeoi?ia ie?oaeathuae e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie n?aaeu” (Ee?a, 1993).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioaeieiaaii a 6 noaooyo o
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, o 3 oacao aeiiia?aeae ia
eiioa?aioe??, c’?cae?, neiiic?oi?, o 2 iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. I?aoey neeaaea?oueny ic anooio,
iaeyaeo eioa?aoo?e, iieno ia’?eoia oa iaoiaeia aeineiaeaeaiiy,
?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue, ocaaaeueiaiiy, aeniiaeia, aeiaeaoeia,
iieaae/eea eioa?aoo?e. Oaeno aeena?oaoei? aeeeaaeaii ia 195 noi?iieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, yeee iinoeoue 31 oaaeeoeth, 12 iethno?aoeie, 6
aeiaeaoeia. Aiaeiia?aoiy iinoeoue 195 aeaea?ae, c yeeo 139 iaeaaeaoue
aaoi?ai NIAe i 56 ca?oa?aeiei.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia’?eoe oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ae?iaie/i aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii
ia aaci ?ioi?iaoeieii-ia/enethaaeueiiai oeaio?o (IOe) Acianueeiai
ii?nueeiai ia?iieaanoaa a aeaio iniiaieo no?oeoo?ieo iiae?icaeieao.
Ia’?eoaie aeineiaeaeaiiy aenooiaee iia?aoi?e AII c AAeO, yei
i?aoeththoue ia aaiaei aeaieo o naeoi?? iiaeaioiaee iioi?iaoei? (NI), oa
a aeiaeiaiaiio ?aaeeii a iaoeiiiio cae? (IC). Oei aeaee aeiyeueiinoi
iinoyoue oni oa?aeoa?ii AAeO-caeaaeii ?ene, ye? iaeaieueo ae?acii
aieeaathoue ia i?aaiici.

Iiae /an niinoa?aaeaiue aea/aii ianya oaaaeaii? iioi?iaoei?, ??
?iciiaeieyiiy i?ioyaii ciiie, oeaeiy, iinyoey; eieueeinoue ?ooia aa?oiio
eiioeiaie; ianya iei?ooiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Oiiae ci?iai? i?aoei, a?aiiiii/ii iniaeeainoi, oa?aeoa?enoeee oice/ieo
oaeoi?ia na?aaeiaeua aecia/aii ia 23 iinoieieo i 7 iaiinoieieo ?iai/eo
iinoeyo.

?iaaiue inaioeaiiy aea/aii a ai?eciioaeueiie oa aa?oeeaeueiie ieiueiao a
ciiao ci?iaiai eiio?ieth c aeei?enoaiiyi etheniao?o TH-116.

C iaoith a?aiiiii/ii? ioeiiee aecia/aii i?aaiicaoeith oa ?icii?e
aeaiaioia ?iai/iai iinoey, ?o aca?ii?icoaooaaiiy, eiino?oeoeaii
iniaeeainoi, i?aoaoiieo, oeie AAeO, oa?aeoa?enoeee cia?aaeaiiy,
iniaeeainoi ia’?eoo ?iciiciaaaiiy oa oiio.

Aea/aii oice/ii oaeoi?e ae?iaie/iai na?aaeiaeua, yei iathoue iaeaieueoa
aiai?ii/ia cia/aiiy: ia?aiao?e iie?ieeiiaoo (oaiia?aoo?a, aieiainoue oa
?oo iiaio?y), ooi, aeaeo?iiaaiioii iiey (AII). Iai?oaeaiinoue AII
aecia/aii a 6 oi/eao o iaaeao ?iai/iai iinoey c o?aooaaiiyi i?inoi?iaiai
?icoaooaaiiy oiea iia?aoi?a.

Ciiiio aeeiaiieo ooieoeiiiaeueiiai noaio 40 aeiiie-iia?aoi?ia aea/aii ca
iieacieeaie i?ioanieii cia/ieo ooieoeie, i’yciai? neee oa aeo?eaaeinoi,
oei?yii-aaeueaaii/ii? ?aaeoei? (OA?), aaiiaeeiaiiee, oaeiae a?aoiaaii
noa’?eoeaii aiae/oooy.

Aea/aiiy eaoaioiiai ia?iiaeo oiiaii-?aoeaeoi?ieo ?aaeoeie ia
aeeoa?aioee?iai/ii ae?aoiaieee caeienithaaeiny c aeei?enoaiiyi i?eeaaeo
“Aeiaaiic-2AI” (Oiaineee A.ss., 1992). Aecia/aiiy oaeaeeinoi
ia?a?iaeaiiy iioi?iaoei? (OII) ?iaeeiny iaoiaeii ?ic?aooieo, c iaeieii
/ano aeeiiaiiy ei?aeoo?iiai oanoo oa eieueeinoi iiieeie. Ooieoei?
ia?aieeaiiy oaaae aea/aii c aeei?enoaiiyi oaaeeoei Ooeueoa-Ieaoiiiaa.
Aeineiaeaeaiiy ei?ioei/anii? ci?iai? oa neooiai? iai’yoi i?iaaaeaii
i?aae’yaeaiiyi ianoaaeoaaiei 12 neia. Ia caiai’yoaiiy aoei aiaeaaaeaii
15 n. Ia aiaeoai?aiiy – iaeia oaeeeia. Ianya iia?aoeaii? iai’yoi
?ic?aoiaaii o aiaenioeao.

Aieea eieaeueii-aeeiaii/ii? i’yciai? ?iaioe aea/aii /a?ac ii?iaiyiiy
ia?aae oa iineyciiiieo iieacieeia neee eenoi oa aeo?eaaeinoi aei
noaoe/ieo coneeue, aecia/aieo aeeiaiiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii.

Ciiiia aeeiaiiea iieacieea OA? aeineiaeaeaia c aeei?enoaiiyi i?eeaaeo
“Aeiaaiic-3AI” (Oiaineee A.ss., 1992).

I?e aea/aiii aeeiaiiee e?iaiiaiao i?ioyaii ?iai/iai /ano aecia/aeeny
iieacieee a?oa?iaeueiiai oeneo e?iai (AO) ca iaoiaeii Ei?ioeiaa, /anoioe
ioeueno iaeueiaoi?ii ia i?iiaiaaie a?oa?i?; ioeueniaiai oeneo e?iai,
nenoiei/iiai e oaeeeiiiai ianyao e?iai ?ic?aooieiaei iaoiaeii
(Ai?oeia N.E. e ae?., 1974; Aeoaeue E., 1997).

Ioeiieo noa’?eoeaieo aiae/oooia c?iaeaii ca oanoii aeiieoii NAI
(Aeineei A.A. e ae?., 1975), a oaeiae aieaoieie iaoiaeaie.

Caoai?thaaiinoue c oei/aniaith ao?aoith i?aoeacaeaoiinoi aea/aii ca
aeaieie caa?oaiinoi.

Aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? iaoiae?a ei?aeoe?? i?aoeacaeaoiino?, ui
?ic?iaeaii, caeo/aii ua 30 iia?aoi??a ?ioeo IOe. O ieo aea/aii ci?ie
iieaciee?a ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio, yeee noi?ioaaany i?ae aieeaii i?aoe?
ca AAeO oa cai?iiiiiaaiiai eiiieaeno ai?aa.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy

Aeineiaeaeaiiy i ioeiiea i?aaiicaoei?, ciinoo oa oa?aeoa?o i?aoei o
aea/aieo no?oeoo?ieo iiae?icaeieao aeiaaee, ui iia?aoi?e aeeiiothoue
aaeeei ianyae ae?iaie/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy, yei iaiaeiaeiai
?iciiaeieythoueny i?ioyaii iinyoey oa ie?aieo eiai ia?iiaeia. Eieeaaiiy
iaaaioaaeaiiy ca iieacieeii uieueiinoi ?iai/iai /ano neeaaeathoue aiae
45.00.5 % o na?aaeeii iinyoey aei 99.50.1 % o ia?iiae aiooaaiiy
ocaaaeueiaieo oa caioieo iaoa?iaeia. Iaa’ycaiee ?eoi i?aoei i?e
aeaoioeeoi /ano oa iaia’yceiaiio ia?aaoaaiii a noaii aioiaiinoi aei aei?
aiey aeeth/aiiai AAeO oi?io? na?aaeiueiiiny/io uieueiinoue ?iai/iai /ano
84.94.8 % oa 69.68.5 % o iia?aoi?ia NI oa IC aiaeiiaiaeii.

Aeniea iioaineaiinoue i?aoei aac caeaaeiinoi aiae ianyao iaaaioaaeaiiy
ii?aeiaia ic noeoieiei iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi iioi?iaoei?, ui aeeeth/a?
?iaiiii?ia caiiaiaiiy ?iai/iai /ano. Iiaeeeainoue iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy
ae?iaie/eo caaaeaiue oi?io? iaa’ycaiee ?eoi i?aoei oa iineeth?
ia?aiai-aiioeieiee eiiiiiaio iaaaioaaeaiiy. Oae? iniaeeaino?
i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? iiaeooue aooe i?e/eiith ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai no?ano
(Aiae?ia A.A. e ae?., 1998).

Eieueeinoue ciaeia, ui aaaaeaii ca aiaeeio aacia?a?aii? i?aoei, aeinyaa?
115002969 o iia?aoi?ia NI oa 68801466 o iia?aoi??a, ye? i?aoeththoue o
aeiaeiaiaiio ?aaeeii, ui neeaaea? 2-3 ciaee ca 1 n. Oea
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny eieaeueii-aeeiaii/iith i’yciaith ?iaioith i?e
aeei?enoaiii eeaaiaoo?e oa iei?ooiaei iaaaioaaeaiiyi. Caaaeueiee ianya
inoaiiueiai i?e ia?aaaaeaiii iiaeyaeo a iaaeao ?yaeeo oa iieia ci?o
neeaaea? a niia?iaioieea NI 118413060 ia?aaaaeaiue iiaeyaeo i?ioyaii
aiaeeie aacia?a?aii? i?aoei i?e aaiae? oaenoiai? iioi?iaoei?, 122163154
i?e aaiae? oeeo?iai? iioi?iaoei?, a a iia?aoi?ia IC – 72521546 oa
75181603 aiaeiiaiaeii.

Iiae /an i?aoei iia?aoi?e ni?eeiathoue ?icii ca oa?aeoa?ii ci?iai
ia’?eoe. Cia?aaeaiiy ia ae?aii AAeO ia aiaeiiio aiae iaia?iai-aeaieiaeo
iini?a iioi?iaoei? oa eeaaiaoo?e AII ? niaoeeoi/iei. Aiaeiii, ui eiai
oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeooue /eieoe aieea ia ?yae i?ioanieii cia/ieo ooieoeie
oa ni?eyoe iineeaiith ia?aiai-aiioeieiiai iai?oaeaiiy (Aeooeiaa A.E. e
ae?., 1993; Aieeia A.I., 1995).

I?e ioeiithaaiii yeinoi cia?aaeaiiy ia ae?aii (neiaiee caeaiiai eieuei?o
ia oaiiiio iiei) oa oiia eiai ni?eeiaiiy 37.2 % i?iaieaoiaaieo aeneiaeee
iacaaeiaieueiinoue ca ie?aieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. ?o ia aeaooiao?
aiaenoaiue aei ae?aio oa iia’ycaia c oeei iaiaoiaeiinoue /anoi? ciiie
?iai/i? iice. Oni iia?aoi?e, yei no?aaeaeathoue ii?ooaiiyie ?ao?aeoei?,
aeaee iaaaoeaio ioeiieo /ioeinoi cia?aaeaiiy, eiai yne?aainoi,
eiio?anoiinoi, ?icii?ai aeaiaioia oaenoo. Aeneiaeaii aeoiee aieueo iiae
1/3 iia?aoi?ia iia’ycaii, ia iao iiaeyae, ia?o ca ana c aeenoaioei?th
niinoa?aaeaiiy iia?aoi?ii ia’?eoa ?iciiciaaaiiy. Ia ia?aaaaeiie
aieueoinoi ?iai/eo iinoeue (97.0 %) iicia/aii aiaenoaiue aei ae?aio
aeecueei 30 ni.

Niaoeeoiea i?aoei ca AAeO iia’ycaia c iaiaoiaeiinoth /anoiai e oaeaeeiai
ia?aaiaeo oa oienaoei? iiaeyaeo ia ae?aii, a oaeiae iioeo ia’?eoao
ci?iaiai eiio?ieth. *anoioa e o?eaaeinoue oienaoei? iiaeyaeo caeaaeaoue
aiae oa?aeoa?enoee oaenoo, ui iiaea?oueny. C aieueoith /?oe?noth oa
eaae?noth aeey /eoaiiy ?oeiienieo neiaieia o aeieoiaioao, ui
iaaeoiaeyoue o NI, iia’ycaii, iaaooue, aieueoee ianya caeieniaii?
i?aoei: 96.7 % aiae eieueeinoi ae?oeiaaieo neiaieia, oaaaeaieo
iia?aoi?aie NI (11498.92969.0), i 90.4 % – iia?aoi?aie IC
(6878.81466.6). E?ii oiai, iia?aoi?e NI i?aoeththoue ic cia/ii aieueoith
e?euee?noth ciaeia, ui aecia/a? aieueo aeniei aaeaioaoeieii oa
oaeaee?nii iiaeeeainoi.

*anoi ia?aaiaee iiaeyaeo (804.846.2 i?e aacia?a?aiiio, i?ioyaii aiaeeie,
aaiae? iioi?iaoei? a iia?aoi?ia NI i 847.736.9 – IC) aecia/athoue
aaaeeeainoue ooieoei? ia?aieeaiiy oaaae, ui aiaeaeaa?oueny ia noaii
ei?eiai? eaiee ci?iaiai aiaeicaoi?a. Aoaeoeaiinoue eiai ooieoeie o
oeueiio aeiaaeeo ca’ycaia c ia?aaaeaioaoei?th aei ?icieo oa?aeoa?enoee
cia?aaeaiiy oa ?iaiyi yne?aainoi, yei iaoiiaeaii aa?iaaaeueiinoth
eiaoioei?ioia aiaeaeooy (aiae 40 aei 85 %) ia’?eoia o ciiao
ci?iaiai eiio?ieth. E?ii oiai, ?iciiiaiioiinoue oa?aeoa?enoee ci?iaeo
ia’?eoia iiaea aeyaeyoenue ye no?aniaaiiee oaeoi? (Eeoaaa-Niue E.A.,
Aia?iaa Y.N., 1988).

Oienaoeiy iiaeyaeo ia ae?aii aieueo oa?aeoa?ia aeey aeiaeiaiaiai ?aaeeio
i?aoei e oi?iaaaeaeo?oueny ae?aciei iai?oaeaiiyi ooieoei? aieiaiai ci?o.
Oea iia’ycaii c iaioith ieiueiith ae?aio AAeO i aieueo no?ieaoei
eieuei?iaei oiiii a ii?iaiyiii c ai?eciioaeueiith ?iai/ith iiaa?oiath.

Aiaenooiinoue iacaaeiaieaiue oiiaaie inaioeaiiy ?iai/eo iinoeue
iia’ycaia c aeinoaoiuei aenieeie (400-1000 ee) aaee/eiaie caaaeueiiai
?iaiy inaioeaiiy i?e i?e?iaeiiio inaioeaiii, ?iaiiii?iei ?iciiaeieii
ethi?ianoeaioieo eaii i?e ooo/iiio, i aeei?enoaiiyi icaeiaeaiiai
iaoa?iaeo aieiai eieuei?o c aenieei eiaoioei?ioii aiaeaeooy. Iayaiinoue
ia oeueiio oiii aei 6-i? aiaeeie ?iai/iai ia?iiaeo noa’?eoeaieo iciae
ci?iai? aoiie, i?e na?aaeiueiio e neeueiiio i?yiiio ca’yceo
(rxy=0.590.19 – 0.850.10; p0.05) oa iiiiiiiyi (rxy= – 0.350.31; p>0.05), ia
iao iiaeyae, aeiaiaeeoue caeaaeiinoue iiyae oeueiai neiioiio aiae aieeao
no?aniaaiieo oaeoi?ia.

O i?ioeani aenieoaoaoei? AII c AAeO oi?io?oueny nai??iaeia ae?iaie/a
na?aaeiaeua ca ?aooiie oaeoi?ia, iioaineaiinoue yeeo ca caaaeueieie
ioeiieaie iaaaeeea, oaeiae i ca aeaieie AIIC (1989). Iaeaieueoa
aiai?ii/ia cia/aiiy a ii?iaiyiii c iioeie oaeoi?aie iathoue ia?aiao?e
iie?ieeiiaoo, ooi, AII.

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui oaiia?aoo?a iiaio?y, ia aeaeieueea a?aaeonia ieae/a
ii?iaoeaieo aaee/ei (16.80.2 – 17.70.2 oN), aieeaa? ia iia?aoi?ia
o?eaaeee /an, aei 6 – 7 aiaeei aacia?a?aii. Caaaeueiiaiaeiii, ui i?aoey
a oaeeo oiiaao i?eaiaeeoue aei iai?oaeaiiy oa?ii?aaoeyoei? iaaioue
iacaaaeath/e ia ci’yeooth/o aeith cieaeaii? (27.70.2 – 31.30.2 %)
aiaeiinii? aieiainoi iiaio?y i?e aiaenooiinoi eiai ?ooo. Aeei?enoaiiy ia
iaoaeaaeo iiaa?oiyo iaaeia oa eiino?oeoei? AII icaeiaeaieo
ieanoianiaoa?iaeia c aenieei eiaoioei?ioii oaieii?iaaaeaiiy oaeiae
aecia/a? ?aaeoei? i?aaiicio – 32.4 % i?iaieaoiaaieo aiaecia/eee
iinoieia, i?ioyaii ciiie, aiae/oooy oieiaeo.

A?aoiaoth/e iai?oaeaiinoue i?aoei, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui ?iaii caoeo
ia ?iai/eo iinoeyo iia?aoi?ia (62.70.3 – 64.30.2 aeAA i?e
iecueeina?aaeiuei/anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao niaeo?o) ia?aaeuothoue ia
oieueee iioeiaeueii (ii NI 3223-85), aea e aeiionoeii (ii ANI 4559-88)
cia/aiiy ia 12-15 aeA. *a?ac oea o?eaaea, aacia?a?aia i?ioyaii eieueeio
aiaeei ia?aaoaaiiy iia?aoi?ia ia ?iai/iio iinoei, iniaeeai iiae /an
iaeneiaeueiiai ae?iaie/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy, aacoiiaii ? i?e/eiith
iiai?oaiiy ooieoeiiiaeueiiai noaio i?aaiicio. Iiaeoaa?aeaeo? oaeo
ioeiieo iieac 85.7 % iia?aoi?ia ia nooo?ai ia?aoeiaee aiae ooio, ye?
oo?oaeiththoue aeeiiaiiy i?ioanieieo ooieoeie.

Aea/aiiyi iai?oaeaiinoi AII, iaeaieueo cia/iiai ca caaaeueiith aeoieith
oaeoi?a, anoaiiaeaii cia/ii eieeaaiiy ?iaiia ia iecueeeo /anoioao ii
aeaeo?e/iie neeaaeiaie o ?icieo oi/eao ?iai/iai iinoey. ?iciao eieeaaiue
oaeiae o ciii ?icoaooaaiiy oiea iia?aoi?a neeaaeaa aiae 11.40.7 aei
45.43.5 A/i; aiae 6.31.8 aei 104.328.9 A/i; aiae 3.70.4 aei 59.05.8 A/i
ia ?iai/eo iinoeyo, ye? iaeaaeiaii iiiioi?aie oeio “Oa?oai”, “IAeN”,
“?iaio?ii” aiaeiiaiaeii. ?iaaiue iaaiioii? neeaaeiai? iaaeeaeaany aei
ioeueiaiai cia/aiiy, ye i aeaeo?e/ii? ia iioeo /anoioieo aeiaiaciiao, ui
aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe iai?oaeaiinoue oeeo neeaaeiaeo AII ?iaieie
i?e?iaeiiio oiio.

Aiaeiinii iaea iioaineaiinoue AII aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe, ui iiaeeeai
?aaeoei? i?aaiicio caeaaeaoue ia oieueee aiae aaniethoiiai ?iaiy, a
oaeiae aiae cia/ieo eieeaaiue iai?oaeaiinoi, iaeaieueo ae?acieo a iinoei
?icoaooaaiiy ooeoaa iia?aoi?a (ia aenioi 1.0 i aiae iiaeeiae).

Noiaeinoue oiciieiai/ieo aoaeoia aei? ooio oa AII iiaeaeuo? cia/iinoue
?o iaio, ineieueee aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe noiaoeith aai iioaioeithaaiiy
?o aei?. I?e oeueiio iaiaoiaeii iiiioeoe, ui aiieiai/ii aoaeoe e noai
i?ioanieii cia/ieo ooieoeie ie?aneththoueny ii?aeiaiith aei?th ye naieo
oaeoi?ia, oae i oa?aeoa?enoee o?oaeiaiai i?ioeano, caeaaeieo aiae oeio
i?aoe?, yea aeeiio?oueny, oa ianyao ae?iaie/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui ii?yae
c aiaeiiiaie noaaeo i?aoei ca AAeO noaee e?eoa?iyie ii?iaiyiiy a?oi
iia?aoi?ia i?e aiaeici ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue.

Aeeiaiiea ci?iai-iioi?ii? ?aaeoei? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany ae?aciith
iano?ee?noth a ia?aaiao ciiie ?c nei?i/aiiyi eaoaioiiai ia?iiaeo, yea
/ioei i?inoaaeoaaeiny a onio a?oiao, ui aoei i?iaiaeiciaaii. Aeinoia??i?
aiaeiiie iiae aei oa iineyciiiieie iieacieeaie neeaaeaee 13.8 – 62.6 in.

A iia?aoi?ia IC ca?a?no?iaaia aieueo ae?acia, iiae o a?oi?, c yeith ?o
ii?iaithaaee, aeeiaii/iinoue o ae?oaie iieiaeii ciiie ia oiii cia/iiai
cieaeaiiy aaee/ei iieacieea (aei 440.87.9 in a ii?iaiyiii c
ia?aae?iai/ei ?iaiai 479.811.7 in (p

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